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AHflPE^ BEJIbM 




AHflPEM BEJlblM 

APABECKM 

KHMra CT3TGM 

Jiyr 3EJ1EHblM 

KHMra CTaTePi 



AHflPEM EEJIbIM 



Co6paHne cohmhghmm 




MocKBa 

M3flaTe/ibCTBO «Pecny6jiMKa» 
M3AaTeribCTBO «flMMTpMM CeHMH» 
2012 



BBK 87.3 
B43 



AH^peft Bejiwii 

CoSpauue couuHenuu 

Apa6ecKH. KHHra CTaTeii 
Jlyr 3ejieHbift. KHHra CTaTeft 

06man peaaicijHfl, nocjiecjiOBHe h KOMMeHTapHH 
JI. A. Cyzau 

CocTaBJieHHe 
A. II. IlojiHKoea h 77. 77. Anpuuixo 

Ha (J>poHTHcnHce - AnnpePi Bejibiii. OoTorpa(})HH (1904 r.) 
XpaHHTCH b MeMopHajibHOH KBapTHpe AH^peH Bejioro 
(4>miHaji TocyflapcTBeHHoro My3en A.C. IlyuiKHHa). 

AH^peft Bejiwii 

B43 Co6paHHe cohhhchhh. Apa6ecKH. KHHra CTaTeii. Jlyr 3ejie- 
Hbift. KHHra CTaTeft / 06m. pea., nocji. h komm. JI. A. Cyraft; Coct. 
A. II. IIojiHKOBa h II. II. Anpbninco. - M.: Pecny6jiHKa; ,/Imhtphh 
CeMHH, 2012.-590 c. 

ISBN 978-5-904962-17-3 

B HaeroflmHH tom Co6paHHH coHHHeHHH AHapefl Bejioro (1880- 
1934), nncaTejiH h oflHoro H3 Beaymnx TeopeTHKOB chmbojih3mh, boihjih 
jxse ero KHHra - «Apa6ecKH» h «JIyr 3ejieHbiH», 6o;iee CTa jieT Hasaa noa- 
roTOBJieHHbie hm h HanncaHHbie b 1903-1910 rr. B 3thx craTbax, no cjio- 
BaM aBTopa, oh KOHKpeTH3HpyeT Te o6mne nojioaceHHfl, KOTopwe HaMeTHJi 
b CBoeft KHHre «Chmbojih3m», CTpeMHTCH, o6pamaacb K «HBJieHHflM JIHTe- 

paTypHOH 2CH3HH», nOKa3aTb «»CH3HeHHyK) 3HaHHMOCTb» BbICKa3aHHbIX B 

Hen npHHUHnHajibHbix H/jen. 

H3AaHHe CHa6»ceH0 npHMenaHHHMH h yKa3aiejieM hmch. 

ISBN 978-5-904962-16-6 (06m.) BBK 87.3 

978-5-904962-17-3 

© H3flaTejibCTBo «Pecny6jiHKa», 2012 
© M3aaTejibCTBo «,3mhtphh Ohhh», 2012 

© IIOCJieC^OBHe H KOMMeHTapHH 

JI. A. Cyraii, 2012 

© Ckcih u o6pa6omK.a: glarus63 



MHe BCK) 3KH3Hb ipe3HJIHCb KaKHe-TO HOBbie (J)OpMbI 

HCKyccTBa, b KOTopwx xyflOECHHK Mor 6bi nepeacHTb 
ce6n cjihhhhhm co BceMH BH^aMH TBopnecTBa; 

B 3TOM CJIHHHHH - nyTb K TBOpneCTBy 5KH3HHI 

b ce6e h b Apyrax. 

Andpeu Eejiuu 



APABECKM 

KHI/lfA CTATEI/I 



BMECTO nPEflMCJlOBklfl 



B «Apa6ecKax» h co6Hpaio uhkji CTaTeft, aojiaceHCTByiomHx Ha npn- 
Mepax KOHKpeTH3HpoBaTb Te o6mHe nojioaceHHa, KOTopbie a HaMeTHJi b CBoeft 
KHHre «Cum60jiu3m». OTBjieneHHafl TepMHHOJioniH HeKOTopwx CTaTeft, Hanena- 

TaHHblX B «CllM60JlU3Me», He flaBaJia B03M03KHOCTH KOHKpeTHO nOKa3aTb 3KH3HCH- 

Hyio 3HanHMOCTb BbiCKa3biBaeMbix nojioHceHHH. B «Apa6eacax» h CTaparocb He 
AOKa3biBaTb, ho noKa3bmaTb. 3thm h o6yc7ioBjieHa HeKOTopan o6pa3HocTb H3biKa, 
3a KOTopyio - npeABH^cy - KpHTHKa 6yaeT mchh ynpenaTb b HMnpeccHOHH3Me. 
HecKOJibKO (J>pa3 H3 khheh Moeft <Jlyz 3ejienbiu» HaBejiH oflHy noHTeHHyio ra3e- 
Ty Ha Mbicjib o Moeft 6ecnpHHUHnHOCTH, xoth coaepacaHHe Bcex CTaTeft - CTporo 
npHHUHnHajibHo; h yTemaio ce6a Mbicjibio, hto HeKor^a Ta ace ra3eTa BCTpeTHJia 
BecbMa conyBCTBeHHO hbho «deKadeHmacyio» juw Hee KHHry moio, ^paMamuue- 
acyio cuM<poHwo», npHHHB ee... 3a napoflHio Ha aeKaaeHTOB. Boo6me b MeTOflax 

H3JIOHCCHHH MblCJIH H XOTeJI 6bl CHHTaTbCH H C ra3eTHOH KpHTHKOH, HO... yBbi: H 

HHKor^a He cyMeio eft yroflHTb. OTBJieneHHbift H3HK eft CTOJib ace nyacfl, KaK h 
o6pa3Hbift; (J)hjioco(})hio h no33Hio raseraan KpHTHKa oflHHaKOBO npe3HpaeT. Hy, 
a pa3»ceBbiBaTb cboh mmcjih hjih o6pa3bi ao hchocth xoahhhx Mbicjieft h o6mHx 
nojioaceHHft TOJinbi h npeaocTaBJWio nonyjiflpH3aTopaM. Hejib3H oflHOBpeMeHHO 
AejiaTb flsa ^ejia: BCMaTpHBaTbcn b OKpyacaiomHe hbjichhh JiHTepaTypHoft ech3hh, 
hto6m echbo Ha hhx 0T3biBaTbCH, h oflHOBpeMeHHO pa3EceBbiBaTb hx TOJine; nycTb 
HHTaioT MeHH Te, KOMy h noH^TeH h HHTepeceH; cpe^H hhx, Bepio, HaftayrcH jhoah, 
KOTopwe cyMeiOT nepeaaTb moh mhcjih MaccaM b 6o;iee o6meflocTynHoft (J>opMe. 

K «Apa6ecKOM» h npHjiaraio oco6wft oTfleji «Jlumepamypnuu dneeHwc*; b 
Hero bxoaht MHorne H3 mohx ny6jiHUHCTHHecKHx h nojieMHnecKHX 3aMeTOK; h 
pacnojioacHji hx b h3bccthom nopHflKe TaK, hto6m cyMMa sthx 3aMeTOK Hapn- 
coBajia KapTHHy 3aBepuieHHoft yace JiHTepaTypHoft anoxn. Hmchho b CHJiy Toro, 

HTO H3BeCTHblft nepHOfl pa3BHTHH TaK Ha3bIBaeM0r0 CHMBOJIH3Ma 3aKOHHeH, fl H 
CHHTaK) HHTepeCHbIM nOMeCTHTb HeKOTOpbie 3aMeTKH, C nOJieMHHeCKHM nblJIOM 

KOTopbix h b HacTonmee BpeMH yace He corjiaceH (ckwi nojieMHKa c HBaHOBbiM, 
Bjiokom, c MHCTHnecKHM aHapxH3MOM); Bee 3TO xoth h HeaaBHee npouijioe, HO 
Bee ace - npouijioe; h KaK npouijioe, oho npeflCTaBJineT apxHB /yin 6yaymero 
HCTopHKa. H CMOTpio Ha CBoft «flue6Hwv> HMeHHO KaK Ha apxHB, h noTOMy y6e- 
AHTeJIbHO npOHiy HeKOTOpblX aBTOpOB, C KOTOpblMH h HeKoraa no;ieMH3HpoBaji, 
He o6n»caTbCH Ha to, hto HHbie CTaTbH moh h noMemaio b Toft pe3Koft (J>opMe, b 
KaKoft ohh HeKor^a 6buiH HanncaHbi. HeaaBHHft nepHOA pa3BHTHH MOJioaoro 
pyccKoro HCKyccTBa HHTepeceH h xapaKTepeH co bccmh cbohmh yrjiOBaTOCTH- 
mh. H h He cHHTaio HyHCHbiM 3aKpyrjiHTb h BbipaBHHBaTb Te H3 cbohx nojieMHne- 
ckhx 3aMeTOK, c tohom KOTopbix b HacTonmee BpeMH h TaK He corjiaceH. 

TyHHC Andpeu Benuu 

flHBapb, 1911 r. 



TBOPHECTBO 
)KM3HM 



nPOPOK EE3J1MHMA 



«0cuibK ecKOHiui oKouuamejibHO e36eiueuHUU. Hmo mem maKoe?» 
TaKOBa nepBan 4>pa3a nepBoro no 3HaHHTe;ibH0CTH poMaHa 
IIinH6biineBCKoro. TaKOB jiaKOHH3M nncaTejiH, cyMeBinero b o/jhoh 4>pa3e 
.qaTb MaTepnaji rjix. onpe^ejieHHH npneMOB CBoero nncbMa. no/yieacamee, 
cKa3yeMoe, onpeaejieHHe - a Meacay TeM Bee ajieMeHTbi TBopnecTBa IIihh- 
6biiueBCKoro; OAHa 4>pa3a - hb Heft Boaopasaeji ^ B yx cthxhh, OTflejiHio- 
iijhh TBopnecTBo BejiHKHx nncaTejieH cepe^HHbi XIX crojierafl ot nncaTe- 
jie& KOHi^a BeKa; oflHa (J)pa3a - a mm yace nyBCTByeM: hto-to npoH30iujio. 
Hto ace npoH30injio? 

«0ajit>K ecKomui OKOHuamejibHO 636eiueHHUu» - h nepBbift a6pnc jih- 
TepaTypHoft (J)H3hohomhh totob. Bcmotphmch npncrajibHO b 3Ty (J)pa3y: 
AaHO hmh repoH (OajibK), aaHa noflHepKHyTan CTpeMHTejibHocTb BHeume- 
ro ABH^ceHHH (bckohhji, a He BCTaji), aaHa no^HepKHyTan CTpeMHTejibHocTb 
ABH^ceHHH BHyTpeHHero (bckohhji He paccepaceHHbiii, a B36euieHHbiH h 
6ojiee Toro: OKOHnaTejibHO B36emeHHbiH). H TyT, h TaM h flBHEceHHe Tejia, 
h ABH^ceHHe ayuiH 3a6oTJiHBo onpe^ejieHbi, c TOHHOCTbio B3BeiueHbi: cydo- 
pozou Mycnyjioe u cydopozou dytueenozo deiiMenuH 6pocaeT b Hac IIiiiH6bi- 
ihcbckhh, TaK CKa3aTb, CMecma e Kapbep. 

Ho kto ace repofi, cyaopoacHO BCKaKHBaiomHH h cyaopoaoio 3aKHnaio- 
uxhh raeBOM yace b nepBofl (J)pa3e o6-beMHCToro poMaHa? 

BMecTo onpe^ejieHHH repon, bmccto onncaHHH ero HapyacHocra, BMe- 
cto onncaHHH MecTa h BpeMeHH ^eHCTBHH npocTo Hmero He roBopamee 
hmh OcuibK. H BCKaKHBaeT nepea HaMH stot OcuibK npnMO, TaK cKa3aTb, b 
npodpaHCTBe. 

OnncaHHe repon, 4>a6yjia, MecTO h BpeMH ^eiicTBHH OTOABHraioTCH Ha 

BTOpOH nJiaHJ BCe 3TH nOApo6HOCTH 6pOCaK)TCH aBTOpOM nOTOM, BCKOJIb3b, 
HeXOTH! Mbl flOJDKHbl HX JIOBHTb BCe flO OflHOH, HTo6bI CaMHM BOCC03flaTb 

KaHBy H3o6paacaeMbix fleficTBHii; Meacay TeM 3Ta KaHBa y nncaTejieH w 
6poro CTaporo BpeMeHH BbiflBHrajiacb Ha nepBbift njiaH, a noTOM yace no- 
cjie AOJirnx noHCHeHHH aBTopa noHBJiHJica repoft co cbohmh nocTynKaMH, 
BCTpeneHHbiH HaMH, KaK crapbifi 3HaKOMea. 

A bot y niHH6biuieBCKoro npnMO H3 MpaKa HeH3BecraocTH Ha cijeHy bw- 
CKaKHBaeT KaKofi-TO OajibK h HanHHaeT nepea HaMH cyzjopoacHO 6ecHTbCH. 

«Ow ycmcuiuu... uieji 3omou. Ezo 3ho6ujio». TaK HanHHaeT oh b apyroM 
poMaHe. 



10 



«ropdon HU3K0 HdKJioHUJicH eneped u ocmameiui na Ocmane nponusbi- 
eawu^uu 6ecnoKOUHhiu 83ZJiad». TaK HanHHaercfl poMaH «/IeTH CaTaHbi». 

3^eCb OIIflTb B HeH3BeCTHOe BpeMH, B HeH3BeCTHOM IIpOCTpaHCTBe KaKOH-TO 

HeBe^OMbiH Top^OH He npocTO HaKJiOHaeTcn, a ckjiohhctch hh3ko, hto6w He 

npOCTO 6pOCHTb B3rjlflfl, a B3rjIH^ npOHH3bIBaK)mHH OCTaHOBHTb Ha KaKOM- 

to OcTane. 

Hjih: «HepKaccKuu cudeji, 3adyMaeuiucb» («CbiHbi 3eMjiH»). 
H TaK flajiee, h TaK aajiee... 

C MecTa b Kapbep 6pocaiOTCH Ha Hac repon IliHH6biiHeBCKoro, CKpeace- 
myT 3y6aMH, coKpamaiOT h BbinpHMjiniOT MycKyjibi, KH/jaiOTCfl Ha aceHmnH, 
jio63aiOT h y6eraiOT b TbMy. 

C MecTa b Kapbep HannHaioT KHneTb ohh rHeBOM, H3JiHBaTbCH b 
»cajio6ax - h noTOM pacnjibiBaiOTcn b o6jiaKO npnHyzjJiHBbix chob caMoro 

IIlHH6bIIHeBCKOrO. 

Cyzjopora flyiiin h cyaopora MycKyjiOB Bcer^a y Hero c MecTa b Kapbep. 
Ho ceH3b Meac/jy o6eHMH cyzjoporaMH, onpeaejineMaH ncnxo(|)H3HHecKOK) 
npHHHHHOCTbK), OTKpbiBaeTCH nocjie; n to jiHHib Tor/ja, Kor^a Mbl caMH 
3axoTHM OTKpbiTb 3Ty CBH3b. HHane h MOTHBbi OT^ejibHbix nocTynKOB, aaace 
6ojiee Toro, - CBH3b 4>a6yjibi pa3JiaraeTcn y ITiHH6biiHeBCKoro Ha xaoc /jbh- 
aceHHH aynieBHbix n Ha MexaHHKy .zjbhjkchhh BHenmnx. JXBuyKeune BHein- 
Hee JiHHib Haioia^biBaeTCH Ha flBnaceHne BHyTpeHHee: ceH3b - Bbina^aeT. 

H oTToro-TO BCHKoe ^eHCTBHe HanHHaeTCH cjiynanHo: ^encTBneM 6beT 
Hac IliiiH6biiHeBCKHH, KaK o6yxoM no rojioBe. 

«Bckohhji... Hto TaM TaKoe? HHKoro H3 Apy3eii... TojibKO noHTajibOH... 
Jlzxie b noT 6pocHjio... Xa-xa...xa... BcTaji h 3aayMHHBO 3axo,zjHji no KOMHa- 
Te»... («Homo sapiens»). 

« y CTaBH jich TynbiM B3opoM... B3rjiHHyji Ha Hacw... J\Bepb B^pyr otbo- 

pHJiaCb»... («CbIHbI 3eMJIH»). 

Hjih HanHHaeT Hac flOHHMaTb nnin6biineBCKHH Bee oahhm h tcm ace 
acecroM: oh 3acTaBJineT repon ycMexaTbcn nepe3 Kaac^bie TpH MHHyTbi h 
bchkhh pa3 3a6oTJiHBo HanoMHHaeT 06 3tom: «ropAOH ycMexHyjiCH»... He- 
pe3 HecKOJibKO CTponeK: «ropaoH onflTb ycMexHyjiCH»... /lajiee - «rop^OH 
ycMexHyjicH»... B npoMeacyTOK Meacay flByMH ycMeniKaMH Top^OHa oh Ha- 
noMHHaeT, hto h OcTan «exn#HO ycMexHyjica...». 3th Top^OHOBbi ycMein- 
kh nepe6nTbi kopotkhmh 4>pa3aMH; hmh nepeKHflbraaiOTCH repon; peajin3M 
nepeKpecTHbix penjinK no^nac nepexo/jnT rpaHnijy xyzjoacecTBeHHOCTn; 
Ph^om: xaoc nyBCTB, KoniMapw, n b hhx - caMan OTKpoBeHHan CHMBOJinKa, 
caMan TyMaHHaa MncTHKa nyBCTB: CHMBOJinKa n aencTBHTejibHOCTb, MH . 
CTHKa n cnHeMaTorpacJ); to oaho, to apyroe: o^ho nepeceKaeT apyroe; res. 
B3anMHO nepeceKaeMbix p*ma nocjieflOBaTejibHOCTen n OTcyTCTBne B3anM- 

HOH CBH3H. 

H B^pyr, BcnoMHHB, hto KaK-HHKaK, a CBH3b MeyKRy EcecroM Tejia n ace- 
ctom ayinn Bee ace flOJDKHa npncyTCTBOBaTb, hjih, no KpanHen Mepe, rojitk- 



11 



Ha onpaBflaTb 6eccBH3H0CTb, nuiH6biiueBCKHH 3acTaBjineT repoa npoHHTbi- 
BaTb o ce6e ijejibie jickijhh, hto6m o6i>HCHHTb HaM ero nocTynKH; HHor^a 
repoii noynaeT Hac co CTpaHHij KHHru ijHTaTaMH H3 ncHxo(J)H3HOJiorHH o 

BHyTpeHHefl CBH3H BCHKHX 6eCCBH3HOCTeH . 

Bot KaK H3o6paacaeT riniH6biiueBCKHH cbohx repoeB. 

HeT y Hero nocieneHHOCTH b pa3BHTHH (J)a6yjibi; HeT pa3BjieKaiomHx 
Hac no,apo6HOCTeH 6bna; HeT AOCTaTOHHoii mothbhpobkh jno6oro H30- 
6paacaeMoro nocTynKa: 6ypHbiH noTOK, jieTHmnii b nycTbiHHofl MecT- 
hocth, noTOK, pa36HTbiii Ha oTaejibHbie CTpyH, - bot o6pa3 TBopnecTBa 
IIuiH6biuieBCKoro. He to mm bhahm y nHcaTejieii h ApaMaTyproB ^o6poro 
CTaporo BpeMeHH! co6biTHH TaM pa3BHBaioTCH Me/yieHHo; ohh npoTenaioT 
nepeA hsmh, KaK raxne CTpyH nojiHOBo^HOH peKH. Bcioay TaM - Henpe- 
pbiBHOCTb h njiaBHocTb. H KHHeMaTorpa(J)HHecKHe CKanKH - 3#ecb: «B6e- 
acaji - jio63aji - pbmaji»... KaKofl-TO «X» h noTOM y6eacaji b TeMHOTy. 

Cyaopora aymeBHbix ^bh^kchhh h cyaopora MycKyjiOB, nepe6HBaeMan 
Phaom KHHeMaTorpacJ)HHecKHx KapTHH! h pflfl KapTHH onHTb-TaKH nepe- 
6nBaeTCH cy^oporoH KoniMapoB h rpe3. PncyHOK (J)a6yjiw nurjie He bw- 
HepneH, a, TaK CKa3aTb, HaMeneH nyHKrapoM, ho jno6afl TOHKa nyHKrapa 
(momcht) c(J)OTorpa(J)HpoBaHa c nopa3HTejibHoii TOHHOCTbio. Kto H^eT ot 
tohkh k TOHKe, He 3anoMHHaa HanpaBJieHHH abh^cchmh, ajih toto IIihh- 
6bimeBCKHH 6eccBH3eH. 06pa30M TOJibKO peTyninpyeT oh npeKpacHO bm- 
nHcaHHbifl nopTpeT: ho nopTpeT stot (ijejibHOCTb 4>a6yjibi) TOJibKO b aynie 
y riiHH6bimeBCKoro; oh b phtmhhcckom e^HHOo6pa3HH KapTHH, b 6eccjio- 

BeCHOM, HeBbipa3HMOM CJIOBaMH JieHTMOTHBe npoH3Be^eHHH; KapTHHa, 

o6pa3, BbinHCKa AeTajiePi - Bee sto ihtphxh k HeBbicKa3aHHoii ijejibHoc™; 
(J)a6yjia riniH6biuieBCKoro Bcer^a b 6ecco3HaTejibHOM; o6pa3Hoe ee Bbipa- 
3KeHHe - Bceraa TpaHcnapaHT; IliiiH6biiiieBCKHH cjiobho 3a6biBaeT, hto He 
Bee bh^ht c hhm BHyTpeHHioio »H3Hb repoeB; oh aaeT jiHiub no,apo6HOCTH 

K He^aHHOH KapTHHe, - nOApo6HOCTH, COCTaBJIHIOmHe C KapTHHOH HeHTO 

uejiocraoe; kto He yraaaeT ijejioro b IIuiH6biuieBCKOM, ajih Toro BHeniHHH 
CBH3b ero o6pa30B - rpHMaca 6eccBH3Hbix iutphxob, - t. e. TpaHcnapaHT c 
peTynibio k o6pa3y, ho 6e3 o6pa3a. 

A BMecTO pa3BjieKaiomHx Hame BHHMaHHe noapo6HocTeH 6biTa IIihh- 
6bimeBCKHH aapHT Hac 6wtom CBoeii jxyvm - jihphkoh, MOJiHTBeHHbiMH 
OTCTynjieHHHMH, BonjiHMH yacaca h ropHnenHbiMH BHaeHHHMH: «Budeji, 
xax 6piuuiuaHmoeaH tuniuibKa eupacmcuia e npueudenue, deyMH ozpoMnu- 
mu cuiMa3aMu 6jiecmejiu zna3a u kojiojiu ezo ocmpbiMu JiyuaMu ozhh» h t. a., 

HT. fl. 

3aecb Bee - cjiynaHHbie accoijHaijHH, nnraa CBeTa Ha ceTHaTKe, CMe- 
maiomHe npe^MeTbi c cbohx Mecr, TaK hto aeiicTBHTejibHOCTb HanHHaeT 
KpyjKHTbCH b pHTMHnecKOM TaHije; tohho b neTbipe cTeHbi Haiuero Ka6HHe- 
Ta npocTpyHJiacb My3biKa - h Tonm: Mope 3ByKOB - noTon My3biKH; noTOK 
6ecco3HaTejibHoro y IIiiiH6bimeBCKoro Bcer^a eAHHOo6pa3eH: sto noTOK 



12 



jik)6bh, noTOK cthxhhhoh 3kh3hh, TaK hto phtm ee (phtm acH3HH) ajih Hero 

PHTM My3bIKH; H MeJIOflHH 3TOTO pHTMa CTpOHT »CH3Hb. IIlIIH6bIIIieBCKHH 

aaji HaM KOCMoroHHio h anoKajiHncHC nojia b oahom H3 H36paHHbix cbohx 
npoH3Be,aeHHH: TaM - ero xyaoacecTBeHHaa njiaT(J)opMa, TaM - kjiioh k no- 
HHMaHHio e^HHOH MejioflHH, npoxoflnmeH CKB03b Bee ero TBopnecTBo; H 3Ta 
Mejio^HH - MejioflHH nojia. IIoji - HOHHan rjiy6HHa, cthxhh ayuiH — BoeflH- 
ho CBH3yeT Bee o6pa3bi IIiuH6biuieBCKoro; a (J)a6yjiy, ee flHeBHofi cmmcji 
KaK 6y^TO npHBo^HT oh k njiocKOCTH: pacnjiiomHBaeT Ha KHHeMaTorpa(J)H- 
necKOM 3KpaHe; h OTToro-To repon ero - HeMwe repon: hx tojioc b nojie, a 
noji - 6e3JiHneH. Be3JiHHHe, HOHb, xaoc noeT b caMOM IIuiH6biineBCKOM; a 
noTOMy-To bch cHJia ero Jinuib b tom, hto oh nepeuu H3 mhozhx; jiHHHOCTb 
ero - b nponoBeflH 6c3jihhhh; tojioc ero B03BbiinaeTCH TaM, rae BocxBajraeT 
oh Bee HeMoe, MHpoBoe, nojiOBoe. H repon ero - Koraa roBopHT — hcmm, 
Kor^a MOJinaT - KpacHopenHBbi. DiyxoHeMMMH hx acecraMH 3acTaBJineT 
Hac IIiiiH6bimeBCKHH npncjiyinaTbCH k noTOKy 6ecco3HaTejibHOH hch3hh, 
nepe3 KOTopbiii nepeKHHyTbi 3,aecb h TaM moctkh ot oraejibHbix KapTHHj 
bot noneMy KapTHHbi 3th OT^ejieHbi apyr ot apyra. Bot noneMy IIiiiH6bi- 
meBCKHH HanoMHHaeT HaM KHHeMaTorpacj): ero 3aa ana o6pa30M HaMeKHyTb 
Ha 6e3o6pa3Hoe; flan oh HaM HenpepwBHocTb 4>a6yjibi, cjieA oh o6pa3bi b 
oahh - h ohh noKpoiOT noTOK 6ecco3HaTejibHoro; ho noTOK 6ecco3HaTejib- 

HOTO H BCKpblBaeT Beflb IIlHH6bIIIieBCKHH. 

BnponeM, IIuiH6biiueBCKHH ocTaBjineT HaM Haine npaBO CB#3aTb bo- 
e^HHo cboh o6pa3bi, pa3apo6jieHHbie momchtm ero KapTHH coeflHHHTb b 

HeKOTOpoe eflHHCTBO. 

Ho ecjiH o6pa3 y nuiH6biuieBCKoro CBH3aH c 6ecco3HaTejibHoft My3bi- 
koh, c phtmom hch3hh, to cymecTByeT cBH3b Meacay o6pa30M h nepeacHBa- 
HHeM, Meacziy phtmom BHeuiHHx ^bh^kchmh h phtmom flBHaeeHHH BHyTpeH- 
hhx; Bent Tanan cBH3b o6pa3a c nepeacHBaHHeM h o6pa3yeT chmboji. 

Cjia6we cTopoHbi nuiH6biuieBCKoro b tom, hto nacTo CBH3b 3Ta OTcyr- 
CTByeT BOBce; Macro IIiiiH6biiiieBCKHH BOBce He chmbojihct. 

BHeuiHee flBHaeeHHe repon (bckohhji, ayuiHji, jio63aji) He coeflHHeHO c 
nepeacHBaHHeM, He BbiTeKaeT hh H3 jiothkh nyBCTB, hh H3 jiothkh npocTO. 
IIapajiJiejiH3M, HajioaceHHe o6pa3a Ha nepeacHBaHHe - bot hto xapaKTepHO 
fljiH IIinH6biineBCKoro. ^Bckohuji, OKomamejibHo e36eweHHuu». IIoneMy 
bckohhji? HnTaTejib HmeT 6jiaroHaMepeHHoro «nomoMy mno», a riuiH6bi- 
uieBCKHH TOjibKO noTOM noHCHHeT BCKOJib3b: «Cjiaea Eoiy. Hukozo U3 dpy- 
3eu. Tojimo noumajibOH*. HaM csmhm npeaocTaBJineTCH bmboa: « Bckohhji, 
OKOHnaTejibHO B36euieHHbiH, nomoMy umo pa3flajiCH 3bohok». HHoraa ace 
BOBce He aaeT oh o6i>flCHeHHH. H Toraa: bmccto cbh3h jxywu h Tejia, nepe- 
»cHBaHHH h o6pa3a, pHTMa h cjioBa - BcnwuiKa nyBCTBa h coKpameHHe My- 
CKyjia. Meaeay TeM h apyrHM - HHKaKoii BHyTpeHHefi cbh3h. 

IIuiH6biineBCKHH apo6HT (J>a6yjiy Ha momchtw (KapTHHbi); Majio toto: 
y6npaeT bhcuihiok) cB«3b jik>6oh KapTHHbi c noflcrajiaiomHM nepeaeHBa- 



13 



HHeM. IlepeacHBaHHH cjihbsiotch b 6ypHbift iiotok; KapTHHa 6eccB«3HO 
HeceTCH no noBepxHOcra: h Hcecra repoeB CTaHOBHTCH 6e33KH3HeHHHMH 
acecraMH; ^BHraiOTCfl nacra Tejia, coKpamaioTca MycKyjibi; ecjiH Tenepb mh 
BHHMaeM noTOKy nepeacHBaHHH - nepea HaMH He nncaTejib BOBce, a cKopee 
My3biKaHT; ecjiH ace H3ynaeM KapraHy, noBepxHOCTb o6pa3a - nepe/j HaMH 
(J)OTorpa(J), aHaTOM - He nncaTejib; h repon IIiiiH6biiiieBCKoro roBopHT - 
MOJinaHHeM hjih coKpameHHeM MycnyjiOB, - HeMbie repon, noTOMy hto 
noTOKH cjiob, kotopwmh ohh pa3paacaioTCfl, - Bee 3to nponoBe^b caMO- 
ro nuiH6biuieBCKoro, a He hx bobcc* TyT IIiiiH6biiiieBCKHH ycTaMH Oajib- 
kob HaHHHaeT onpaB^bmaTb cbohx hcmhx umaTaMH o 6ecco3HaTejibHOM. 
3to - He acHBbie cjioBa, MepTBbie. TaK nbnaeTCH IIiiiH6biiiieBCKHH nepe- 
KHHyTb moct ot npepwBHoro (4>a6yjibi) k HenpepbiBHOMy (My3biice), ot 
acecTa k pHTMy. TyT cjihihhm mh naHernpHKH CHJie, jihhhocth, nojiy; h 
o6pa3bi IliHH6biHieBCKoro nbiTaioTcn roBopHTb to ace. TepoH IIiiiH6biiiieB- 
cKoro BCKaKHBaiOT, cKpHnnT 3y6aMH, jio63aK)T, HacHJiyiOT aceHmHH; h Bee 
3to - HanpacHbie noTyra: cnjia 6eccJ)opMeHHa, JiHHHOCTb 6e3JiHHHa, h no- 
Tyrn nojia bmccto nojia BcrpenaiOT Hac y nuiH6biuieBCKoro. 

/la H OTKyfla B3HTbCfl JIHHHOCTH? KaK MOHCeT IIlIIH6bIIIieBCKHH H3o6pa- 

3HTb JiHHHOCTb cbohm npneMOM nncbMa: oh coKpamaeT MycKyjiw repoeB, co- 
KpamaroT MycKyjibi y Hero Bee OanbKH; ho onncaHHe MycKyjioB h hx coKpa- 
meHHH - 3a^ana aHaTOMHH h cj)H3HOJiorHH. JXz h KpoMe Toro: BOBce He 3HaeM 
mh TyT, hto nepe^eprHBaeT jiHua OajibKOB: BbipaaceHHe jih TyT aymeBHoro 
a4>(J)eKTa, hjih 3(j)(|)eKT ajieiopHHecKOH npoBOJiOKH, KOTopoii He3aMeTHO jxo- 
TpoHyjiCH no OajibKa xojio/jHbiH 3KcnepHMeHTaTop. 3aecb eme HeT HHHero 
HH^HBH^yajibHoro; Bee o^HHaKOBO coKpamaioT MycKyjibi. Oh 3acTaBJineT hx 

BH^eTb CHbi; HO BCe OHH BHZtfIT O^HHaKOBbie CHbl. HHflHBHflyaJIbHOCTb CHOB 

OTcyTCTByeT; jxjih. Bcex «6piuuiuaHmoeasi wnwibKa ebipacmaem e npueude- 

HUe» f BCeX «OipOMHblMU OJlMC&aMU KOJlWm ZJ103(1» h t. h t. j\. 

Hto-to odno, 6e3Jiwcoe, nounoe noeT, kphhht, bohht b repoax IIihh- 
6biuieBCKoro, h Bbicuiee HanpnaceHHe ayuiH pa3pnacaeTCH b B03rjiace: «Xa- 
xa-xa»... (y OajibKa TaK ace, KaK y HepKaccKoro). H noTOM ohh CKpHnnT 
3y6aMH, jio63aiOT h ayuiaT. 

HH^HBH^yajibHocTb Kaacaoro HmeT onopbi b po/je, b nojie; ho h noji 
BbipaacaeTCH b 6e3JiHHHOM B03rjiace: «Xa-xa-xa». Ho h poa, h noji He BMe- 
maiOT b ce6e repon IliHH6biiHeBCKoro; noji pa3pwBaeT hx JiHHHOCTb: h KaK 
TOJibKO b OajibKax noziHHMaeTCH 6e3JiHKoe: «Xa-xa-xa», OajibKH HanHHa- 
iot CKpnneTb 3y6aMH, coBepuieHHO B36euieHHbie, a noTOM 3aKpbiBaiOTCH ot 
caMHx ce6n (J)OHTaHOM yTOHHeHHbix cjiob. 

y IIiHH6biuieBCKoro HeT CBoeft mhcjih, CBoen npaBflbi. MHpo3,zja- 

HHe, nOHHTOe KaK nOJIOBOH aKT, KOHeiJ MHpa, nOHHTHH KaK OKOHHaHHe 

3Toro aKTa, - TOJibKO HJiJiiocTpauHfl k mhcjihm UIoneHrayspa h Tap- 

TMaHa. XopOUIO HJIJIIOCTpHpyeT 3TH MHCJIH IluiH6HIHeBCKHH. IIpHHH- 

MaeT BOJiio h 6ecco3HaTejibHoe ot TapTMaHa, a JiHHHOCTb - ot Hhiuiic 



14 



Ho coe^HHeHHe Hniuiie c TapTMaHOM o6eccHJiHBaeT h TapTMaHa, h 
Hnmiie. BbiBOfl TapTMaHa - OTpnijaHHe jihhhocth, yTBepaczjeHHe 6e3- 
jiHHHoro; bbiboa Hniuue - yTBepaczjeHHe jihhhocth h oTpnijaHHe 6e3- 
jiHHHoro; BbiBoa IlinH6biiueBCKoro: yTBepacaeHHe jihhhocth (repon) 
b 6e3JiHHHOM (b nojie), yTBepacaeHHe 6e3JiHHHoro (nojia) b jihhhocth 
(repoe); ho jiHHHocTb y riiiiH6biiiieBCKoro He coeflHHHeTCH c jihhho- 

CTbK): 3aKpbIBaeTCH dO, KaK MepTBOH JIHHHHOH H3 CJIOB H ECeCTOB. TaM, 

rae JiHHHocTb (repoii) c6jiHHcaeTCH c nojiOM, TaM npo6y»caaeTCH b repoe 
nejiOBeK-3Bepb (6e3JiHHHoe), jih6o stot 3Bepb OKa3biBaeTCH 6eccnjib- 
hwm nynejiOM. H b ahkhx CTOHax ero repoeB y3HaeM mh aaace He w 
Kapn, a npocTO nyrajio. Principium individuationis - b npeflcraBJieHHH; 
npeflcraBjieHHe o6oco6jiaeT o6pa3, o6oco6jineT JiHHHocTb; JiHHHocTb 

CTaHOBHTCH TOH, a He HHOH. OTpHIiaH BCHKHH CMblCJI 30JIOTOTO AnOJI- 
JIOHOBa KOBpa, HaKHHyTOrO Hafl 6e3,ZmOH, rilHH6bIUieBCKHH TOnHT b Hac 

OTeBHoe, paccyacaaiomee h aencTByiomee co3HaHHe: co3HaHHe cTaHO- 

BHTCH MepTBbIM, CJIOBeCHbIM, a fleHCTBHe CTaHOBHTCH 3BepHHbIM. CjlO- 

60, cmaetuee ruiombio, on demm na Secruiomnoe cnoeo u neMyw ruiomb. 
H Bee repoH ero b cjiOBax 6ecnji0THbi, b aejiax - 6eccjiOBecHbi. 

ToBopHT, KaK yTOHneHHbie jiioot Hauiero BpeMeHH; TeM He MeHee no- 
CTynaiOT, KaK ^HKapn. Usene OajibK - npeacTaBHTejib Bbicuieft KyjibTypw, 
ti3Hympu - TaTyHpoBaHHbiii flHKapb. H3BHe roBopHT 06 AnoKajinncnce 
jho6bh, b TaftHe - HacnjiyeT aeByuieK. 

TepoH IIiHH6biiueBCKoro oneHb HanHTaHHbi: hm BeaoMbi Bee snoxn, Bee 
cthjih, Bee OTpacjiH 3HaHHH - 6ojiee wiu Menee: OajibK 6ojiee wiu Menee 
3CTeT, Sojiee wiu Menee (})H3HOJior, 6onee wiu Menee mhcthk, 6onee wiu Me- 
nee couHOJior. Ho ITeTpoHHH, ByHflT, CBeaeH6opr, BpeHTaHO - ne 6ojiee 
wiu Menee, a B3anpaBfly: nepBbin - screT, BTopoft - 4>H3HOJior h t. r. 

Bot 3to-to «63anpa6dy» h co3flaeT H3 hhx JiHHHocTb, repoeB Ha tom 
hjih apyroM nonpnme 5KH3HH. 

y repoeB riiiiH6biiiieBCKoro KyjibTypa - My3eii naHonTHKyM, KyjibTyp- 

Hbie IjeHHOCTH - KyKJIbl, MOfleJIHI MO^eJIH MblCJieft, CHCTeM, npe^MeTOB 5KH3- 
HH. JlHIjeBaH CTOpOHa OaJIbKOB - 3KJICKTH3M: TOT 3KJICKTH3M, B KOTOpOM 

BH^eji CMepTb Hhuuic 3aecb KpacKa He noeT (oTToro-TO moscho coneTaTb 

BCe KpaCKH), CJIOBO He 5KHBCT (BblBeTpHJIOCb! OTTOrO-TO M05KHO COeflHHHTb 

Bee cjiOBa). CaMH repon IIiHH6biuieBCKoro - BbiBeTpeHHan nopoaa nejiOBe- 
necTBa: He rpaHHT, a pyxjiHK, He y,zjo6HaH ajih JienKH rjiHHa, a paccbinnaTbiH 
jiecc - necoK cwnjieTCH H3 hx cjiob. IlecKOM co(J)H3mob 6pocaK)T ohh b jxo- 
Bep^HBO oTKpwTbie rjia3a aceHmHHbi, HTo6bi 0Ha, noTepnB 3peHHe, He ot- 
6nBajiacb ot hx o6t>hthh. H Tor^a HanHHaeT b hhx 6nTb cTpyn hchbothoto 
oprna3Ma; h 3aBHTan penb o6pbiBaeTCH Ha «xa-xa-xa»... 

B rjiy6nHax 6ecco3HaTejibHoro kjiokohct b hhx craxHimafl CHJia 5KH3- 
hh; Bee me, hto npH3HaHO cbctom KyjibTypw, 30J10TMM anojuioHOBbiM 
CBeTOM - acHBbie o6pa3bi, HCHBwe cjiOBa, acHBwe nocTynKH, acHBoe TBopne- 



15 



ctbo, - Bee TyT BbiBeTpeHo, KaK BbmeTpHJiHCb b KyjibType o6pa3bi HCKyc- 
CTBa - b ajuieropHH, cjiOBa - b TepMHHbi, nocTynKH - b co3epijaHHe cbohx 

C06cTBeHHbIX MepTBblX HCeCTOB, TBOpHeCTBO HCH3HH - B H3fleJIHe (J)OpM, 

npeBpamaeMbix b TOBap. Coe^HHeHHe o6pa3a c phtmom nepeacHBamiH - 
TOJibKO b jiyxe coeAHHHiomeM; (J>opMa 3Toro coeflHHeHHH - TBopnecKaa 

JIHHHOCTb, a (})OpMa TBOpHeCTBa - ECHBafl 5KH3Hb. 

Bh,zih pacna^eHHe jihhhocth Ha 6ecco3HaTejibHoe (phtm ech3hh) h ny- 
CToe (c})opMa, o6pa3), Hnmiie npH3biBaji Hac k HOBOMy coeflHHeHHio: npn- 

3bIBaJI HaC OflHHaKOBO 6opOTbCH C 6e3JIHHHOH CymHOCTbK) pO^a H C MepTBbIM 

jihkom KyjibTypHoro nejiOBeKa: k repoio npH3biBaji Hnmiie. IIiiiH6biiiieB- 

CKHH OflHOCTOpOHHe nOHHJI npH3bIB K repOH3My: OH OC03HaJI 3TOT npH3bIB 

KaK 6ym npoTHB MepTBoft ycjioBHOcra ech3hh. H CHJiy jihhhocth OToacae- 
ctbhji c 6e3JiHHHeM nojia. He cocahhhji nporaBonojioacHbie nojiiocbi 5kh3- 
HeHHoro pacnaaa - npocTO OTpe3aji oflHy nojiOBHHy: Ha cxeMaranecKHH jihk 
(t. e. OTcyrcTBHe jiHKa 5kh3hh) aoxHyji 6c3jihhhoh HOHbio. Craji c 6e3JiHH- 
hwm 6opoTbCH 6e3JiHHHeM. A Beflb JIHHHOCTb - b coe^HHeHHH OTyx Hanaji: 
6e3JiHHHoft chjiw ^eftcTBOBaHHH (ayxa /iHOHHca, KaK roBopHJi Hnmue) h 
CTOJib ace 6e3JiHHHoft chjiw Boo6paaceHHH (npeflcraBjieHHH, t. e. ayxa Anoji- 
jioHa). Coe^HHeHHe OTyx Hanaji b pywe nejiOBeKa npoTHBonocTaBJweT ero, 
KaK JIHHHOCTb, 6e3JiHHHK> Hecoe^HHeHHOH, pa3JiaraiomeHCH 5KH3HH. Meacay 

)KH3HbK) H JIHHHOCTbK) (repoeNl) B03HHKaeT 6opb6a. TepOH 6opeTCH C HOHbK) 

6e3o6pa3Horo; ho h c MepTBbiM o6pa30M 5KH3HH oh 6opeTca toecc IIiiiH6bi- 

IIieBCKHH C 6e3JIHHHbIM CTaJI 6opOTbCH 6e3JIHHHbIM, He OnJIOflOTBOpHJI 3eM- 
JIK) 3KH3HH BOflOH CTHXHHHOCTH. H 3CMJIH erO He 3eJieHeeT paCTHTeJIbHOCTbK). 

Ho nycTWHH hch3hh TonHT oh OKeaHaMH xaoca, onycKaeT h no^HHMaeT Ma- 
TepHKH nycTMHb. EflBa ycnoicaHBaeTCH caMyM cjiob y ero repoeB, KaK HanH- 
HaeTCH y hhx noTOK nojioBoft »ch3hh: JIHHHOCTb hx oflHHaKOBO 3a^wxaeTCH h 
necKOM, h bo^ok). BenHafl, 6ecnjio^HaH 6opb6a 6e3 Hanajia h 6e3 KOHua. 

jJoHCTopHHecKoe HejioBenecTBo BepHo BH^ejio xaoc: oho njiaBajio b 
xaoce, b ynopHOH 6opb6e c HOHbio o6pa30Bajio flHeBHoft MaTepHK hctophh. 
Xaoc paccTHJiajicH Haa tojioboh nejiOBeKa rycToio HOHbio, iuyMOM aepe- 
BbeB, nepeKjiHKancb c hohhmmh rojiocaMH HejioBenecKoft ayinn: b nyuie 
KonouiHjicH xaoc cthxhhhoh 5kh3hh, Hafl ayiiioH HaBHcaji 6e3flHoft hohh. 
H ^HKapb, b 6opb6e c Me^Be^eM, no6eacflaji poK. Hana^eHHe 3Bepeft bw- 
3biBajio b HeM nyBCTBO cyeBepHoro yacaca: Me^Be^b craHOBHJiCH 3jiwm ay- 
xom: 3jioh ayx hjih 3Bepb - ojxnu o6pa3 poKa. H nejiOBeK y6nBaji 3Bepeft, 
nejioBeK HacTynaji Ha HOHb; opyzjHH 6opb6bi h TpocJ)eH no6e,zjbi (KaMeHHbie 
hoech h Me^BeECbH uiKypbi) - bot nepBbie H3flejiHH nejiOBeKa: oflHOBpe- 
MeHHO h 4>opMbi TBopnecTBa, h opyzjHH ech3hh (Tonop 3amnmaji OT 3Be- 
pa; ho Tonop yKpainajica pe3b6oii, a uiKypa - mopckhmh paKOBHHaMH ) . 
B 6opb6e c pokom 6jiecHyji cbct (HCKpa KpeMHH, ynaBinan b cyxne jiHCTbn); 
oroHb ocBeraji BOKpyr nejiOBeKa He6ojibiuoH Kpyr 3cmjih: h stot MarHne- 
ckhh Kpyr cBeTa OKa3ajicn nepBWM octpobom co3HaHHH, nepBbiM onjiOTOM 



16 



ot hohh, iuhtom: 3Bepb hjih 3jioh .ziyx y6eraji ot CBeTa; CBeT iuhphjich: cy- 
HbH, CTBOJiw aepeBbeB 6pocajiH b KOdep; Kpyr CBeTa BbipacTaji; MaTepHK, 

BblpBaHHblH y HOHH, yBCJIHHHBaJICfl; K 3TOMy OCTpOBy npHXOflHJIH jho^h, 

oKpy^cajiH ero 3a6opoM H3 .zjepeBbeB. TaK B03HHKJia o6mHHa; TaK coczjhhh- 
jia opy^HH TBopnecTBa h H3flejiHH TBopnecTBa b o^ho; repoft CTaji cojiaaTOM*, 
H3^ejiHHMH o6MeHHBajiHCb; H3 hhx co3,zjaBajiacb KyjibTypa; TaK TBopnecKaa 
6opb6a pacnajiacb Ha acH3Hb h TBopnecTBO H3flejiHH, TaK repoH-nojiy6or 

CTaJI HeJIOBeKOM H XyflOSCHHKOM. CBeTOM HCTOpHH 03apHJiaCb CyiUa, H 3JIOH 

jsyXy noKHHyB Me^Be^a, OTjieTeji b 6e3flHy CBHcaiomeH hohh; Tor^a 3acjio- 
hhjih He6o H3aejiHeM TBopnecTBa, (J)eTHuieM; H3 4>eTHUia bo3hhkjih ojihm- 
nHHCKHe 6orn, 3amHmaBiuHe HejiOBenecTBO ot xaoca; B03HHKJia pejiHrnn, 
npaBO, Mopajib; MaTepHK hch3hh Bbimeji H3 xaoca; Hanajiacb hctophh. 
Ranee - npouecc pacnaaeHHH coTBopeHHbix KyisinpoB Ha (J)opMbi: sth- 

MH (J)OpMaMH OKa3aJIHCb! (J)OpMbI HCKyCCTBa, 5KH3HH, MblCJIH H 3HaHHH. 

BMecTe co CMepTbio KyMHpoB Hanajiocb pa3JioaceHHe 4>opM - pa3Jio»ceHHe 
KyjibTypw: (J>opMa, noHHTan KaK KyMHp (BH^eHHe Bora, anojuiHHHHecKHH 
coh), - mHT npoTHB hohh; (J)opMa, oTOpBaHHan ot npnMoro Ha3HaneHHH, - 
nycTan (J)opMa; ueHOH 6e3onacHOCTH (y6nHCTBOM repon) nejiOBenecTBO 
no^HHHHjio phtm 5KH3HH nycTOH 4>opMe. H orpa^a H3 o6pa30B BbiBeTpn- 
jiacb: h CKB03b BbiBeTpeHHbift necoK o6pa30B 3a3HHjia Ha Hac 6e3^Ha hohh: 
npocTpynjiacb b MaTepHK HauieH ech3hh... 

Hto6h cnacTHCb ot HOBoro noTona TbMbi, Hnuiiie 3Baji Hac k repoft- 
CTBy; He o6opoHHTbcn ot hohh 3Baji oh: oh 3Baji Hac 3a orpaay KpenocTH 
HacTynaTb Ha HOHb; oh ac^aji hobhx H3flejiHH TBopnecTBa, hobhx KyMHpoB, 
hto6w hmh, KaK opyacneM, cpaacaTbcn c pokom: bot noneMy He pa3pyiuaTb 
o6pa3 npH3WBaji oh, a coeflHHHTb ero c phtmom ech3hh. TBopnecTBO u,eH- 
HOCTeii ecTb TBopnecTBO o6pa30B, h ecjiH o6pa3 TBopnecTBa - nejiOBeK, a 
4>opMa ero - )KH3Hb, to mm flOJiacHH co3HflaTb o6pa3 h no^o6He repon b 

3KH3HH: flJIH 3TOrO Hy^CHa JIHHHOCTb. 

IIiHH6biiHeBCKHH noHHji o^Hy cTopoHy b Hnmne: coKpyuiHTejin BeT- 
xhx CKpHHcajieft; co3H^aTejiH b Hnmne He yBH^eji oh bobcc 

IluiH6biuieBCKHH CTaji pa3pyuiaTb. H repon ero pa3pyuiaiOT tohcc 
Pa3pyuiaji nuiH6biuieBCKHH: B033Baji k 6e3JiHHHio, KaK k jihhhocth. Bot 
Bauia JIHHHOCTb - noji: JIHHHOCTb OKa3ajiacb jihhhhoh; m-noa Hero HOHb 
yxHyjia cbohm «Xa-xa-xa»... hjih Oajiwc OKa3ajicn 6c3jihkhm «Xa-xa-xa» b 
CBepxHejiOBenecKOM njiame: copBajin njiam: non hhm HHnero He oKa3ajiocb. 
06pa3 CTaji njiamoM: 6e3o6pa3Ha^ cymHOCTb o6pa3a - 6e3JiHHHeM. Iljiam 

(T. e. BHflHMOCTb) HaTHHyjI IIlIIH6bIIIieBCKHH H no HeMy nyCTHJI CHHeMaTO- 

rpacj) HBJieHHH. 

Hniniie yKa3aji, hto mhp o6pa30B h mhp 6e3HMHHHoro coczjhhhiot- 
ch b jxyuie repon. IIocTpoeHHe o6pa30B KyjibTypbi aa h caMa BHeumocTb 

KyjIbTypHOH 5KH3HH - paCIHHpeHHe JIHHHOCTH 3a npe^eJIbl 5KH3HH: ueH- 

Tpo6eacHafl cnjia; yBejinneHHe 3toh chjiw pa3pbiBaeT JIHHHOCTb; KpyroBoe 



17 



OTHaceHHe jihhhocth Bceiyja - coe^HHeHHe ueHTpo6e»CHOH chjim (o6pa3- 
hocth, jiyx AnojuioHa) h ueHTpocrpeMHTejibHoft (pHTMa, ayxa .flHOHHca). 
Hctophh - npouecc pa3JioaceHHH jihhhocth, pocT ueHTpo6e»CHOH CHJIbl. 
K coeflHHeHHio b ce6e My3biKH »ch3hh h KapTHHbi ee 3Baji Hac Hnmne - 
h noTOMy-TO orpaay BeTinaiomHx o6pa30B onpoKHHyji oh b ayxe. 3a hhm 
onpoKHHyji orpaay h nuiH6biiueBCKHH; ho orpa^w b ce6e He Hauieji ot 
BTop^ceHHH 6e3JiHHHH: c HeyMojiHMofi oTHeTJiHBOcTbio npHBeji oh k njio- 

CKOCTH BHflHMOCTb 3KH3HH... HO H TOJIbKO. ErO JIHHHOCTb He 3a2CI7ia CBOerO 

(Jraicejia ot noracaiomero CBeTa KyjibTypw: cbct KyjibTypw - OT6;iecK Ilpo- 
MeTeeBa othh, fleftcTBHTejibHoro othh AeiicTBHTejibHoro repoa. 

TaKoro repoa He BOCKpeinaeT IIuiH6biineBCKHH. 

Oh OTopBaji o6pa3 aeiicTBHTejibHOCTH ot ee 3KH3HeHHoro pHTMa; ho 
o6pa3a pHTMy He co3^aJi; a bchkhh phtm Tpe6yeT 4)opMbi. Phtm 6e3 o6pa- 
3a - xaoc, peB nepBo6biTHbix cthxhh b ayuie nejiOBeica. H «H» OKa3ajiocb 
bo BJiac™ hohh b to BpeMH, KaK apyryio nacTb aToro «H» pa3^aBHjiH 06- 
jiomkh MepTBoii aeHCTBHTejibHocra. Tepoft pa3Ji05KHJiCH y Hero Ha MepT- 
Beua h ^HKapn; MepTBeu - pe30HHpyeT; flHKapb peBeT CBoe: xa-xa-xa. Bec- 
CMbicjieHHbift peB - He Tpare^HH, KaK He Tpare^HH - pe30HepcTBO. Ilponb 
ot Tpare^HH BeaeT IIiiiH6biiiieBCKHH. B Tpare^HH coeflHHeHHe, ctojikhobc- 
HHe, 6opb6a chji. B TBopnecTBe nuiH6biuieBCKoro - pa3T>eflHHeHHe, xaoc, 

nOKOpHOCTb CTHXHHM. 

H Koiyja conpHKOcHyTCH flBe nacTH pacKOJiOBiiieHca jihhhocth (noji h 
C03HaHHe), to HenpeMeHHO CMeinaioTCH. Pe30Hep 0Ka3biBaeTCH nojioyM- 
hwm, AHKapb HanHHaeT crpaaaTb nojioBoii HeBpacTeHHeii: jiHHHOCTb, a c 
Hen h co3flaHHbiH MHp, npoBajiHBaioTCH b Huumo. 

CjiHHHne b nejiOBeice flByx Hanaji (flHeBHoro, o6pa3Horo, Boo6paacaio- 
mero, co3HaTejibHoro - c hohhwm, 6e3o6pa3HbiM, HeBOo6pa3HMbiM, 6ecco- 
3HaTejibHbiM) OTo6pa3HJiocb, no Hnuine, b KyjibType TpeijHH b co3flaHHH 
Tpare^HH. Cjihhhhio npeainecTBOBaji flojiraft nepHoa 6opb6w. 

no^HHJiacb BOJiHa o6pa30B c 6oraMH, Ojihmhom; ee oTo6pa3Hji anoc; 
ho 3a 3toh bojihoh noflHHjiacb 6e3o6pa3HaH BOJiHa - xaoc h nofl3eMHbie 
(xTOHHHecKHe) 6oacecTBa Bbijie3JiH H3 6e3flH no#3eMHbix, 6opncb c ojihm- 
nHHuaMH; h H3 Hh^hh xjibmyjiH flHKHe bojihw: op^w 6aKxaHTOB, KyjibT 
Oajuiyca bo rjiaBe c /Ihohhcom. 

H onHTb noflHHJiacb BOJiHa o6pa30B: TpeuHH oT6nBajiacb ot xaoca; h 

no rpaHHM COnpHKOCHOBeHHH 6e3^HbI nOfl3CMHOH C 6e3flHOH Ha43Be3flHOH, 

hh3hhw h BepniHHbi, ^HOHHca h AnojuioHa, Bbipocjia (J)ajiaHra rpo3Hbix 

BOHHOB, B03flBHraK>mHX OnjIOT npOTHB XaOCa CTpOTHM pH^OM flOpHHeCKHX 
KOJIOHH H CTpOTHM pHflOM 3aKOHOflaTCJIbCTB 3KH3HH. 

.flopHHecKofi KyjibTypoft oTBeTHJia TpeuHH Ha BTopaceHHe BapBapoB. 
H TOJibKO noTOM pacuBejia Tpare^HH c coKpoBeHHbiM KopHeM ee EjieB3HH- 

CKHX MHCTepHH. 



18 



Tenepb, Ha 3aicaTe KyjibTypw, omiTb 3aKHnejia 6opb6a. OmiTb ujht 
AnojuiOHOB npoTHBonoeraBjieH JlHHraMy h Hohh. Hnijuie nonyBCTBOBaji 
Tpare^Hio b 6yaymeM; ho oh o6MaHyjica b cpoKax. Ycjiobhh ajih Tpare^HH 
HajiHuo b Hauiefi KyjibType: necnaHbie o6pwBbi HcropHHecicoro MaTepHKa 
pa3MbiBaiOTCH HanopoM xaoca: mw aojiacHbi hjih norH6HyTb, hjih HaynHTb- 
ch xoflHTb no BOJiHaM. Mw aojiacHbi CTpoHTb KOBHer Hauiefi nyum - boc- 
nHTaTb b ce6e repoa: cpe^CTBo ajih BocnHTaHHH - BoccTaHHe jihhhocth 
npoTHB 6e3JiHHHH. «/la» roBopHT riuiH6biuieBCKHH h npeaaeT Hnmue, 
npoB03rjiaiuaH non jiHHHOCTbio. 

Oh - npopoK Oajuiyca; oh BOCKpecHTejib b Hauiefi KyjibType Bcero 
OTKoro; BMecTO Toro hto6w o6jieHbca 6poHeii hobwx o6pa30B h bwhth 3a 
orpa^y KyjibTypHoro Kjia^Hma na e,aHHo6opcTBO c HOHbio, oh 6e3 bchkoh 
6poHH pa36HBaeT nocjieflHHe onjiOTbi KyjibTypw; h BajiHTca Ha Hac b npo- 
6HTbie 6peuiH HOHb. TyT oh OKOHnaTejibHO yTparaji jiHHHOCTb, oh - oaep- 
flCHMbift; h b 3tom ero BejiHHHe; oh - nepBbiii cpe^H 6ecHHCJieHHbix, b to 
BpeMH KaK HHimie - HeMHornfi cpe^H HeMHorax; TOJibKO y nuiH6biiueB- 

CKOrO HeHCTOBCTBO HMeeT CHMBOJIHHeCKHH CMblCJI. Y flpyrHX - 3TO TOJibKO 

xyjinraHCTBO. nuiH6bimeBCKHfi B033Baji k «Cuhom 3eMJiu» f ho ero chhh - 
cwhw hohh: oh tohho otkpwji anoKajiHncHnecKHH «made3b 6e3dnbi», h 
BbiuiJia onyaa ojioh capama*; h BHeuiHHfi npH3HaK 3toh capaHHH - xy- 
jiHraHCTBo: h aeftcTBHe - pa3pymeHHe: capaHna HanaaaeT, roroneT, Kpy- 

UIHT UeHHOCTH, HaCHJiyeT THMHa3HCTOK, HCTH3aeT KOUieKI 60JIbH0 ^CaJIHT 

3jian Hac capaHna. H Haa bccm ctoht 6e3JiHKoe, flHKoe, acaflHoe, Tynoe, ca- 
paHHHHoe - «xa-xa-xa». 

Bee sto - 6ecHHCJieHHbie o6pa3bi, ocaaeaaiomHe Hac; ho npoo6pa3 
hx - IluiH6biuieBCKHH. B 3tom ero BejiHHHe, cHJia, 3HaneHHe: OTToro-To b 
HeM nepeKpemHBaiOTCH Bee TeneHHH HHmueaHCTBa h aeKaaeHTCTBa, cTa- 
paromnecfl coBpaTHTb HejiOBenecTBO c HaMeneHHoro nyra. B Hnmue kjhoh 

K nOHHMaHHK) COBpeMCHHOCTH! eCJIH XOTHM Mbl B03p05KfleHHfl JIHHHOCTH, 

repofl, ecjiH noMHHM, hto >KH3Hb - TpareflHH (He coh, h BOBce He «xa-xa- 

Xa»), Mbl flOJDKHbl H^TH B HOHb flOpHHeCKOfi 4>aJiaHTC)fi: TOnTaTb H 6HTb 

BapBapoB. 

B Hauiefi cypoBocTH, b Hauiefi 6e3acajiocTHOCTH - Hauia TpareflHH, Haiu 
flojir, Hauia MOJiHTBa o tom, hto6w npecymecTBHjiacb >KH3Hb h CTajia mh- 
cTepnefi. 

nuiH6biiueBCKHfi TBopnecTBOM onpaB^aji o^hh H3 naparpa(J)OB njiaT- 
4>opMbi Hniuue; oh yna3aji Ha to, hto 3Kera3, He poacaaiomnfi o6pa3a ueH- 
hocth h onpe^ejieHHoro nyTH, - ecTb xaoc. Mw aojiacHw onpaB^aTb apyroe 
nojioaceHHe Hnuuie - BOCCTaTb Ha xaoc cypoBOCTbio aojira. 

H CTpyHbl JIHpbl HaTHHyTb Ha JiyK TeTHBOfi, hto6w CTpejiaMH Anoji- 
jiOHa - CTpejiaMH nun - pa3HTb capaHHHHyio CTaio, H3,aeBaK)myK)CH Haa 
5KH3Hbio: BepHyTb HCKyccTBy AnojuiOHOB CBeT. 

1908 



2 AHApen Bejihift 



19 



TEATP M COBPEMEHHAfl flPAMA 



/IpaMa ecTb BbiconaHuiee HanpnaceHHe noaranecKoro TBop- 
necTBa. B Heft noaTOMy BCKpbiBaiOTCfl h KpHCTajuiH3HpyioTCH nocjieAHHe 
uejiH no33HH. 3aecb noTOK TBopnecTBa He yKJia^biBaeTCH b BOo6paacaeMbix 
o6pa3ax. Jlajibwe uecej oh, aajibuie, 3a rpaHb Boo6paaceHHn: HeyzjepacHMO 
conpHKacaeTCH c acH3Hbio, peajiH3yeTca b bh^hmom. Boo6paaceHHe conpH- 
KacaeTCH c »CH3Hbio: acH3Hb CTaHOBHTCH Boo6pa^ceHHeM, Boo6paaceHHe - 

5KH3HbK>. OopMa HCKyCCTBa CTpeMHTCH 3fleCb paCIHHpHTbCH RO B03M05KHO- 
CTH 6bITb 2CH3HbI0 H B 6yKBaJIbHOM, H B nepeHOCHOM CMblCJie CJIOBa. 

Bot noneMy cijeHHHecKoe H3o6paaceHHe ecTb Heo6xo^HMoe ycjioBHe 
apaMaTHnecKoro HCKyccTBa. /IpaMy Hejib3H HHTaTb. Kanan ace 3to .zrpaMa? 
Haao boohhk) BHAeTb H3o6pa)KaeMoe aeficTBO, cjiwuiaTb npoH3HOCHMbie 
cjiOBa. BoruiouifeHue Meumu, eom umo manoe ci^ena. BbiMbiceji apaMaTH- 
necKOH no33HH 3#ecb npecjie^yeT c Heno6eAHMOH chjioh. Oh 3aicpaflbiBa- 

eTCH BaM B flymy, H Bbl, BblXOflfl H3 TeaTpa, BblHOCHTe BblMblCeJI B )KH3Hb. 

H jxduiee: 5KH3Hb npoBepaeTe bm BbiMbicjiOM. TKmuh HacejineTCH o6pa3aMH 

BblMblCJia. 06pa3bl BblMblCJia, KaK BaMnHpbl, nbK)T KpOBb 5KH3HH - H BOT 

ohh paflOM c BaMH - Jlnp, 0(J)ejiHH, TaMjieil H bot aKTep, 2chboh nejioBeK, 

3arHIlHOTH3HpOBaHHbIH BblMblCJIOM, OTflaeT eMy CBOIO JIHHHyiO »CH3Hb, 

npeTBopaflCb b repoH H3o6paacaeMoro .zjeHCTBa. ,HpaMaTHHecKHH BbiMbi- 
ceji 3apaacaeT jiio^eH, KaK jinxopa^KOH, TBopnecTBOM »ch3hh bhcokoh 
h BaacHoii. H acH3Hb BbiMbicjia jrynaMH cbohmh 03apneT jiHHHyio »CH3Hb 
aKTepa ot6jicckom Heo6biHaftHoro. JIioot 3^ecb craHOBHTCH cymecrBaMH 

MH(|)HHeCKHMH. B03HOCHTCH OHH, KaK 6orH, B Jiy^aX MH(|)a. H MH(|), nOBTO- 

pnHCb 6ecKOHeHHoe hhcjio pa3, 6ecKOHeHHoe hhcjio pa3 bo3hocht. Kyzja 

B03HOCHT? Ha^ 2CH3HbK)? Ho pa3Be eCTb TO 5KH3Hb, OT HeiX) Hy)KHO yiira? 

H pa3Be BbiMbiceji to, hto yBO^HT ot 2ch3hh? H bot 3aKpaflbiBaeTCH b 
flyuie, npeo6pa»caeMOH mhcJ)om, coMHeHHe, hto to, ot nero OHa yxo^HT, 
ecTb »CH3Hb, h hto to, Kyaa OHa H^eT, ecTb CMepTb. Ilonpo6yHTe Bbinep- 
KHyTb H3 Bamen »ch3hh TaMjieTa, Jlnpa, 0(J)ejiHio, h CTaHeT 6ejiuee Bania 
»CH3Hb. A Mej/cdy meM u ramem, u JIup, u 0<peMiH mojitKO npuspaKu. 
TBopnecKaa H^en CTaHOBHTCH .zjjih Bcex acH3Hbio 6ojiee ueHHoft, HeacejiH 
flaHHaa BaM »cH3Hb. noneMy 3to TaK? He noTOMy jih, hto bw cnajiH rjiy6o- 

KHM CHOM, a BblMblCeJI pa36yAHJI BaC K »CH3HH. H BblMblCeJI Bbl He OTflaflH- 

Te b yroAy »ch3hh, noTOMy hto c hhm otjictht h KaKan-TO My^pocTb »ch3- 
hh, npHBHTan nejioBenecTBy MHoroBeKOBbiM apaMaTHnecKHM ^eiicTBOM. 
,/IpaMaTHHecKaH no33HH, KaK b 4>oKyce, co6HpaeT Bee jiynn nosmuuecKOZO 
ebiMUCJia. BbiTb Mo»ceT, nocjie^HHH uejib .apaMbi cofleftcTBOBaTb npeo6- 
pa^ceHHio nejioBeKa b TaKOM HanpaBJieHHH, hto6w oh cTaji caM TBopHTb 

CBOK) »CH3Hb, HaCeJIHH ee C06bITHHMH pOKOBMMH. B TaKOM CJiyHae »CH3Hb 

nejioBeKa - 3to flaHHan eMy pojib, h ot Hero 3aBHCHT noHHTb 3Ty pojib 
h ocBeTHTb ee TBopnecTBOM. Ho aeH3Hb, ocBemeHHan TBopnecTBOM, npe- 



20 



KpacHa. CTajio 6wTb, 3KH3Hb b TBopnecrBe no6e5KflaeT poK. H noTOMy-TO 
Ha3HaneHHe apaMbi - H3o6pa3HTb 6opb6y nejiOBeica c pokom - ecTb cxeMa 
k TBopnecTBy 3kh3hh: peajiH30BaTb 3Ty 6opb6y. Ho ajih nero 3to HyacHO? 
Pa3Be 3KH3Hb He hocht b ce6e Bee nepTbi apaMw? 3aneM apaMa, Kor^a HaM 
flaHa 3KH3Hb? ^a, ho apaMa edb 3KH3Hb, pacinnpeHHafl My3biKajibHbiM na- 
4>ocom jxyum. #a, ho caMoco3HaHHe hch3hh, KaK My3biKajibHoro na(J)oca 
AyuiH, ecTb yace nepBan CTyneHb k npeo6paaceHHK> h yrjiy6jieHHio >kh3- 
hh. Mw HHKoivja He hochjih 6w b ce6e 3to co3HaHHe TaK npocBeTjieHHO, 
TaK ropao, ecjiH 6w b *ch3hh HaineH He cymecTBOBajio 3anaTKOB apaMa- 
THHecKoii KyjibTypw. TBopnecTBO Co(J)OKJia, IIIeKcnHpa, Kajib^epoHa, 
KopHejiH h H6ceHa MrHOBeHHWM 6jiecKOM 03apneT Hainy acH3Hb. Ho zac- 
uem SjiecK smom, zacnem. TojibKo ayina cpe^H noBceflHeBHwx 3a6oT xpa- 
hht naMHTb o 6;iecKe. H 6;iecK zipaMaTHHecKoro na(|)oca 03apneT CHOBa. 
H cMyTHoe 3aKpaawBaeTCH b ayiny npeanyBCTBHe, hto *CH3Hb He 5KH3Hb, h 
hto mh, KaK apaMaTyprn, ee tbophm. H, CTajio 6biTb, poK He poK, a TOJibKO 
coh Hainero 6e3fleHCTBHH: h BCTaHb mw Ha# chom, KaK noao6aeT HaM, jho- 
AHM, rpo30Bbie TyHH poKa ononcajiH 6bi HaM rpyzjb, a nejio Hauie, 03apeH- 
Hoe 6;iecKOM, B03Hecjiocb 6w b HHyio acH3Hb - HCHByio acH3Hb. M nepHbie 
TyHH poKa, oKpy^caBiuHe Ham coh, 0Ka3ajiHCb 6w 6ejiocHe5KHWMH Bojma- 
mh MnrKoro no,zjHe6ecHoro mejiKa, OMbiBaiomHMH Hainy rpyzjb. Pok - He 
poK: Kor^a Ha,zi nejiOBenecTBOM OTKpbiTO npoHeceTca 3tot ji03yHr, Tor^a 

3KH3Hb CTaHeT flpaMaTHHeCKHM TBOpHeCTBOM. 

Ho He CKaaeeM jih mm Tor^a, hto »CH3Hb CTajia >KH3HbK) h hto mw npo- 
CHyjiHCb ot TH3Ke;ioro CHa? TaacejibiH coh oKpyacHJi Hac xHMepaMH poKa, 

CHOBHfleHHeM O CMepTH. H 3KH3Hb OTJieTeJia OT HaC, a COH BOnJIOTHJICH! BOT 
COH, MexaHH3HpOBaHHbIH MHJUIHOHaMH CJia6oBOJIbHbIX JiyHaTHKOB, rpeMHT 

Ha Hac MHororpoMHbiM pokotom MauiHH. ManiHHa cbe^aeT acH3Hb, MauiH- 
Ha oayxoTBopneTCH, nejioBeK ace npeBpamaeTCH b MauiHHy k MauiHHe - b 
npHBo^ k KOJiecy. KaK MauiHHa, nejioBeK noflHHHaeTCH >Kejie3HWM 3aKOHaM 

Heo6xOflHMOCTH. 

Bot Henpejio^CHbiii 6er co3Be3flHH, h bot HenpejioacHbift 6er hctophh. 
IlpocTpaHCTBOM h BpeMeHeM 3a£aBHji Hac THJKejibiH poK. Ho b ayxe npe- 
o^ojiejiH mw Bee npocTpaHCTBa h b jiyxe npeoaojiejiH mw Bee BpeMeHa. Ryx 
roBopHT HaM, hto b Hac TBopnecKoe Hanajio hch3hh. BpeMeHa h npocTpaH- 
CTBa He TOJibKO norjiomaiOT Hauie TBopnecTBO, ho h Hac caMHx bwkh^w- 
BaioT Ha noBepxHocTb hch3hh, KaK hhhtohchwh OT6poc 6eccMwcjieHHoro 
CMwcjia. BcHKoe HCKyccTBO HanHHaeTCH TaM, ne HejioBenecKHH ayx, xoth 
6w h 6ecco3HaTejibHO, npoB03rjiauiaeT npHMaT TBopnecTBa Haa no3HaHHeM. 
CBo6oflHaa bojih ecTb bojih TBopnecKafl. TojibKO TBopnecTBO, b kskhx 6w 

OHO HH B03BWHiaJIOCb (J)OpMaX, HOCHT B Ce6e BOJIbHyK) BOJIIO. BcHKoe HHOe 

He TBopnecKoe (He 6ecKopwcTHoe) BOJieHHe ecTb TOJibKO o6MaH nycToro 
poKa - nycToro, noTOMy hto poKa HeT TaM, r^e ecTb no6e,aa TBopnecTBa. 
H poK TaM, r^e BeKaMH BHyiueHHan noKopHOCTb. 



21 



Bot noneMy ApaMa, H3o6paacaa poK, b TBopnecKHx (j)opMax BbiMbic- 
jia H3o6paacaeT coKpoBeHHoe Hanajio Hauiero nopa6omeHHH. TyT b ApaMe 
BnepBbie oco3HaioTCH cKpbiTbie npyacHHbi, pyKOBOAflmne xyAoacecTBeH- 

HblM TBOpHeCTBOM. 

HcKyccTBO OKpwjiHeTCH TaM, zde npu3ue k meopuecmey ecrm eMecme c 
meM npti3bie k meopuecmey otcu3HU. 

Haao noHHMaTb noA stoh >KH3HbK) He TOJibKo noBepxHOdb ee, Kpn- 

CTaJIJIH30BaHHyK) B npOHHblX (J)OpMaX COUHaJIbHblX, HayHHblX H (J)HJI0C04)- 
CKHX OTHOUieHHHX, HO H HCTOHHHK 3THX (J)OpM - TBOpHeCTBO. )KH3Hb H 

ecTb TBopnecTBO. Bojiee Toro: 5KH3Hb ecTb OAHa H3 KaTeropHH TBopnecTBa. 
>KH3Hb Ha^o no^HHHHTb TBOpHecTBy, TBopHecKH ee nepeco3flaTb xaM, rAe 
OHa pe3KHMH yrjiaMH BpbiBaeTCH b Hauiy CBo6oay. McKyccmeo ecmb naucuio 
ruiaejieuuM oku3hu. JleA 5KH3HH njiaBHT OHa b BOAy mch3hh. XyAOHCHHK TOJib- 

KO nOTOMy H XyAOHCHHK, HTO, npOHHIjafl >KH3Hb AO ajlb(j)bl H OMerH 5KH3HH - 

TBopnecTBa, oh He noKopeH ee bhahmocth. Co3AaBaa KyMHpbi ((})opMbi), 
oh 3acjioHneT ce6n h Hac sthmh bhahmmmh KyMHpaMH ot KyMHpa hcbhah- 
Moro - poKa, OKOBaBinero Hauiy acH3Hb 6yATO 6h acejie3HbiMH, ho, b cyme- 
CTBe CBoeM, npH3panHbiMH 3aKOHaMH. IloKJioHeHHe HeBHflHMOMy npH3pa- 
Ky npoTHBonocTaBJineT oh noKJiOHeHHe bhahmmm, hm chmhm co3AaHHMM 
(J)OpMaM. BO BCflKOM HCKyCCTBe KyMHp ((J)opMa) ecTb cpe^CTBo. Bo BCflKOM 
noflHHHeHHH HeBH^HMOMy KyMHpy (poKy), npHHHMaiomeMy reicaTOM6bi 
KpoBaBbix acepTB, ecTb noKJiOHeHHe KyMHpy Kaic uejiH. TBopnecTBO hch3hh 
ynpa3flHHT Bee KyMHpbi. Ho b 6opb6e c KyMHpoM poKa TBopnecTBo xyAO- 
»cecTBeHHwx KyMHpoB Heo6xoAHMo; TyT, Bbipaaeancb ByjibrapHO, xyAoac- 

HHK BbIIHH6aeT KJIHH KJIHHOM. 

XyAOMCHHK b 6opb6e c pokom HeycTaHHO. H xyAoacecTBeHHOMy TBopne- 
CTBy cyacAeHO noni6HyTb, KaK TBopnecTBy MepTBbix (J>opM (npoH3BeAeHHH 
HCKyccTBa). B ApaMe BnepBbie AaeTCH HaM npeA3HaMeHOBaHHe o norn6e- 

JIH BMeCTe C pOKOM H BCeX BpeMeHHblX yCJIOBHH 6opb6w c hhm. IIorH6HeT 

HCKyccTBO. Hto H3 Toro? IlepBbie pham 6opuoB BcerAa rn6HyT. HejiOBeK, 
CTaHOBHCb 6oronoAo6HbiM, onpoKHHeT h »H3Hb, h o6pa3bi 6oroB, h noAO- 
6hh sthx o6pa30B - MpaMopHbie HCTyKaHbi AnojuioHa h ^HOHHca. Jlwdu 
cmanym co6cmeennbiMU ceotiMu ocydootcecmeenHbiMU (popMOMu. 

/IpaMa BnepBbie npnnoAbiMaeT 3aBecy HaA 6yAymHM. Ho y ApaMbi 
ecTb cboh co6cTBeHHan ApaMa: OHa - (j)opMa HCKyccTBa. OHa bo3hocht 
BOAy acHByio xyAoacecTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa jiynesapHbiM poeM o6;iaKOB 
noA cojiHiie. H o6;iaKa, 03JiameHHbie cojiHueM, hbjihiot HaM hobhh rpaA - 
HepycajiHM BeHHoco3HAaiomeH hch3hh. ZlpaMa, ocraBancb (j)opMOH HCKyc- 
CTBa, H3MeHneT HanpaBjieHHe pycjia h pa3BHTHH HCKyccTB. Ona cmpeMum- 
cn cmamb jicu3HbK>, ho otcu3HbK) meopuecmea. MepTBaa >KH3Hb h MepTBbie 
4>opMbi TBopnecTBa hmchho b ApaMe noABepaceHbi pa3Jio5KeHHio. 

HcKyccTBO ecTb BpeMeHHan Mepa: 3to - TaKTHHecKHii npneM b 6opb- 
6e HejioBenecTBa c pokom. KaK b jihkbhahlihh KJiaccoBoro ctpoh Hy>KHa 



22 



CBoero pofla ^HKTaTypa KJiacca (npojieTapHai), TaK h npn ynpa3flHeHHH 
HecymecTByiomeH, MepTBoft, pokoboh *ch3hh Hy^KHO npoB03iviacHTb 3Ha- 
MeHeM *ch3hh MepTByio (J)opMy. 3thm noKJioHeHHeM h HanHHaeTCH b jxywe 
xyAO»CHHKa 6ecco3HaTe^bHoe OTpnijaHHe pona. B Ty MHHyry, Koraa poK 
npeBpamaeT BcejieHHyio tojibko b TecHyio Hamy TiopbMy, xyao>KHHK ot- 
BepTbiBaeTCH ot TiopbMbi, 3aHHMancb b TiopbMe KaKHMH-TO npas^HbiMH 3a- 
6aBaMH. 3th 3a6aBbi - xyaoacecTBeHHoe TBopnecTBO. HeT, sto He 3a6aBbi: 

HeT, 3TO H3rOTOBJieHHe B3pbIBHaTbIX BemeCTB. By^eT fleHb, H XyflOECHHK 

6pocHT cboh npocTHbiit CHapna b TiopeMHbie CTeHbi pona. Ctchw pa3Jie- 

THTCH. TlOpbMa CTaHeT MHpOM. 

TBOpHeCTBOM MepTBblX (J)OpM, B KOTOpbie, KaK AHHaMHT, Xy^OJKHHK BJIO- 
5KHJI CBOK) AyUiy, HCKyCCTBO 6pOCaeT B3pbIBHaTbie CHapH^bl B CTeHy TIOpbMbl. 

3bojiiouhh h pa3BHTHe 4>opM HCKyccTBa ecTb TOJibKO no;ieT Hepa3opBaB- 

IHHXCH CHapHflOB OT TBOpHeCKOH pyKH RO CTCH TIOpbMbl. B flpaMe TBOpHe- 

ckhh cHapHA conpHKacaeTCH c sthmh CTeHaMH. 3a ApaMoii - B3pwB. OopMbi 
HCKyccTBa HeyaepacHMO crpeMHTCH pacuinpHTbCH, HeyaepacHMO, crpeMH- 

TeJIbHO. HCKyCCTBO AOJI5KHO 3fleCb B30pBaTbCH, HCHe3HyTb, He 6bITb. 

Ho, KaK 3HaTb, He flojiaoia jih B3opBaTbcn, Hcne3HyTb, He 6biTb h bch 
Hauia »cH3Hb, no^BjiacTHan poKy? Tor^a-TO HOBoe TBopnecTBO cojibeTCH c 

HOBOH 3KH3HbK). 7Ku3Ub CTaHeT )KH3HbK), nOTOMy HTO TBOpneCTBO MepTBblX 
(J)OpM CTaHeT TBOpHeCTBOM (J)OpM 5KHBMX. 

B apaMe BnepBbie oco3HaeTCH coKpoBeHHbift npH3biB k TBopnecTBy 

KaK npH3bIB K TBOpHeCTBy 5KH3HH. Ho Ha nyTH K 3TOMy TBopnecTBy CTaHO- 

bhtch poK. B apaMe H3o6paacaeTcn nosTOMy 6opb6a h no6eaa nw pokom. 
H, earn HeT b ApaMe npeaomymeHHH 3T °h no6eflH, apaMa - He TpareflHH. 
TparHnecKoe npocBeTJieHHe ecTb npe#3HaMeHOBaHHe toto, hto apaMoft He 
KOHnaeTCH ApaMa nejioBenecTBa. TparHHecKoe npocBeTJieHHe ecTb Hanajio 

B03BpaTa K )KH3HH. B H3o6pa*CeHHH 6opb6bI C pOKOM - KOpeHHbie aHTHHO- 
MHH n03HaHHH COnpHKacaiOTCH C KOpeHHblMH aHTHHOMHHMH CaMOH 5KH3- 
HH. 3TH TKe aHTHHOMHH 6eCC03HaTeJIbHO BbI3bIBaiOT B XyflOECHHKe TBOp- 

necTBO MHpa HCKyccTB KaK MHpa HOBoro, aojiaceHCTByiomero OTpnxHyTb 
ot Hor HaiiiHx BeTxyio «Heo6xoflHMOCTb». Ho aHTHHOMHH HCH3HH npeao- 
npeaejieHbi aHTHHOMHHMH HHCToro pa3yMa, a hopmh 3Toro pa3yMa, npe^o- 
npeaejieHHbie aojiaceHCTBOBaHHeM, Heo6xoflHMO onnpaioTCH Ha ijeHHOCTb. 

UeHHOCTbK) TKe TOJibKO H MOECeT 6bITb SHeprHfl TBOpHeCTBa. 

H noTOMy-TO xy^o^KHHK-flpaMaTypr, npoB03rjianiaH npHMaT TBopne- 

CTBa U3JX n03HaHHeM H BMeCTe C TeM npHBOflfl CBOe HCKyCCTBO K TOHKe co- 
npHKOCHOBeHHH erO C 5KH3HbK), CTOHT nOfl 3HaKOM TBOpHeCTBa HOBOH 5KH3- 

hh, KaK 6h 03apeHHbiH pa^yron TparHnecKoro npocBeT jichhh . Ho HOBan 
)KH3Hb HeB03MO»CHa 6e3 no6eAbi nan pokom. H Bnepean 6opb6a 3a ocbo- 
6oHc,zjeHHe: yace hh no3HaHHe, hh )KH3Hb b ee nopa6omeHHbix (})opMax He 

CyTb Cpe^CTBa 6opb6bI. TBOpneCTBO 5KH3HH CTaHOBHTCH CaMOIieJIbK). 

,/IpaMOH BnepBbie oho oco3HaeTCH. 



23 



,flpaMa ecTb Hanano, coo6maiomee HCKyccTBy SHepraio TBopnecTBa. 
B apaMe 3aioiK)HeHo Hanajio CHHTe3a. B apaMe omynbiBaeTcn Kaic 6w 

OCHOBHOH CTBOJI, OT KOTOporO BO BCe CTOpOHbl paCTHHyjiaCb IlbllllHafl KpO- 

Ha MHoroo6pa3Hbix 4>opM HCKyccTBa. Ho Kor^a apaMa oco3HaeTCH h KaK 
co6HpaTejibHoe Hanajio (J)opM HCKyccTBa, acHBofi cmwcji ee na^aeT. Tenepb 

HaCTO HaM rOBOpHT, HTO B MHCTepHH - CHHTC3 4>opM HCKyCCTBa H HTO co- 

BpeMeHHaH apaMa npH6jiH5KaeTCH k MHCTepHH. Rjm mchh sto noKa3aiejib 
onacHOCTH, KOTopan rpo3HT coBpeMeHHofl apaMe. nnpaMH^a H3 h^ojiob 
3a^aBHT ApaMy. My3biKajibHoe Hanajio ee 3aMeHHTCH BHOBb 3KJieKTH3MOM. 

Il0A03pHTeJIbHbI BCe 3TH CJia^KHe npH3bIBbI K MHCTepHH B HaiUH flHH. OHH 

ycwnjiHioT 6oApocTb ayxa. A OHa HaM HyacHa, KaK HyjKHbi HaM para repoeB, 
noTOMy hto Bnepe^H - cypoBaa 6opb6a. B 6opb6e, a He b cohhwx MOJieHbnx 
mw npeo6pa3HMc«. B apaMe - MaHeBpw rpawymero 6oa c pokom. ,flpaMa- 
THHecKan KyjibTypa h ecTb KyjibTypa. TaK oco3Haji KyjibTypy Hnitfiie, 3tot 
BejiHKHH TeopeTHK hoboh apaMbi. H oco3Haji ee 6ojiee npaBHjibHO, neM 
Baraep hjih, HanpHMep, Illiope. 

B My3biKajibHbix apaMax Baraepa ycMOTpeji Hniune fleftcTBHTejibHyio 
6opb6y 3a ocBo6o5K#eHHe nejiOBenecTBa. Ho h Hniune He pa3o6pajicn b 
POKObom npoTHBopeHHH coBpeMeHHOH apaMbi. Oh nonyBCTBOBaji b Hen 

npH3bIB K 3KH3HH, He OTfleJIHB 3TOT npH3bIB OT (|)OpMbI, B KOTOpOH npH- 

3biB pa3AaeTCH. Bo3BpameHHe k jkh3hh no-HOBOMy b apaMe ynpa3flHfleT 

CaMyK) flpaMy KaK (J)OpMy HCKyCCTBa. nOKJIOHHBIUHCb npH3bIBy K 5KH3HH 

b ApaMe, Hniune KaHOHH3HpoBaji h (J)opMy 3Toro npH3WBa - cijeHy. IIo- 

JiyMHJIOCb ypOflCTBOI npH3bIB K 3KH3HH CO CIjeHbl npeBpaTHJICH B npH3bIB 

}kh3hh Ha cijeHy. TeHHajibHaH aenTejibHOCTb Baraepa h ecTb 3tot npoTHBo- 
ecTecTBeHHbifl npH3biB. 3paMe, KaK (})opMe, hokjiohhjich Hnijine b nepBbifi 
nepnoA CBoero yBJieneHHH BaraepoM. .flpaMaTHHecKaa (J)opMa CTajia ajih 
Hero jio3yuroM aojihchotc) TBopnecTBa. .fleiicTBHe pa3pwBHoro CHapn^a ot- 
Hec k o6o;iOHKe 6om6w. 3a6w;i, hto momchtom B3pbiBa 6yaeT caMa acH3Hb, 
a He MOMeHT ^paMaTHHecKoro fleftcTBa. My3biKajibHoii apaMe, 3TOMy 3Ha- 
MeHHK) co6wthh, hokjiohhjich Hnijiiie, KaK co6biTHK>. Cotbophji ce6e 
KyMHp. H noTOMy-TO BbipBaji oh H3 ayuiH reHHajibHyio My3biKy Baraepa, 
KaK BbipBaji oh H3 ayiiiH CBoe reHHajibHoe npoH3BeaeHHe «IIpoucxoDicde- 
nue mpazeduu»> o neM cBH^eTejibCTByeT ero 3aaBJieHHe. 3apaTycTpa - bot 

^paMaTHHeCKHH aKTep, OnbHHeHHblH MH(j)OTBOpHeCTBOM, a He Ay6oBaTbiii 

aeTHHa 3Hr4>pHa, pa3MaxHBaiomHH Ha cijeHe KapTOHHWM mchom h rjiyno 
jxyjxmrtym b 3arayTbifi por. 3apaTycTpa poflHjicn Ha cijeHe, Hanaji HipaTb 
nepea 3phtcjihmh. CijeHa H3o6paacajia ropoA «necTpyio KopoBy», a ao- 
6poAeTejibHbiii 3apaTycTpa pacxaacHBaji b «necrpoH KopoBe» h noynaji. 
IIotom MaxHyji pyKoii h couieji co cijeHbi b acH3Hb. TpeTbH h neTBepTaa 
nacTb 3apaTycTpw - 3to BOHCTHHy ,apaMa jkh3hh. 3%ech b cy6cTaHijHH co- 
KpoBeHHbix nepe^cHBaHHH 5KH3HH y 3apaTycTpw, a He b KpacHBofl TeopeTH- 
Ke Ha^ onepHbiM 3Hr4>pHAOM, ^eiicTBHTejibHoe Hanajio B3pbiBa. 



24 



Ho B3pbiBHaTbiH CHapna pa30pBeTcn He npeacae, neM HejiOBenecTBo 
cTaHeT noa o#hhm TparanecHM 3HaMeHeM. HcTHHHbiH jihk pona hbhtch b 
tot MOMeHT, Koraa nejiOBeK npeo^ojieeT KjiaccoByio 6opb6y, stot TopM03 

BCHKOrO HCTHHHOrO yTBepJK^eHHH HJIH OTpHUaHHH 3KH3HH. OeTHIUH3M 

TOBapHoro npoH3BO,zjCTBa eme, kohchho, He poK, a jiHHHHa pona. H He b 
oTpHuaHHH hjih b npHHHTHH (J)opM aKOHOMHHecKoro paBeHCTBa 6opb6a 3a 
ocBo6o»CAeHHe. OHa HaHHeTcn b hobmx 4>opMax coijHajibHoro paBeHCTBa. 
Kor/ja cna^yT MacKH c pona, Bee nejiOBenecTBO non^eT Ha nocjie^HHH 6oh 

3a 3KH3Hb H CHaCTbe CBOC BOT TOr^a-TO H3 pa30pBaHHbIX (J)OpM HCKyCCTBa, 
KaK H3 pa30pBaHHbIX (J)OpM JIHHHOH 2KH3HH, 6pbI3HeT CBflTOH OrOHb 3KH3- 

HeHHoro TBopnecTBa. Tor^a B3JieTHT pa3pbiBHofi cnapm apaMbi, HanHHeH- 
hmh ^HHaMHTOM ayxa. Bot hto He npHHHJi bo BHHMaHHe HnijHie. EMy 6biJio 
nyac/jo noHHMaHHe coijHajibHofi apaMbi. CHanajia oh tcuihjich o6ojtohkoh 
CHapn^a - B03po»caeHHeM coBpeMeHHbix 4>opM apaMaTHHecKoro aeftcTBa; 
noTOM, H3BjieKan /uraaMHT acH3HeHHoro TBopnecTBa H3 apaMbi KaK (J)opMbi 
HCKyccTBa, HenanHHO pa36nji CHapnfl. CHapn^ pa3opBajicn He TaM, r^e cjie- 
KyeT - He y creH Hauien TiopbMbi, a b pyKax H3o6peTaTe jih . H nnTHaaijaTb 
jieT npocH^eji Hnijine - H3o6peTaTe;ib B3pbiBHaTbix BemecTB - Ha 6ajiKOHe 
thxoh BHjiJibi, c pa3opBaHHbiM M03roM. H Tenepb npoe3acaiomHM noKa3bi- 
BaiOT to MecTO Ha 6ajiKOHe, r#e nacw npocHHCHBaji cyMacineaniHH Hnijine. 
TaKaa ynacrb nocTHrjia BejiHHaftinero TeopeTHKa hoboh apaMbi. 

HOBeHIUHe TeopeTHKH ApaMbI C OCo6eHHbIM y/JOBOJIbCTBHCM aHaJIH3H- 

pyiOT ouih6kh Hnijine. Ohh npe/jnHCMBaiOT apaMe cboh nyTH, HcnpaBJiHH 
npoMaxH reHHajibHoro 6e3yMija. Bmccto Toro HTo6bi ocBo6o#HTb coBpe- 
MeHHyio apaMy ot 6o;ie3HeHHbix HapocTOB MHCTepHajibHoro MaHbanecTBa, 
npHBo^HBiuero b TaKyio npocrb Hnmne, ohh roTOBbi yTBepacaaTb ouih6kh 
Hnmue h OTpnuaiOT 3£opoBbie ero npoTecTbi npoTHB noBajibHoro BarHepH- 
aHCTBa. BcnoMHHTe - b nemepy 3apaTycTpw npHTamnjicn h tcKeepueuuiuu 
uejioeeK*, hto6w HanaTb TaM thmh yHbiHHio. TaM, r#e pa3#ajiacb 3£opoBafl 
necHb TparwHecKoro aKTepa 3apaTycTpw, MoryT pa3^aTbCH Tenepb cKBep- 
HeflniHe h cjia^HaflniHe necHH. 

HoBenuiHe TeopeTHKH ApaMbi*, 6biTb MoaceT, h npaBHjibHO ycTaHaB- 
jiHBaiOT cBH3b Meac/jy coBpeMeHHWMH ycjioBHHMH ApaMaraHecKoro jieik- 
CTBa c ycjiOBHHMH B03HHKHOBeHHH aHTHHHOH ApaMbi (nocjie Hnmne jienco 



* Cneuiy oroBopHTbcn, hto, aHajiH3Hpyn HOBeHinHe B3rjiHAbi o nyTHX apaMbi, h 
He HMeio b BHfly TOHKyio h rjiy6oKyio Teopnio B. H. HBaHOBa, c AeTajiHMH KOTopofi 
h He corjiaceH, ho b ochobhwx Te3Hcax npHHHMaio. H He HMeio HaMepeHHH aHajiH3H- 
poBaTb 3Ty Teopnio. TaKoft aHajiH3 aojiaceH 6mji 6w 3aH«Tb cjihihkom MHoro MecTa. 
H peuiHTejibHO npOTecTyio npoTHB ByjibrapHbix HCTOJiKOBaHHH stoh TeopHH h npo- 
THB CJIHUIKOM JierKHX BblBOflOB H3 OCHOBOnOJI05KeHHH B. H. HBaHOBa. A C 3THMH 

jierKHMH BbiBo^aMH TOJibKO npHxoflHTCH HMeTb aejio b KpyaeKax pe30HHpyiomHx 
Mo^epHHCTOB. OT^aBaH AOJi>KHoe cepbe3H0My MbicjiHTejno, h He Mory He CHHTaTbca 
c onacHOCTbio nocneuiHon nonyjrapH3anHH B3rjiH^OB 3Toro mhcjihtcjih. 



25 



npoH3BecTH Taicyio pa6oTy). Ohh noMoraioT HaM BOCCTaHOBHTb rjiy6oKHH, 
no^nac 3a6biTbiH cmmcji OTflejibHbix nepT xpaMbi: yKa3biBaioT Ha to, hto 
apaMa pa3BHJiacb H3 5KepTBonpHHouieHHH, KaK 4>opMa pejiHrno3Horo Kyjib- 
Ta, h nbiTaioTCH BOCCTaHOBHTb CBHmeHHOfleficTBHe b coBpeMeHHofl apaMe. 
Teaip 6y,zjTO 6w aojiaceH ciaTb xpaMOM. Ho rjix. nero flOJiaceH CTaTb xpaMOM 
Teaip, Koiyja napajuiejibHO c TeaTpoM y Hac ecTb h xpaMbi? B xpaMe coBep- 
inaeTCH 6orocjiy>KeHHe. TaM coBepinaioTCH TaHHCTBa. «IIycTb h b TeaTpe 
coBepinaioTCH TaHHCTBa» - TaK roBopnT HaM HOBeHinne TeoperaKH apaMbi. 
Ho hto noHHMaTb no/* TaHHCTBOM? H hto noHHMaTb nofl 6orocjiy»ceHHeM? 
CymecTBOBaBHiHe h cymecTByiomHe pejiHrHH aaiOT HaM Ha 3to nojioacn- 
Te^bHbiii, a He (JmrypajibHbifi otbct. CnHTaeMca mm hjih He CHHTaeMCH c 
3thm OTBeTOM, ho cmmcji ero mw noHHMaeM. IIoHHMaeM mw h CBH3b ApeB- 
HerpenecKOH xpaMbi c pejiHrao3HbiM KyjibTOM ^HOHHca. TaM pa3BHrae 
xpaMbi hijio b cTopoHy ot pejiHrHH. CoBepniHJiacb 3MaHCHnauHH apaMbi ot 
pejiHrHH. Mbi nojiyHHjiH b HacjieflCTBO SMaHCHnnpoBaHHyio flpaMy. 

EBponeflcKHH TeaTp pa3BHji h tohho onpeflejinji 4>opMbi stoh SMaHCH- 
nauHH. Kor^a ace HaM roBOpHT Tenepb, hto cijeHa ecTb CBHmeHHOfleficTBHe, 
aKTep - acpeij, a co3epijaHHe apaMbi npno6maeT Hac TaHHCTBy, to cjiOBa 
«CBHmeHHOAeHCTBHe», «»cpeij», «TaHHCTBO» noHHMaeM mw b Heonpeae- 

JieHHOM, MHOrOCMblCJieHHOM, nOHTH 6eCCMbICJieHHOM CMblCJie 3THX CJIOB. 

Hto TaKoe CBameHHOfleficTBHe? EcTb jih 3to aKT pejiHrao3Horo fleficTBHH? 
Ho KaKoro? Ilepefl KeM 3to CBnmeHHO/jeHCTBHe? H KaKOMy 6ory aojiacHbi 
mw MOJiHTbCH? npnrjiaiiiaiOT jih Hac BepHyTbcn k tcm npHMHTHBHbiM pe- 

JIHrH03HbIM (J)OpMaM, H3 KOTOpblX pa3BHJiaCb ZipaMa, HJIH HeT, BCe 3TO OCTa- 
eTCH nOKpblTbIM MpaKOM HeH3BeCTHOCTH. 

Ecjih aa, no^aBaHTe HaM K03Jia rjix. 3aKJiaHHfll Ho hto mm 6yzjeM ^ejiaTb 
c ko3jiom nocjie IHeKcnHpa? Ecjih Tyr no,zjpa3yMeBaeTCfl KaKoe-To HOBoe 
CBHmeHHoaeHCTBHe, to cicaacHTe HaM hmh hoboto 6oraI I^e oh, kto oh? 
T^e HainjiH bw, HCTOJiKOBaTejiH rpnaymero TeaTpa, apaMbi c hmchcm stoto 
HOBoro 6ora? Ecjih hmchh 3Toro 6ora y Bac HeT, ecjin pejiHrHH Taicoro 6ora 
OTcyTCTByeT, Bee BHyTpeHHHe 3anBjieHHH o nyra coBpeMeHHOH xpaMbi, o 
hobom TeaTpe KaK xpaMe ocTaiOTCH 4>HrypajibHbiMH 3aflBjieHHHMH, He Me- 

HflK>mHMH HHHerO B COBpeMCHHOM TeaTpe. «XpaM» OCTaeTCH MapHHHCKHM 
TeaTpOM, a pHTOpHKa OCTaeTCH pHTOpHKOH. 

Ho aejio o6ctoht He TaK npocTo. 

OcTpoyMHbie coo6paaceHHH o tom, hto cijeHHHecKHe no^MOCTKH h hb- 
jihiotch nperpaaofi Meayjy aKTepoM h 3pHTejieM, MH(J)HHecKHM aeftcTBOM 
h ero C03epuaHneM, hto 3pHTejib flOJiaceH bohth b Kpyr H3o6paacaeMbix 
AeiicTB KaK ynacraHK xopa, - 3th coo6paaceHHH 3acTaBjiflK)T Hac npncjiy- 

HiaTbCH C BHHMaHHeM K TOMy, O HeM TOBOpHT HaM TeopeTHKH COBpeMeHHOH 

ApaMbi. Ha B03pa^ceHHe, hto h 6e3 cijeHbi y Hac ecTb xpaMbi, ohh otbctht 
aocraTOHHo BecKo: xpaM ecTb 3BeHO b pejiHrH03HOM KyjibTe; Bee hctoph- 
necKHe 4>opMbi KyjibTOB, Tan b ce6e cmmcji rjiy6oKHH h BaacHbiii, b flHHa- 



26 



MHKe cBoeft yMepmBJieHbi pejinrH03Hoft cxojiacraKoft h AorMara3MOM; 
AorMara3M napajiH3yeT CBo6oAHoe pa3BHTHe h Anc^epeHUHauHio KyjibTa, 
a Teaip ecTb tot onar, KOTopbift, npHHHB b ce6n yMbi HCTopHHecKoro pejin- 
rH03Horo TBopnecTBa, pa3ropHTCH orHeM CBo6oAHoro TBopnecTBa. 

Bee 3to 6mjio 6h npneMjieMO, ecjiH 6m paccyacAeHHe onnpajiocb Ha 
^eiicTBHTejibHOCTb. Ho paccyacAeHHe njxeT KaK pa3 BonpeKH TBopnecTBy 
coBpeMeHHbix ApaMaTyproB. CoBpeMeHHbie ApaMaTyprH BOBce h He no- 
mmiiijihjih o coeflHHeHHH 3pHTejibHoro 3ajia co cueHoft. 

Yjxe opxecTpa y H6ceHa? H r#e opxecTpa y MeTepjiHHKa? KaK npe- 
BparaTb apaMaTHHecKoe ^eHCTBo y H6ceHa b CBnmeHHOAeftcTBHe? He 
cjie^yeT jih no peijemy HOBeftmnx Teopnft CTaBHTb 3HaMeHHTyio cueHy H3 
«IIlTOKMaHa» (rfle «Bpar HapoAa» roBopHT penb) TaK, hto6m 3pHTejibHbift 
3aji H3o6paacaji MHTHHr? Ho BeAb xopoBoe Hanajio 3pHTejieft npeBpaTHT 
H6ceHOBCKyio ApaMy b 4>apc. H ecjiH kto AyMaji o B03o6HOBJieHHH 4>opM 
aHTHHHOH .apaMbi, TaK 3to IUnjijiep, a He H6ceH, He MeTepjiHHK. Ho h b 
«MeccHHCKoii HeBecTe» xopoBoe Hanajio BBe^eHO b ycjiOBHOM, a noTOMy h 
b npneMJieMOM cmmcjic 

IlycTb coBpeMeHHan ApaMa pa3BHjiacb H3 aHTHHHOH. 3HaHHT jih sto, 

HTO OHa K Heft BepHeTCH? HaM B03pa35IT, HTO aHTHHHa^ ApaMa eCTb Te3HC 

ApaMbi. CoBpeMeHHa^ ApaMa pa3BHjia aHTHTe3Hc h Tenepb npn6jiH»caeTCH 
k cHHTe3y. Ho CHHTe3 He To^cecTBeHeH c Te3HCOM. IlycTb rpeKH HaAeBa- 
jih TparHHecKHe MacKH h craBHjiH ^cepTBeHHHKH b TeaTpe, nycTb b Hanieft 
KyjibType ecTb sjicmchtm KyjibTypbi rpenecKoft. Ho pa3Be mm rpeKH? Ho 
pa3Be aojiechm mm ecTb ojihbkh h njincaTb BOKpyr K03jia? IIocMOTpeji 
6bi h, KaK 3to Tenepb ocymecTBHMO ! H HOBeftuiHe HcrojiKOBaTejiH ApaMbi 
ocTaioTCH 6e3 npaKTHKH. Mhoto roBopHT o tom, neM AOJi^CHa 6biTb ApaMa. 
Ho rAe OHa, 3Ta dojiJtcHan ApaMa? «OHa 6yAeT», - OTBenaiOT HaM. 

Ho Jiynme 6h OHa h He B03HHKajia. H bot noneMy. 

IlpeAnojio^CHM, hto mh, 3pHTejiH, npeBpameHbi b xopoBoe Hanajio. 
H AaJiee: xopoBoe Hanajio npeAaeTCH mojihtbchhmm njincKaM. 

TorAa TOJibKO c oco6eHHoft pe3KOCTbio noAnepKHeTCH OTpemeHHOCTb 

HaiHHX MOJIHTBeHHblX COCTOHHHH OT HenpeTBOpeHHOH B MOJIHTBy 3CH3HH. 

H »CH3Hb pa3AaBHT MOJIHTBy. He ot hch3hh aojdkhm mh 6eraTb b TeaTp, 
hto6 neTb h njiHcaTb HaA MepTBMM TparnnecKHM ko3jiom h noTOM, nonaAaa 
b »CH3Hb, H3yMjiHTbCH TOMy, hto mh HaAejiajiH. TaK coBepuiaeTCH 6ercTBO 
ot poKa. H poK BopBeTCH 3a HaMH b TeaTpajibHbift xpaM, pa3JI05KHT HaM 
HaniH necHH h njracKH. CaMyio »CH3Hb aojiechm npeTBopnTb mh b ApaMy. 
A to BOHAeM mm b xpaM-TeaTp, o6jieneMCH b 6ejiwe oachcam, yBeHnaeMcn 
rapjiHHAaMH po3, coBepuian MHCTepnio (TeMa ee BcerAa oAHa: 6oronoAo6- 

Hblft HeJIOBeK 6opeTCH C pOKOM), B Hy3KHblft MOMeHT B03bMeMCH 3a pyKH H 

3anjiHineM. Boo6pa3HTe, HHTaTejib, xoth 6m Ha OAHy MHHyTy ce6n b stoh 
Pojih. 3to mm-to 6yAeM KpyacHTbcn BOKpyr ^cepTBeHHHKa - mm Bee: AaMa 
b CTHjie MOAepH, 6np»ceBoft Aejieu, pa6onHft h hjich rocyAapcTBeHHoro co- 



27 



Bda? 51 yBepeH, hto mojihtbm HaiiiH He coBna/jyT. JIsms. b crajie MO^epH 
noMOJiHTCH KaKOMy-HH6y^b noaTy bo o6pa3e h noflo6HH ^HOHHca, pa6o- 
hhh noMOJiHTCH o coKpameHHH pa6onero ahh, a HjieH rocyAapcTBeHHoro 
coBeia - k KaKOH 3Be3^e ycrpeMHT oh cboh B3opbi? HeT, yac jiynme 3a- 

Kpy^KHTbCH B BaJIbCe C XOpOHieHbKOH 6apbIIHHeH, HeM BOflHTb XOpOBOA c 
AeHCTBHTeJIbHbIM TaHHbIM COBCTHHKOM. 

HaM B03pa3HT Ha 3to, hto TyT 6y^eM mm b fleMOKpaTHHecKOM TeaTpe 
6y,aymero, hto npe^nocbijiKH o6mecTBeHHOCTH KopeHHTCH b cBo6oflHbix 
KOMMyHax, rjxe Bee - fleftcTBeHHoe TBopnecTBO, hto opxecTpw - 3H*cflH- 
TejibHbiH (})OKyc 3thx KOMMyH. Ranee mm ycjibiniHM, hto h Becb Hain CKen- 

THIJH3M OT TOTO, HTO Mbl npeflCTaBHTCJIH KeJieHHOH, ye^HHeHHOH 5KH3HH 

(HHane - 6yp»cya3HOH), hto b Hapo^HOM TeaTpe BOCKpecHeT CBo6o,zjHoe 
MH(})OTBopHecTBO. Ho Hapo/jHbiH TeaTp - 6ajiaraH, rjxe H3^aBHa npe^CTaB- 
jihjih pa36oHHHKa HypKHHa, a CHHeMaTorpa(J) Bee 6o;iee h 6o;iee CTpeMHT- 
ch 3aHHTb pojib, KOTopaa npe/jnHCbiBaeTCH 6y#ymeMy fleMOKparanecKOMy 
TeaTpy. IIpaBO ace, ecTb MH^oTBopnecTBO b CHHeMaTorpa(J)e: nejioBeK hhx- 
HeT h jionHeT - Ha3HflaTejibHan acepTBa 6opb6bi pokoboh... c HacMopKOM. 
H flajiee: ecjiH yac roBopHTb o kojijickthbhom TBopnecTBe, to oho cyme- 
CTByeT h Tenepb. IloHeMy xopoBO^ b jiio6om cejie He opxecTpa? O, 6e#- 
Han Pocchh, - ee rpo3HT noKpbiTb opxecTpaMH, Koiyja OHa H3#aBHa hmh 
noKpbiTa. Bbift^HTe no/* Benep noryjiHTb Ha /jepeBHio - h bm BCTpeTHTecb 
h c xopoBbiM HanajiOM, h c KOJUieKTHBHbiM TBopnecTBOM... HeueH3ypHbix 

CJIOB. BOT HTO 3HaHaT BblBOflbl H3 TeopHH, He CHHTaiOmeHCH C KOHKpeTHbl- 

mh (})opMaMH 7KU3UU. Pocchk) co6HpaiOTCH noKpbiTb opxecTpaMH, Kor^a ee 
AaBHo nopa H36aBHTb ot 3thx opxecTp. 

IloKa cymecTByeT KJiaccoBan 6opb6a, cTpaHHbi 3th anejuinijHH k aere- 
THHecKOMy ^eMOKpaTH3My. H Hejien, b BbicuieH cTeneHH Hejien 3tot jieMO- 
KpaTHnecKHH, co6opHo-MH(|)OTBopHecKHH xpaM-TeaTp (cjiaBa Bory, noKa 
oh He cymecTByeT BOBcel). IloKa HeT Taicoro TeaTpa, o6pamaiOTCH k npo- 
nijioMy. Bo3o6hobjihiot 3cxHjia, Co(J)OK^a h 3BpHnH^a Ha cijeHe. HHor^a 
y^aHHO noflpaacaiOT npneinaM 3cxHjia. 

Ho r^e TyT ,zjeMOKpaTH3M? He apHCTOKpaTHnecKan jih npecbimeHHOCTb 
3acTaBJineT Hac 3CTeTHnecKH HacjiaacflaTbcn pejiHrH03HbiM cmmcjiom #paM 
nyacfloro HaM Hapo/ja. H acepTBeHHHK XlHOHHcy, 6y/jb oh TopacecTBeHHO 
Bo^pyaceH b hobom TeaTpe, He npeBparajicfl jih 6m oh b chmboji BejiHHaii- 
niero KomyHCTBa Ha# TeaTpoM, nan hhmh, Ha/j HCKyccTBOM, nan CBHmeHHbi- 
mh BepoBaHHHMH 6jiaropo/i;Horo Hapo/ja? 

CjiaBa Bory, 3M6jieMaTHHecKHe B3biBaHHH k /^HOHHcy ocTaiOTCH flajie- 

KOH OT 5KH3HH JIHHHOH JIHpHKOH (o, KaKOH I\7iy6oKOH H KpaCHBOH) Teope- 

thkob hoboto TeaTpa. Ho B3biBaHHH 3th HHHero He HapyuiaiOT. XpaM ocTa- 
eTCH MapHHHCKHM TeaTpoM. 

PoKOBoe npoTHBopeHHe, b kotopom 3anyTajiHCb HOBeHHine TeopeTHKH 
TeaTpa, 3aKJHOHaeTcn b tom, hto, npHrjianian b TeaTp KaK b xpaM, ohh 3a- 



28 



6bijiH, hto xpaM npeanojiaraeT KyjibT, a KyjibT - hmh Bora, t. e. pejiHTHH. 
A noKa HM6HH SToro y hhx HeT, 6ecnoHBeHHbi hx nonbiTKH HOBoro pejiH- 
rH03Horo TBopnecTBa. He MoaceT 6biTb penn o hobom KyjibTe, poflHBiueMCH 
Ha noflMocTKax cijeHbi, h MeHee Bcero o TeaTpe KaK xpaMe, o apaMe Kan 
CBHmeHHoaeHCTBHH. CBameHHoaeiiCTBHe, Kor^a eme y Hero HeT ijejiH, HeT 
4>opMbi, ecTb eneceuue axmepcKOU no3u b Ty CBnmeHHyio o6jiacTb ayxa, 
r,ae ropHT HaAeacaa Ha TBopnecTBO »ch3hh. Ecjih b coBpeMeHHOM TeaTpe 
h TOJibKO TeaTpe aicrep hbjihctch Jinuib aKTepoM, to TyT b yMajieHHH pojiH 
aKTepa, 6biTb MoaceT, OTKpbreaeTca 6o;ibuia^ CBo6oaa fljia Hero KaK TBopija 
aaHHoft pojiH. )KpenecKafl raapa pa3flaBHjia 6w aKTepa, ecjiH 6 He cyMeji oh 
ee npeBpaTHTb b aypaijKHH KOJinaK. Tenepb, yxo^n b pojib, aKTep conpHKa- 
caeTCH c TeMH npoo6pa3aMH HCH3HeHHoro TBopnecTBa, KOTopwe BOJiHOBajiH 
CMyTHO h apaMaTypra. OcraBaHCb aKTepoM rjisi Hac, oh b ce6e npe^Tena 
nero-To HHoro, acHBoro. A bot B03Be,aeM mbi ero b TparHnecKyio acepTBy: ca- 
Man ^cepTBeHHOCTb b owne ce6a npoo6pa3aM 6yaymeH »ch3hh o6epHeTca 
b HeM b 4>ajibinb. H MejiOBeK ocKBepHHTCH b aKTepe. 

TparH3M TeopeTHKOB nyTeft hoboh apaMbi b tom, hto ohh, OTMenan 
ouiH6Ky HHuine (coKpoBeHHbift oroHb apaMbi cMeinaji c ee (J)opMoft), b 
npe^ejiax TeaTpa (npeo6pa3ya 4>opMy) odemaioT B3pwB pa3pbiBHoro cHa- 
pn^a, pa36HBaiomero MepTBbie 4>opMbi 5kh3hh h TBopnecTBa. IIpoHCXOflHT 

6yTa4>OpCKHH B3pbIB 6eHTaJIbCKHX OTHeH Ha CUeHe: 2CH3Hb OCTaeTCH 5KH3- 

Hbio, TeaTp TeaTpoM. 

CoBpeMeHHoe HCKyccTBO onpe^ejineT ce6a KaK HCKyccTBo chmbojih- 
necKoe. Chmbojih3m b HCKyccTBe ecTb yTBepacaeHHe hchboh ijejibHOcra 
nepe^cHBaHHH KaK Hanajia rpynnnpoBKH o6pa30B. B BbipaaceHHH o6pa3aMH 
nepe»HBaHHH CHJia HCKyccTBa, a He b cHcreMe o6pa30B, Hcno;ib30BaHHbix 
nepe»CHBaHHeM. Chmbojih3m - sto mctoa BbipaaceHHH nepeacHBaHHH b 06- 

pa3aX. B 3TOM CMblCJie BCHKOe HCKyCCTBO HBHO HJIH CKpblTO CHMBOJIHHHO. 

Ho nepe^cHBaHHe, noHHToe KaK ijejib, no^HHHHH o6pa3 KaK cpe^CTBo, coo6- 
maeT xyaoacHHKy npaBO 6biTb tbopijom o6pa30B. CoBpeMeHHoe HCKyccTBO 
npeBpamaeT sto HH^HBH^yajibHoe npaBO, TaK CKa3aTb, b naparpacj) xyzjo- 
acecTBeHHoft njiaT(|)opMbi. Chmbojih3m, KaK jiHTepaTypHan uiKOJia BTopoii 
nojiOBHHbi XIX BeKa, 6ojiee hjih MeHee 6a3HpoBaH ^aHHbiMH ncHxojiorHH 
h TeopHH no3HaHHH. H nocKOJibKy HeKOTopwe TeopeTHKo-no3HaBaTe;ibHbie 
uiKOJiw npe^onpe^ejiHiOT TBopnecTBOM caMoe no3HaHHe, nocTOjibKy peBO- 
jiioijHOHHaH CHJia cHMBOJiH3Ma b npoB03iviaiiieHHH TBopnecTBa KaK eAHH- 
cTBeHHoro Hanajia, co3Hflaiomero aoraHb. B co3H^aHHH cmwcji »ch3hh, a He 
b ono3HaHHH ee. >KH3Hb ecTb 4>opMa TBopnecTBa. Ha3HaneHHe HCKyccTBa 
b B036y^c,aeHHH k TBopnecKOH ^eHTejibHocTH. BoBce 3to Ha3HaneHHe He b 
co3epi^aHHH 3CTeTHnecKHx (J>eHOMeHOB, KaK nojiaraji IIIoneHraysp. Chm- 
bojih3m noanepKHBaeT ^HHaMHKy TBopnecTBa. Bot noneMy oh npoTHB 
uiKOjibHoro ne,aaHTH3Ma, KaK Hanajia CTaTHHecKoro b HCKyccTBe. Chm- 
bojih3m ocBemaeT cymecTByiomHe uikojih HCKyccTBa cbohm yrjiOM 3pe- 



29 



hhh. OnpaBflbiBaa cymecTBOBaHHe MHoroo6pa3Hbix ihkoji KaK pe3yjibTaT 

TBOpHeCKOH AeHTeJIbHOCTH, OH BOCCTaeT npOTHB HHX TaM, T^e 3TH HIKOJIbI 

BbwaioT ce6a 3a HopMbi, peryjiHpyiomHe TBopnecTBo. CTaTHKa HCKyccTB 
paccMaTpHBaeTCH b CBeTe CHMBOJiH3Ma KaK HacTHbift cjiynafl ^hhsmmkh hc- 

KyCCTB. 

CaMO HCKyccTBO ecTb npe^BKynieHHe no6e^bi Haa pokom, b momcht 
poKOBoii 6opb6w ayxa c (j)opMOH. 06ocHOBaHHe TBopnecrBa chmbojih3- 
mom, KaK b6hho flBHraTejibHoro Hanajia 5KH3HH, ecTb HaH6ojiee npoHHoe 
o6ocHOBaHHe. HcKyccTBO yTBepacaaeTCH 3flecb KaK cpeacTBO 6opb6w 3a 
ocBo6o»czieHHe HejiOBenecTBa. B stom pejiHrH03Han caHKUHH HCKyccTBa. 

C OC060H pe3KOCTbK) H OCo6bIM TparH3MOM CTOJIKHyJIHCb 3TH HfleH C 

HfleojioraeH coBpeMeHHoro TeaTpa, KaK (J)opMbi, b KOTopyio chmbojihhc- 
CKan apaMa nbuaeTCH OTjiHTbcn h He OTJiHBaeTca - yBbil Bcio Momb h bcio 
cjia6ocTb coBpeMeHHoro HCKyccTBa BbiaaeT HaM apaMa. H HaM HanHHaeT 
Ka3aTbCH, hto coBpeMeHHoe HCKyccTBO - HCKyccTBO Bbipo»caeHHH, noTOMy 
hto Bee HCHeii h hchch HaM, hto coBpeMeHHaa apaMa He mohcct cymecrBo- 
BaTb b npe^ejiax TeaTpa. 
rioneMy sto TaK? 

Chmboji ecTb coeflHHeHHe OTyx nopflflKOB nocneaoBaTejibHocTeH: no- 
cjie/jOBaTejibHOCTH o6pa30B h nocjieflOBaTejibHocra nepeacHBaHHH, bh- 
3biBaiomHx o6pa3. 3,zjecb bch cnjia b nocjieflOBaTejibHocra nepeacHBaHHH. 
06pa3bi sto - 3M6jieMaTHHecKan pocnncb nepeacHBaHHH, He 6o;iee. Ilepe- 
^KHBaHHe 3ai|BeTaeT o6pa3aMH. B ciiM60Jiu3Me peajibHaa censb 3a npedem- 
mu euduMocmu. B tot momcht, Kor^a mm cyMeeM noflHHHHTb ce6e oKpyaca- 
romHH mhp nepeacHBaHHeM TaK, hto6h TeneHHe bh^hmocth He Bpe3ajiocb 
b Haniy ayuiy HerapMOHHHHO, a Hao6opoT, b tot momcht, Kor^a aynia 
npeTBopHJia 6w BH^HMOCTb no o6pa3y h noao6Hio CBoeMy, coBepuinjiacb 
6w no6e,zja Haa pokom. THOceojiorHH ocBo6o5K,zjaeT cy6i>eKT no3HaHHH ot 
BpeMeH h cpoKOB TeoperanecKH. 3aaana HejioBenecTBa npaKranecKH ocy- 
mecTBHTb 3Ty cBo6oay, h 3a^ana ocymecTBHMa b npHHimne TBopnecTBa 
i^eHHOCTefl. Ho meopun i^ennocmeu ecmb meopua meopuecmea. 3mo u ecmb 
meopuH cuM60Jiu3Ma. 

OTMenan HenpoH3BOJibHoe nopwBaHHe ayuiH k CBo6o,ae b c(J>epe hc- 
KyccTBa, TeopHH CHMBOJiH3Ma stot nopbiB C03HaeT kok bom. OHa npea- 
nHCbiBaeT ocymecTBJiHTb 3tot rojit CBo6oflbi, npeBpamaa KH3Hb b o6*beKT 
TBopnecTBa. H noTOMy-TO chmbojih3m, HBJiHHCb Han6ojiee co3HaTejibHoft 
ihkojioh HCKyccTBa, caMO HCKyccTBO paccMaTpHBaeT jiHuib KaK Hanajio 
»H3HeHHoro nyTH k CBo6o^e. IIo33hh HaM tobopht: «Bot 3apa. BocneBaH- 
Te 3apio». Chmbojih3m npeBpamaeT rjisi no3Ta BeHHbe 3apn b ^eHCTBHTejib- 
Hbift npH3biB: «3apn 30BeT - hah k 3ape!» H JXtkoh Ta6pH3Jib BopKMaH 
6eper najiKy, HaaeBaeT KajiouiH h H^eT 6opoTbca c aoraHbio; CojibHec noa- 
HHMaeTCH Ha 6aniHio; BpaHfl BeaeT Hapoa b jie^HHKH; Py6eK, BOCCTaBan c 
HpeHoft HaA cMepTbio, H,zjeT b ropw, KaK 6yaTO ajih no6e,abi Ha^ cMepTbio 



30 



Haao noflHHTbCH Ha HecKOJibKO cot caaceHeft... Hto Bee ohh aejiaiOT - 3th 

repOH, H3MepHK)mHe BeHHOCTb HyTb JIH He KBa^paTHblMH caaceHHMH, KaK B 

AnoKajinncHce H3MepneM rpaaymHH xpaM? 

CHMBOJiHHecKan apaMa H6ceHa, stoto naipnapxa HOBeiiuieH apaMbi, 

BCIOfly C03HaTeJIbHO CpblBaeT nOKpOB C BH^HMOCTH: BHflHMOCTb, OCTaBaHCb 
BHflHMOCTbK), CTaHOBHTCH CKB03HOH, KaK CTeKJIO, BblflaBafl HeBepOHTHblH 

cmwcji npoHcxo^nmero b bhahmocth. H b HeBepoHTHOCTH CMbicjia n6ce- 
hobckhx apaM CHJia ero aep3HOBeHHH. 3aecb chmbojih3m no Toro oco3HaH, 
hto, ocTaBancb HenocraacHMbiMH b CBoefl cymHOCTH, Bee 3th Py6eKH, Bop- 
KMaHbi, CojibHecw - eme h ajire6paHHecKHe 3HaKH KaKoro-TO anoKajinn- 
CHHecKoro ypaBHeHHH *ch3hh. 

He to b apaMe lIIeKcnHpa. TaM chmbojih3m HenpoH3BOJibHbiii hjih 
cjihuikom ajiJieropHHecKHii, KaK, HanpHMep, b «Eype». JlpaMa. IIIeKcnnpa 
H3o6pa»caeT rjiy6oKO peajibHbie fleficTBHH crpacra, peBHOCTH. TaM chmbo- 
jih3m - HenpoH3BOJibHaH paayra Haa BoaonaaoM peajibHoro. Chmbojih3m 
paayry npeBpamaeT b cojmeHHbiH Jiyn, cojmeHHbiH jiyn npHBOflHT k cojih- 
u,y — k toh peajibHocTH, KOTopaH coTBopHJia h 3eMjno, h BOAonaj. Peajib- 
Han apaMa jiyn chmbojih3mb npHBOflHT k Boaonaay peajibHocra. Chmbo- 
jiHHecKan apaMa npeBpamaeT Jiyn b Heo6xo#HMoe ycjiOBHe, co3H^aiomee 
Boaonaa. CTpeMjieHHe k cBo6oae, npe^omymaeMoe KaK 3apa, OHa npeBpa- 
maeT b flojir: «BHAHuib cbct - craHb h tw cojiHijeM». H jieneneT OcBajibfl: 
«Co;iHue, Co;iHue»... Bch CHJia h6cchobckoh apaMbi He b tom, hto Py6eK 
BOccTaeT Haa jie^HHKaMH, noTOMy hto 3thm aKTOM oh xoneT co3^aTb BHeui- 
hk)K) 3M6jie\iy k oceHHiomeH ero mwcjih, a b tom, hto crpeMjieHHe k no6eae 
Haj CMepTbio aojDKHo HMeTb coBepuieHHO peajibHbiii cmwcji. Ecjih b peajiH- 
CTHnecKOH apaMe B03MO»ceH ajuieropH3M (HanpHMep, ;no6oBb noflHHMaeT 
k BepuiHHaM), b apaMe chmbojihhcckoh stot ajuieropH3M yTBepacaaeTCH 
KaK peajibHOCTb, a peajibHocTb (;no6oBb) CTaHOBHTCH 3M6jieMaTHnecKHM 
ycjiOBHeM toto, hto noAHarae Ha HecKOJibKO cot caaceHefi c TaKHMH-TO h 

TaKHMH-TO nepe^CHBaHHHMH ^eiiCTBHTeJIbHO B03HOCHT Haa CMepTbK). 

Ho xo^HTb Haa nponacTHMH MoaceT tot, kto npeBparaji acH3Hb b nbe- 
AecTaji k TBopnecTBy. 3to mot 6m coBepuiHTb npocHHBuiHH cojihucm, KaK 
yTpeHHee ahth. CojmeHHbiH rpaa hoboh 2CH3hh - Civitas solis: bot kojioc- 
cajibHbift, acHBoii chmboji. H AnoKajinncHC, h oroHb coimaji-aeMOKpaTHH, 
h Hnmne, h Bee pejiHran no-pa3HOMy noaxoAHJiH k 3TOMy o6eTOBaHHio. 
HcKyccTBO, no^xo^H k (J)OKycy HejiOBenecKHx ycTpeM jichhh , npno6peTa- 
eT HeoacH^aHHyio BjiacraocTb. Oho HaHHHaeT co3^aBaTb TaKnx Py6eKOB, 
KOTopwe ro^a, 6biTb mohcct, chaht Haa CTaKaHOM nHBa c OKaMeHejibiM jih- 
UOM, a noTOM B^pyr 3auiaraK)T k BepuiHHaM, aa TaK, hto Meac^y KaacflbiM hx 
inaroM MHJiJiHapflw BepcT h ^Heii. Hcho, hto uiaraioT ohh nepe3 BpeMeHa h 
npocTpaHCTBa h uiaraioT He b rpenecKHX xHTOHax, a b ciopTyKax h uhjihh- 
Apax. CH^eji Py6eK 3a pecTopaHHbiM ctojihkom, to h uiarHyji b HOBoe He6o, 
Ha HOByio 3eMJiio. ripaB^a, He nepeuiarHyji, pa36HJicn. Ho caMo ^ep3HO- 



31 



BeHHe yica3biBaeT Ha to, hto H6ceHOBCKan apaMa CHMBOJiaMH cbohmh ro- 
bopht HaM o npeo6pa»ceHHH njiora ayiuoH. AnoKajinncHC nejioBenecKOH 
njiora - bot chmbojih3m h6cchobckoh apaMbi. CHMBOjiHHecKaH apaMa 
tojibko h MoaceT H3o6paacaTb oflHo: npeo6paaceHHe opraHOB bociiphhthh 
MHpa h nepe3 to nepepoacaeHHe MHpa Heo6xo^HMocTH b mhp cBo6o,zjbi. 
Pok HBjmeTcn TyT onacHOCTbio, rpo3Hmeii nejiOBenecKOMy opraHH3My b 
Kopnax ncHxo(J)H3HOJiorHHecKoro H3MeHeHHH ero b opraHH3M CBepxHejio- 
Be^ecKHH. H noTOMy-TO Py6eKH, CojibHecbi, BpaHflbi OKpyaceHbi y H6ceHa 
TOJinoft aereHepaTOB h aereHepaTOK, TaK hto HaM HanHHaeT Ka3aTbcn, hto 
^ereHepaTbi h Py6eKH. 

XyzjoacHHK npHno^biMaeT 3/jecb cboh jiaBpoBbin BeHeu, ho oh HanH- 
HaeT CBepxaTb jiynaMH npoponecKoft MHTpw. yTBepacaaa b apaMe 6biTHe 
cHMBOJia b (J)opMax cbo6o^w, chmbojih3m npeanHCbiBaeT repoHM c cypoBoii 
peuiHMOCTbio ocymecTBJiHTb 6biTHe cHMBOJia nepe3 rojioBy ohcbhotocth 
(«hjih Bee - hjih HHnero»). Tan: coKpymaa 6ecTBopHecKyio Mopajib, chm- 
BOJiHHecKan apaMa bmchhct repoHM aMopajiH3M b (J)opMax KaTeropHHecKO- 
ro HMnepaTHBa. OHa roBopHT HaM: «Ecjih th Py6eK h yBHfleji nocjie^HioK) 
oc^enHTejibHocTb, craHb h caM ocjienHTejieH, KaK CTajio cjienHTb Hapoa 
Hy^eHCKHH jihuo MoHcen, roBopHBUiero c Botom». M rocnoflHH Py6eK, 
6bITb M05KCT, yTpOM npOCHyBUIHHCH B CBOeM OTejie, KaK Bee, h, KaK Bee, co- 

BepuiHBHiHH cboh TyajieT, nocjie yTpeHHero 3aBTpaKa hjih o6eaa, Jiio6e3Ho 
pacKJiaHHBuiHCb c Ta6;ib-fl'oTHbiMH 3HaKOMuaMH, Tenepb H^eT coBepuiaTb 
cbok) HejienocTb: BOCCTaBaTb Ha£ CMepTbio, MrHOBeHHO npeBpamaacb b th- 
TaHa. TmaH b pecTopaHe, m 3to He CHHjiocb apeBHHM rpeKaMl Tyr mh(|)h- 
HecKHii chmbojih3m npeBpamaeTcn b chmbojih3m acxaTOJiorHnecKHH - tjtt 
H6ceH b CTpeMjieHHHX cbohx HaM HyacHee, neM aecHTb Co(J)okjiob, xoth 6h 
mh He 3HajiH h Bnpeflb, KaK He 3HaeM Tenepb, hto HaM aejiaTb Ha cijeHe c 

3THM ypO^JIHBblM HBJieHHeM TeaTpa - CHMBOJIHHeCKOH apaMOH COBpeMeH- 

hocth, KOTopaa TOJibKO y H6ceHa KpHCTajuiH30Bajiacb b HeHTO coBepuieH- 
ho HOBoe, HaM HeBeaoMoe aocejie. 

Py6eK, CojibHec - 3to TOJibKO nepBbie 6oftijbi 3a aeftcTBHTejibHoe 
ocBo6o»c ( zieHHe nejiOBenecTBa. Ohh - acepTBbi 6opb6bi pokoboh, noTOMy 
hto no6eaa 6yaeT oaepacaHa TOJibKO Tor^a, Kor^a Bee HejioBenecTBo noft- 
aeT Haa nponacTHMH CKB03b cMepTb k ocTpoBy fleTen, OMbiTOMy jia3ypbio 
h o6emaHHOMy, KaK anoKajinncHHecKHM npoponecTBOM aajieKOH jipes- 
hocth, TaK h 6oro6opnecKHM aep3aHHeM Hnmiie. A noKa? noKa CojibHec 
cpbiBaeTCH c 6auiHH, duojibfy 3axjie6biBaeTCH cojichoh MopcKoft bojihoh, 
h Ha# hhm njibiBeT ero KOCTbijib, a He3HaKOMeu; Hcne3aeT c nyra 3jijihaki. 
He3HaKOMeu - He 30BeT jih oh h Hac, mh He 3HaeM, KaK 3a hhm h^th? 
He 3HaeT h SjijiH^a, Kyzja 30BeT ee He3HaKOMeu. OHa 6ohtch, hto, Kor^a 
npHfleT OHa k HeMy Ha napoxoa, pa3BeeTCH npH3biBHbiH 30b, eft b HeM 3By- 
naBiHHH. OHa He noHHMaeT, hto He3HaKOMeu 3obct ee He ajih ce6a, He ajih 
Hee, a rjir 30Ba, Hac Bcex oceHHiomero: OHa 3a6bmaeT, hto OHa - MopcKan 



32 



aeemijHHa h hto napoxozi; He ocTaHeicn Ha mcjih - yft^eT b Mope k hoboh 
3eMJie, npeo6paaceHHoii njiora. YnjibiBeT 3a CMepTb. H BpaHfl na^aeT ot 
coMHeHHH. Korzja oh ocTajicn b jie^HHKax o^hh, oh cKa3aji ce6e: «Hto ace 
cjiyHHJiocb? IIoHeMy - h 3,zi;ecb?» MccnKaeT b hcm nojieT h hct cmcjiocth 
HanepeKop BceMy yzjBOHTb BocToprn. H ot mwcjih («noneMy h 3^ecb»), a 
He ot BbicTpejia cyMacHie/jmeH jiaBHHa cpwBaeTCH. H He «Oh - Deus Cari- 
tatis» 3ByHHT b jiaBHHHOM rpoxoTe, a 3ByMHT 3to b M03iy yMHpaiomero, 
ycyMHHBiuerocH BpaHfla. A CojibHec, b3oh^h Ha 6auiHio, B^pyr co3HaeT, 
hto BCTpena c BoroM ^ojiacHa yac Tenepb npoH30HTH HeMHHyeMo, a oh He 
3HaeT, hto CKa3aTb Bory. Cjioea He 3HaeT CojibHec, KaK He 3HaeT ero hh M6- 
ceH, hh coBpeMeHHaH apaMa chmbojiob. H coBpeMeHHan apaMa chmbojiob 
o6peKaeTCH Ha AnoKajinncnc 6e3 IIpHiiiecTBHH. Cjiobo jxzho 6yjieT TOJibKO 
Toivja, Kor^a njiOTb yTOHHHTcn ^o 4>opM HOBoro TBopnecTBa. A noKa 4>op- 
mw coBpeMeHHoro HCKyccTBa - cocyaw cKyaejibHwe. 

Mbi caMH Te MpaMopHbie rjiw6w, KOTopwe mh ace .zjojiacHw H3BanTb 
b cKyjibnTypHbie CTaTyn. He CTaTyn AnojuiOHa, ^HOHHca h BeHepw cyTb 
CHMBOJibi: a mw - mw chmbojiw AnojuiOHa h BeHepw. Ce6n, ce6n mw eme 

He XOTHM npHHHTb H C03HaTb B TOM, HTO yace HieBeJIHTCH B HaC. IIOKJIO- 

HHHCb HCTyKaHy (HCKyccTBy), npocMOTpejiH mw to, hto b rjiy6HHe HaiueH 
ayniH coBepiuaeTCH yace npecymecTBJieHHe, h hto TaM mh npeicpacHee Bcex 
(J)opM CTaporo h HOBoro HCKyccTBa. Jlo H3BecTHbix npeaejioB HCKyccTBO 
npHno^biMaeT Hac, ynm xo/jHTb b KpacoTe HeBepHbiMH iuaraMH. Ho mw 
pacTeM, noxo^Ka cTaHOBHTCH Bee yBepeHHee. McKyccTBO - MaTb Hauiero 
ycTpeMJieHHH k npeo6paaceHHK> jkh3hh. Oho Hac bckopmhjio, MjiaaeHijeB. 
Ho Korfla Mjia^eHuw nepecTaiOT 6biTb MJiaaeHijaMH h npoaojiacaiOT Kop- 
MHTbCH rpy^bio MaTepn, mw BnpaBe ce6n OTyHHTb ot 3Toro. 

M bot jiynuiHM H3 Hac, TOHHaHiiiHM H3 Hac, nopa pacnpocTHTbCH c hc- 
KyccTBOM, ecjiH BepHw ohh pa3 Bw6paHHOMy nyra. Pa3Be He 3HaiOT ohh, hto 
yac nponijiH CKB03b apKy, Ha3WBaeMyio HCKyccTBOM, b CBo6o,zjHoe nojie aara- 
HeHHoro TBopnecTBa? ,/JoBOJibHo jno6oBaTbCH Ky3HeHHWMH MexaMH, nopa 

B3HTbCH 3a MeXH H pa3,Zi;yBaTb OrOHb, Ha KOTOpOM njiaBHTCH HX aCH3Hb. 

CHMBOJiHHecKan flpaMa Ha cijeHe - HBJieHHe pe/jicoro 6e3o6pa3HH. OHa 
npHBo^HT k cijeHe to, hto coBepiuaeTCH b Hac 3a npezjejiaMH cijeHbi. OHa 
yHHT jiyniuHx H3 Hac npHTBopcTBy: o6i>eKTHBHpyeT b Hac, hjih, npome ro- 
Bopn, Bw6pacwBaeT H3 Hac to, hto aojdkho yTaeHHo b Hac oicpenHyTb. OHa, 
KaK h My3WKa, - rpoMOOTBoa repoficTBa. 

MHorae H3 Hac noAOimiH yac k poKOBOMy py6eacy, 3a kotopwm TBopne- 

CTBO (J)OpM CMeHHeTCH TBOpHeCTBOM aCH3HH. BMeCTO TOTO HTo6bI yHHTbCH 

BonjiomeHHio TBopnecTBa b acH3Hb, mw 3aroHneM ero Ha cijeHy. Eme b cth- 
xax, b KapTHHe sto B03MoacHO. Bo3MoacHo CKa3aTb: «Bot hto h nepeacHJi». 

CKa3aTb H B aCH3HH HCKaTb (J)OpM flJIfl nepeaCHBaHHfl. CHMBOJIHHeCKafl 
C8R3h 06pO306, 3. He CHMBOJIHHeCKHe o6pa3W, OTflejIbHO B3HTbie, HBJIHIOTCH 

cyrbio apaMw. 3Ta CHMBOJiHHecKan cBH3b peajiH3yeTCH b jxpsue KaK CBH3b 



33 



HOBblX 5KH3HeHHbIX OTHOIIieHHH. B 5KH3HH eme TOJIbKO npeABKyiliaiOTCfl 3TH 

OTHomeHHH. Ohh He peajiH30BaHbi. CHMBOJiHHecKan apaina - 3to 3aniflflbi- 
BaHHe b 6yaymee. H bot o6pa3bi, KOTopwe bboahtch b Kpyr apaMaraHecKO- 
ro aeftcTBa, %e pecuibHU na ci^ene, ne deucmeumejibHu. 3to - nponoBeflb o 
6yzjymeM, He 6ojiee. KaK nponoBeflb, coBpeMeHHaa apaMa npneMJieMa Ha 
cueHe; KaK MHCTepnn hoboh 5kh3hh, - HHKoraa. 

Kor^a H6ceH noKa3biBaeT HaM cbohx Py6eKOB, oh tobopht to, hto 3Ha- 
ei: 6yAeT jieub - h MepTBbie npocHyTcn. Ho kok 3to 6y#eT, He 3HaeT H6ceH. 
Bot ecjiH 6w oh npeBparaji cboio 5KH3Hb b onbiT, Been aeH3Hbio HCKaji 6w 
(J)opM BocxojK^eHHH peajibHO, KOHKpeTHo, npeo6paacancb caM, oh, MoaceT 

6bITb, y3HaJI 6bl KOe-HTO H eme KpOMe 3M6jieMaTHHCCKHX jicahhkob h /laco- 

Ha ra6pH3Jin BopKMaHa, nocneuiaiomero b Kajiouiax 6opoTbcn c 5KH3Hbio, 
r#e jieAHHa^ pyKa cxBarajia ero 3a cepaue - jieAHHan pyKa poKa: OHa h Hac 
cxBaTHT. H He b cueHe, He b H3o6pa^KeHHH Toro, KaK XBaTaiOT 3a cepaue 
jie^HHbie pyKH, - 3a#aHa TBopnecTBa. Haao h tcjio, h ayiiiy cboio 6pocaTb 
b TBopnecKHH ropH, njiaBHii^HH »cH3Hb. Bot ecjiH 6w H6ceH-BopKMaH He 
nncaji apaM, a hchji apaMoii 6opb6w 3a npeo6paaceHHe, mohcct 6bm>, jicah- 
Haa pyKa, xBaTaBinan ero 3a cepaue, pacTanjia 6m, jienia y Hor BeceHHHM 
pyneHKOM. Bwji 6m oh MHCTaroroM hoboh ech3hh h ApaM He nncaji. Ho 
h oh, KaK h Bee apaMaTyprH-CHMBOJiHCTbi, eme noKa cneuiHT npoMeHHTb 
cojmeHHoe CBoe nepBopoacTBO Ha HeneBHHHyio noxjie6Ky cjiaBM. 

CHMBOJiHHecKan apaMa, CHMBOJiHHecKoe aeiicTBO - 370 cBH3b, aoroBop 
jHOAeii, nbiTaiomnx cboio Ayuiy h Tejio jjjin hoboh jiio6bh, hoboh TBopne- 

CKOH 5KH3HH. CHMBOJIHHeCKaH CBH3b - 3TO peJIHTHH COBMeCTHOTO nyTH K 

cnacTbio. 3aecb Bee - ynacTHHKH, Bee - TBopuw, Bee - chmbojim. 3aecb 
HeT hh aKTepoB, hh apaMaTyproB, hh peacnccepa, hh 3pHTejieii. 3aecb apa- 
Ma - TBopnecKoe OTHomeHHe k >kh3hh, h noTOMy-TO chmbojihhcckhh TeaTp 
cepbe3HO He HyaeeH HHKOMy. O^hhm He HyaeeH noTOMy, hto ohh 3HaiOT b 
CHMBOJiHnecKHX o6pa3ax cuieHbi jiHuib npHrjiaiueHHe 3ar;iHHyTb b 5KH3Hb: 
3th y3HajiH 6ojibine. Ecjih ohh h noiiAyT b TeaTp, to noiiAyT He Ha H6ceHa, 
a Ha CBoe npouijioe: nofiayT BcnoMHHTb, KaK HCKyccTBO Kor^a-TO hm ot- 
Kpwjio nia3a. ZleftcTBHTejibHO nmymne, Heo(J)HTbi, npeanoHTyT nponecTb 
H6ceHa, a He BH^eTb ero Ha cueHe. IlpH^yT b TeaTp h He nofloiueAiiiHe k 
Pokoboh nepTe, OT^ejiHiomeH HCKyccTBO ot TBopnecTBa hch3hh. FIpH^yT h 
3anyTaioTCH b npoTHBopeHHHX nocTaHOBKH. HaKOHeu, 6ojibuiHHCTBy BOBce 
He Hy^ceH H6ceH co cBoeii apaMoft, a HyacHa cboh H^ea/iorna, KOTopyio He 
6or BecTb KaK Tpy^HO Bbiy^HTb H3 Jiio6oro CHMBOJia. Ilpn h3bccthom HaBbi- 
Ke 3to He cocTaBJineT Tpyaa. 

CHMBOJiHHecKan apaMa He apaMa, a nponoBe^b bcjihkoh, BcepacTy- 
meii apaMbi HejiOBenecTBa. 3to - nponoBeAb o npn6jiH»ceHHH pokoboh 
pa3BH3KH. H jiynuiHe o6pa3Ubi chmbojihhcckoh ApaMbi Ha^o nmaTb, a He 
CMOTpeTb Ha cqeHe. TeaTp He ecTb MecTO chmbojihhcckoh apaMbi. EBpo- 
neiicKHH TeaTp sto - hchto c^hiukom TexHHnecKH 3aKOHHeHHoe. BoBce He 



34 



cjieayeT ero jiOMaTb. TeaTp ocTaeTca TeaTpoM, Kor^a mm cmotphm IIIeK- 
cnnpa, Co(J)OKJia, KopHejin. H TeaTp nepecTaeT 6biTh TeaTpoM, Koraa mm 
npHxoflHM Ha H6ceHa, MeiepjiHHKa. Ho xpaMOM oh He CTaHOBHTCH, pa3Be 
Ka(j)e,zjpoH nponoBe^HHKa. 

KHHra eme jiyHinan Ka(j)eapa. 

HaM B03pa3HT: KOHKpeTHoe H3o6paaceHHe o6pa30B, o^yuieBjiHBuiHx 
coBpeMeHHoro apaMaiypra, npH6;iH3HT k HaM 3th o6pa3M. O, ecjiH 6m 
6mjio TaK. De facto Bcer^a yaajiHT: TyT B03HHKaeT pokoboh Bonpoc o no- 
CTaHOBKe cHMBOJiHnecKHx apaM. 

3Toro Bonpoca He cymecTByeT npn nocTaHOBKe peajibHbix apaM. H30- 
6paacaft CTpacTb, KaK TOJibKO Moaceuib, H3o6paacaft ncHxojiorHio repon. 
ripe^MeT H3o6paaceHHH - yrjiy6;ieHHaH ,zjo apaMM acH3Hb. HenpoH3BOJib- 

HMH CHMBOJIH3M, npHCyUJHH HCKyCCTBy, BMHBHTCH CaM C060K). Ho KaK OT- 

HecTHCb aKTepy k CojibHecy, H^ymeMy Ha 6auiHio c bchkom b pyKe roBO- 
pHTb c BoroM? KaK H3o6pa3HTb peajibHoro nejioBeKa b ero He peajibHOM 
nocrynKe? KaK ncnxonaTa? Ho CojibHec H6ceHa BOBce He ncnxonaT. 
3HaMHT, ncnxonaT H6ceH? Ho Toraa 3aneM CTaBHTb ncHxonaTHHecKyio 
^paMy? H bot CTapaioTCH, hto6m 3pHTejiH He3aMeTHo ajih ce6n nporjio- 
thjih cHMBOJiHHecKyio iihjiiojik), 3aTymeBMBaH ueHTpajibHbie MecTa apaMM 
H3o6paaceHHeM 6biTa, KaK sto mm BH^ejiH npn nocTaHOBKe «,ZIhkoh yTKH» 
Ha cueHe MocKOBCKoro XyaoacecTBeHHoro Teaipa. 

Ho 3to 3HaMHT HCKa3HTb H6ceHa. Hacroflmafl 3aflana aKTepa b hobom 
TeaTpe iiohth HeocymecTBHMa: H3o6pa3HTb ncHxojiorHio repon c npeo6- 
paacaeMMM ayxoM h njiOTbio, co bccmh ncHxo(J)H3HOJiorHHecKHMH cy/jo- 
poraMH, conyTCTByiomHMH nepepoacaeHHio. HyacHO caMOMy 6biTb hobmm 
MejiOBeKOM He Ha cnoBax, a Ha aejie. A r^e y Hac TaKHe HcnpjiHHTejiH? Hx 
HeT, hx 6biTb He MoaceT. H bhho HOBoe BjiHBaeTcn b CTapbie MexH. 

B jiyniHHx cHMBOJiHHecKHx apaMax mm bh^hm nponoBe^b hobmx acH3- 

HeHHMX OTHOUieHHH, npH3MBaK>myK) K KOJUieKTHBHOMy TBOpHeCTBy 3THX 

OTHomeHHH. YMacTHHKH KOJiJieKTHBHoro TBopnecTBa flOJiacHM o6jiaflaTb 
hoboh HH^HBH^yajibHOCTbK). AKTep, BonjiomaK>mHH npeflHaHepiaHHMH 
apaMaTyproM nyTb, aojiaceH coBepuieHHO peajibHO 3HaTb HOBoro nejiOBeKa 

B erO MHMOJieTHMX ABH^CeHHHX. A 3TH ABHaceHHH yTaeHM y HOBMX JIIOAeft 

nofl MejiKofi o6bi,aeHHOCTbK) TaK, mto h He y3Haeuib HOBoro MejioBeKa, - 
kto oh, r,zje oh. AKTep caM aojiaceH 6biTb hobmm hcjiobckom. Bo-btopmx: 

^BHaceHHH HOBMX JHOfleft flOJiaCHM 6bITb KOOpflHHHpOBaHM B O/JHO CBH3HOe 

uejioe - b CHMBOJiHHecKyio cBH3b. He Hapyman cbo6o^m TBopnecTBa, chm- 
BOJiHHecKan CBH3b uejioro Bee ace ecTb HopMa. KaK coniacoBaTb CBo6oay 

C Heo6xO^HMOCTbK)? BOT eme KaMeHb npeTKHOBeHHH. CoBpeMeHHMH aK- 

Tep pa36HBaeTCH 06 3th KaMHH. Ecjih ace oh hx o6oH,zjeT, H6ceH coftaeT 3a 
OcTpoBCKoro, Octpobckhh 3a H6ceHa. 

H noTOMy-TO coBepuieHHO HenpoH3BOJibHO, 6biTb MoaceT, TeaTp crapa- 
eTCH no,zmepacaTb CBoe /joctohhctbo hobmm mcto^om: noaaBJieHHeM hh- 



3 AHApen EejibiH 



35 



flHBHflyajibHOcra aKTepa peaoiccepoM. 3to - KOMnpoMHec Meacay Heo6xo- 

flHMOCTbK) CTaBHTb CHMBOJIHH6CKHC flpaMbl H HeB03MO»CHOCTbIO HaHTH flJIfl 

hhx HcnojiHHTejieii. Jlynine 6w He 6biJio 3Toro KOMnpoMHeca, Jiynine 6w 
CHHTb co cixeHbi H6ceHa, MeTepjiHHKa. 06a, KaK no3Tbi, TOJibKo BbinrpaiOT 

OT 3a6BeHHH HX CIXeHOH. 

IIoflaBjiHH HH^HBH^yajibHocTb aKTepa, peacnccep hhcthhkthbho ch- 

JIHTCH yTaHTb TOT BOnHKHIJHH (J)aKT, HTO, npOH3HOCH AOCJIOBHO CJIOBa TeK- 

CTa ApaMbi, coBpeMeHHbiit aKTep roBopHT BOBce He to, hto ctoht y aBTopa. 
H bot, hto6h CKpacHTb TaKoii KOH(J)y3, npeBpamaiOT aKTepa b 3acTbiBinyio 
Kyioiy. Ho BonHiomHH (J)aKT ocTaeTCH BonHiomHM (J)aKTOM; aKTep HeT- 
HeT - h 3a6y#eT, hto oh Kyioia; Hy, cKaaceM, yBjieneTCH cjiOBaMH apaMbi, m. 
ot H36biTKa nyBCTB yaapHTCH b ncHxojiorHio, ho noHTH Bcer,aa npopBeTCH B 
pHTMe CBoero othoihchhh k CHMBOJiHHecKoft CBH3H. A peacnccep nocneuiHT 

3aflBHTb, HTO He B JIHHHOCTH aKTepa TyT CyTb, a B 06meft CBH3H. 

TaK B03HHKaeT b npe^ejiax nocTaHOBKH chmbojihhcckoh apaMbi TBop- 
necTBO peacnccepa. Peotcuccep menepb caModepo/cei^ meampa. Oh B03HHKa- 
eT Meacay aKTepaMH, 3pHTejiHMH h apaMaTyproM. Oh pa3,aejifleT hx apyr 
ot Apyra. TaK y3ypnnpyeT oh npaBa aBTopa, BMeiiiHBancb b TBopnecTBo. 
IIosTOMy aojiaceH oh 6biTb h Myapee apaMaTypra: He TOJibKo 3HaTb co- 
KpoBeHHbie nepeacHBaHHH apaMaTypra, ho h OKpyacHTb 3th nepeacHBaHHH 
AOJiechoh onpaBoii. B 3Toii onpaBe no^HOCHT oh aBTopa 3pHTejibHOMy 3ajiy. 
O^HOBpeMeHHO 6opoTbCH c aKTepoM, HcnpaBJiHTb nocTaHOBKott ouih6kh 
aBTopa h yHHTb hoboh »ch3hh 3pHTe^bHbiit 3aji - TaKOBa 3aaana coBpeMeH- 
Horo peacnccepa; h, kohchho, 3a#ana 3Ta HeBbinojiHHMa. TyT peacnccepy 
BMeHHeTCH b o6n3aHHocTb 6biTb MucmaiozoM mojin. 

HaKOHeix, aBTop caM npeTeHflyeT 6biTb peacnccepoM. 

BjiHHHHe peacHccepa de facto TOJibKo npHHOCHT HOBoe HCKaaceHHe 
CMbicjia chmbojihhcckoh ApaMbi, HeH36e»CHO HCKaaceHHOH aKTepaMH. Oh 
npHflaeT ijejibHOCTb STOMy HCKaaceHHio, t. e. OKOHHaTejibHO cMemaeT ijemp 
ApaMH. CHMBOJiHHecKan ^paMa Ha cueHe, 6yayHH Boo6me KOMnpoMHecoM, 
npe^CTaeT b abohko HCKaaceHHOM bh^c H yac, kohchho, He BH^aTb HaM Ha 
cueHe HacTonmnx Py6eKOB, CojibHecoB, Me;iH3aHfl. Hazjo 6biTb Py6eKOM, 
hto6w H3o6pa3HTb ero. Yac nycTb 6yaeT Py6eKOM caM H6ceH, a He npoBHH- 
ijnajibHbiH HBaH HBaHOBHH. Kto 3HaKOM c H6ceHOM no cueHe, HHKoraa He 
3Haji HacTonmero H6ceHa. 

Abtop aojiaceH caM CTaTb peacHccepoM. HacTonmee TBopnecTBO ero He 
b MOMeHTe HanHcaHHH nbecw, a b nocTaHOBKe. H ecjin npaKTHHecKH sto 
hcbo3mo2cho, jiynme ,aaTb cTporo pa3pa6oTaHHbift Tpa(J)apeT HcnojmeHHH. 
Abtop aojiaceH HaM onncaTb, KaK Py6eK ecT, cnHT, hhctht ijhjihhap, ecjiH 
oh He xoneT, hto6m Py6eKa nrpajia KyKJia: TaK aeiicTBHTejibHO 6bijio 6bi 
npeceneHO jihhhoc TBopnecTBO peacnccepa, aKTepoB h ny6jiHKH. PeajibHo 
3to 6biJio 6w ocymecTBJieHo b TeaTpe MapnoHeTOK. MeTOfl npeBpameHHH 
nejiOBeKa b MapnoHeTKy h ecTb MeTOfl TexHHHecKoii cTHJiH3aiiHH. Cthjih- 



36 



3aijHH h ecTb MeTO^ ycjioBHoro BbiHBJieHHH nepefl 3pht6jihmh chmbojihhc- 

CKOH C6H3U 06pa30B flpaMbl C B03M03KHO 6oJIbUIHM yCTpaHCHH6M caMHx 06- 

pasoe. Chmbojih3m o6pa3a .ziojiaceH 6biTb no^HHHeH chmbojih3my aeficTBa. 

Ho Tanas CTHJiH3auHH BOBce H30JiHpyeT cijeHy ot 3pHTe;ibHoro 3ajia. 
CijeHa npeBpamaeTCH b HjuiiocTpaijHio k npoHHTaHHOH apaMe. H mchtw o 
KOJIJI6KTHBHOM TBopnecTBe b npczjejiax cueHbi c npeBpameHHeM 3pHTejin b 
xopoBoe Hanajio 6biJio 6w hbhoh HejienocTbio h 6e3o6pa3HeM. B jiyniiieM 
cjiynae 3pHTejib BHec 6bi Ha cijeHy BocKJiHijaHHH o^o6peHHH hjih nopnija- 
hhh Bpo^e Ha^nHcefi, kotophmh necrpHT CTapwe khhth b 6H6jiHOTeKax: 
«KHHry 3Ty npoHHTaji c yaoBOJibCTBHeM. HBaH Ah^pohob» h npnnHCKa: 

«A H, Hd. MapbH TBOp03KKOBa». 

Ra. h coBpeMeHHaa apaMa chmbojiob - Ha cijeHe 0Ha He apaMa, a TOJibKO 
nponoBeab bo3mo»choh apaMbi. MeHbiue Bcero 3,ziecb CBnmeHHOfleHCTBHH, 
6ojibiue Bcero cypporaT cBnmeHHOfleHCTBHH - rnepaTHHecKaa no3a. Ho 
ooto y6HBaeT apyroe, a Bee BMecTe y6HBaeT apaMy. HeT, jiynuie OTKpoBeH- 
ho h necTHO npH3HaTb b npHHijHne 6eccHjiHe CHMBOJinnecKoro TeaTpa Ha 
cijeHe, hto6w pa3 HaBceraa noKOHHHTb c 6jiyac,ziaHHeM b noTeMKax. 

Eeaa, Kor^a peacnccep hjih aicrep, hjih aaace aBTop, oco3HaBa^ chm- 

BOJIH3M apaMbl KaK npH3bIB K 5KH3HCHHOH MHCTepHH, CTaHyT CaMyK) Clje- 

Hy npH6jiH»caTb k MHCTepHH: pa3JioacHTCH cijeHa h ockbcphhtch MenTa o 
)KH3HeHHOH MHCTepHH - MenTa, rjiy6oKo 3anaBiiiaH b ayiiiy. 3Ta MenTa h 
B03po3KaaeT nepe^ HaMH aHTHHHbie (J)opMbi TeaTpa c acepTBeHHHKOM h xo- 
poBbiM HanajiOM: ho TyT - (J)ajibuiHBbiH ceHTHMeHTajiH3M. BcnoMHHM 3a- 
paTycTpy. H oh Mor 6bi co6jia3HHTbcn MeaoBbiM yHbiHHeM. HejiOBenecTBo 
noflxoflHT K MHCTepHH, KOTopan HHKor^a He CHHJiacb apeBHHM rpenaM. 
Bo3BpameHHe k nponuiOMy - 0TKa3 ot stoh, Hauiefi MHCTepHH. 
/la He 6yaeT Tan! 

By^yT apaMbi, 6yayT, nje 3pHTejiH BOH^yT Ha cijeHy, a aicrep - rnepo- 
4>aHT, pacnpocTepTbiH nepea acepTBeHHHKOM, npH30BeT Bcex k mojihtbc 
Ho TaKHe apaMbi HHHero He ocTaBHT b ayiiie, KpoMe KomyHCTBa. 

Bee 3to 6biJio nojiHee, 3KHBee. EjieB3HHCKHe MHCTepHH cbirpajiH orpoM- 
Hyio npocBeTHTejibHyio pojib. Ho k MHcrepHHM noaroTOBJiHJiHCb, onnma- 

JIHCb! TaM MOJIHJIHCb, TaM 6bIJIH CTa^HH nocBHmeHHH. He BCHKHH Mor BKy- 

cHTb cBHmeHHyio HOHb 3nonTHH. riepe^ 30jiotwm H3o6paaceHHeM /JeMeTpbi 
rHepo(J)aHT 6wji cojiHijeM, rHepocJ)aHTH^a - jiyHoii, snonTbi - co3Be3,ziHHMH; 
TaM 6wji MHp, b sthx flyinax, npecymecTBJieHHbix TBopnecKHMH nepeacHBa- 
hhhmh. HHKaKoro yneHHH TaM He motjih npeno^aTb. He 6biJio b tom HHKa- 
koh Hyjiczibi. JIo6eK npaB, yTBepacaan sto. Ho TaM 3HajiH, yMejin, MorjiH npe- 
cymecTBjiHTb xoTb Ha MHr cbok) flymy h Tejio. MHcrepHH EjieBCHHa OTouiJia 
b npomjioe. Bo3BpamaTb ee Ha cijeHy Hejib3n: Be^b sto - HaapyraTejibCTBO. 

H He Ha cijeHe npn^eT k HaM BejiHican HOHb 3nonTHH. 3Ta HOHb Hbme 
cnycKaeTCH Haa nejiOBenecKOH 3KH3Hbio. B nocjie^HHX npo3peHHHX Hauien 
»ch3hh mw nepexo^HM ee rpaHb. H hh 3KH3Hbio, hh (J)opMoii HCKyccTBa mw 

37 



3* 



He cnaceMCH ot HCKyca. Mm yace HHoraa 6biBaeM 3a bh^hmoh acH3Hbio, 3a 
HCKycdBOM, 3a pejiHrHeii - mibiBeM Ha nocjie^HeM Kopa6;ie k poKOBOMy 
6010: Haiua njiOTb nepepoacaaeTCH. Mm h3mchhmch hjih yMpeM. Ilepefl no- 
cBHmeHHeM b anonTM mhctm CTaHOBHJiHCb y xpaMa. H3 xpaMa MepuajiH 
mojihhh: Bpaia oTKpbiBajiHCb, h npH3paKH c necbHMH rojioBaMH hijih Ha- 
BCTpeny nocBflmeHHMM. Mm - nocBHmaeM ce6n b HOByio acH3Hb, h bot 

BpaTa ee OTKpblBaiOTCH, H3 BpaT BMHflyT npH3paKH C neCbHMH TOJIOBaMH! 

3to npH3paKH yacaca h BbipoacaeHMH. Ho HeKOTopbie H3 Hac, nocBHmeHHbie 
b MOJinaHHe 3toh BejiHKOH hohh, B03bMyTCH 3a pyKH, h npH3paKH c necbH- 

MH TOJIOBaMH, 3aJiaHB, COJIblOTCfl C HOHbK). 

Bot noneMy rjiy6oKO aHaxpoHHneH chmbojihhcckhh TeaTp coBpeMeH- 

HOCTH. HoBaTOpbl 5KH3HH C npe3peHHeM OTHeCyTCH K (J)OpCHpOBaHHbIM 

KpHKaM o pe4>opMe cijeHM. Hao6opoT: pe(j)opMa coBpeMeHHoro TeaTpa b 
o6paTHOM HanpaBjieHHH, k repoHnecKOMy TeaTpy IIIeKcnnpa, BM30BeT 
nojiHoe hx conyBCTBHe. IlycTb TeaTp ocTaeTCH TeaTpoM, a MHCTepHH - mh- 
CTepHeii. CMeuiHBaTb to h apyroe - co3H^aTb, He pa3pyuiaH, pa3pyuiaTb, He 

C03HflaH. 3T0 - KOKeTHHHaHbe c nyCTOTOH. 

H nycTOTa He6biTHH cKopo yac, cKopo BoftaeT b coBpeMeHHMH TeaTp 
Mep3ocTbio 3anycTeHHH. YMOJiKHyT cjiOBa o peBOJiiouHH Ha cijeHe. Boccra- 

HOBHTCH B CKpOMHOM CBOeM flOCTOHHCTBe TpaflHIJHOHHMH TeaTp. 

CoBpeMeHHMH TeaTp pa3o6beTcn o CuHJiJiy uieiccnHpoBCKoro TeaTpa 
hjih o XapH6^y cHHeMaTorpa(j)a. 
rtocKopeii 6m! 

1907 

nECHb >KM3HM 

HcKyCCTBO (KunSt) eCTb HCKyCCTBO aCHTb. )KHTb - 3HaHHT 

yMeTb, 3HaTb, MOHb (Konnen). 3HaHHe acH3HH ecTb yMeHHe coxpaHHTb bch- 
Kyio acH3Hb (mok), nyacyio, po^OByio). Ho coxpaHeHHe acH3HH - b npoaoji- 
aceHHH ee; npo^ojiaceHHe nero 6m to hh 6mjio ecTb TBopnecTBo; HCKyccTBO 
ecTb TBopnecTBo acH3HH. OpyzmeM TBopnecTBa hbjihctch 3HaHHe; 3HaHHe, 
oTopBaHHoe ot TBopnecTBa, ecTb opy^ne 6e3 toto, kto hm BJia^eeT; TaKoe 
opyane - 6ecuejibHoe opyane; TaKoe 3HaHHe - MepTBoe 3HaHHe. 

Meacay TeM 3Ta (J)opMa 6ecTBopnecKoro 3HaHHH rocnoacTByeT b HauieH 
KyjibType. 

CTajio 6biTb, eft rpo3HT CMepTb. 

KyjibTypa Hania He 3HaeT acH3HH, He xoneT acH3HH, He MoaceT acHTb. Ho 
KyjibTypa Hauia - BeHeij HejiOBenecKHX 3HaHHH. 

3tot BeHeu - CMeprabiH BeHeu. HejioBenecTBy rpo3HT CMepTb. 

H sto He (J)aHTa3HH: HejiOBenecrBO Bbipoac^aeTcn; Bcioay rocnoacTByeT 
aypHaa HacjieacTBeHHOCTb; caMoe ycjiOBHe sroncTHHecKoro B03poacaeHHH, 
HopMajibHocTb nojia, pyuiHTCH. 



38 



HaKOHeij, ecTb HeKOTopbie aaHHbie, 3acTaBJiHK>mHe Hac BHfleTb bw- 
poaczjeHHe b caMHx h3mch6hhhx CTpoeHHH MejiOBenecKoro CKejieTa 
(yMeHbineHHH KOJinnecTBa rpy^Hbix iio3bohkob h t. Bee 3th BHein- 
HHe CHMnTOMbi cyTb 3HaM6HHH Bbipo^eHHH HejiOBenecKOH nywu h ee 

»CH3HeHHOrO pHTMa. 

riepBOHaMaJIbHO HCKyCCTBO, KaK TBOpHeCTBO )KH3HeHHbIX ueHHOCTeii, 

ecTb co3H^aHHe 3^opoBoro noTOMCTBa BHe ce6n hjih CKonjieHHe 5KH3HeH- 
hoh cHjiw b ce6e: nepBbin nyTb ero - npeo6pa»ceHHe po^a; BTopoii nyTb - 
npeo6pa»ceHHe jihhhocth: Ha stom nyTH HCKyccTBO h pejiHran - o,zjho. 

IlepBbiH nyTb (npeo6pa30BaHHe >kh3hh BHe ce6n) - ecTb nyTb, koto- 
pbiM uijio HejiOBenecTBo; h nyTb npHBeji HejiOBenecTBO k OTpnijaHHio ce6n. 

KaK sto npoH30injio? 

KopeHb HCKyccTBa - TBopnecicafl cnjia jihhhocth, BbipacTaromaa b 
6opb6e c oKpyflcaiomeH TbMoii; TbMa - sto pok; 3aaana jihhhocth - no6e- 
jXHTb poK, b neM 6bi poK hh Bbipaacajicn, b BHfle jih Me^Be^H, Hana^aiomero 
Ha MejiOBeKa (KaK sto 6wjio, HecoMHeHHo, b nemepHbiH nepnofl), b BHfle 
jih 3Jioro ayxa, yrpoacaiomero eMy; 3^ecb, b stot ^ohctophhcckhh TeMHbiii 
nepnoA - co3H^aHHe rapMOHHnecKOH jihhhocth, t. e. jihhhocth cnjibHOH 
(repon), ecTb Heo6xoAHMoe ycjiOBHe 5KH3HH, 3^ecb 5KH3Hb - apaMa, jihh- 
HOCTb - ee repoft: 3^ecb acH3Hb, KaK TBopnecTBO, 3^ecb HCKyccTBO, KaK 

}KH3Hb. H Xy^O^CeCTBeHHaH (})OpMa - JIHHHOCTb, BblCeKaiOmaH JieCTHHUbl 

b acH3HH, Kor^a CTyneHb - MrHOBeHHe; noflHHHHH ce6e MrHOBeHHe, jihh- 
HocTb npoHOCHT caM0C03HaHHe CKB03b MrHOBeHHii, (J)opMa npoHBJie- 

HHH JIHHHOCTH TOTfla OTfleJIHCTCH OT JIHHHOCTH; CyMMa MTHOBeHHH - cyMMa 

xy^o»cecTBeHHbix (J)opM: JIHHHOCTb oflHa. TaK (J)opMbi )kh3hh (t. e. xyzjoace- 

CTBeHHbie (})OpMbl) OTflejIHIOTCH OT JIHHHOCTH; HeJIOBeK - XyflOECHHK MHO- 
THX 4>OpM. IIOHHTHe O (J)OpMe yCJI05KHHeTCHI (})OpMa B C06cTBeHH0M CMblC- 

jie BbipaacaiomeecH b Tejie) OKa3biBaeTcn tbophiuhm HanajiOM (})opM 
b nepeHOCHOM CMbicjie (opyflHH, oaenHHH, HCHJinme, Mbicjib). 3^ecb hc- 
KyccTBO b HanieM CMbicjie coeflHHeHO c npHKJia/mbiM xapaKTepoM opy^HH 
npoH3BoacTBa: Konbe pa3yKpaineHO, oaeacaa yTbiKaHa nepbHMH, HCHjiHiue 
pa3pHCOBaHo; Mbicjib o6jieKaeTCH b (})opMy necHH, MH(j)a, o6pa3a. ripoijecc 
TBopnecTBa, t. e. 5KH3Hb, nepeacHBaeMaa KaK TBopnecKan necHH repon, 3a- 
MeHneTCH H3flejiHeM TBopnecTBa. 

«KunSt» CTaHOBHTCH *ie%VTl^(TeXHHKOH). 

H3flejiHH o6MeHHBaiOTCH; a npo^yKTbi - Tenepb ohh TOBap: o6mch 
TBopnecKHX (})opM ycTaHaBjiHBaeT KpyroByio nopyKy TBopnecTBa: repon, 

no6e5K,ZjaiOmHH pOK TBOpHeCTBOM 5KH3HH, CTaHOBHTCH BOHHOM OflHOrO OT- 

pnaa, orpaacaeHHoro TBopnecKHMH H3#ejiHHMH KaK o6men orpaaon: (^op- 
Ma »ch3hh, KaK 6poHH, o&neKaeT pHTM jihhhocth; poK, xaoc, MeflBeflb hjih 
3jioh jiyx He BpwBaeTCH yace Tenepb 3a orpa^y po^a: TBopnecTBO craHO- 
bhtch H3flejineM KyMHpOB; KyMHp 3amHiuaeT poa ot MpaKa Honeii. KyMHp 
npHHOCHT Tenepb b acepTBy h JIHHHOCTb c ee phtmom; b ochobc 3aKJiaHHH 



39 



acepTBbi - 6oh3hl, hto ecjiH repoii, a Tenepb cojiaaT, 3axoneT BepHyTbcn k 
CBoeMy repoHHecKOMy npoiiuioMy, 3to npoiiuioe, npeBpaTHCb b repon, rpo- 
3ht pa36HTb orpa#y H3 o6pa30B h BnycTHTb TbMy (Me^Be^a hjih 3Jioro flyxa) 
b 6e3onacHoe Tenepb acmiHDie: MyacecTBo HccHKaeT; 5KH3HeHHbift phtm Ha- 
HHHaeT xHpeTb. H nocKOJibKy b KaacflOM - repoii, Kaagjbiii HcnbiTbiBaeT He- 
Be^oMoe HacHJine: He HacHjiHe aeMOHa, a HacHjiHe (j>eTHiiia, H^ojia: h hmh 
Haojiy - 6e3onacHOCTb po^a. 06pa3bi 3flecb TOBap, kotopmm noflMeHneTCH 

TBOpHeCKaH IjeHHOCTb. ®eTHUIH3M TOBapHOrO npOH3BOACTBa, TBopnecTBO 

h^ojiob h (J)opM HCKyccTBa, Hacnjine Haa repoeM - Bee sto ojinijeTBopeHHH 
oflHoro yracaHHH pHTMa 5KH3hh. 

IIo^MeHa TBopnecTBa komc})optom nopoac^aeT ocBo6o*czjeHHe opy^HH 
npoH3BOflCTBa (mwcjih, npe^MeTOB noTpe6jieHHH h t. Bee npHypOHHBa- 

eTCH K BCeo6meMy nOJIb30BaHHK). HCTOHHHK TBOpHeCTBa - JIHHHOCTb, Bbl- 

paacaiomaacfl b flBHaceHHH - noflMeHaeTCfl nopo^eHHeM jihhhocth, MepT- 
bwm OTnenaTKOM: h He3aMeTHO Mepmeeu, ((J)eTHin) BOCce^aeT Haa acH3Hbio: 
TaK o6pa3yeTCH rocyaapcTBO c ero npaBOM, Mopajibio, TaK yMHpaeT npnpoaa 
pejmrHH h TBopnecTBa; b nejiOBeKe acHBoe «h» CTaHOBHTca 6ecnjioflHbiM co- 
3epuaHHeM OKpyacaiomeii npnpoflbi h aaace npnpoflbi co6crBeHHoii; 3Ta bto- 
paa CTyneHb ynacTHH >kh3hh ecTb nbiniHoe pa3BHTHe 4>hjioco4)hh h HayKH. 

UpeTKJie TBOpHeCTBO 3KH3HH, pyKOBOflHMOe pHTMOM, He TOJIbKO Hcue- 

jihjio npnpoay xy^o^cHHKa, ho h co3Hflajio b hcm jiecTHHiry npeBpameHHH: 
ajuieropHHecKan KapTHHa sthx npeBpameHHH OTpa3Hjiacb b 6HOJiorHH, KaK 
npoHcxoacfleHHe 5khbothmx bh^ob, a pejiHrH03Hbie o6pa3bi, necHH, njin- 

CKH, MOJIHTBbI 6bIJIH CpeflCTBOM BblCeKaTb HOBbie CTyneHH HCH3HH B JieCT- 

HHi^e MHpo3AaHHH: nejioBeK nieji c 3cmjih Ha He6o: h oh 6biji 6bi yace Ha 
He6e, ecjiH 6w Mbicjib He npeBpaTHJia necHb 3eMJiH h He6a b npoTHBoecre- 
CTBeHHbie a6cTpaKijHH ! 3eMjno - b noHHTHe o 3aKOHe npHpo^bi, He6o - b 
HOpMy paccyacaaiomero co3HaHHH 

3to flBOHKoe OMepTBeHHe pHTMa CHanajia b npaBe h MopajiH, noTOM b 
Hayice h (J)hjiococJ)hh njioraoii 6poHeft OKOBajio acH3Hb. TBopnecTBo 5KH3- 
hh nepecTajio cyDiecTBOBaTb: npaB^a, b hctophh no^biMajiHCb THTaHbi, 
noTpncaBuiHe cpe^oft, KaK thphmh; CKopo BOBce He crajiH ohh B03HHKaTb, 
noTOMy hto rnpn, cpeaa OKa3ajiHCb He no,a; CHJiy repoio. HejiOBenecTBO 
nepecTaji BOJiHOBaTb ByjiKaH jihhhoix) TBopnecTBa; ho po,a; KaK cyMMa no- 
pa6omeHHbix jihhhoctch, 6e3 TBopnecKOH rHMHacTHKH oapaxjieji, h Mexa- 

HH3M - Cpe^bl - HeBH^HMblH MepTBdJ - BMeCTO JIIOfleH Bbl6pOCHJI MHJI- 
JIHOHbl MapHOHeTOKJ JIHHHOCTb, BnaBUiafl B COH, OKa3aJiaCb MapHOHeTKOH, 

7KU3Ub ee - CHHeMaTorpacJ)OM 5kh3hh. BcHKoe ojiHijeTBopeHHe o6pa3a h 
noao6HH repoH Hcne3Jio H3 KyjibTypw: Hcne3 caM (j)eTHin, pacnaBniHHCH Ha 
pnzi jioranecKHx cyacfleHHH - HopM, BHcnmHx b nycTOTe: HayKa pacnbiJin- 
Jia (J)eTHni b aTOMbi h CHJiOBbie jihhhh; (J)hjiococJ)hh BbiBejia 3aKOHbi o6pa- 

30BaHHH CHJI H3 3aKOHOB o6pa30BaHHH CJIOB! HeJIOBeHeCTBO Tenepb - 3T0 

TOjibKo 6yKBbi; repoii 6yKBa - («X», «Y»); o6mecTBO - 3to cjioBa, cjiaraio- 



40 



mne yM03aKJiK)HeHHH; MHp - cbh3b yM03aKJH0HeHHH, yM03aKJH0HeHHe ace 
6e3 yM03aKJUOH(mw t ezo hto-to mmcjihtch, hto-to tbophtch - bot bhboa 
coBpeMeHHOH (J)hjioco(J)hh, flOBepmeHHe pa3Ji05KeHHfl; 3anpemaeTCH .zjaace 

HHTepeC K TOMy, HTo6bI 3HaTb, KTO TOT HeBHflHMblH, KOTOpblH HaC MblCJIHT, 

b pe3yjibTaTe nero mm OKa3biBaeMcn caMHMH co6oh. 

3to BejiHKoe, npe^ejibHoe pa3JioaceHHe MHpa He MenTa: 3to KpaTKoe 
pe3K)Me B033peHHH Ha MHp cTOJinoB HaH6o;iee nocjie^OBaTejibHbix raoceo- 
jiorHH - KoreHa h Tyccepjin. 

OcTaeTCH cjio^cHTb pyKH, KOM(J)opTa6ejibHO ycecTbCH b cbocm Ka6nHe- 
Te - ycHyTb, yMepeTb. 

Bot bo hto npeBparajiH mm TBopnecTBO *ch3hh. IIoKa mm ayMajiH, hto 
6opb6a c pokom - Hani yaeji, TparnnecKaH cnjia Bbi6pacbiBajia Ha noBepx- 
HOCTb 5KH3HH orHeflbiuiamyio jiaBy pejiHrHH h (J)opM HCKyccTBa. Tenepb 

Mbl nOKOpHO CJI05KHJIH pyKHJ eCJIH CBepXHHAHBHayaJIbHaH HopMa no3Ha- 
HHH pHCyeT HaM BpeMH H npOCTpaHCTBO, H BO BpeMeHH HaC, H^yiUHX CKB03b 

BpeMH, - no 3aKOHaM paccyacaaiomero co3HaHHH, KOTopoe TaK BOo6me 
caMo b ce6e mmcjihtch, to h 6opb6a c pokom npeaonpeflejieHa pokom. 
TaK poK Hac ci>eji eme ao co3flaHHH MHpa. 

* * * 

HCTOpHH KyJIbTypbl - HCTOpHH pa3BHTHH (J)OpM npOH3BO#CTBa: MblC- 

jieft, npe^MeTOB noTpe6;ieHHH, o6mecTBeHHbix oTHOineHHH, t. e. H3#ejiHH 
TBopnecTBa, r^e TBopeu; npHpaBHHBaeTca k Hyjiio: TaK: «pa3eumue o6tu,e- 
cmea } - ynaT Hac, - u,ejiecoo6pa3HO»: ho uejih pa3BHTHH - rojian Mbicjib, 
(J)hkuhh: «npoipecc», «zocydapcmeo» h t. jx. Cpe^CTBa ace - njiOTb h KpoBb 
acHBan: (J)hkijhh cbeaaeT reKaTOM6w nejiOBenecKHx acepTB: tohho cwia npn- 
hochtch b acepTBy TOMy, nero HeT. H3,ztejiHe cbeaaeT Rejiarejin: h pHTMy 
5KH3HH yace HeT tohkh npnjioaceHHfl b acH3HH: TaK cymHOCTb ech3hh OKa3M- 

BaeTCH BHe5KH3HeHHOH CymHOCTbK); TOITja pa3BHBaK)TCH yHeHHH O BeHHOH 

5KH3HH TaM, b o6jiaKax: KOBapHbie He3yHTbi mmcjih nocejiHiOT Bora Ha He6e, 
OT^aBaH 3eMjno Mojioxy: KaK 6m hh Ha3MBajiH ce6n He3yHTM KyjibTypM - 
MHCTHKaMH, 6orocjioBaMH hjih aTencraMH, - pojib hx o^HHaKOBa: sto - na- 

aCH3HH. 

Ilpn hx ynacTHH b acH3HeHHOM 3aKOHOAaTejibCTBe uejiecoo6pa3HOCTb 
jiHHHoro pa3BHTHH ecTb ijejiecoo6pa3HocTb 6e3 ijejiH. TaK ne3yHTCKH 
onpeaejineT HCKyccTBO reHHajibHbifi MepTBeu - KaHT, yTBepacaaa b (^op- 
Max HCKyccTBa npoTHBoecTecTBeHHoe BMHBjieHHe pHTMa 5kh3hh: KOivja 
pHTMy He ocTajiocb MecTa b acH3HH, phtm co3^aji ce6e (J)opMbi BHe acH3HH; 
(J)opMbi 3th - (J)opMbi HCKyccTB: h nouijia 6acHH o 3ao6;iaHHbix BblCOTaX 
HCKyccTBa: ho 3ao6jianHbie bmcotm - sto nyjibc kpobh, 6neHHe cepaua. 

U,eJIb HCKyCCTBa - B30pBaTb COH aCH3HH. Ot 3TOrO 06eperaK)T HCKyCCTBO 

rocyaapcTBeHHHKH ot 4>hjioco(J)hh, co3flaBaji Teopnio o 6ecue;ibHOH ijejie- 

COo6pa3HOCTH. 



41 



Ecjih 5KH3Hb Hama ecTb KyjibTypHan CMepTb, to b yzjajieHHH ot 5KH3- 
hh - »CH3Hb TBopnecTBa. HejiOBenecTBO poaczjaeT 4)opMy HCKyccTBa, b ko- 
Topoit MHp pacnjiaBjieH b pHTMe, TaK hto yace HeT hh 3Cmjih, hh He6a, a 
TOJibKO - Mejio^HH MHpo3^aHHH: 3Ta 4>opMa - My3biKajibHan chm4>ohhh. 
H3BHe - OHa HaHCOBepineHHeiiinaH (J)opMa yaajieHHH ot 5KH3HH, H3Hy- 
Tpn - OHa conpHKacaeTCH c cymHOCTbio aeH3HH - phtmom. IIo3TOMy-TO Ha- 

3bIBaeM Mbl pHTM 2KH3HH flyXOM My3bIKH! 3fleCb - np006pa3bl Hfleft, MHpOB, 

cymecTB. 3aecb xyzjoacHHK - jxyx, napnmHH Haa xaocoM 3ByKOB, hto6m 

C03flaTb HOBblH MHp TBOpHeCTBa H HM pa3flaBHTb TBOpneCKHe 06JIOMKH, 

Ha3biBaeMbie 6brraeM: 3aaana pHTMa, yKpbiToro b TBopnecTBe, o6opBaTb 
He6o, pa3^aBHTb 3eMjno: 6pocHTb He6o h 3eMjno b nponacTb He6biTHH, 
noTOMy hto b ayuie xyaoacHHica - HOBan 3cmjih h HOBoe He6o: «CMepmb 
noeepoKena e o3epo oznennoe^ - cjimihht anocTOJi tojioc Otkpobchhh; 
«yme noeepMeHa», - r^e-TO TaM, b r;iy6HHe ayuiH: cTajio 6biTb, b rjiy6HHe 
ayuiH yaee 3BynHT necHb TopacecTByiomeH 5kh3hh: ho mh 3acopneM ayuiy 
TBopnecKHMH OT6pocaMH: He noHHMaeM rojioca, He 3HaeM, hto «noeep- 
otcena CMeprm»: h HyacHO, hto6m My3biKa npojiHjiacb b Haiuy KpoBb, hto6m 
KpoBb CTajia My3biKoii: Tor^a mm noHMeM, hto npeo6paaceHHe - b Hac h 
6eccMepTHe - c HaMH. 

Ho rjiy6oK coh: aaace MbicjiHTb phtmhhcckh mm He yMeeM, Bee TOJib- 
ko MeHTaeM o MeTaTejibHbix CHapn^ax; mm 3a6biBaeM, hto ot ce6n Heicyfla 
yjieTeTb; nycTb yjieTHM mm, nycTb CTaHeM mm Bee UennejiHHaMH: jicthiuhh 
UennejiHH - coh o nojieTe: h nojieT Ha aaponjiaHe - rHnep6o;iHHecKHH 
nojieT; nojieT - He KOM(})opTa6ejibHoe nepeMemeHHe H3 o^hoh tohkh npo- 
CTpaHCTBa b apyryio, nojieT - BOCTopr, 3HTy3Ha3M, cropaHHe; ecjiH BOCTopr 
B03HeceT eme h Tejio, mm corjiacHM 6biTb «nmuufum e eo3dyxe», a noKa mm 
bo3hmch c aaponjiaHaMH, Haa HaMH MorjiH 6m nocMeHTbcn h hthijm. 

* * * 

Bbina^eHHe 4>opM H3 My3MKajibHoft (hohhoh) cthxhh ayum: TaKOBa 
KOCMoroHHH HCKyccTB. CHanajia 6mji HacTynaTejibHMH nepnofl HCKyccTBa: 

3TO nepHO^ AOHCTOpHHeCKHH, My3MKaJIbHafl CTHXHH HOHH neJia 6e3MMHH- 
HMMH KpHKaMH B flHKape - H CHMBOJIOM 3TOH HOHHOH neCHH 6bIJia HOHb, 

OKpyacaBuian nepBo6biTHoro nejioBeica: «mhp 6ecTejiecHMH, ho He3pHMMH... 
POhjich b xaoce hohhom». He6o ayuiH h He6ecHbiS Kynoji jxjin flHKapn - 
o^ho. TepoH 6opo;icH c 6ecTe;iecHMM ayxoM o^HHaKOBO, KaK h c Me^Be^eM, 
oh HacTynaji h no6e»c^aji; h jihhhh ero hohhoto nyTH 03apn;iacb cbctom 

B03HHKIUHX o6pa30BJ o6pa3M, 6bIT, KyMHpbl MMCJIH - 3TO TpO(J)eH, BbipBaH- 

Hbie H3 pyK hohh; b momcht, Kor^a repoii ononHJi Ha Tpo(J)eHX, oicpyacHB 
ce6n o6pa3aMH, B03HHKJia hctophh, t. e. coh repon; oneaH hohh BpbiBajicn 
b MaTepnK o6pa30B: h repoit bmctpohji H3 o6pa30B uHTa^ejib (3aKOHM, npa- 
bo, rocyzjapcTBo); TaK CBajiHji oh 3amHTy co6cTBeHHOH 5KH3HH Ha 4>eTHHia, 
BMecTo Toro hto6m noHHTb, hto 6opb6a c pokom - 6opb6a c co6cTBeHHoii 



42 



kochoctbio; Bejib tojibko 3Ta 6opb6a BbiceicaeT HOBbie ciyneHH Ha jiccthh- 

Ije MHp03^aHHH. 

B tot nepHOA, Kor^a nejiOBeK npeBparaji TBopnecKyio CTyneHb b njio- 
CKOCTb 6biTHH, njiocKOCTb 0Ka3ajiacb 6ecKOHeHHOCTbio 3toh 5KH3HH h re- 

POH CTaJI 6jiy»CaaK)mHM CTpaHHHKOM no IUIOCKOCTH 6eCKOHeHHOCTH; TaK 

HejiOBenecTBO h3mchhjio jihhhio CBoero nyTH: jihhhh npeacHero nyTH 
npo^oji^cHjiacb b He6o, CTajia He6oM, bhchiuhm Ha/* hcjiobckom, a hobwh 
nyTb - 3eMjieH. 

TaK HanajicH nepnoa o6opoHHTejibHoro HCKyccTBa: HyacHO 6mjio 3a- 
KpbiTb He6ecHyio 6e3flHy o6pa3aMH: h bot mh^ojiotusi: naa 6e3£HOH npo- 

THHyTb KOBep 06pa30B! B03HHKaeT OJIHMnHHCKHH JieUb f MaTepHK 3CMJIH, 

3amHmaeMbifl 6oraMH, KpenHeT, pa3BHBaeTCH HCTopHnecKan KyjibTypa. 

TyT pacna^aeTCH jiHHHOCTb Ha pyx (hjih phtm), /jyiiiy (hjih cbct, pa3- 
jioxceHHbiH Ha HBeTbi, t. e. KpacKy, r^e He6o - najiHTpa) h Ha Tejio; H3 Tejia 

BbinaJia KOCHOCTb 3eMJIH, OTo6pa3HBHIHCb B TBOpHeCTBe, KaK 30/JHeCTBO H 

CKyjibnTypa; H3 ayiiiH Bbinajio He6o, cbct h Kpacna, t. e. acHBonncb: H3 ayxa 
Bbinajia necHH, pacnaBiHHCb Ha no33Hio h My3biKy. Bwpoc MHp HCKyccTB - 

30JIOTOH KOBep AnOJIJIOHa Hafl My3bIKaJIbHOH 6e3AHOH. 

IlecHH poac^aeT no33Hio; phtm (})opMHpyeT nosTHnecKHH MeTp; cjioac- 
HOCTb MeTpa nopoac^aeT nosTHnecKyio npo3y, t. e. cthjik crajib npeo6pa- 
acaeT cjiobo, (J)opMbi npeo6paaceHHH cjiOBa - cpe^CTBa H3o6pa3HTejibHOCTH: 
TaK cjiot o6pa3yeTCH H3 cthjih. Taxoea no93ux co cmoponu cjioea; co CTopo- 
hh coaepacaHHH - OHa BH^eHHe 6ora; nepBOHanajibHO b ochobc no3THHe- 
ckoto MH(J)a jieacHT HBjieHHe 6ora BaKxaHTy, acpeuy, Mary, a npoaojiaceHHe 
o6pa3a b BOo6pa»ceHHH, t. e. b pHTMe, H3MeHneT rajiJiiouHHauHK): BH^eHHe 
OKa3biBaeTCH b pa3Hbix BH^ax; TaK phtm pa3MHoacaeT o6pa3bi, OTHomeHHe 
nacTeii pacnaBinerocH o6pa3a k o6pa3y ecTb OTHomeHHe Te3w h aHTHTe3bi 
k CHHTe3y; Te3a ororrb apo6htch Ha Te3y h aHTHTe3y ht.^Hb pe3yjibTaTe 
CHCTeMa o6pa30B - hjih mhcJx TaK B03HHKaeT pejiHrnn; 3aKOHbi pacnaaeHHH 
o6pa30B - 3aKOHbi HHceji: H3 MH(J)a 6epeT Hanajio Ka66ajiHCTHKa, MaTeMa- 
THKa h He6ecHan MexaHHKa. 3aecb KopeHb nH(J)aropeHCTBa. CoaepacaHHe 
necHH pacna^aeTCH Ha jiorHKy, M6TacJ)H3HKy, HayKy, c o^hoh ctopohh, Ha 
Mopajib - c flpyroii; pejinrHH nepexo^HT b florMaTHKy, pe;iHrH03Hoe o6hob- 
jieHHe npn^OAHT TOJibKO nepe3 MHCTHKy, Kor^a 3Ta nocjie^HHH nonbiTaeTCH 

BHOBb npeBpaTHTb AOTMy B CHMBOJi: TyT B03HHKaeT peJIHTH03HaH THOCTH- 

Ka, TeococJ)HH h MeTacJ)H3HKa: o6pa3yeTcn Bee MHoroo6pa3He phtmhhcckhx 

MOflyjIHUHH neCHH; CO^epXCaHHe peJIHTHH, n033HH, MCTa(J)H3HKH - My3bl- 

KajibHbiH nacJ)oc AyuiH. 

H3roHHH co/jepacaHHe H3 pejinrHH, npnxoflHM k chmbojihhcckoh 6ec- 
CMbicjinue, t. e. k cxojiacTHKe. 

H3TOHHH CO^epXCaHHe H3 n033HH, npHXO^HM K pHTOpHK6| H3TOHHH 
COAep^CaHHe H3 MCTa(|)H3HKH, npHXO^HM k TeopHH no3HaHHn; 3^ecb CJIO- 
BO cbo6o^ho ot BCHnecKoro ncHXH3Ma. Ho cjiobo - Bcer^a chmboji; kot- 



43 



yTBepacflaeTCH cjiobo b nepeHOCHOM, t. e. He o6pa3HOM, a (J)opMajibHOM 
CMbicjie, mw Tpe6yeM, hto6w HaM yKa3ajiH, Ha hto nepeHOCHTCH cjiobo; ho 
npe/jMeT cjioBa oTcyTCTByeT: TaKOBa ynacrb TepMHHOB, TepMHH - BWBe- 

TpeHHOe CJIOBO, TeopHH 3HaHHH - CMepTb CJIOBa aCHBOTO. >KH3Hb npHHeTCH 

b 6eccjioBecHoe, npeBpameHHe cjiob b TepMHHM ecTb oco6an 4>opMa He- 
motw, BMecTe c TeM 3to Hanajio BOccraHHH xaoca b Hauiefl ayiiie, npH6jiH- 
aceHHe HOBoro noTona. Hayna h 4>hjioco(J)hh, onycTonian cjiobo, y6HBaiOT 
nojiyacHBwe, 3arHHBaiomHe cjioBa 6ecHHCJieHHwx cxojiacTHK h MeTacJ)H- 
3hk, yMHpaeT njioxoe cjiobo: mw ocBo6o»cflaeMCH ot bchkoh npH3panHOH 

5KH3HH (a TaKOH 5KH3HbK) HBJIHeTCH B HailieH KyjIbType 5KH3Hb cjiob). 

Mh cjiyuiaeM necHio 6e3 cjiob. 

Tenepb HanHHaeM mw noHHMaTb, hto Bee sth hopmw no3HaHHH, no- 
cpe^CTBOM KOTopwx He cymecTByiomee mwcjiht CBoe aonojmeHHe, KOTopoe 
OKa3WBaeTCH HaMH, npodo Ha6op cjiob. C BocToproM y6npaeM mw TeopHio 
3HaHHH BeHKaMH CBoero noHTeHHH: Be/jb Hauia rHoceojiorHHHOCTb - nocjiefl- 
hhh jianh MepTBeuy; Koiyja mw MeiacJ)H3HKH - mw MepTBeuoB ((J)hjioco(J)- 
CKHe CHCTeMbi) BWKanwBaeM H3 MorHJi, Kor^a mw Ha3WBaeM ce6n raoceo- 
jioraMH, mw, Hao6opoT: xopoHHM MepTBeija (t. e. (|)HJioco(J)CKyK) CHCTeMy); 
3thm mw OTKpwBaeM nyTb 6yaymeMy TBopnecTBy. 

Mw flaaee H3o6pejiH oco6yio jiorHnecKyio 4>opMy, b KOTopofl xopoHHM 
BCHKyio jiorHKy; Ha ocHOBaHHH jiorHKH mw yTBepaeaaeM jiorHKy KaK 4>op- 
My TBopnecTBa: 3thm yTBepaeaeHHeM o6meo6H3aTejibHwe cyacaeHHH Kama 
nepe6pacwBaiOTCH b npouijioe, Hauie npouijioe - My3WKa KaK HopMa, Hauie 
6yzjymee - My3WKa KaK ueHHocTb. 

BblCOHaHHiaH IjeHHOCTb TeopHH 3HaHHH B TOM, HTO yHHT Hac yMCTBeH- 

hwm cajibTOMopTajiHM; cKopo njioxoe cjiobo, onncaB nojiHWH Kpyr pa3BH- 
thh, KaK 3Men, yaeajiHT cboh xboct. 

OhjiococJ)hh npe^onpe^ejiHJia no3HaHHe tbophcctbom; npHCJiyuia- 
jiHCb k rojiocy TBopnecTBa, ho cjiob He OKa3ajiocb: 3anejia My3WKa, Bee 
CMeiuajia: pacnajiacb CBH3b, npHKpenjiniomaH cjioBa, HMeHa, o6pa3bi k 

TOMy HJIH HHOMy COflepaeaHHK): BMeCTO 5KH3HH - KHHeMaTOipa(}), BMeCTO 
HyBCTB - XaOC, BMeCTO H^efl - MeJIOflHfl, BMeCTO HCTOpHH - CTHJIb! Bee 

TOJibKO My3WKa, no^cjiyinaTb ee - noHHTb Bee, ho noHHTb - coTBopHTb; 
H3yMeHHe snoxn - crajio <J)opMOH TBopnecKOH HMnpoBH3auHH, hctophh 
nepecTajia cymecTBOBam E^HHoe, 3Bynamee KaK phtm bo BpeMeHH, KaK 
TOHajibHOCTb b npocTpaHCTBe, KaK Mejio^HH b npHHHHHOCTH, bot HacTpoe- 
HHe nepBwx chmbojihctob KOHija XIX CTOJieran: 3anejia KpacKa, nojieTejia 
jihhhh, paccenjiHCb mwcjih: cTajiH MbicjiHTb BHTpaacaMH XIII BeKa h opHa- 
mchtom; HayMHan MeTo^ojiorHH - crajia chmbojihkoh (HayKa He noTepnjia 
ot 3Toro; Hao6opoT: BWHrpajia), pejiHrH03Hbie .zjorMaTw npeBpaTHJiHCb b 
TBopnecKHe jichtmotmbw, hctophh KyjibTypw h hctophh HCKyccTB o6ora- 

THJIHCb UeHHWMH Tpy^aMH, HO HHTepeC K HCTOpHHeCKHM Tpy/jaM B03pOC 

nponopuiHOHajibHO yTpaTe nyBCTBa HCTopHHecKOH /jajin; e^Ba ajih ToHKy- 



44 



pa 3ane;ia nnoHCKan jKHBoimcb, KaK Sayapa MaHe BOCKpecHJi ee b cbocm 
TBopnecTBe: h noHBHJiHCb 3aTeM Tpyzjbi foH3a, PeBOHa, ToMKHHCOHa h ap., 
nocBHmeHHbie nnoHijaM, a 06pH Bepacjieft b nnoHijax BOCco3flaji Hani BeK, 
hto6w noTOM c6jiH3HTb ero c BaTTO. Ho oh ace, a eme 6ojiee Ps^oh CTajiH 

HHCTblMH BH3HOHepaMH. 

KpacKH 3anejiH: y PeM6o 3ByKH CTajiH KpacnaMH, y BepjieHa cjiOBa - 
3ByKaMH. HeMewafl opHeHTOJiorafl b Jinne /leficceHa o6oraTHJiacb 6e3- 
rpaHHHHo, nocjie Hniune BocKpecjia rpeima: Bee BpeMeHa h Bee npocrpaH- 
CTBa - npeBpaTHjiHCb b hotw o^hoh raMMbi; ho TOHajibHOCTbio raMMbi 
oKa3ajiacb 6jiaaceHHaH cTpaHa, pacTBopeHHan b jia3ypH: CTpaHa, rae He6o h 
3eMjiH - oaho, h noKa co3HaBajiacb 3Ta CTpaHa KaK MenTa, r^e b 6yaymeM 
BocKpecaeT npouuioe, a b npouuiOM jkhbct 6yaymee, ho r^e HeT HacTonme- 
ro, CHMBOJiHHecKan KapTHHa BaTTO «Embarquement pour Cythere» CTajia 
aeBH30M TBopnecTBa, h XVII BeK b yronHnx oaom omiTb. 3tot Heoco3HaH- 
Hbitt eme mpenem ecTb co3HaHHe OKOHnaTejibHOH peajibHOcra npa^e^OB- 
ckhx yTonHH o dpaHe mchtw. B dopoHy MenTbi, KOTopaa OKa3biBaeTCH 
BeHHOCTbio, noKa3WBaeT cTpejiKa KOMnaca Hniune. 

IIo-HOBOMy BocKpecaeT nepea HaMH BaTTO. KaK h (J>aHTacTHK Bepa- 
cjiefi, oh nyraeT Hac apjieKHHaaoii MacoK, KaK, HanpHMep, b «Harlequin jal- 
oux»: ho Kor^a b «Embarquement pour Cythere» y6eraeT necHH Kopa6jiH 
k 6jia»ceHHOMy ocTpoBy, vjxe H3 acepTBeHHoro flMMa yjieTaeT 6othhh, mm 

B MeHTe HaHHHaeM BHfleTb peaJIbHOCTb, MM H B .ZjeHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH TOJIb- 

ko oflHy bh^hm rpe3y, KaK, HanpHMep, b «Les Plaisirs du bal». H 5KH3Hb 
3^ecb - necHH 6e3 cjiob, KaK 6wjih necHHMH 6e3 cjiob - «Romanses sens pa- 
roles» BepjieHa. Tyr BepjieH, nojioaceHHbift Ha My3WKy Oops, HanoMHHaeT 
6;ieOTO-rojiy6oro BaTTO. 

3aecb - He6o cKB03Hoe, h 3cmjih He 3cmjih b jiyHHOH jia3ypH; (J)OHTaHbi 
noioT, nwjiHT, KJioKonyT, pwaaiOT, cmchdtch; h paayra b hhx cmciotch; apyr 
o6HHMaeT no^pyry; ho OTKyaa-TO npnuuiH mhckh; hx He Haao 6oflTbcn; 
3^ecb He6o, 3cmjih - He 3cmjih h He6o - 3flecb, b jiyHHofi jia3ypH, rae cjie3bi 

nOKDT, nblJIHT, KJIOKOHyT, pblflaiOT, CMeiOTCH. 

OTKy^a-TO npHnuiH MacKH... 



Bht oKpyacaeT Hac TbicnnaMH npe^MeTOB pockouih; 3amnmaeT Hac 
ot BTop^ceHHH HeBeflOMoro MOCTaMH, 6aniHHMH, »cejie3HbiMH aoporaMH; 
oh - nocjieflHee npoHBjieHHe necHH, nocneflHee pa3Jio»ceHHe pHTMa Ha 
tom nyra, no KOTopoMy pa3BHBajiacb necHH. Hbme necH* MeHneT pycjio 
CBoero TeneHHH. H 6wt pyniHTCH. 

Bch KyjibTypa Bbipocjia H3 neceH h njiacoK. 

Ho necHH pa3Jiarajiacb: h kskhmh npHHyzyiHBMMH ijBeTaMH UBejia hc- 

KyCCTBeHHaH n033HH, H KRKHM TOHHaHUIHM Kpy^eBOM MblCJIH BblHBHJiaCb 
4>HJIOCO(J)HH OT CpeflHeBeKOBOH CXOJiaCTHKH RO HaUIHX flHefi; H KaKHMH 



45 



TOHHaiiuiHMH npH6opaMH no^apHjia Hac HayKa, h Kaica* cjioacHOCTb o6Ha- 
pyacHjiacb b o6mecTBeHHbix othoiii6hhhx! Bee 3to - ijBeTeHHe yMHpaiomeH 
necHH Hapo^Hofl. 

My3biKa OT^ejiH^acb ot necHH h KaHyjia b r;iy6HHy ayuiH - h OTKyaa- 
to Bbipocjia chm4>ohhh; ho MecTO ee - KOHuepTHbift 3aji, t. e. neTbipe ctchm, 
a chmbojiw ee - 6ajibHbie Tyajiera h sjieicrpHHecKaH jiaMnonica. 

Cjiobo OTflejiHjiocb ot necHH - pa3BHJiocb bo Bee CTopoHbi, o6pa30Bajio 

UBeTHHK nOSTHHeCKHX (J)OpM C CaMbIM TOHKHM UBCTKOM - flpaMOH! HO Te~ 

aTp HaBajiHJiCH Ha apaMy KaMeHHbiMH CBO^aMH; h pa3,zjaBHji. 

Cjiobo 3aacniocb TbicnnaMH KpacoK: b hctophh MejibKHyjiH paficKHe 
necHH KpacoK ot (J)pecoK BeaTO jxo... njiaKaTa: CKopo xy^oacHHK CTaHeT hch- 

BOnHCUeM BblBeCOK. 

3oflHeCTBO npeBpaTHJIOCb B HH^CeHepHOe HCKyCCTBO: CTpOHTb MOCTbl, 

aMepHKaHCKHe KOJieca h 6auiHH - 3aaana xyaoacHHica. 

Cjiobom - pbiHOK pa3Jio»CHJi MaTepHio HCKyccTB; jxyx HCKyccTBa pa3- 
jioechjich b TeopHH 3HaHHH h HayKH. TaM, rae 3ejieHe^H Jiyra, - Hbme bh- 
BeTpeHHbie necnaHHKH. 

E^ce^HeBHaH acH3Hb OT^aHa CHHeMaTorpa(J)y h Ka(})e-Ka6aKy. Hcto- 
Phh - My3eH-naHonTHKyM. 

IIoa 6e3o6pa3HbiM kopoctom >kh3hh phtm xch3hh noacjiyiuaji Hhij- 
iue. RyxoM /iHOHHca Ha3Baji oh 6HeHHe )kh3hh; flyxoM AnojuioHa - >KH3Hb 
TBopnecKoro o6pa3a. 06a Hanajia oica3ajiHCb BHe acH3HH, noTOMy hto >KH3Hb 
nepecTajia 6biTb aaraHbio: ottoto-to My3biKy mh MoaceM onpe^ejiHTb TOJib- 
ko KaK He6o ayuiH, a no33HH - o6;iaKa 3Toro He6a: H3 He6a Bbina^aeT 06- 
jiaKo; H3 pHTMa - Tejio: coe^HHeHHe pHTMa c o6pa30M. Chmboji cjihhhhh 
Tejia h jiyuiw. HaMeneHHbiH nyTb TyT B03BpameH k repoH3My, t. e. cnaceHHe 
HejiOBenecTBa: CHHMaeTCH npeaoxpaHHTejibHoe 3arpaacaeHHe ot xaoca H3 
MepTBbix o6pa30B, Mbicjieft h 3HaHHH; npoBajiHBaeTCH KyjibTypa; Me^Be^b 
hjih 3jioh jiyx CHOBa Hana^aeT Ha Hac; ho o6pa3 h 6e3o6pa3He, cbct h TbMa - 
chmbojih AymeBHOH pa3/jBoeHHOCTH - #Be bctbh apeBa no3HaHHH dodpa 
h 3Jia. Bopb6a nejioBeica c pokom - 6opb6a repon co cbohm co6cTBeHHbiM 
chom; y apeBa no3HaHHH ao6pa h 3Jia - o^hh o6mHH ctboji mu3hu. Bo3Bpa- 
meHHe k ocHOBHOMy CTBOJiy 3Toro apeBa - Jio3yHr 6yaymero; yrjiy6jineTCH 
pycjio »ch3hh: npeacHee pycjio 0Ka3biBaeTCH Boo6paacaeMbiM, h KyjibTypa 
c ee 6auiHHMH acejie3a, 3HaHHeM h (J)HJioco(J)HeH oica3biBaeTCH npH3paKOM, 
6auiHH ee - o6jiaHHbie 6auiHH: ohh TaiOT - npoBajiHBaiOTCfl b MpaK. yace 
nepBo6biTHOH rpy6ocTbio h KpacoToft repoH3Ma naxHyjio Ha Hac ot «Ko;n>- 
ua HH6e;iyHroB»; TaM necHb o HaiueM 6yaymeM, Koraa omiTb 3Hn})pHfl 
6yaeT 6opoTbCH c BoTaHOM (Me/me^eM), BoTaH pa3ryjiHBaTb no 3eMJie b 
o6pa3e CTpaHHHKa; onaTb He6o coe^HHHTCH c 3eMjiefl, a 6orn h jiioah 6y^yT 
cbo6o^ho pa3iyjiHBaTb - nepBbie no 3eMJie, BTopwe - no He6y. 

,/IpeBo 5KH3HH npeBpaTHJia hctophh b /jpeBO no3HaHHH ao6pa h 3Jia: h 
repofl pacnajicH Ha co3epijaTe;ra h aejiaTejin; aejiaTejib npoH3BO#HT TOBap, 



46 



co3epijaTejib ckojib3ht Ha# hhm b o6jiaice Mbicjieft; nepBbift - pa6, BTopofi - 
6or h uapb: pa6 b o6pa3e 6o»cecTBa - h bot Haiue Ha3HaneHHe b HCTopHHe- 
ckoh KyjibType. Bor b Hac OKa3ajicn pa6oM co6cTBeHHoro CHa. 

06;iaK0 Mbicjieft - zio6po; TOBap jkh3hh - 3jio. OTpeineHHe ot MHpa 
npoB03rjiacHjia Mopajib. H 3thm OTflajianejioBeica b aeepTBy BemaM. «MepT- 
bo Baine 3Jio, MepTBO h ao6po», - BocKJiHKHyji Hnuiine: h 30BeT k .Ahohh- 
cy, t. e. apeBy jkh3hh*: He^apoM h Berraxep ycraHaBjiHBaeT 3a ^hohhcom 
o6pa3 ayuiH apeBecHoft: /{hohhc JleHjipuT; b eBpeftcKOM chmbojic (apeBo 

5KH3HH) BOCKpeCaeT CHMBOJI flHOHHCHaHCKHH! 3TO 3HaHHT! My3bIKa BbipaC- 

rajia apeBo 5KH3hh; HeziapoM My3biKa - xaoc, H3 KOToporo, no HKOBy BeMe, 
poacaaeTcn Bor. Coe^HHeHHe 6ora /{HOHHca c chmbojimhcckhm apeBOM 
5KH3HH yrjiy6jineT HaM noHHMaHHe cymHocTH pejiHrH03HOH chmbojihkh. 
O tom ace B. HBaHOBy roBopHT Teoco(J)HHecKaH CHMBOJiHKa Kpeftijepa h 
4>aHTacTHKa OTcfrpHaa Kejuiepa; a cneHcepoBCKHH B3rjiafl Ha pejiHrnio KaK 
Ha noHHTaHHe npe^KOB BCTpenaeTca c otohhchhcckhm HCTOJiKOBaHHeM 
pejiHrHH b coneTaHHH Po^e «Psyche». /{hohhc nepBOHanajibHO 6or ape- 
BecHofi pacTHTejibHocTH - \)W|ei<;, (ptecbv, «6aKX» - sto mojio^oh no6er ejiH 
Ha npa3flHHKax .Hhohhchh: apeBo - h ecTb nepBOHanajibHbiH 4)erain, noTO- 
My hto oho - o6HTajiHme AyuiH (t. e. My3biKH). H noTOMy-To 6H6;ieHCKoe 

apeBO 5KH3HH eCTb CHMBOJIHHeCKHH o6pa3 My3bIKH. Bee 3T0 CTaHOBHTCH 

hcho nocjie «Geburg der Trag6edie» Hhiuhc HHiune onnpaeTCH 3ziecb Ha 
(J)HJiojiorHio, Ha Hccjie^oBaHHH ByprKxapTa, Ha Baraepa h LLIoneHrayapa 
CTOJib ace, CKOJibKO Ha tojioc CBoeS ayuiH. 

H no-HOBOMy BOCKpecaioT nepea HaMH poMaHTHKH: HoHjib BepHo yica- 
3biBaeT Ha to, hto HHuuie poflHjicn Ha po^HHe poMaHTH3Ma, oh yBJieicaeT- 
ch HoBajiHCOM, b «rHnepHOHe» IejibflepjiHHa oh bh^ht npoo6pa3w cBepx- 
nejiOBeKa, ero n(|)opTCKHH yHHTejib Ko6epuiTeHH - hctophk poMaHTH3Ma, 
ero apyr Pojxe OTKpwBaeT cjieflbi po\iaHTH3Ma b JXpeBnevL TpeijHH. Ilo- 
cjie HHiune jiynuie noHHMaeM mm THKa, Kor^a stot nocjie^HHH tobopht: 
«Bce - Hrpa» h aajiee: y6eran b rjiy6b hctophh, mm BCTpenaeM (J)HJioco(J)a 
My3biKH TepaKJiHTa, op(J)HKOB h nH(J>aropeHueB. «H HTy oroHb», - nepe- 
KJiHKaeTCH c TepaKJiHTOM Op. LLIjierejib. «ByaeM nncaTb no^o6HO Tpy- 
6aaypaM», - BocKJiHijaeT Hnmue. «ByaeM BaKxaHTaMH», - B03rjiauiaeT 
HoBajiHC. 

H bot H3 My3biKajibHoro na4>oca jiyuiu poac^aeTCH 3apn hoboh Myapo- 
cth, BOBce MHHyn TeopHio 3HaHHH: Mbicjib HaHHHaeT HrpaTb h neTb: Bcnbi- 
xHBaeT a(|)opH3M. 

Bcio >KH3Hb HHUine nHcaji o ^HOHHce, ho no-pa3HOMy npH3braaeT oh 
k My3biKe; CHanajia oh 30BeT k BarHepy: Baraep bmboaht H3 HCKyccTBa 
5KH3Hb 6yaymero; pa3flejibHbie (J)opMbi HCKyccTB ajih Hero - tot ErnneT, H3 



* IlocjieayiomHe mhcjih HOBoro a63aua 3aHMCTBOBaHbi HaMH H3 3a\ieMa- 
TejibHoro HCCJie^oBaHHH B. HBaHOBa «Pejiuzua cmpadaioiu>ezo Boza». 



47 



KOToporo oh - MoHceii - bbibo^ht H36paHHHKOB; ho Baraep He npHBO^HT 
b 36MJHO o6eTOBaHHyio: 6pocaeT b nycTbme acreTHHecKoro 3KJieKTH3Ma. 

Tor^a HHixnie 6pocaeT Baraepa. 3obct k My3biKe, MHHyn HCKyccTBo: 
npnrjiainaeT nponeTb cbok> 5KH3Hb: Tyr oh - Hoh - nocTpoHBUiHii KOBner- 
necHio b tot MHr, Kor^a BeTxoMy HauieMy co3HaHHK> rpo3HT noTon My3bi- 
kh: Hejib3H 6e3HaKa3aHHO y6eraTb ot bo^h 5khboh: caM Hnmiie nora6 b 
noTone: My3biKa 3aTonHJia ero co3HaHHe. Ho mm yace 3HaeM, b neM KoBHer, 
nocTpoeHHbiH Hnmne. IlecHH, KaK ynpaaoieHHe b pHTMe 5kh3hh: bot uyib 
6y,aymero; mm aojDKHbi HayHHTbcn nponeTb Hauiy 5KH3Hb. 

IlecHH - chmboji: o6pa3 3flecb Bbi6poineH phtmom; chmboji - Bcerzja 
peajieH, noTOMy hto chmboji Bcer^a My3biKajieH; a My3biKa - 3KH3HeHHan 

CTHXHH TBOpHeCTBa. H3 neCHH pa3BHJIHCb H n033HH, H My3bIKa KaK (J)OpMbI 

HCKyccTBa; cjie^OBaTejibHO, necHH - nponcxoaczieHHe bchkoto no3flHeHHie- 
ro ycjio»HeHHH o6pa30B h phtmob. B ee hctophh - hctophh nponcxoacfle- 
hhh o6pa30B: 0Ha - My3biKajibHan hx CBH3b: b ochobc pejinrHH OHa - KaK 

MOJIHTBa; B OCHOBe n033HH OHa - KaK JIHpHKaj OHa B OCHOBe My3bIKH KaK 

HCXoflHan TOHKa hhctoto pHTMa. Cjiobo 3,aecb Bbi3biBaeT o6pa3, cjiobo caMO 
CTaHOBHTCH o6pa30M: cjiobo 3flecb nmeT njiOTH, hto6w CTaTb eio; CJIOBO 
3,ziecb - C03H,aaeT njioTb rapMOHHnecKOH 5kh3hh: cjiobo - 3flecb phtm, TaK 
hto o6pa3 Bbi6ponieH H3 bchhoh cthxhh ayuiH. 

Phtm - KaK 6bi BeTep, nepeceKaiomHH He6o ayuiH, KaK 6w BeTep, poac- 
aaiomHHCH b He6e, noTOMy hto ayuia - BenHan npaMaTepb Tejia, h BenHan 
npaMaTepb 3cmjih - He6o; H3 6e3flHbi He6ecHOH poacaajincb TyMaHHocra 

C HX COJIHIiaMH, C HX 3CMJIHMH. RyX My3bIKH OnOHHJI Ha# xaocoM: H 6bIJI 

cb6t - .zjeHb nepBHH tbopchhh: h 3eMjiH - po^Hjiacb H3 He6a. 

3tot .aeHb nepBbiii TBopeHHH npH6jiH»eaeTCH Hbme, Kor^a roBopHM mm 

O HOBOM 5KH3HCHHOM TBOpHeCTBC IIOTOn My3bIKH, pa3pbIBaK)mHH HbIHe BCe 

(J)opMbi HCKyccTBa, 6yaeT .zjeHb: - oh cmoct cTapbin MHp: h necHH 3^ecb - 
KOBner, BJieKymHH Hac Ha Bojmax xaoca k hoboh TBopnecKOH 5kh3hh; cjiobo 
b necHe hocht xapaKTep 3aKJiHHaHHH. Mw 3a6bijiH, hto necHH - Maran, h 
mw CKopo noiiMeM, hto ecjiH He orpa^HMCH MarnnecKHM KpyroM neceH, to 
nora6HeM b noTone My3biKH: b noTone, My3biKoii cxo^nmeM Ha bckd Kyjib- 
Typy: yaee b Tynax ropH30HT Hainero 6yaymero: CTapwH xaoc rpo3HT TaM h 
6jiemeT TaM mojihhhmh: CTapbiH xaoc HeceT rpo3Hbie xjih6h: HfleT noTon. 

EiecHH - nepBbiH jienh TBopnecTBa: nepBbift .zjeHb MHpa HCKyccTB. My- 
3biKajibHan cthxhh ayuiH, b kotopoh Bee nojiHo, KaK y Oajieca, «6ozoe, de- 
Mome u dyiu», 03apneTCH cbctom b necHe: H3 necHH noTOM Bbina^aiOT (j)op- 

Mbl HCKyCCTB, 3^eCb 3CMJIH HCKyCCTBa Bbina^aeT H3 He6a HCKyCCTB, nJIOTb 

H3 ayum. 

Phtm - nepBoe npoHBjieHHe My3biKH: 3to - BeTep, BOjmyiomHH ro- 
jiy6oii oKeaH o6jianHOH 3bi6bio: o6jiaKa poaeaaioTCH ot ctojikhobchhh Be- 

TpOB, 06jiaHHaH flblMKa n033HH - OT CJI05KHOCTH My3bIKaJIbHbIX phtmob 

ayuiH. 



48 



IIoflo6Ho TOMy KaK b o6;iaHHOM onepTaHHH jiobhm mw HanepTaHHe 3Ha- 
komwx o6pa30B, - poacziaioTCH TBopnecKHe o6pa3bi H3 My3biKajibHoro TyMa- 

Ha, r.Zje KpaCKH - TOHaJIbHOCTH, H TJie BemeCTBO - CHJia H BblCOTa 3ByKa. 

Kor^a roBopHM mbi: sto He o6;iaKO, 3to - BejiHKaH, sto - ropHbiii xpe- 
6eT, sto - HeBcaoMbiii nepTor HeBe^OMoro rpa^a, mw npHTHrHBaeM o6pa3w 
TBopnecTBa k 3eMjie: 3jxech o6pa3bi, y^ajinncb ot My3biKH, CTaHOBHTCH H^e- 
ajibHee; ho, npH6jiH^caacb k 3eMJie, ohh 3pHTe;ibHo - bh^hmo peajibHeft; 
b 6jih30cth - ^ajieKH; b oiyjajieHHocTH (b My3biKe) - 6jih3kh. 3aecb, KaK 
A^aM, Ha3biBaeM mw o6pa3w UMenaMu eetu,eu. H o6pa3bi (J)aHTa3HH Hacejin- 
k)t Haiu MHp: TaK b HCKyccTBe HaHHHaeTCH MH(J)HHecKoe TBopnecTBo: TaK B 
HCKyccTBe OTKpwBaeTCH BeHHaa peajibHOCTb. 

HO HH BHflHMOCTb, HH (J)aHTa3HH B neCHe He 5KH3HeHHbi: 5KH3HCHHa B 

necHe My3WKa, ee 3(J)HpHoe He6o, co3H,ziaiomee h BeTxyio 3eMjno Hauiy, h 

HOByK) 3CMJIK) HaHHHH HaiHHX. 

IleCHH COe^HHHeT pHTM (BpeMH) H o6pa3 (npOCTpaHCTBO) B CJIOBe 
(npHHHHHOCTH). 

B pa^e npHHHH h cjie^CTBHH TBopnecTBO HaHHHaeT hobwh pn^ npHHHH 

H CJie^CTBHH: B MHpe 6bITHfl C03HflaeT MHp IjeHHOCTeft. 

IlecHH 6wjia HanajiOM TBopnecTBa b HCKyccTBe. A Tenepb, Kor^a TBop- 
necTBO b HCKyccTBe Bee 6o;iee h 6o;iee CTaHOBHTCH TBopnecTBOM (J)opM 
MepTBbix, necHH ecTb nepBwft npH3WB k TBopnecTBy (J>opM hchbwx: npH3WB 

K HeJIOBeKy, HTo6bI OH CTaJI XyflO}KHHKOM 5KH3HH. 

IlecHH 30BeT. IlecHfl ^CHBen nycTb hctophkh H3ynaK)T 3aKOHbi pa3MHO- 
yueHUH h paccejieHHH neceH; nycTb ohh ynaT Hac, KaK (})paHuy3CKafl necHH 
nepecejiHjiacb b HTajiHio h HcnaHHio, KaK H3 necHH KpHCTajuiH30BajiHCb 
coHeT, 6ajuia^a. KaK H3 Tpy6a#ypa bo3hhk nosT /laHTe, KaK b TpeuHH ce- 
MHCTpyHHan Jinpa TepnaH^pa nopoanjia MejioflHio, a mcjio^hh - CTpo(J)y, 

CTpO(J)a - BeJIHKHX JIHpHKOB flpeBHOCTH. He CTpOHHOft TeopHH mw HmeM: 

»CH3Hb acHByio cbok) cjiaraeM mw b necHH. IlycTb hhhtojkhw mw, npe^Tenn 
6yaymero. Mw 3HaeM ooto: 

IlecHH HCHBeT; necHeft acHByT; ee nepeacHBaiOT; nepeacHBaHHe - Op- 
cj^eit: o6pa3, BW3WBaeMwft necHeft, TeHb 3bph,zjhkh - HeT, caMa 3BpH,zjHKa 
BOCKpecaioman. Kor^a nrpaji Op(})eft, njracajiH KaMHH. 

Mh^ojiothh b o6pa3e Op4)eH HaaejiHjia My3WKy chjioh, npHBoanmeft 
b ^BH^ceHHe KocHOCTb MaTepHH. IlecHH - AeftcTBHTejibHWH MHp, npeo6pa- 
5KeHHWH My3WKOH, h BOo6paacaeMwft MHp, CTaBiHHH Eboio, b Heft ace. 

IlecHH - 3eMHoft octpob, OMWTwft BOJiHaMH My3WKH, necHa - o6nTejib 
aeTeft, OMbuan 3(})HpoM Mopa; tot octpob, Kyaa Hac 3Baji 3apaTycTpa: oh 
3Baji Hac ocTaBaTbCH BepHWMH 3eMJie. 

IleCHH - 3TO TO eflHHOe, HTO OTKpblBaeTCH B MHOrOo6pa3HH! 3TO «£v 

Kai7cctv», to e^HHoe, hto o6pa3yeT H3 Bcex neceH oflHy necHb; necHb nec- 
Heft - sto jno6oBb, h6o b jiio6bh - TBopnecTBO, b TBopnecTBe - acH3Hb. He- 
aapoM «IIecHb Uecneu» OTKpwBaeTCH E^hhwm JIhkom B03Jiio6jieHHoft - 



49 



B03JiK)6jieHHOH Bchhocth, KOTopyio TOJibKO h jik)6hji HHijiiie, npopoK 
3eMjiH. OTKpoBeHHe yica3biBaeT HaM Ha tot ace jihk h Ha He6e: HeBecToft 
Ha3HBaeM mw 3tot jihk. 3eMHbie necHH, necHH He6ecHbie - (J>aTa HeBecTw 
BenHocTH: BenHoe B03BpameHHe HHijiiie h B03BpameHHe Bchhocth - He 
oflHO jih: h «Konbup KOJieu,, KOJitup eosepama* - He 6panHoe jih kojimjo? 

Mw 3HaeM, hto Kor,zja mh noeM, to h b He6e ocTaeMcn mw BepHbiMH 
3eMjie, a ocraBancb BepHbiMH 3eMjie, mw jiio6hm He6o: rjxe ace, KaK He Ha 
He6e CTapan Hauia 3eMJin? 

Tenepb mw 3HaeM, hto ayuia h Tejio - oaho, KaK 3HaeM, hto 3eMJia h 
He6o - o^ho; ho Tenepb yace mw 3HaeM, hto 3cmjih HameH ayiiiH h He6o 
njioTH Hanieii - TOJibKO TBopnecTBo: a hto o6jiacn> TBopnecTBa He aajieKHH 
octpob U,HTepw, a caMa acH3Hb, 3HaeM mw Toace, 3HaeM h to, hto He Bee b 

5KH3HH - )KH3Hb, H He BCe HCKyCCTBO - TBOpHeCTBO. 

A coBpeMeHHOCTb yMy^pHjia onwTOM aep3aHHH HOBaTopoB HCKyccTBa, 
nwTaBHiHxcH H3 coe^HHeHHH (J)opM xyaoacecTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa HaHTH 
(J)opMy, ocBemaiomyio rjiy6HHw acH3HeHHwx ycTpeMjieHHH. He b coe,zjH- 

HeHHH n033HH C My3WKOH eflHHCTBO 3THX HCKyCCTB, - 3TO-TO flOCTaTOHHO 
MW nOHHJIH. 

BwcoHaHinaH TOHKa My3WKH - ee cjioacHeiiniaH 4>opMa - chm(J>ohhh; 
BwcoHaftuiaH TOHKa no33HH - cjioacHeiiinafl ee (J)opMa - Tpare^Hn: ^KH3HeH- 

HO COeflHHHTb CHM(J)OHHK) H TpareflHK) - HeB03MO*CHO, KaK HeJIb3fl CHHTaTb 
)KH3HbK) TeaTp, COeflHHeHHWH C KOHUepTHWM 3aJIOM. MHCTepHH, OTKpblBa- 

lomancH HaM b acH3HH, - h MHcrepHH Baraepa c KOJibuoM h KOjiomnaMH, 
hto TyT o6njero? 

HaM HyacHO coe^HHeHHe no33HH h My3WKH b Hac, a He BHe Hac, mw 
xothm acHTb aeiicTBHTejibHWM e^HHCTBOM cjiOBa h My3WKH, a BOBCe He OT- 
paaceHHWM: mw xothm, hto6w He MepTBaa (J)opMa - Kynoji yBeHnaji xpaM 
HCKyccTB, a nejioBeK - acHBaa (J)opMa. H necHH - BecTb o nejiOBenecKOM 
npeo6paaceHHH: 3to npeo6paaceHHe b nepeacHBaHHnx Hainnx pa3BepTWBa- 
eT e^HHWH, caM b ce6e ijejibHwii, nyTb. Ha stom nyra b npeo6paaceHHH 
bhotmocth nocTHraeM mw CBoe npeo6paaceHHe. KaK b ropHe njiaBHJibHOM 
njiaBHTCH Hauia njiOTb, a HaM KaaceTCH, hto njiaBHTCH MHp. TyT b aejiax, 

B CJIOBaX, B HyBCTBaX HeJIOBeK - MHHHe3HHrep Co6cTBeHHOH 3KH3HH: H 

aCH3Hb - necHb. 

Ho h b MHHHe3HHrepe y3HaeM mw nejioBeKa, npeo6paacaiomero cboio 
acH3Hb. H necHH ero - BecTb o npeo6paaceHHH. H ecjiH nejiOBenecTBO noa- 
xqzjht k TOMy py6eacy KyjibTypw, 3a kotopwm jih6o CMepTb, jih6o HOBwe 
(J)opMw »ch3hh, b necHe h TOJibKO b necHe noACJiyuiHBaeT oho co6cTBeH- 
Hyio cyzjb6y. H mw HaHHHaeM necHb Hanieii ech3hh. 

Mw pa3yHHJiHCb jieTaTb: mw Tnacejio mwcjihm, Tnacejio xo^hm, HeT y 
Hac no^BHroB, h xnpeeT Ham acH3HeHHwii phtm: jictkocth 6oacecTBeHHoii 
npocTOTw h 3flopoBb*i HaM HyacHo; Toraa Haft^eM mw cMejiocTb nponeTb 

CBOK) aCH3HbI H6o eCJIH He neCHH aCHBafl aCH3Hb, - aCH3Hb He aCH3Hb BOBCC 



50 



HaM HyacHa My3biKajibHaa nporpaMMa 5KH3HH, pa3^ejieHHaH Ha necHH 
(no^BHrH), a y Hac HeT hh e^HHoii co6ctbchhoh necHH: sto 3HaHHT: y Hac 
HeT co6cTBeHHoro CTpoa Jiyuiu: h mm - He mm BOBce, a HbH-TO tchh; h ayuiH 
HauiH - He BocKpecuiHe Sbph^hkh, thxo ensure Haa JleToft 3a6BeHHH: ho 
JleTa BbiCTynaeT H3 6eperoB: OHa Hac noTonHT, ecjiH He ycjibiuiHM mli npn- 
3biBaiomeH necHH Op4>eH. 

Op4>eH 30BCT CBOK) 3BpHflHKy. 

1908 

OPMflPMX HtHJUJE 

Pa3Hoo6pa3HO BocxoacaeHHe bcjihkhx juoj&Vi Ha ropH30HTe 
HejioBenecTBa. MepHO h njiaBHo no^HHMaioTCH o^hh k CBoeMy 3eHHTy. 
Hm He npHxoflHTca nHTb bhho no3flHeH cjiaBbi, OTpaBjieHHoft HenpH- 
3HaHHeM - apoMaTOM yBHflaiomHX po3. He B3pMBOM CBeuioro BOdopra 
BCTpenaeT hx HejiOBenecTBO, hto6m noTOM norpy3HTb bo MpaK hc6mthh. 
Ho, KaK uejx cojiHeHHbix Jiyneii, CKonjineTCfl b aymax hx CBeuioe bcjih- 
HHe; h KaKoe ijejie6Hoe bhho oTCTaHBaiOT ohh b cbohx KHHrax: OTKpo- 
euib - crpaHHija o6ojibeT cbctom; Bbinbeuib - h cbctjimh xMejib ycnoKO- 
eHHO y6aiOKaeT acH3Hb. ^a! Ha cbohd cyzu>6y acajioBajincb h ohh, ho KaK 
o6mH TaKHe acajio6bi! 

Be^b k TaKHM acajio6aM npHcoe^HHHTCH BCHKan ayma, KOTopaa He jxo 
KOHua OTKpbua ce6e no,ao6HMM. 

KaK MHorojieTHHH, ycTOHMHBbiii ay6, Me^jieHHO BbipacTaji IeTe. 
H TOJibKO k nHTH^ecHTH ro^aM co3peBajia «KpHTHKa» b ynopHOM, KaK 
acejie30, C03HaHHH HMMaHynjia KaHTa. Ho hto6m jickijhh ero He nocema- 
jiHCb, hto6m 3a6oTbi ero He B036yac,aajiH HHTepeca cpe^H H36paHHbix yMOB 
CBoero BpeMeHH, - TaKoro nepno^a He cymecTBOBajio b aeHTejibHOcra Ke- 
HHrc6eprcKoro (J)HJioco(})a. 

KaK Henoxoaca cyab6a ero Ha cyab6y Apiypa IIIoneHrayapa, KOTopbift 
k ^Ba^uaTH ro^aM H3MepHJi ropH30HTbi CBoen mmcjih; OTToro, 6biTb mo- 
5KeT, h o6opBaji oh rpoMKyio cbohd necHb necHbK) jie6eflHHoii; noTOM OHa 
Me^JieHHO 3aMHpajia h nepemjia b 3ByKH... njiaKCHBoii (J)jieiiTM, KOTopoii 
yTeuiaji ce6n b cTapocTH MpaHHbift CTapHK. Bchd >KH3Hb ero 3aMajiHHBa- 
jih, o6xoflHjiH, He xoTejiH nenaTaTb; HaKOHeu, npH3HajiH o3Jio6jieHHoro 
cTapHKa, CKJioHeHHoro Haa BocnoMHHaHHHMH, noTOMy hto pa3Be He cjiaa- 
khm BOcnoMHHaHHeM HBJiHeTCH BTopoft tom «Mnpa KaK bojih h npea- 
CTaBJieHHH», r^e 6jiecK ocTpoyMHH BnepeMeaacy c uinneHHeM Ha Terejin 
h ynoMHHaHHeM 06 yeemauuoM ceoeM mpyde HanpaBjieHbi Ha to, hto6m 
onpaB^aTb mmcjih, H3Jio»ceHHbie asaflijaTb na3a,zi? He roBopio yace 
o «Bojie b npnpofle», HeyaaHHOH nonbiTKe o6ocHOBaTbCH Ha 6HOJiorHH. 
CjiaBa BCKpyauuia rojiOBy neccHMHcranecKOMy (J)jieiiTHCTy: oh no3BOJiHJi 
uejioBaTb y ce6n pyKH. 



4 Ahap^h Bejihifl 



51 



TaK ace BCKpyacnjia cjiaBa rojiOBy Baraepa, Kor^a oh ycejicn Ha B03- 
BbiuieHHH, HanoMHHaiomeM TpoH. Asa reHHajibHbix cTapHKa, o^epacHMbix 
MaHHeft. 

He to Hnmiie. 

He B3pbiBOM CBeTjioro BOdopra BCTpeTHjiH Hnmne coBpeMeHHHKH; 
ho yneHbiH chhkjiht o,ao6pHTejibHO cjie^HJi 3a aenTejibHOCTbio K)Horo npo- 
4>eccopa, hto6h noTOM OTBepHyTbCH ot reHHajibHoro noaia h Myapeija; h 
TOJibKo CTapHK Hkob Eyprxap^T 6jiarocjioBHji ero aeflTejibHOCTb; aa chhc- 
xo^HTejibHO He^oyMeBaji 3aMenaTejibHbiH ^eiicceH. Oothohcctbo MefljieH- 
ho h BepHo BOKpyr Hero 3aMbiKajio o6i>HTbH. Kaacaaa HOBan KHHra OTpe- 
3ajia ot Hnmiie He6ojibiuyio ropcTb nocjieflOBaTejieft. H bot oh ocTajicn b 
nycTOTe, po6e*i nepea jiioflbMH. 

TporaTejieH paccKa3 .fleftcceHa o tom, c KaKoft HCKaTejibHoii po6o- 
CTbio nepe^aji eMy Hnmiie, oahhoko 6eflCTByiomHH b UlBeftuapHH, CBoe 
«Jenseits», npoca He cepflHTbca. Hjih Hniuue, bcecjihbo BbicjiyuiHBaiomHH 
caMoyBepeHHyio 6ojitobhk> HnnojiHTa TaHa (cm. nepenncKy Hnmiie c Ta- 
hom). Hjih Hnmiie, CTbifljiHBO cjieayiomHH 3a Ikmo b BnappHixe, 6oncb k 
HeMy no^OHTH. Hjih Hniune, nocjie p*ma 3aMenaTejibHbix HCCJieflOBaHHH, 
yace 6ojibHOH, CHHexoflHTejibHO 3aMeneHHbiH rocnoflHHOM EpaHflecoM! 

no3,ziHHH cjiaBa He BCKpyacHJia rojiOBy Hnmne; cjiaBa Hniuue Hanajiacb 
KaK-To B^pyr; nocjie^HHe KHHra ero yace hhkcm He pacKynajincb; h B/jpyr - 
Moaa Ha Hnijiiie, Kor^a, 6ojibHoft, oh yace HHnero He noHHMaji, 6ojibHOH Ha 
Teppace BeiiMapcKOH bhjijim. 

H KaHT, h TeTe, h UIoneHrayap, h Baraep co3flajiH reHHajibHbie TBope- 
hhh. Hnmne Bocco3,zjaji HOByio nopoay reHHH, KOTopyio He BHflbraajia eme 
eBponeHCKan ijHBHJiH3auHH. 

Bot noneMy CBoeft JiHHHOCTbio oh OTKpbiBaeT HOByio spy. 

AHajiH3Hpy*i npoH3BeAeHHH Hnmiie, mw ycMaTpHBaeM b hhx Bee nep- 
th reHHH CTaporo THna; ho CKB03b 3th nepTbi, KaK CKB03b MacKy, b hcm 
npocBeHHBaeT h eme hto-to, HeBeaoMoe eBponenixaM. 3to «mno-mo» h 
ecTb 3ara^Ka, KOTopyio oh npefljiaraeT nepe^OBbiM 4>ajiaHraM eBponeftcKOH 
KyjibTypw. H HaA HameH KyjibTypoft o6pa3 ero pacTeT, KaK o6pa3 Kpwjia- 
Toro C(J)HHKca. CMepmb hjih eocKpecenue: bot napojib Hnmiie. Ero Hejib3H 
MHHOBaTb: oh - 3to mw b 6yaymeM, eme He oco3HaBuiHe ce6a. 

Bot hto TaKoe Hniuiie. 

TeococJ)bi bo3boaht Ha CTeneHb aorMaTa (J>aHTacTHHecKyio yTonnio 
pa3BHTHH HejiOBenecTBa: pa3Hbie pacw nejiOBenecTBa cmchhiot apyr apy- 
ra, OTJiaran cboh njiacTbi, TaK CKa3aTb, cboio ncHXHnecKyio cJ)opMai|HK) b 
HCTopHH. TaK: MOHrojibCKan paca npHHa/yieacHT k neTBepTOH pace; eBpo- 
neiiijbi - npe^cTaBHTejiH nHTofi pacbi: cpe^H hhx 3^ecb h TaM HanHHaiOT 
noHBJiHTbCH npe^CTaBHTejiH uiecTofi, rpnaymeH pacbi, o^apeHHbie hchobh- 
^eHHeM. JIio6aH paca He MoaceT nepecTynHTb eft OTMeaceBaHHbix rpaHHu b 
nepe^CHBaHHH h ono3HaHHH 5KH3HH. TaM, r,zie KOHnaeTCH ropH30HT nocTH- 



52 



aceHHH oflHoft pacw, ajih apyroH jihiiib Hanajio nyTH k ropH30HTy. B stom 
CMbicjie Kaac^aH nocjieayiomafl paca, BKjuonaH b ce6e nojiHOTy npcmne- 
CTByiomHx pac, bh^ht Ha# co6oft HOBoe He6o, He^ocTynHoe 3peHHK) yMH- 
paiomeH pacw. OxaejibHwe jihhhocth rpnaymeft pacw, npeaczjeBpeMeHHO 
poacaeHHwe b nepHOfl rocno^CTBa o6peneHHOH Ha BwpoacaeHHe pacbi, - 3to 
aera, 3a6poineHHbie H3 6yzjymero b ijapcTBO cTapHKOB. J\o KOHua mw He 
MoaceM noHHTb hx b hx ycrpeM jichhh . Ho ohh npn cjiynae cKpwBaiOT cboh 
jihk MacKoii HauiHx MHpoco3epuaHHH. H HaM, b cbok) onepeflb, TepMHHO- 
jiorHH, 3ayneHHaH Ha3y6oK, KaK 6y^TO h aocrynHa: npoH3Hocn cjiOBa H3 
hx jieKCHKOHa, mw npHcnoco6jiHeM k hobwm cjiOBaM co^epacaHHe Hamen 
BeTinaiomeH ayiHH. IIpeacTaBHTejiH BwpoacaeHHH, mm rpHMHpyeMCH 3aeM- 
hwmh KpacKaMH He HaM nocjiaHHOH mojio^octh. Bojiee Toro: Hac BjieneT k 

MOJIOflbIM, nOTOMy HTO OT CTapOCTH Mbl Bna^aeM B fleTCTBO. 

Teoco4)CKHH chmboji o CMeHe pac h BOBce He HMeio CTpeMjieHHH ^or- 
MaTH3HpoBaTb. IIpocTO yneHHe 3to BcnoMHHaeTCH, Kor^a HMeeuib jiejio c 
jiHHHOCTbio HHinne. Hchto BOHCTHHy He6biBajioe jijir Hameii snoxH CBe- 
tht HaM b 6a3ejibCKOM npocf)eccope KJiaccHHecKoft 4>HJiojiorHH. IIpH aHa- 
jiH3e ero 4>hjioco(J)hh, cjiora, KOTopwft oh noaapHJi HeMuaM, He OTKpoeM 
Toro, hto c oco6eHHoii chjioh npoH3aeT Hac b HHinne. CTHJib hoboh ayuiH, 
bot hto ero xapaKTepH3yeT. B npouiJioe tjih^ht ero .zjcmohckhh o6pa3, ho 
to o6MaH: cnacTJiHBbiH, KaK ahth, hchwh, oh OTpaacaeTCH b 6yaymeM. 

JXyuia Hnmiie npe^yra^ajia rpnaymyio pacy; bot noneMy OHa HOBoro 
cthjih; BOBce He BwpaacaeTca 3tot CTHJib b H3ompeHHbix npnnecKax h ae- 
KopaTHBHbix naHHO Hainero BpeMeHH, sthx KpacKax 3aeMHOH mojioaocth 
Ha MopmHHHCTOM Tejie nejiOBenecTBa. Hao6opoT: H^eojiorHH ero BnojiHe 
pa3Ji03KHMa. Ho H^eojiorHH ,zuifl 3Toro HHOCTpaHija - cpe^CTBO 3aroBopHTb 
c HaMH Ha HaM hohhthom H3biKe. Hto noflrjinaeji y Hac UHOcmpanei^? Haa 
HHOCTpaHueM CMeiOTCH, ho k HeMy h npHc^yuiHBaiOTCH: KaK-TO mw npejio- 
MHJiHCb b ero rjia3ax? He npejioMHJiHCb jih mw BBepx HoraMH? 

Xopouio H3BecTHwe cnoco6HOCTH bxo^ht b aymy Haiuy b pa3HO- 
o6pa3Hwx coneTaHHHx. Pa3Hoo6pa3He coneTaHHH - ecjiH TaK onpe^ejiHM 
mw HH^HBH^yajiH3M OpHapnxa HHirme, MW pobho HHHero He nOHMeM. 
HHinne nepeMecTHji aymy Ha hobwh 4>yH^aMeHT; H3 HeroBecrHOH aoTOJie 
ochobw ayuiH BWBeji oh BcnnecKoe coneTaHHe flymeBHwx cnoco6HOCTeii. 
Bot noneMy oh BOBce h He HH^HBH^yajiHCT b CMbicjie coBpeMeHHOCTH. Ho, 
yTBepaczjan CTapwe hcthhw, oh hob. KaK Tenepb Ha3BaTb xopouio H3BecT- 
Hwe nyBCTBa, KaK Ha3BaTb 6ojib, ecjiH 6ojib He TOjibKo 6ojib, h padocmb He 
BOBce padocftibf dodpo He do6po, ho h 3Jio He 3Jio? He npoH30Hie;i jih B3pwB 
b xopouio H3BecTHOM cocyzje, HMeHyeMOM .ayuioii? Ockojikh cocyaa H3pa- 
hhjih Te;io HHinne; H3paHHT h Hac, ecjiH mw k HeMy noaoiifleM. 

ToBopn o jiio6bh k aajibHeMy, o jik>6bh k aajibHHM ropH30HTaM HaiiieS 
Hymn, oh OTaMeTpajibHO npoTHBonojioaceH TeM HHijiiieaHuaM, KOTopwe 
flOBOJibCTByiOTCH pacKpacKoii Bcero oKpyacaiomero Hac b 3apeBbix TOHax. 

53 



4* 



H ecjiH Hnmne Mor Ha3BaTb tojibko 3apio 30Jiomou, - nncaTejiH cthjih mo- 
aepH Ha^ejiHT 3ojiotom hto yroflHO. Hnmne - H3wcKaHHeHiHHH cthjihct; 
ho cboh yTOHHeHHwe onpe^ejieHMH npnjiaraeT oh k CTOJib bcjihkhm co6w- 
thhm BHyTpeHHeii jkh3hh, hto H3bicKaHHOCTb cthjih ero HaHHHaeT Ka3aTb- 
ch npocTOToii. Hmxme necTeH, npocT b CBoen H3ompeHHOCTH. H TOjibKO 
b onepeHHH CKa3WBaeTCH b Hac po^cTBO c HHume. Mm yrwKajiHCb pafi- 
ckhmh nepbHMH, othhb hx y Toro, kto yMeji JieiaTb; Ha HauiHx nepbnx He 
nojieTHuib, Ha30BH mw ce6n xoTb nrauaMH b B03,ayxe. 

BpeHHyio ayuiy y Hac BbipbiBaeT HHijme ,zi;jih Toro, hto6w mw npeBpa- 
thjih ee b KOJibi6e;ib 6yaymero. ^jih 3Toro H3MwuiJiHeT oh HOBoe cpeacTBo: 
6H6jieiicKoe xoacaeHHe nepe# BoroM npeBpamaeT b xoacaeHHe nepea co- 
6oii. B ce6e ono3HaTb ocHOBHbie CTpeMJieHHH, t. e. b ce6e y3HaTb ceoe h 
ce6n ceoeMy noflHHHHTb eMy HyacHo. TyT ero Mopajib 6ecnomaflHaH, cipo- 
ran. H 3to OTToro, hto CBoe BOBce He CBoe: oho - o6mee ahth: ahta ne- 
jioBenecTBa, b kotopom H^eT 6opb6a BwpoHcaeHHH c B03po^c^eHHeM. He- 
jioBenecKHH bha aacT HOByio pa3HOBH,zxHOCTb - hjih norn6HeT. CymecTBO 
HOBoro nejiOBeica npe^omymaeT Hnmne b ce6e. Oh, TOJibKO oh nepBwft 
H3 Hac noflomeji k py6eacy poacaeHHH b Hac HOBoro nejiOBeKa h CMepra b 
Hac Bcero poaoBoro, HejiOBenecKoro, cjihiukom HejiOBenecKoro: hobwh ne- 
jioBeK yace npH6;iH»caeTCH k HaM. H ropH30HT Ham yace He tot: h b hhwx 
H3 cy6"beKTHBHeHHiHx, no-BH^HMOMy, nepeacHBaHHH ono3HaeM mw KaK 6w 
zenepaji-6ac Bceii KyjibTypw, a b apyrax - hct: «mo, ne mo», - roBopHM mw 
o flByx o^HHaKOBO cy6"beKTHBHbix nepeacHBaHHHx, xopoino 3Haa, hto o^ho 
h3 hhx ^eHCTBHTejibHO cy6i>eKTHBHO, a apyroe jiHuib hocht Macny cy6i>- 

eKTHBHOCTH, h6o OHO o6l>eKTHBHO B CBOefl HHflHBHflyaJIbHOCTH. 06 3TOM 

BnepBwe 3aroBopHJi Hnmne: 3apn, ayuia, 3eMJin, He6o - He Bee jih paBHo, 
KaK Ha3WBaeT Hnmne cboio aoporyio TaftHy? B HeM, KaK b (J)OKyce, cocpe- 
AOTOHeHO Bee Bemee, hto Kor,aia-jiH6o bxo^hjio b ayuiy nejiOBeKa yacacoM 

H BOCTOprOM, HOKHOCTbK) H HpOCTbK), 6ypefi H THIHHHOH, HCHWM He6oM H 

ayuiHOH Tyneii. JXo Hnmne HenepecrynaeMaa 6e3flHa OT^ejiHJia ApeBHe- 
apHHCKHx THTaHOB ot HOBoapHHCKOH KyjibTypw. Meamy reHHajibHeiiinHM 
jinpHHecKHM B3floxoM IeTe (3Toro caMoro BejiHKoro jinpHKa) h pacKaTOM 
rpoMa KaKoro-HH6y^b IHaHKapw h IlaTaHA^cajiH - KaKan nponacTb! Ilocjie 
Hniune 3toh nponacTH yace HeT. «3apamycmpa» - 3aKOHHWH npeeMHHK 
reTeBCKoii jihphkh; ho h npeeMHHK «BeaaHTW» oh tohcc HHiuae b repMaH- 
ckoh KyjibType BOCKpecnji Bee, hto eme jkhbo ajih Hac b Boctokc: CMeumo 
Tenepb coe^HHHTb Boctok c 3ana^OM, Kor^a caMa jiHHHOCTb Hnmne bo- 
njiorajia 3to coe^HHeHHe. 

B Hnmne nepeMecTHJicn (J)OKyc ^ynieBHbix ^eHTejibHOCTeii, a He caMH 
ohh. By^b oh cpe^H ce6e no^o6Hwx, 6wTb mojkct, yneHHe o CBepxnejio- 
BeKe 3aMeHHJi 6w oh yneHHeM o HopMe pa3BHTHH HHflHBHflyajibHocTefi: 
6wji 6w yHHBepcajiHCTOM, a He HH^HBH^yajiHCTOM. Cjie^yeT pacnjieHHTb 
HH^HBH^yajiHSM HHijme b ero yneHHH ot caMoro Hnmne, CTOJib hh^hbh- 



54 



ayajibHoro b Hauieft anoxe, yHHBepcajibHoro b 6y/jymeM. Ectb JiHHHOCTb 
Hhiuiic EcTb yneHHe Hnijiiie o jihhhocth. Oho BbiTeicaeT H3 ero jihhhocth; 
oho - He TeopHH. HaKOHeiz, B03HHKaeT Bonpoc o tom, H6M 6buio ajih Hhij- 
ine ero yneHHe: npoB03rjiauieHHeM hcthhm hjih cpe^cTBOM orrojiKHyTbcn 
ot BeTxoro o6pa3a coBpeMeHHOcTH? Kaic nojib30Bajicn Hnmiie 3thm cpea- 
ctbom? JXjix ce6n jih nojib30Bajicn hjih ajih ceoezo? «Pa3Be h ajih ce6a xony 
cnacTbH?» - BOCKJiHijaeT oh. 

Bee ark Hero - moct h CTpeMjieHHe k aajibHeMy. Oh npnrjiainaeT 
jno6HTb CTpaHy HaiiiHx jieTew y oh 3anpemaeT CMOTpeTb Tyzja, omKyda mm 
H^eM; Hama necTb b tom, hto6w noHHjin mh, nyda npH6jiH5KaeMcn b ae- 
thx. Ho hto6w 3HaTb, nyda Hfleuib, HyxcHo pa3BHTb b ce6e CBoe 6y#ymee, 
t. e. UMemb ero: HMeTb o6pa3 noeozo nejioBeica, noeoe hmh Ha KaMHe ayiiiH. 
3,zjecb Hmuiie - anoKajiHnraK. 

JiHHHOCTb, noHHTan b rpy6o (J)H3HOJiorHHecKOM CMbicjie, BOBce He ijejib 
pa3BHTHH. Tanaa JiHHHOCTb npoTHHyTa b poa, b 3aKOHbi po#a, b to, omxyda 
mw HfleM. Ee aBTOHOMHH ecTb BJiacTb poaa: He cBo6ofla, a nopa6omeHHe. 
3aMeTbTe: ro chx nop Hniune CBoeo6pa3Ho H#eT BMecTe c KamoM; ho 
TaM, r^e hhcto TeopeTHnecKH yTBepac^aeT KaHT cboh npaKranecKHH pa3- 
yM, TaM npaKTHnecKH, KaK npnpoay, yTBepacaaeT Hnmiie cboio CBo6oay. 
Teopnx .zjjih Hero - cnoco6 3aroBopHTb c coBpeMeHHHKaMH; ncuxojioztm - 
Toace cnoco6 paccMOTpeTb b ce6e to, hto Tpe6yeTca oTcenb. 06a cnoco6a 
noMoraiOT eMy 3aroBopHTb c coBpeMeHHHKaMH, hto6w npH3BaTb hx k hx 
6yzjymeMy, ecjiH 6y/jymee 3to y hhx ecTb. 

«,/JaM eMy 6ejibiH KaMeHb h Ha HeM HanncaHHoe HOBoe hmh, KOToporo 
hhkto He 3HaeT, KpoMe Toro, kto nojiynaeT», - CKa3aHO b AnoKajinncH- 
ce. Hhkto jiywe Hniuiie He noHflji 6w CMbicjia 3thx cjiob. Btophhho po- 
AHTbCH 3Baji Hac Hniuue, h ropbi - noflHoacne HOBopoacaeHHoro. «HoBoe 
hmh» h Ha3Baji Hnijiiie, npHTOM coBepuieHHO (J)opMajibHo: «CBepxnejio- 
BeK», 3aHMCTBOBaB TepMHH H3 Hyacoft TepMHHOJiorHH (y TeTe). Ceepxnejio- 
een - 3to HaHMeHOBaHHe. EcTb jih HaHMeHOBaHHe eme h JiHHHOCTb? Ecjih 
#a, to b cHMBOJiHHecKOM CMbicjie. Cicopee, HMeeM mw aejio c rpe3nmHMCH 
ji03yHroM, Heco3HaHHOH h, o^HaKO, npeaomymaeMOH nopMOH pa3BHTHa; 
npe^omymeHHe npeBpamaeM mm b uejib ycrpeMjieHHH. H nocKOJibicy uejib 
pa3BHTHH Heonpe^ejiHMa co3HaHHeM, HBjiflacb npeanocbijiKOH pocTa caMO- 
C03HaHHH, nocTOJibKy bojih npeBpamaeT 3Ty nejib b TBopnecKHH hhcthhkt; 
hhcthhkt coxpaHeHHH BHfla pHcyeT npoo6pa3 npe/jejia, KOTopbiii aocTyneH 

pa3BHTHK) JIHHHOCTH; 3THM npefleJIOM HBJIfleTCH HOBaH pa3HOBHOTOCTb ne- 

jiOBenecKoro po/ja; ceepxnejioeeK - xyzjoacecTBeHHbiH o6pa3 3toh pa3HOBH#- 
hocth: oh npo^HKTOBaH TBopnecKOH BOJien. Co3Hflaiomafl rpe3a nporaBO- 
nojiaraeTCH fleftcTBHTejibHOcra, pa3JiaraiomeH JiHHHOCTb. «CBepxnejiOBeK» 
fljin Hnmiie - 6ojiee peajibHan rpe3a, Heacejin peajibHbie ycjiOBHH cpe^bi. 

OHJioco(J)CKoe credo Hnmne cjiaraeTCH H3 flByx sjicmchtob, no cyme- 
CTBy npoTHBonojioacHbix. B ocHOBe ero jiokht rpe3a xy^oxcHHKa o Hop- 



55 



MajibHOM nejioBeice, cnoco6HOM npoHTH Bee cTyneHH pa3BHTHH h aarh pa3- 
HOBHflHocTb. B ce6e oco3Haji Hnijiiie 3Ty rpe3y KaK BejieHHe hhcthhkt3. 
caMOcoxpaHeHHH; hhcthhkty noflHHHHJi jiornnecKoe MbiiiiJieHHe; noao6HO 
ABeHapnycy, oh - (J)hjioco4) ajioni3Ma. Ho rjiy6aee ABeHapnyca noHHJi oh 
HeB03MoacHOCTb nponoBe^H ajiorH3Ma b TepMHHax TeopeTHnecKOH (})hjio- 
cocJ)hh. Bot noneMy He AOKa3aTejibCTBO, a BHymeHHe nojiaraeT oh b ocHOBy 
CBoero MeTOAa. Bot noneMy Ha TBopnecTBe, a BOBce He Ha TeopHH 3HaHHH 
6a3HpyeT oh cboio CHdeMy. H3 TeopeTHKa npeBpamaeTca b npaKTHKa. 
«Moe yneHHe o CBepxnejioBeKe, - KaK 6bi roBopHT oh, - BHyuieHO MHe 
hhcthhktom caMOCoxpaHeHHH, pHcyiomHM chmboji 6yzjymero nejiOBeKa; 
MHe ocTaeTCH noica3aTb, KaKOB nyTb ocymecTBjieHHH 3toh rpe3bi». TyT 
BCTynaeT b cboh npaBa yaee He xyfloacecTBeHHbift, ho MopajibHbifi momcht 
ero (J)hjioco(J)hh: k o6pa3aM 6yAymero npoKJia^biBaeT oh Tpony nepe3 koc- 
HOCTb cpe^bi; npnrjiaiiiaeT h Hac ynpaacHHTbcn raMHacTHKofl TBopnecTBa, 
hto6m pa3BHTb MycKyjibi, cnoco6Hbie BbiKOBaTb ijeHHOCTb: TyT npe^jiaraeT 
Hnijiiie cboio peajibHyio Tejieojiornio; OHa coctoht H3 p*ma npaKranecKHx, 
nocjie^OBaTejibHO pacnojioaceHHbix cobctob, HanoMHHaiomHx no 4>opMe 
H3peneHHH JIao-,33bi, Eyzmbi, XpHCTa, MaroMeTa; coBeTbi 3th o6pameHbi 
k BHyTpeHHeMy onbiTy yneHHKOB; BHeuiHHH ace onbiT - 6HOJiorHH, Hayica, 
4)hjioco(|)hh - Bee 3to fljiH Hnijiiie cpe/jcTBa no^anH cnrHajioB. PeajibHan 
TejieojiorHH Hnijuie oflHHaKOBO npoTHBonojioaeHa Tejieojioni3My OnxTe, 
yneHHio o ijejiecoo6pa3HOcra Kama, KaK h ecTecTBeHHOHayHHoii Tejieojio- 
thh. Bot noneMy tbopht oh He cTOJibKO jiorHKoii, CKOJibKO o6pa30M. 

XyaoacecTBeHHbiH chmbojih3m ecTb mctoa BbipaaceHHH nepeacHBaHHH 
b o6pa3ax. Hnmiie nojib3yeTCH sthm mctoaom: cjieAOBaTejibHO, oh - xy- 
/joechhk; ho nocpe^cTBOM o6pa30B nponoBe^yeT oh ijejiecoo6pa3HMH ot- 
6op nepeacHBaHHH: o6pa3bi ero CBH3aHbi, KaK pn/j cpe/jcTB, Be/jymHH k 
uejiH, npoflHKTOBaHHOH ero 5KH3HeHHbiM hhcthhktom: bot noneMy MeTOfl 
H3Jio»ceHHH Hniuiie HMeeT 4>opMy mejieojiozuuecKOZO cumbqmi3mci. 

UndueudyajiU3M e npeodojienuu kochocttiu cpedu y Hui^tue neodxoduMO 
orruimamb om uHdueudycuiu3Ma nauiezo «h», ceododnozo om Kocnocmu. 

Ilepeozo poda undueudycuiu3M ecmb maKmuuecKUU UHdueudycuiU3M 
(6opb6a 3a npaBO jihhhocth); emopozo poda undueudyajiusM ecmb ceododa 
Moezo «h» (yTBepacfleHHbie npaBa jihhhocth). 

HepT a6cojnoTHO cbo6oahoh jihhhocth He KacaeTca Hnijiiie BOBce; hx 
CHMBOJiH3HpyeT oh to e pedewce, to e ceepxHejioeexe. H mm He 3HaeM, npo- 
HBjineTCH jih a6cojiiOTHo CBo6oAHan jiHHHOCTb y Hnijiiie e undueudyajibHO- 
eflHHHHHbix hjih UHdueudyajibHO-Bceo6uxnx HopMax. Mm He 3HaeM, hh- 

AHBHAyaJIHCT HJIH yHHBepcaJIHCT HHI^Uie B TpHBHaJIbHOM CMblCJie 3THX 
CJIOB, nOTOMy HTO XOAflHHe npeflCTaBJieHHH 06 HHAHBHAyaJIH3Me He HMeiOT 

HHHero o6mero c co/jepaeaHHeM 3Toro noHHTHH y Hnijiiie. CoBepuieHHO 
He3aBHCHMO ot CBo6oflbi a6cojnoTHOH jihhhocth pa3BepTbiBaeTCH 6oeBan 
njiaT(J)opMa Hnijiiie o cnaceHHH sjieMeHTOB rpnaymeH cbo6oam b /jeMO- 



56 



pajiH3yiomHX ycjiOBHHx coBpeMeHHOCTH; 6oeBaH njiaT^opMa Hniune (TaK- 
THHecKHH HH,aHBHAyajiH3M) ro chx nop CMeiiiHBaeTCfl c ero nponoBeflbio 
CBo6o^bi jihhhocth. CTpeMjieHHe k 3TOH CBo6o^e - KaTeropHHecKHH HMne- 
paTHB hoboh MopajiH; nepBan 4>opMyjia ero - OTpnijaHHe cymecTByiomHx 
Mopajieft. 

«CBepxHejiOBeK» y Hnmiie He aHTponojiorHnecKHH ran. CaM oh He- 
oaHOKparao npHHHMaeTca B03paacaTb ^apBHHy h, tcm He MeHee, nojib3y- 
eTCH /lapBHHOM: ho nojib3yeTcn, KaK cjiynaflHO noflo6paHHOH Ha nyra xbo- 
pocTHHofl, hto6h HaHecTH yflap no^BepHyBiueMycH no,o; Horn cxojiacraicy; 
HaHecra y^ap, oraiBbipHyTb, ofirrepeB npn stom pyKH. 

«06HAHan HCHOCTb», - MopmHTCH Hnijuie, ynoMHHaa o JX^Kone Ctio- 
apTe Mhjijic B rjiy6HHe flyiiiH He Mor He nHTaTb oh no,ao6Hbix ace nyBCTB 
h k ,ZJapBHHy. Ho h odudnbiMU mchoctjimmu aepeTCH oh b nwjiy 6oh. Bee #jih 
Hero, r,ae HyacHO, - cpe^CTBo, hto6h c6HTb c Hor. 3flecb ycTpOHTb KaTO- 
jiHnecTBy 3aca#y H3 EoKJieft, Mnjuieii, /lapBHHOB; TaM nycraTb noji Horn 
noHTeHHbiM yneHbiM He3yHTa. 

CoMHHTejibHO BHfleTb b 6HOJiorHHecKOH jihhhocth CBepxnejiOBeKa; eme 
coMHHTejibHee, hto6m sto 6wjia KOJiJieKTHBHaa jiHHHOcTb HejiOBenecTBa. 

CKOpee 3TO - npHHIJHn, CJIOBO, JTOrOC HJIH HOpMa pa3BHTHfl, pa3pHCOBaH- 

Han BceMH hpkhmh aTpH6yTaMH jihhhocth. 3to - HKOHa Hniuue. yneHHe 
Hnmne o jihhhocth - hh TeopHH, hh ncHXOJiorHa; eme MeHee 3to - 3cre- 
THKa hjih HayKa. Bcero 6o;iee sto - Mopajib, o6i>HCHHMafl b cBeie TeopHH 
ueHHOCTeii - TeopHH CHMBOJiH3Ma. 

Hnmiie ApannpoBajicn bo Bee, hto nonaaajio eMy no,zi; pyKH. KaK no- 
najio, OKyraBaeT oh cboh chmbojim TKaHbio no3HaHHH. Ho ecjiH coTKaTb 
b oahh njiam pa3HOUBerabie o^chhhh Hnijiiie - mm nojiynnjiH 6h njiam, 
cuiHTbiH H3 jiocKyTOB, r,ae Ka^c^biH jiocKyT 0Ka3ajicn 6bi AorMaTOM, Tpe- 

6yK)mHM KpHTHHeCKOH npOBepKH. IIpH ^CeJiaHHH OTblCKaTb eflHHCTBO 3THX 

AorMaTOB npnuiJiH 6w k acajiKoft cxojiacTHKe - He 6ojiee: ho b jihijo TOMy, 
kto yBJieiccfl 6w noAo6HbiM 3aHHraeM, 3axoxoTaji 6bi caM Hnmiie. IlpHBO- 
OTTb Hniuiie k H^eojiorHH CTOJib ace 6jiaroaapHoe 3aHHrae, KaK OTbicKHBaTb 
cmwcji BejiHKofl H^eojiorHH KaHTa b 3ap»caBJieHHOM nepe, kotopwm 6biJiH 
HanncaHbi nocjie^HHe cTpaHHijbi ero «Kphthkh», hjih b HioxaTejibHOM Ta- 
6aKe, kotopwm mot nojib30BaTbcn CTapHK. ZIorMaraHecKHe yTBepacaeHHH 
Hnmiie - Bcer^a TOJibKo H3BecTKOBbie otjiojkchhh Ha KaKOH-HH6y#b aceM- 
nyjKHHe: aceMHyacHHoft OKa3biBaeTCH tot hjih hhoh npaKranecKHH cobct, 
KaK 6opoTbCH c BbipoacaeHHeM, KaK BbipacraTb pe6eHKa - HOByio ayuiy, 
H3 KOTopoft 6yaeT coTKaHo Tejio cBepxnejioBeKa, yKa3aHHe Ha to, hto ecTb 

UeHHOCTb. 

KaK TBOpHTb ueHHOCTH? Bot KHnnmee CTpeMjieHHe Hhijiiic KaK pa3- 
jKenb cojiHeHHbifl CBeT TaM, r^e nepea HaMH jinuib rpyaa noTyxaiomnx 
yrjieft? KaK npeBparaTb sth yrojibfl b yrojibH cojmija, pacnjiaBHTb, hto6h, 
KaK bhho HOBoe, noTeKJiH ohh b acaacaymne ycTa h KpoBb b bhho npeTBO- 



57 



Phjih, npecymecTBHJiH nejiOBeica. «IIeHTe ot Hee Bee: bot KpoBb Moh Ho- 
Boro 3aBeTa», - roBopHT Xpncroc; ho tojibko Tor^a KpoBbio craHeT bhho, 
Kor^a nbHHaH cnacrbeM KpOBb, KpoBb, b bhho npeTBopeHHan, HaM MHp npe- 
o6pa3HT: onbHHeHHbie cnacTbeM, mh Tor^a H3MepaTb 6yaeM cHjiy CBoero 
BOCTopra dpaAaHHeM KpecTHbiM. TojibKO XpncToc h Hniniie 3HajiH bck> 
Momb h BejiHHHe nejioBeica. 

«He BbinHBaeT jih ayiiia Kanjiio cnacTwi - 30JiOToro BHHa», - boc- 
KJiHuaeT 3apaTycTpa, noKpwTbiH nnTHaMH cojmeHHbix jiHCTbeB. 3,zi;ecb co- 
BepiuaeTCH TaHHa npHHacran cbctom. H hct eMy cjiob otbcthmx b HauieH 
KyjibType; h TOJibKO H3 aajin BpeMeH, H3 noracaioiUHX 3opb xpncTHaHCTBa, 
hto 6yaTo jieonap^OBOH imcypoH yKpwjiH BenepeioiHHH 3(^np y - ony^a, 
OTKy^a noflHHMaeTca B3,zi;bixaiomee cnacTbeM ayHOBeHHe, - 6yflTo c ner- 
CTBa 3HaKOMbiii, flaBHO 3a6biTbiH rojioc: «IIeHTe ot Hee Bee: bot KpoBb Moh 
HoBoro 3aBeTa». 

He Ha^o o6pamaTb BHHMaHHe Ha (J)opMy chmbojihhcckhx nponoBe^eH; 
OHa OTpaacaeT anoxy. H He b aorMaTax - cyTb pejiHrH03Hbix yneHHH. Hhij- 
uie mohcho cpaBHHTb c XpHCTOM. 06a y^OBjiHJiH cepaija jiioflCKHe, rojiy6n- 

HyiO KpOTOCTb COe^HHHJIH CO 3MeHHOH MyflpOCTbK). 

OTKpoeM jno6oe MecTO H3 «3apaTycTpbi»: oho 6y,zi;eT hh c neM He 

CpaBHHMO, HO HTO-TO B EBaHreJIHH eMy OTKJIHKHeTCH. Cxo^ctbo JIH 3flecb 

npoTHBonojio^cHOCTeii, npoTHBonojioacHocTb jih cxo^CTBa - He 3Haio. Ho 
bot: 6ejibie rojiy6n TyneH jik>6bh oicpyacaioT 3apaTycTpy, CBoero HOBoro 
apyra. 3thm o6pa30M KOHHaeTCH 3apaTycTpa. BcnoMHHM: «3anoBeflb ho- 
Byio aaio BaM: jno6HTe apyr apyra, KaK H bo3jiio6hji Bac». «JIio6HTe 6jih2c- 
Hero». - «Pa3Be h npH3biBaio k 6jiH5KHeMy? - roBopHT HHijine. - Cnopee, 
h coBeTyio BaM 6ercTBO ot 6jih2chhx h jno6oBb k aajibHHM». Ho Be^b He 
b 6yKBajibHOM cMbicjie 3anoBe,aaji jno6HTb 6jih5khhx Xphctoc, CKa3aBiiiH: 
«H - Men h pa3,aejieHHe». JIio6oBb k 6jih2chhm - 3to TOJibKO ajiicaHHe #ajib- 
Hero b cepaijax 6jih5khhx, coajiKaHHe, a He jno6oBb b 6jiH5KHeM 6jiH3Koro, 
t. e. «MHpa cero». «He jno6HTe MHpa cero», t. e. cTaporo MHpa, 6jiH2CHero, b 
ero pa3jiaraiomeMCH o6pa3e: jno6HTe ero b o6pa3e aajibHeM, xoth 6m h Ka- 
3ajiCH npH3paneH stot o6pa3. «Bbiiiie, neM jno6oBb k jhoahm, KaaceTCH MHe 

JIK)60Bb K... npH3paKaM, - TOBOpHT HHIHIie, - npH3paK, KOTOpblH CKOJIb3HT 

Haa to6oh, 6paT moh, KpacHBee, neM tw... Ho th 6oHiiibCH h 6eacHiiib k cbo- 
eMy 6jiH5KHeMy». 06pa3 BocKpecuiero, npH3paHHO B03HHKaK>mHH cpe^H 
pw6apeH rajiHJieHCKHX, He 6wji jih 3thm CTpeMjieHHeM k aajibHeMy b cep#- 
ijax anocTOJiOB? B nponoBe^H Xpncra h HHiniie oflHHaKOBO nopaacaeT Hac 
coe^HHeHHe pa^ocTH h crpa^aHHH, jiio6bh h acecTOKOcra. «OroHb npHHec 
51 Ha 3eMJiio, H - Men h pa3flejieHHe». «IIo ( zi;tojikhh naaaiomero», - Mor 6w 

CKa3aTb H TOT H apyrOH OflHHaKOBO H nO-pa3HOMy 0(J)OpMHTb. Ho cmmcji hx 

He b (J)opMe, a b rnnH03e nepeacHBaHHH, noflcrajiaiomHx (J)opMy. 

06a COC5HHHJIH KpOBb C BHHOM, TJDKeCTb C JierKOCTbK), Hro c nojieTOM. 

«BpeMH Moe jierKO», - 3anoBeaaji O^hh. 3apaTycTpa, yHHTejib jierKHX 



58 



TamjeB, npHniamaeT Hac BbipacTHTb Kpynn, hto6bi o6pa30BajiHCb 6e3flHbi, 

HajX KOTOpblMH M05KHO 6bIJlO 6bl TaHIjeBaTb. Ho OTCIOfla - 6peMH nO^HHTHH 

Ha KpyMH, OTCiOAa - MyKH poacaeHHH jiencocra. «Co3flaBaTb - sto hbjih- 
eTCH Bee jierKHM ocBo6o5KfleHHeM», ho «fljiH Toro hto6w co3HflaiomHH caM 
CTaji pe6eHKOM, CHOBa pootbihhmch, ajih stoto oh aojiaceH cnycTHTbcn, 
CTaTb TaioKe poaceHHijeH h acejiaTb 6o;ieH poHceHHijbi». Bot KaKaa ;ier- 
KOCTb - jiencocTb 3apaTycTpw: aHecie3HH npo6HTbix tbos^hmh jia^OHeii - 
nojieT rojiOBOKpy^cHTejibHoro cTpa^aHHH. 3to rojiOBOKpyaceHHe b THace- 
cth caMoyr;iy6jieHHH Bbipa3HJiocb y Xpncra b tom, hto oh omyTHji b ce6e 
Bora: «OTeu bo MHe». Ho Bor xpHcraaH - Hanajio h kohcii Bcero. «He 
CMOTpHTe, OTKy^a Bbi npHinjiH», - BOCKJiHijaeT HHijiiie; noaTOMy BOCCTa- 
eT oh Ha Hanajio Bcero - CTaporo Bora: npecjieflyeT ero h b ero nonbiTKax 
3aropoAHTb 6yaymee. Ho ajih caisioro Hniuiie KOHeij 3to - CBepxnejioBeK, 
«CBepxHe;iOBeK, a He OTeij bo MHe», Mor 6w oh BOCKJiHKHyTb h corjiacHTb- 
ch: «Hhb HeM». «KpacoTa CBepxnejioBeKa cnycrajiacb Ha mchh, KaK TeHb. 
Ax, 6paTbH moh! KaKoe MHe aejio ao 6oroB». Bor yMep RJin HHijiiie, CTapbiH 
Bor c fljiHHHOH ce^OH 6opoAOH He cymecTByeT: ero y6nji «CKBepHeiiiiiHH» 
nejiOBeK (KaK 3HaTb, He Baraep jih, 3acraBHBiiiHH BoTaHa npo^ejiaTb TbMy 
He6jiaroBHAHbix npocTynKOB?). CTapwH Bor npeBpaTHJicn rjix. Hniuiie b 
Toro pe6eHKa, KOToporo co6HpaeTCH po^HTb ero ayiua. Ho Xphctoc, npn- 
hhbiiihh b ayiny OTija, He npeBparaji jih Oh Oma eme h b CBoero pe6eH- 
Ka - ayxa 6jiaroflara, Hcxo^nmero ot OTija, KoToporo Oh nocjiaji k HaM. 
Ce6n Ha3biBaeT Xphctoc hctohhhkom 6jiaro,ziaTH, t. e. TeM, kto Azpwr. «Ho 
h tot, kto aapHT, - BocKJiHKHyji h 3apaTycTpa, - h nyacecrpaHeij, h 6eflHHK 
Moiyr cpbmaTb njioa c Moero aepeBa». 

Oahh KaK 6w 3aKJiHHaeT Hac: «OcTaBaiiTecb BepHbiMH He6y». - «Ocra- 
BaHTecb BepHbiMH 3eMJie», - 3aKJiHHaeT apyroii h Ha3WBaeT ayuiy, sto Hcna- 
peHHe Tejia, «;ia3ypHbiM kojiokojiom He6a». Kor^a tobopht: «OcraBaHTecb 
BepHbiMH 3eMJie», He ^oroBapHBaeT «h He6y». Kor^a Xphctoc jthht BepHO- 
cth He6y, Oh B^pyr ocTaHaB jiHBaeTCH , KaK 6w He aoroBapHBaeT, B3flbixaeT: 
«MHoroe hmcji 6bi H BaM CKa3aTb, ho He noiiMeTe, a bot noiiuiio BaM JXyxa 
YTeniHTejiH; Oh HacTaBHT Bac Ha BCHKyio HCTHHy». H BOCXHmeHHoe flyxoM 
xpncTHaHCTBO co3flaeT o6pa3, k HeaocKa3aHHOMy B3floxy XpncTa: rpaa ho- 
bmh, HepycajiHM, cnycKaiomHHCH c He6a Ha 3eMjno. «OcTaBaiiTecb BepHbi- 
MH He6y»... - «h 3eMjie», - yTaHJi bo B3floxe Xphctoc. «Hoboh 3eMJie», fla 
«hoboh», - corjiauiaeTCH h Hnijiiie; h 06a roBopnT o Mene h pa3,zjejieHHH. 

06a BKycHJiH BHHa HeBbipa3HMbix BOCToproB h kpobh pacnnTHH 
KpecTHoro. O^hh yHHJi o Ce6e, hto Oh - «Cmh Boschh h ne JioBenecKHH » , 
apyroii yHHji o CMeHe ayui HauiHX, npeBpameHHbix UnpijeeH npoiiuioro b 
Bep6jno,50B, - o pe6eHKe. IlyTb ocBo6oacfleHHfl Hauiero Ha3Baji oh npeBpa- 
meHHeM Bep6jnofla (hochtcjih CTapbix CKpH^cajien) b jibBa, h jibBa (t. e. co- 
KpyuiHTejiH cKpH5KajieH ) b pe6eHKa, KOToporo no;no6Hji Xphctoc: «Ecjih 
He 6y^eTe, KaK flera, ne BOH^eTe b UapcTBo He6ecHoe»... «h 3eMHoe», - 



59 



He floroBapHBaeT Oh, ho ^oroBapHBaeT OncpoBeHHe HoaHHa. Ha octpob 
jiereik 30BeT Hac c co6oft 3apaTycTpa, oMbiTbift jia3ypbio - nero? jia3ypbio 
Mopa, jia3ypbio He6a, jia3ypbio flyuiH? He Bee jih paBHO, noTOMy hto 3eMjra, 
flyma, He6o - Bee 3to «moct h cTpeMJieHHe k aajibHeMy» - Bee 3to o^ho, 
KaK 6biJio o^ho rjib. XpHCTa «Oh h Otcij». TyT CHMBOJiHKa EBaHrejiHH, 
ecjiH pa36HTb Ha Heft Kopy MepTBoro #orMaTH3Ma, KpenKO cpacraeTCH c 

CHMBOJIHKOft HHUHie, COBna^aH B COKpOBeHHOH Cy6cTaHUHH TBOpHeCKHX 

o6pa30B. H to, hto yTBep^aeTCH sthmh cHMBOJiaMH noA rjiy6HHoft 6oro- 
6opnecTBa, bo3hocht Hac Ha e^HHCTBeHHbift nyTb, poKOBoft h crpaiiiHbift. 
«By^eTe, KaK 6ora», - HCKyuiaji 3Meft. «HeH3BecTHO, hto 6yaeM, - B3flbi- 
xaeT b cBnmeHHOM yacace cb. HoaHH, - 3HaeM, hto 6yaeM no^o6Hbi EMy». 
«Bbi - 6orH», - o6i>HBjiHeT HaM Hmjine h cxo^ht c yMa. «5I - 6or», - boc- 
KJiHuaeT Khphjijiob y ^ocToeBCKoro h 3acTpejiHBaeTcn. A mh ctohm nepefl 
poKOBoft, no^cTynaiomeft k cepfliry TaftHoft. H OHa cMeeicn HaM b flyuie, 
yjibi6aeTCH TaK rpycTHO, KpacHbiMH nojibixaeT Ha 3anaae 3opnMH. H TaM, 
Ha ropH30HTe, ctoht ohh, 06a ijapn, 06a - MyneHHKa, b 6arpnHHije h b Tep- 

HHH, - XpHCTOC H HllU,Uie: BeflyT THXHft CBOft pa3roBop. 

OTpHuan «3eMJiio», Xphctoc Ha3biBaeT Hac «cbmaMH nepTora 6panHO- 
ro» h H,zjeT nnpoBaTb c MbiTapHMH b KaHy TajiHJieftcKyio; h flajiee: cyjiHT 
HaM BocKpeceHHe b Tejie. OTpHijan He6o, Hmjuie hh3bo^ht ero Ha 3eMJiio. 
YTBep^aH He6o, Xphctoc B03BemaeT HaM, hto ero, KaK h 3eMJiio, HCTpe- 
6ht oroHb. yTBepac/jafl 3eMjno, BbipbiBaeT 3eMjno HHijuie y Hac H3-no# Hor. 
Mbi ctohm Ha nepTe, OT^ejiHiomeft CTapyio 3eMjno c ee He6oM, jiioflbMH h 
6oraMH ot... ot nero? 3toto He CKa3aji HHiruie. PacxoxoTajicn h 3aMOJinaji. 
ToBopHT, HaKaHyHe poKOBoro ahh cBoeft 6ojie3HH HHijuie mhoto h HCCTy- 
njieHHO CMenjicH, Jier cnaTb, h... HnijHie, nepecTaji 6biTb HHirnie. 

Ky^a yHec oh 3to ^HKoe Becejibe, Ky^a rojiy6yio cbokd yHec oh Heac- 
HocTb? Oh ocTaBHji Hac nepea 3ara#Koft, npe^BecTHeM. B jxyme CBoeft oh 
yHec to, nero hhkto He yHOCHJi. 

HHijuie ctoht oco6hhkom He TOjibKO ot KaHTa, BeTxoBeHa, IeTe. Ho h 
LQoneHrayap, H6ceH, Baraep He hmciot c hhm HHnero o6njero, xoth hx h 
coe^HHHeT no^nac poflCTBeHHOCTb (J)hjioco(J)ckhx H^eft. Ho hto ajih Hhij- 
iue H^eojiorHH? 

HHI^Hie nblTaiOTCH aCCHMHJIHpOBaTb HyTb JIH He BCe (})HJIOCO(j)CKHe, 

acTeTHHecKHe h xy/toacecTBeHHbie hikojih Hauiero BpeMeHH. 3a6aBH0, hto 
npoijecc ycBoeHHH HHiruie b cbohx paccrpoeHHbix acejiy^Kax ohh Bbma- 
kdt 3a oflOJieHHe HHijme. Ho 3to npeoflaneHHe Hmjme b o6jiacTH MopajiH 
h xy/to^cecTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa hocht ckphto peaKijHOHHbift xapaKTep: 
3to - ycBoeHHe aeaproHa 6e3 flyuieBHoro pHTMa, conpoBoacaaiomero aeap- 
roH. Bee noBepHyjiH Ha3a/j, Bee npe^ajiH HHijme. 

H o^HHaKOBO 3a6biTbift - He b 6arpHHHuy, b 3apio o6jieHeHHbift, cto- 
ht oh nepea coBpeMeHHHKaMH, o/uraaKOBO npoTHBonocTaBJieHHbift reHH- 
hm nponijioro h HacTonmero. «Cbct Moft flaio BaM», - o6pamaeTCH oh h k 



60 



HaM. Ho mm roBopHM 06 «yneHHH OpH^pnxa HHiruie» h He bh^hm pac- 
nHToro /^HOHHca b OKpoBaBJieHHbix kjiohlhx pH3. H c HaMH roBopHT ero 
3^eHHKH - 3th «BbicuiHe» jho^h, npHinefluiHe k HeMy. Tjih^h Ha HHX, OH 
Mor 6bi cKa3aTb: «Bce 3th BbicuiHe jho^h, MoaceT 6biTb, ohh eme naxHyT? 
O, HHCTbiH B03,5yx BOKpyr mchh!.. Ohh eme cnflT, 3th bmchihc jhoah, b to 
BpeMH, KaK «h» 60/rpcTByio; dtno He HacTOHiijHe moh nocjie^OBaTejiH. He hx 
noflacHflaio h 3,a;ecb Ha cbohx ropax». 

Jlyuiy HHirme npHBo^HT k 3eMJie. Zfyma ^jih Hero h ecTb Tejio, ho 
Tejio, OTpHXHyBinee nwjib BbipoacaeHHH. noTOMy-TO Tejio h ecTb /ryma. 

H, KOHeHHO, OHa He B COBOKynHOCTH nCHXO(J)H3HOJIOrHHeCKHX CBOHCTB 

AJix Hninrie. H eme MeHee noHHMaeT oh aymy cnHpHTyajiHCTHHecKH. 
«HyBCTBO», t. e. SMnnpHKa, h jjyx cyTb HHCTpyMeHT h HrpyuiKa: 3a hhmh 
jieacHT eme «Como». CoBOKynHOCTb oiirymeHHH ecTb ajih HHinue jinuib 
MeTo^ojiorHHecKaH o6ojiOHKa KaK Tejia, TaK h /ryuiH, t. e. nycTaa 4>opMa. 
3to He «Como». JXyx, t. e. CoBOKynHOCTb HopM, npeflonpeaejiflioiHHx h no- 
ctpohioihhx 6biTHe MHpa, He «Gomo». «CaMO» - TejiecHee flyxa h /ryxoB- 
Hee 6wthh. 

Vlz-nojx Hor - 6biTHe, H3 co3HaHHH - /ryx BbipbiBaeT y Hac HHirme. 
Mbi ocTaeMCH 6aHKpoTaMH. TaK jih? BbiTHe, KaK coaepacaHHe co3HaHHH, 
h /ryx, KaK ero 4>opMa, KaK hhctmh cy6i>eKT, eme He ecTb «h» ajih HHirme. 
«H» npe^onpe^ejineT h coe^HHneT 6biTHe h no3HaHHe. Oho hx tbopht. 3a 
npe^ejiaMH Bcex Tex mcto^ob, c kotopmmh mm noflxo^HM k HHinne, hh^h- 
BH^yajiH3M HHiruie. «HHflHBH,zjyajibHOCTb» - caMbiii 3tot TepMHH ynoTpe- 
6jraeT HHiruie b chmbojihhcckom, a He b MeTOflOJiorHHecKOM cmmcjic Oh 
BKjia^MBaeT b Hero hchto coBepiueHHO Hepa3Jio»CHMoe b MeTo^ax HayKH h 
TeopeTHHecKoii (J)hjioco(J)hh. Mm He 3HaeM, 6mji jih eme HHinne hh/thbh- 

^yaJIHCTOM B TOM CMMCJie CJIOBa, KOTOpblH B HeTO BJIOECHJIH MM. 

Boo6me cjioacHa h 3anyTaHHa npo6jieMa HHflHBHzryajibHoc™. OHa 
npejiOMjineTCH b MeTo^ax. HHflHBH/ryajiHSM ncnxHKH, no r&jxj^HHry, 
HMeeT 4>H3HHecKoe BbipaaceHHe b cyMMe 3HeprHH, KOTopon pacnojiaraeT 
opraHH3M b coctohhhh 3apoflMiiia, bo BpeMH pa3BHTHH, a TaK^ce b opra- 
HHHecKoii (J)opMe o6HapyaceHHH 3HeprHH. TaKOBa SMnnpHHecKaH (J)opMy- 
jia B3aHMOfleHCTBHH ayiiiH h Tejia. BMecre c ByH/rroM mm /jojdkhm npn- 
3HaTb, hto cyMMa (J)H3HHecKoro o6Hapy»ceHHH HH/rHBH/ryajibHocTH Menee 
ncHXHHecKoro pe3y;ibTaTa stoto o6Hapy»ceHHH, OTRpMBaiomerocfl HaM 
b npe^CTaBJieHHH o HeM KaK o HaiiieM Ho, 6biTb MoaceT, HHflHBH/ry- 
ajibHOCTb Hauia KopeHHTcn b 6ecco3HaTe;ibHOM. Ho noHHTHe o 6ecco3Ha- 
TejibHOM ecTb noHHTHe o npe^MeTe co3HaHHH -hho neM 6o;iee: TaK Hauie 

CTaHOBHTCH BeJIHHHHOH MHHMOH. KaK Hepa3JI03KHMOe e/JHHCTBO 

npoueccoB, 3a npe^ejiaMH SMnnpHHecKOH ncHxojiorHH. «H» He ecTb hchto 
Heno^BH^CHoe, HeH3MeHneMoe b npe^ejiax ncHxojiorHH. Hauie «H» oacHBa- 
eT b npouecce aeHTejibHocTH. HyacHM HOBbie npoueccbi: npoueccbi TBop- 
necTBa. He BCHKoe TBopnecTBO co3H,zjaeT ce6n. TBopnecTBO, o6pameHHoe 



61 



Ha ce6n, ecTb TBopnecTBo ueHHOCTeft ajih Hniriiie. B HeM rapaHTHH »ch3hh 
Bcero HejiOBenecTBa. 

TeopeTHnecKan (J)h^oco(J)hh onpeaejineT «h» H3 npoTHBonojioaceHHH 
ero b «He 3aecb «H» npeBpamaeicn b cy6i>eKT, a «He 5I» - b o6i>eKT. 
CoBpeMeHHan Teopnn no3HaHHH h bhciiihhh, h BHyTpeHHHH onwT o6i>eflH- 
HHeT b MHpe o6T>eKTa. Cy6i>eKT 0Ka3biBaeTCH hhctoh BHeonbiraoH hopmoh, 
ycTaHaBjiHBaiomeH h mhp onbrra, h MeTOflOJiorHHecKHe (J)opMbi onbiTHoro 
no3HaHHH, h KaTeropHH pa3yMa. KaK hhctmh cy6i>eKT no3HaHHH, ecTb 
HeomyTHMoe, 6ecco/jep5KaTejibHoe h aaaee HeMbicjiHMoe Oho - npe- 
nen MbiuijieHHH. He TaKOBO «H» y Hniriiie. Oho coeflHHneT no3HaHHe c 6bi- 
THeM b aKTe TBopnecTBa. Bbirae h no3HaHHe ecTb yace npoijecc pa3JioaceHHH 

TBOpneCKOH UeHHOCTH B (J)OpMaX n03HaHHH H HyBCTBeHHOCTH. TBOpHeCTBO 
CB060flH0 OT 6bITHH, KaK OT CB06H (J)OpMbi; HO TBOpHeCTBO CBo6oflHO H OT 

no3HaHHH, h6o no3HaHHe - (J)opMa TBopnecTBa. TBopnecTBo ecTb coe^H- 
HeHHe no3HaHHH c 6wth6m b o6pa3e ijeHHOcra. H 3to-to TBopnecTBo lien- 
HOCTeii Ha3biBaeT Hniuiie no3HaHHeM, a ce6n - nosnmot^UM, (J)hjioco(J)om. 
IIoHHTHe no3HaBaHHH, KaK h BCHKoe noHHTHe, ynoTpe6jineT Hniriiie b 
CHMBOJiHnecKOM CMbicjie. Mw yace BH^ejiH, hto b TaKOM ace CMbicjie no- 

HHMaeT OH HH^HBH^yaJIbHOCTb. OHa flJIfl Hero HH JIHHHa, HH BHeJIHHHa, HH 

e^HHHHHa, hh Bceo6ma, noTOMy hto KaTeropHH Bceo6mero h e^HHHHHO- 
ro TOJibKO MeTO^ojiorHHecKHe (J)opMbi, a He TeoperaKO-no3HaBaTejibHbie. 
TeopHH no3HaHHH He aaeT HaM npaB roBopHTb o Bceo6mnx h eflHHHHHbix 
no3HaBaTe;ibHbix (|)opMax, a o (popjuax Bceo6mero h eflHHHHHoro. Ohh npe- 
^onpe^ejieHbi hopmoh ,n;oji)KeHCTBOBaHHH. 3Ta HopMa ajih Hniuiie jiHinb 
cjiea, ocTaBJieHHbiH TBopnecTBOM u;eHHOCTeH. TBopnecTBO h TeopHH TBop- 
necTBa fljin HHirme aojiacHa 6biTb BHe Bonpoca o tom, tbopht jih ijchhocth 
jiHHHocTb, co6paHHe jiHHHOCTeH hjih CBepxjiHHHoe Hanajio. HHane ijeHHO- 

CTH nOnaJIH 6bl BO BJiaCTb nCHXOJIOrHH, MeTa(J)H3HKH HJIH TeopHH 3HaHHH, 

Tor^a KaK TBopnecTBo, npe^onpe^ejiHH cjioacHeiiiiiHe npo6;ieMbi no3HaHHH 
c hx OTBeTaMH Ha to, hto «H» h «He 51 », yac, kohchho, cbo6o^ho ot ncnxo- 

JIOrHH, 3aMKHyTOH CO BCeX CTOpOH TeopeTHKO-n03HaBaTeJIbHbIM aHaJIH30M. 
OTTOrO-TO nCHXOJIOrHHeCKHe ^OKTpHHbl «JIHHHOCTH», «HHflHBHflyaJIbHO- 

cth», «flyniH» hjih «Tejia» - 3a npeaejiOM rex ropH30HTOB, KOTopwe npn- 
3Haji Hniriiie cbohmh o6pa3aMH h hachmh. (Bejih b flyiiie y Hero 6wjio Bee 
hoboc) «,Zfyiiia», «Tejio», «h», «He h» - ho Be^b oh ctohji 3a nepTOH, 
r#e Bee 3to OT^ejibHO. «,ZIyiiia» - 3to rojiy6ofi kojiokoji He6a: Ha He6e 

3CMJIH, C MOHM TeJIOM H flyiHOH. «Hy, KOHeHHO, ayUia - 3TO Tejio», - 

CKa3aji 6bi oh. «Tejio» - ho oho thhct, ho ero npH^aBHji ayx, Kor^a H3 
ayxa co3^ajiH KaH/jajibi; Tejio - 3to HOBan njioTb CBepxnejioBeKa. Bee, hto 
y6HBaeT bo MHe - pe6eHKa, He h, ho h h, - moct h erpeMJieHHe k aajibHeMy. 
Bot hto oh c^ejiaji 6m co bccmh sthmh cjiOBaMH k yacacy CHcreMaraKOB, 
TepMHHO JioroB , MeTo^ojioroB h TeopeTHKOB. Ho Hniriiie ^o TaKoii creneHH 
npaKTHK, hto eMy HeT BpeMeHH pa3MbiuijiHTb o tom, b CBeTe KaKOH Tep- 



62 



MHHOJiorHH ero BoenpHMyT. Oh nojib3yeTcn bccmh cpe^CTBaMH B03^eii- 

CTBHfl, HTo6bI BHyiUHTb HaM Ty HJIH HHyK) LjeHHOCTb, - 3flecb HayKofi, 3^ecb 

Meia(})H3HKOH, TaM - cjia^Koii, cjia^Koii necHbio CBoeft. Oh - chmbojihct, 
nponoBeflHHK hoboh »ch3hh, a He yneHbiH, He (})hjioco(J), He no3T: xoth Bee 
.aaHHbie TOJibKO (J)Hjioco(})a, yneHoro hjih noaTa y Hero 6biJiH. Ho to, hto 
3acTaBJiHjio ero 6biTb OpH^pHxoM HHixuie, nponoBe^HHKOM hobwx ijeH- 
HOCTeii, BOBce He 6mjio necipoii aMajibraMoii H3 no33HH, MeTacJ)H3HKH h 
HayKH. Bojiee apyrax noao6Hbi eMy TBopijbi hobwx pejinrHH. 3atfana pejiH- 
thh: TaK C03^aTb pnflbi »CH3HeHHbix ijeHHocTeii, hto6h o6pa3bi HX BpOCJIH B 
o6pa3bi 6biTHH, npeo6pa3yn MHp: He TOJibKO C03#aTb b MHpe MHp, ho h ny- 
TeM TaKHx-To MaHHnyjiHiiHH c^ejiaTb ero peajibHbiM ce6e h apyrHM. IlycTb 
HayKa h (})hjioco(J)hh noTOM o(J)opMHT HaM co3^aHHbie ixchhocth, BbiBe^yT 
npHHHHbi, 3acTaBHBiHHe Hac rjiH^eTb Ha MHp npeo6paaceHHbiM B3opoM: He 
aHajiH3 Hainero npeo6paaceHHH, He ecTecTBeHHO-HayHHoe H3T>HCHeHHe HaM 
BaaeHO, a caMbiH (}>aKT nocTHaceHHH ce6n h MHpa b HyacHOM 6;iecKe. Bee 
3to 6y^eT noTOM, a nona TBopHTb, TBopHTb 3tot 6;iecK 3Baji Hac Hnmne, - 
sejxb nepHan HOHb BbipoacaeHHH o6cTynHJia co Bcex ctopoh. IlycTb yneHbiH 
HaM cicaaceT Bnocjie^CTBHH, hto Ham opraHH3M Tpe6yeT, caMOCoxpaHeHHH 
pa^H, HTo6bi mm npeo6pa3HJiH Ham B3rjiHA Ha 5KH3Hb, (})hjioco(}) HannineT 

TpaKTaT O «BJiaCTH H^eH», 3KOHOMHCT o6t>HCHHT HaC COUHaJIbHblMH ycjio- 

bhhmh cpe^bi, h TpaKTaT o ^ereHepaijHH b cbh3h c nporeHepaiiHeii H3roTO- 
bht onbiTHbiH ncHXHaTp. Bee 3to 6y#yT, noacajiyii, h TOHHbie MeTOflOJiorn- 
necKHe o6i>HCHeHHH. Ho HCTHHa BOBce He b tohhocth: OHa b uchhocth. Mh 

>KHBbI I^eJIbHOCTbK) nOCTH5KeHHH 5KH3HH, 3. He MeTOflOJIOrHHeCKHM UIKa(})OM 

c cothhmh neperopo^OK. B Kaacfloii, noacajiyii, Han^eM aoi3Hb h ce6n b Heft, 

H3T>HCHeHHbIX MeTOflOJIOTHHeCKH. MhOJKCCTBO MCTO^OJIOrHHeCKHX 

MeTo^ojiorHHecKHx ixejibHocTefi, - hh e^HHOH i^ejibHocTH ^chboh. A eacejin 
mh noBepHM, hto »CH3Hb h ecTb sto MHO^cecTBo Hac caMHx, OTpaaceHHbix 
noa pa3HbiMH yniaMH, b yacace bockjimkhcm: ho sto 6yaeT xop MeTOflOJio- 
rHHecKHx tojiocob, cyeTjiHBO cnopnmHx #pyr c apyroM. KpHKHeM - h pac- 
na^eMCH Ha npaBHjibHbie KBa^paTHKH no HHCJiy OTflejieHHH MeTOflOjiorn- 
necKoro rpo6a. 

TojibKO b TBopnecTBe acHBaa 5KH3Hb, a He b pa3MbiuiJieHHHx Haa Hen. 

- TOBOpHIUb TbI, - H ropflHIHbCfl 3THM CJIOBOM, - BOCKJIHIjaeT HhIJ- 

ine. - TBoe Tejio h ero bcjimkhh pa3yM... He roBopnT ho ^ejiaiOT 

MoacHo jih roBopHTb: «yneHHe Hniune o jihhhocth», MHHyn jiHHHocTb 
caMoro Hnmue? Bee yneHHe h Becb 6;iecK nepeacHBaHHH eMy HyaceH, hto- 
6bi co3^aTb ce6n b HyacHOM h ixchhom o6pa3e. 3tot o6pa3 b ce6e npe^o- 
mymaeT oh KaK HOBoe hmh. K HeMy npHMeHHMbi cjiOBa AnoicajiHncHca: 
«no6eacflaiomeMy aaM BKyinaTb coKpoBeHHyio MaHHy; h aaM eMy 6e;ibiH 
KaMeHb h Ha HeM HanHcaHHoe HOBoe hmh, KOToporo hhkto He 3HaeT, KpoMe 
Toro, kto no;iyHaeT» (HoaHH). nepeco3,zjaTb He6o h 3eMjno no o6pa3y h 

nOflo6HK) HOBOrO HMeHH - BOT HTO XOTCJI HhIJUIC 3TO 3HaHHT! H3MCHHTb 



63 



b ce6e 4>opMbi bocitphhthh 3cmjih h He6a: «H 6y^eT hobrh 3eMjra h HOBoe 
He6o». TyT cjiOBa ero 3BynaT KaK rpeMHiune Tpy6bi aHrejioB, B03Bemaio- 
ihhx b «OTicpoBeHHH» rH6ejib CTapbix BpeMeH, npocTpaHCTB h He6ec. Ho 
m6ejih CTapwx 6oroB h BeTxoro nejioBeKa B03BemaeT HHinue. «,Zlajibine 
h^th HeKyaa», bot hto roBopHT OH. 

Kto noAo6eH 6e3yMuy ceMy b ero KomyHCTBeHHoit flep30cra? OaKe- 
jiom cbohm noflacnraeT MHp, oahoh Horoit ctoh Ha TBep^H jia3ypHOH, 
h6o TBep^b yaee, KaK ctckjio, ^pyroft nonnpan 3eMjiio, KpacHbiM o^e- 
Tbiit 3apn xhtohom. Kto no,zjo6eH 6e3y\my ceMy? IIpHiHeji k ropH30HTy, 
KJiHHeTCH, hto CTapan 3eMJiH h cTapoe He6o yace MHHOBajiH b ero flyuie. 
Kto noflo6eH eMy? 

TojibKO pa3 b HCTOpHH pa3,zjaBajiHCb 3th penn, Kor^a nocTaBHJiH nepea 
KaHa4>OH 6e3yMua H3 Ha3apen. W Tor^a CKa3ajiH: «PacnHH Ero». H pac- 
nHJiH. 

H bot btophhho b cepflue CBoeM pacnHHaeM mbi HHinue, Kor^a oh 
CKJiOHHeTCH na& HaMH b uapcTBeHHoit CBoeii 6arpHHHue, uienna: «KaK mo- 
aceuib Tbi o6HOBHTbCH, He caejiaBiHHCb cnepBa nenjiOM?» Ckjiohhctch h 
30BeT! «Tw ^ojiJKeH coBepniHTb Ha6er Ha He6o». Ho mh y6eraeM ot Hniune 
b npoiujioe, b khhth, b HayKy, b hctophio - ^ajibine, Bee aajibiue. H TaM 
BCTpenaeM flpyroit o6pa3, Bee b toh ace 6arpHHHue, h oh roBopHT: «LI,ap- 
CTBHe BoacHe BocxniuaeT chjioh». TaK ctoht ohh - 6arpflHopo,zjHbie cmhh 
HejiOBenecTBa, h BeayT cboh 6e3MOJiBHbiH pa3roBop: h xoth noHHMaeM no- 
pa3HOMy mw hx cjiOBa, npoTHBonocTaBJiHH apyr apyry, ho c o6ohx mm co- 
BjieKJiH 6arpHHHijy, o6ohx pacrouiH b cepaue CBoeM. 

«Eme o^hh pa3 xony h h,zjth k jhoahm: cpe^H hhx h xony 3aKaraTbCH; 
yMHpan, xony aaTb hm cboh 6oraTbiH aap». Kto 3to roBopHT - Xpncroc? 
HeT, OpH^pHx HHinue. «OroHb npHHec H Ha 3eMjno: o, KaK xoTeji 6w 51, 
hto6h oh pa3ropejiCH». 3to tobopht Hnmiie? HeT, Xphctoc... 

Ilocjie HHinue mw yace 6ojibine He MoaeeM roBopHTb hh o xpHCTHaH- 
CTBe, hh o H3binecTBe, hh o 6e3pejiHrH03Hoii KyjibType: Bee o6T>eMjieT b 
ce6e pejiHrHH TBopnecTBa 5KH3HH... aaace bctxhx 6oroB. HHinue noHHJi, hto 
nejiOBeK yace nepecTaeT 6biTb hcjiobckom, h aaace o6pa3 6ora k HeMy He- 
npHMeHHM; 3Ty cTpaumyio TaiiHy hochji oh b ce6e h KaK Mor oh nepeaaTb 
ee cjiOBaMH? IIoTOMy-TO «3apaTycTpa» ero - p*m chmbojiob. Chmbojiw 
«He roBopHT» y HHinue: «ohh TojibKO KHBaiOT: rjiyneu,, - BocKJiHijaeT oh, - 
kto xoneT y3HaTb ot hhx hto-jih6o». A yneHHe ero o «MopajiH», o «ao6pe h 
3Jie» H O «BeHHOM B03BpameHHH» - 3TO JierKHH noKpoB, Ha6pomeHHbiH Ha 
CTpauiHyio TaiiHy: ecjiH ocBo6oflHTb 3tot noKpoB yneHHH ot nporaBopeHHH 
h TaKTHnecKHx npneMOB H3Jio»ceHHH, 3a KOTopbie He ctoht caM Hnmne, OT 
«yHeHHH», noacajiyii, HHHero h He ocraHeTCH. «YHenue Opudpuxa Huu i me» 
npeBpaTHTCH b aH^epceHOBCKoe uapcKoe njiaTbe: ero BOBce He 6yaeT. 

OcTaHeTCH caM Hnume. H oh He y^HT, oh, KaK h ero chmbojih, HHHeMy 
He ynaT; ho npoTHHyTOH aecHHueii oh noKa3biBaeT Ha Hac, uieBejiHT ycTa- 



64 



mh: «Tw dmo 3Haeuib, ho tm stoto He roBopHiiib» («3apaTycTpa»). Hto, 

HTO TaM TOBOpHT OH? 

HO OH He rOBOpHT! OH TOJIbKO KHBaeT HaM 6e3 CJIOB. 

Kacaacb jihhhocth, ho,zjo6hoh Hniuiie, b ero TBopeHHHx, h npoxoacy 
MOJina mhmo caMHx TBopeHHH; bot cnpaBe^JiHBbifi ynpeK, npezrbHBjieHHbiH 
MHe! Haao ace noKa3aTb, b caMOM aejie, CTpyKTypy ero H^eft, - pa3o6paTb 
H^eojiorHio. 

H H OTKa3bIBaK)Cb. 

IloBTopHTb o6mne MecTa 06 HHOTBH^yajiH3Me, HMMopajiH3Me, aMopa- 
jiH3Me, MopajiH3Me, a Taicace oacHBjiHTb b naMHTH Bee npoHHe «h3mw», yica- 
3biBaTb Ha BjiHHHHe Baraepa h IIIoneHrayapa, icanaTb tojioboh npn yno- 
MHHaHHH 06 HMeHH KaHTa h, HaKOHeij, BbiTacKHBaTb apxHB no Bonpocy 
o ccope Hnijuie c BaraepoM - Bee 3to h3bcctho Majio-MajibCKH hhtcjijih- 
reHTHOMy nejioBeicy H3 flemeBeHbKHx komhhjihijhh, aeypHajibHbix CTaTefi h 
npoHHx «Eojtcbeu Miuiocmbio omKpumuu». 

Xopoiuo H3BecTHa 6aHajibHan (J)opMyjia 4>hjioco(J)hh Hnijiiie, - Bep- 
Hee: xopoiuo Heuseecrrma. 

Hto6m HMeTb HcnepnbiBaiomee npefleraBJieHHe xoth 6h 06 ochobhwx 
Te3Hcax ero njiaT(})opMbi, - Hyaoio ro^a H3ynaTb 6a3ejibCKoro npo(J)eccopa 
h BHeniHe, h BHyTpeHHe. BHeume: 6biTb o6pa30BaHHbiM KJiaccHKOM, ocho- 

BaTeJIbHO 3HaTb HCTOpHK) TlpeBHeH H HOBOH (})HJIOCO(J)HH H HMeTb Cepbe3- 

Hoe npcziCTaBjieHHe o rpenecKOH h HeMeuKofi jiHTepaType. BHyTpeHHe: ho 

BOT flJIH 3TOTO-TO H Hy5KHO 3HaTb JIHHHOCTb HHIUIie; HJIH yMeTb ee 5KHBO 

Bocco3,ziaTb b ce6e caMOM (hto He TaK jierKO, KaK ^yMaioT HHimieaHijbi); 
hjih ace cbe3#HTb k TeM jiHijaM, c KOTOpbiMH CBH3biBajia Hnijiiie flpyac6a. 
CjicziyeT Taicace BHHMaTejibHo H3ynHTb cohkhchkh JIicoBa Byprxap/rra, bo 
MHOTOM 05KHBHBHIHe MblCJIb reHHajibHoro nejiOBeica. 

A HaXO^HTb B HHIJHieBCKOH HfleOJIOrHH BCe HOBbie H HOBbie CTOpOHbl - 

Ha 3to y MeHH HeT 6eccoBecTHocTH; 3to 3HaHHT: npnypoHHTb KOJioccajibHoe 
3^aHHe, hm B03flBHrHyToe, k TOMy hjih HHOMy acHBOTpenemymeMy Bonpo- 
cy. Ho npnypoHHBaTb k TOMy, hto nojiHo mpenemamH h TOJibKO TpeneTa- 
HbH - ne nojiema, - npnypoHHBaTb k coBpeMeHHocra, b kotopoh Bee bo- 
npocw peinaiOTCH mpenemoM, 3to 3HanHT: - o6pbmaTb opjiHHbie nepwi rjix 
yicpaiiieHHfl ce6n. 

OTbicKaTb noeoe y caMoro Hnijiiie BOBce He cocTaBHT Tpyzja: eme h 
Tenepb Hmxwe - HeHcnepnaeMbiH hctohhhk, xoth bch Hama anoxa - no- 
HepnHjrran H3 Hero, Bee eme nepnaeT Bo^y ero acHByio... CTOJib o6njibHO h 
cTOJib JierKO, hto y Hac B03HHKaeT coMHeHHe: nepnaa H3 Hnijiiie, He nepna- 

eM JIH Mbl... MHMO HHIJHie? 

B KaaczjOM ero a(J)opH3Me KOHijeHTpHpoBaH pan Mbicjiefi, p*m nepeacn- 
BaHHH, o6jieneHHbix b He6peacHyio (J)opMy: tohho Myapeij, nyTeuiecTByio- 
iu;hh HHKorHHTO, 03aAaHHT HaHBHoro nonyTHHKa, h tot He 3HaeT, HMeeT jih 
oh neno c 6e3yMHbiM, myTOM hjih npopoKOM. 



65 



yrjiy6jIHHCb B a(J)0pH3MbI, Bbl OTKpblBaeTe IIOHTH B JIK)6oM H3 HHX 

TepHHdbiH H^eojiorHHecKHH nyTb. MoacHO 3aAaBaTb HHTaTejiio 3aaaHH Ha 
H^eojiorHHecKoe nocipoeHHe, npefljiaraa peniHTb a(j)opH3M Hniuiie. Pa3- 
BepTbiBaa cmwcji a(J)opH3Ma, mh 3aMenaeM ero ^BycTopoHHocTb: b o^hom 
HanpaBjieHHH pacTeT ero jiorHHecKHH cmmcji; BCKpbiBaiOTCH CHanajia e^Ba 
y^OBHMbie HaMeKH Ha Te hjih HHbie HayHHbie screTHnecKHe nocrpoeHHH, 
BCKpwBaeTCH 3amHTa h KpHTHKa 3thx nocTpoeHHfi; o6Hapy»cHBaeTCH apy- 
^hijhh Hnmiie, a Taicace yMeHHe, r^e HyacHO, cnpHTaTb ee b KapMaH; ana- 
jieKTHKa 6jiemeT - flHajieKTHKa Bpara anajieKTHKH. B apyroM HanpaBJie- 
hhh pa3BepTbiBaeTCH na(J)oc, BjioaceHHbiH b jiio6oh acf)opH3M; oh yica3biBaeT 
HaM noflnac Ha coKpoBeHHefiiiiHe nepeacHBaHHH caMoro Hnijiiie, yKpbiTbie 
jierKHM capKa3MOM hjih crpeMHTejibHMM napa^OKCOM. Bee 3aKOBbiBaeTCH 
b o6pa3Hofl (J)opMe h no^HocHTCH HaM c njieHHiomeH Hac yjibi6icoH tohko- 
ro acTeia: a(J)opH3M CTaHOBHTCH 3M6;ieMOH nepeacHBaHHa; nepeacHBaHHe - 
3m6jicmoh mwcjih: h hh tcm, h hh .zjpyrHM, ho h tcm h apyrHM - BceM BMe- 

CTe: CHMBOJIOM CTaHOBHTCH y HHUUie a(J)OpH3M. 

IloTpyflHTecb Tenepb cocTaBHTb ce6e BepHoe npeacTaBJieHHe 06 3toh 
TOeojiorHH; 3a,aaHa TpyzjHefi, neM ayMaioT H^eojiorn Hniuiie, npHyHHBiHHe 
Hac c TporaTejibHOH HaHBHOCTbio BepHTb b to, hto »HAeHbKoe credo, npn- 
nHCWBaeMoe hmh Hnijiiie, - aeiiCTBHTejibHO ero credo. IIo KpafiHefl Mepe, 
h sto HcnwTaji, npoHHTbiBaa pa3 b ce^bMOH «3apaTycTpy». 

IlpaBHjibHO noHHToe yneHHe Hniuae paBHneTCH 6aHajibHOH (J)opMy- 
jie, onpe^ejiHiomeH sto yneHHe, njnoc toh ace (J)opMy;ie, npejiOMJieHHOH 
CKB03b cyMMy ero a(J)opH3MOB. TaKOBbi hhcto (J)opMajibHbie 3aTpy^HeHHH 
fljiH necTHoro H3JioaceHHH Hnmiie; ecjiH k 3TOMy npn6aBHTb eme coo6- 
paaceHHe o tom, hto k jno6oMy acJ)opH3My Hnijiiie Heo6xo,zjHMbi kommch- 

TapHH, HTO BCe KOMMeHTapHH 3TH MOrjIH 6bl COCTaBHTb ^eCHTKH tomob, a 

3th tomw He HanncaHbi BOBce, to... Jiynine hjih (J)opMajibHo H3Jio»CHTb npn- 
3HaKH, xapaKTepH3yiomHe nncaHHe Hniuiie, hjih BOBce He roBopHTb o HeM 
HHHero. CTajiKHBancb c Hnmue, o6biKHOBeHHo H#yT coBepuieHHO flpyrHM 
nyTeM: He Taic ero H3ynaioT: He cjiyuiaiOT ero b «ce6e comux»; HHTan, He 
HHTaioT! o6^yMbiBaioT, Ky^a 6bi ero CKopen 3annxaTb, b Kaicyio 6bi py6pn- 
Ky OTHecra ero Heo6biHHoe cjiobo; h - py6pnica roTOBa: TOJibKO Hnmiie b 
Heft BOBce He yMemaeTCH. Tor^a nocrynaiOT BecbMa npocTO h peiiiHTejib- 

HO. 06xOflfl H HCKJHOHafl npOTHBOpeHHH (BeCb HHIIHie H3BHe - nporaBo- 

peHHe), He CTapancb BCKpbiTb ocHOBy sthx npoTHBopenHH hjih BCKpbiBaa 
ee He TaM, jierKo h npocTO odempyzueawm Hnmne: h BeTBHCToe aepeBo ero 
CHCTeMbi tjih^ht Ha Hac, KaK njiocKan aocica; 3aTeM npo^ejibmaioT c doexou 
peuiHTejibHo Bee: hjih ee BbiKH^biBaioT, hjih cacnraiOT, hjih npnjiaacHBaioT k 
^OMauiHHM cbohm noTpe6HOCTHM, hjih ace 3acTaBjiHK)T MOJiHTbCH Ha flepe- 
bhhhwh h^oji; ^epeBHHHoe HHiiiueaHCTBO, aepeBHHHafl 6opb6a c HHijuie - 
bot hto Hac BCTpenaeT Ha nyra, k KOTopoMy 3Baji Hnmiie. TaK nocTynaiOT 
Bee H^eojiorn, Bee nonyjiHpH3aTopbi: ruKxmndocKa H3 o6iijhx cyac^eHHH o 



66 



ceo6ode JiuHHOcmUy o npedpaccydxax Mopcuiu - bot hto Hac Tyr BCTpenaeT; 
h 3Ty-TO cyxyio dpeeecuny HaBH3ajiH uihpokoh ny6;iHKe KaK 3anpaBCKoe 
HHUineaHCTBo! 

MeTOflOJiorHHecKaa o6pa6oTKa Tex hjih hhwx «v,epm (piuioco(puu» 
Hnuuie - BnojiHe aonycTHMa; 6ojiee Toro: acejiaTejibHa. TojibKO He cjie- 
ayeT 3a6biBaTb, hto TyT mw aHajiH3HpyeM Hnmiie BOBce He ajih )khbwx 
noTpe6HOCTeft ayiiiH, a juin pemeHHH BnojiHe cepbe3Hbix, noHTeHHwx, ho 
aKa^eMHHecKHx BonpocoB; t. e. mcokho ocBemaTb npo6jieMy ueHHOCTeft 
y Hnmiie b CBeTe stoh npo6jieMbi y MapKca, ABeHapnyca, PHKKepTa; ho 
He^b3H pe3yjibTaTaMH Tanoro cpaBHeHHH BwpaacaTb Hnmiie «Heeupa3UM0- 
zo» y MOJinajiHBO cMeiomeroca HaM. 

Bee ace Tanan o6pa6oTKa njioflOTBopHee h cKpoMHee, HeacejiH kphkjih- 
Boe 3aHBjieHHe o cymHOCTH H^eojiorHH HHumeaHCTBa, noTOMy hto H#eo- 
jiorHH 3Ta - He HfleojiorHH bobcc B nepBOM cjiynae H3ynaeM mm caMbie 
KJieTOHKH ApeBecHHbi, o6pa3yiomeH aepeBO HHmueaHCTBa, h BOBce He y6n- 
BaeM mw ^epeBa; a bot ecjiH ero o6cTpyraTb, Tor^a - npomaft, uiejiecTHman 
KpOHa acJ)opH3MOB-jiHCTbeB. Ho CTpyrajiH: 6yayT h Bnpeflb CTpyraTb. 

B CBeTe TeopHH .flapBHHa, KaK h b CBeTe no3flHeiiiiiHX HCCJieaoBaHHH b 
o6jiacTH KJiaccHnecKOH (J)Hjio;iorHH, b CBeTe yneHHH apeBHero IlaTaHflaca- 
jih, KaK h b CBeTe (J)HJioco(J)eM coBpeMeHHoro HaM PHKKepTa, - He pyuiHTcn 
aepeBO HHixuieaHCTBa, OKpauiMBancb b 3aKaTHbie, HOHHwe, yTpeHHHe TOHa. 
H TeopHH 3HaHHH, h TeopHH TBopnecrBa, h Teopna npoHcxoacaeHHH rpene- 
ckhx KyjibTOB TojibKO yrjiy6jiHK>T noBepxHOCTHo BoenpHHHToro Hnijiiie. 
KacaTbCH 3Toro Bonpoca b kopotkoh cTaTbe npH BceM acejiaHHH (cjihihkom 
MHoro Tyr mo>kho CKa3aTb) a He HMeio bo3mo)khocth: TyT mw b uempe bo- 
npocoB, Tpe6yiomHx acepTBW mhothx noKOJieHHH rjib. pemeHHH, - ho bo- 
npocoB, KOTOpblX HaM HHKor^a He H36e5KaTb. 

H acejiaio jiHuib no^nepKHyTb, hto Kor^a penb HfleT o B033peHHHX Hhu- 
uie, to mw HMeeM aejio: 1) c chctcmoh chmbojiob, 3axBaTWBaiomHx HeBw- 
pa3HMyio r;iy6HHy HauieS nyum; 2) c MeTOflOJiorHnecKHM o6ocHOBaHHeM 

3THX CHMBOJIOB B TOH HJIH HHOH CHCTeMe 3HaHHHJ TaKOe o6oCHOBaHHe 

B03M05KHO, xoth h (J)opMajibHo: Bee ace 3TO «do6pcui» hh k neMy He o6h- 
3biBaiomaH (J)opMa OTHouieHHa k HHmueaHCTBy 6jiaropoflHee, 6e3o6HflHee 
xaoTHHecKoft MeTa(J)H3HKH nonyjiHpH3aTopoB, mhaiuhx, 6yflTO ohh pac- 
KpbiJiH neeupasuMoe b Hnmue; 3) KpoMe toto, mw CTajiKHBaeMCH c cepneft 
npoTHBopeHHBwx MHpoco3epuaHHH y caMoro Hnmiie, ecjiH 6yaeM pa3Bep- 
TWBaTb H^eojiorHH ero a(J)opH3MOB; 4) HaKOHeu, nepea hsmh cBOflKa xopo- 

UIO H3BeCTHWX HfleH O CBepXHCJIOBeKe, JIHHHOCTH H BeHHOM B03BpameHHH, 

b onpaBe nonyjiHpH3aTopoB - t. e. Hniuiie b aepeBHHHOM rpo6y, mw - bo- 
Kpyr, h jieKTop, hjih nncaTejib, Bnojiyo6opoT k HaM: «MHJiocTHBwe rocy- 
aapn, yneHHe Hniuiie b tom, hto 1) jiHHHOCTb - CBo6oaa; 2) HejiOBenecTBo 
hbht CBepxnejioBeKa; 3) Bee B03BpamaeTCH»... Ho nepBwft nyHKT - mhoto- 
CMwcjieHeH h TyMaHeH, BTopofi - CMecb Aypno ycBoeHHoro ZUpBHHa c ayp- 



5 AHApeH Benufi 



67 



HO yCBOeHHOH 3KOHOMHKOH, IiyHKT TpeTHH - MclTCMclTHHeCKHH napa^OKC, 

ocHOBaHHbiii Ha p^e norpeiHHocTefi... H mm 3aKanbiBaeM Hnmue, HacHjib- 
ho 3aKo;ioHeHHoro b rpo6, He nofl03peBa*i, hto echboh oh - He MepTBbiii... 
O, KOBapHbiii nonyjiHpH3aTop! 

51 OTKa3biBaiocb k HeMy npHcoeflHHHTbCJi: He H3jiaraio 4>HJioco4)CKoro 
«credo» Hhuuic 

3aflana moh - ociaHOBHTb BHHMaHHe Ha jihhhocth Hmjiiie: yica3aTb 
Ha to, hto «Heeupa3UMoe» y HHmiie, xapaKTepH3yiomee ero KaK «Hoeozo» 
nejiOBeica, cjiobho npeaonpeaejieHO BceM pa3BHraeM Haiueii KyjibTypw; hto 
ero «Heeupa3UMoe» - He ero TOJibKO, ho h «Hawe»; TOJibKO b snoxy, npea- 
iuecTBOBaBiuyio nojiBJieHHK) XpHCTa, coBepiuajiocb to, hto coBepuiaeTCH b 
r;iy6HHe HaiueS ayuiH; TOJibKO 3Ta snoxa MoaceT HaBecTH Hac Ha BepHwft 
nyTb, no KOTopoMy aojiechw mw h^th, hto6w noHOTb Hnmiie. XpaM ho- 
boh ayuiH B03,aBHr XpncToc: h HCTopHH noBepHyjia CBoe Kojieco; KaKOH-TO 
xpaM nbiTajiCH BbiCTpoHTb Hnijiiie, He noTOMy, hto xotcji, a noTOMy, hto 
BepHO noacjiyiiiaji coBepuiaiomeecH b nyTKHx ayiiiax, r^e Bee - o6jiomkh 
pyxHyBiuHx ueHHocTeii. 

HHIJUie nepBMH 3arOBOpHJI O B03BpaTHOM npH6jIH)KeHHH BeHHOCTH - 

o btopom npHinecTBHH - Koro, nero?.. H CKa3aji 6ojibiiie Bcex He cjioBaMH; 
CKa3aji MOJinaHHeM, yjiw6Koii - <mounoio necneu» h o6pyneHHeM c BenHO- 
CTbio: TOJibKO ot Hee xoTeji oh jierew. h noTOMy oh xoTeji - BenHbix jieTeu; 
h noTOMy-To 6opojiCH c rpo6oBbiM CKJiaflOM o6jiomkob, 3aBajiHBiiiHx Hauiy 
ayuiy, - 6opo;icH co BceM cmadoM coepeMeHHocmu. He KocMeTHHecKHe py- 
MHHa - KpacKH ero cjiob; necHH o bo3M05khom cnacTbe b jihijo npe^CTOH- 
mefi cMepTH; ho CMepTb HapnflHjiacb b ero cjiOBa: nepe^ hsmh KocMeraica 
HHuiueaHCTBa; h mw BepHM, hto Kor^a npHHHMaeM ezo - ero npHHHMaeM, 
Kor^a 6opeMCH - c hum 6opeMc*i. 

A jihk ero - Bee tot ace - CMeeTCH h njianeT, rpo3HT h 6jiarocjioB- 
jineT, BcnwxHBaeT kphkom h yracaeT b 6e3MepHOM CTpaaaHHH: «Hjih, 
hjih, jiaMMa caBaxBaHH ! » PyKH pacKHHyTbie - pacnjiTbie pyKH - 6jia- 
rocjioBJiHiOT Hac. CTpaHeH Mecm f c kotopwm, HenoHHTwii, npoineji oh 
TyT - cpe^H Hac: c TaKHM aeecTOM bhcht Ha KpecTe, ho h bo3hochtch; 
TaKOH acecT co3^aeT 6ojib: ho 6jiarocjiOBJi*ieT - oh ace; c hhm mojijitch, 

HM npOKJIHHaHDT... 

KaKoii, TaM, ctoht oh? - KaKoii? 

Ecjih XpncToc pacn^T HejiOBenecTBOM, He ycjiwuiaBiiiHM npH3MBa k 
B03po»czieHHio, - b Hhijihc pacnnTo cMepTbio caMo HejiOBenecTBo, ycrpeM- 
jieHHoe k 6y^ymeMy: h mw yac He MoaceM BepHyTbcn - mw aojdkhw h^th 
Ha pacnnTHe - aojiacHw: CMepTb, thxo pa3Jiaraioiu;afl Hac, nona mw cnHM, 
pacnHHaeT Hac npn HaiueM npo6yacfleHHH, mctji 3a aojirHH coh: h 6opb6a 
c HeS - Ha KpecTe; mw aojiacHw h,zith k Tojiro^e Haiueft ayiiiH, noTOMy hto 
TOJibKO c rojiro4>w oTKpwBaeTCH HaM oKpecTHOCTb 6yaymero - aojiaoibi, 
ecjiH BOo6me mw xothm 6yflymero; h HHijiiie, caM pacnHTwfi, 30BeT Hac k 



68 



HaineMy aojiry: h He 3Haio 6ojiee 6jiaropoflHoro, 6ojiee crpauiHoro, 6ojiee 
B03BbiineHHoro nyTH, 6ojiee Bemeii cyflb6w. Hnmiie caM ce6a pacnaji. 

KaK 3HaTb, MoaceT 6biTb, b ero KpecTe B03po,o;HTC5i apyroft KpecT, co- 
6HpaBiiiHH BOKpyr ce6n Hapoflw h Tenepb... nopyraHHwft. 

KpecT HHijuie - b ynopcTBe pocTa b hcm hobwx nepeacHBaHHH 6e3 bo3- 
mo^chocth CKa3aTbCH hm b bctxom o6pa3e BbipoacaaiomerocH Tejia. 

C Hnmne mw hjih oh 6e3 Hac? 

HeT, Mbl He c HHM. 

Mw yaee npeaajiH ero nyTb: b xopouio H3BecTHbie 3aKoyjiKH CBepHyjiH 
mw, rH6ejibHbie Rjia jxereik Hauinx. HaM 6biJio cobcctho CBepTbiBaTb c po- 
KOBoro nyTH; noTOMy onncajiH mw nopnflOHHyio ayry h OKa3ajiHCb y pofl- 
Horo onara b xajiaTe, b Ty(J)jiHX, co CTaKaHOM naa; a xHTpyio napa6ojiy, onn- 
caHHyio TpycjiHBOCTH pa^H, Ha3BajiH mw npeo^ojieHHeM Hnmne, yBepan 
ce6*i h apyrnx, hto Hmjuie ocrajicn y Hac 3a njienaMH: KOM(J)opTa6ejibHoe 
npeo^ojieHHe! 

Bnepea 30BeM mw: Ha^o 6w 3to eneped Ha3BaTb na3ad. 

H noTOMy-To b ^pyroM «Ha3ad» - aeftcTBHTejibHoe «eneped»! 

MacKa h jiuup BCTpenaeT Hac b Hniuiie: to jiui^o, to Macxa tjih^ht Ha 
Hac co CTpaHHu ero KHHr; MacKa - 3K30TH3M; jihuo - CTpeMJieHHe k jxsuih- 

HHM UeHHOCTHM! K BeHHWM IjeHHOCTHM, OTOUie^IHHM OT Hac B flaJIb npO~ 

uijioro h 6ya;ymero. Kyaa hath - b npouijioe hjih 6yjxymee? Ho yxoacae- 
HHe b npouijioe - mhhmoc yxoacaeHHe: oho - TOJibKO npe^jior ctohhhh Ha 
MecTe; h bo hmh aeftcTBHTejibHoro crpeMjieHHH k BOspoacaeHHio Hnuine 
npe^aeT aHacj)eMe npouijioe, bhot b hcm yjiOBKy nacmoHu^eiOy OTKa3aBine- 
rocH ot 6opb6w co CMepTbio - nacmoRwpzo 6e3 Tomo$u. Om HacmonwpiOy 
HMeHyiomero ce6n npouuibtM, - CTpyHTCH ajih Hero 3apa3a h pa3Jio»ceHHe: 
h bot b nepHoii Macne mcthtcjih ctoht oh nepea CTapwMH ijchhocthmh. 
CopBHTe MacKy c ero cjiob - He yBH^HTe jih bw, hto npoKJiHrae cmapoMy 
nacTO HenoHHTan jno6oBb: TaK jho^h, noTepHBinne 6jih3khx, cnoco6Hw Ka- 
3aTbCH paBHoayiHHWMH k TOMy, neM caeHMaeTCH hx cepwe. 

Bch aeHTejibHOCTb Hnmiie pa36nBaeTC5i Ha flBa nepHOfla: aeicaaeHTCKHH 
h Ha nepnoa HanHcaHHH «3apaTycTpw». IIpoMeacyTOHHbiM nepno^OM oKa- 
3WBaeTCH CTpeMJieHHe Hnijiiie onepeTbca Ha coijHOJiorHnecKHe aaHHwe. 
IlepBbiH nepnoa OKpauieH bjihhhhcm Baraepa h lIIoneHrayspa: TyT y Hero 
eme 6ypacya3HWH CKJiafl mwcjih. npHBeTCTByn npo6yac,a;eHHe b KyjibType 
«ayxa My3WKH», oh yKa3WBaeT Ha Baraepa KaK Ha 3HaMeHHe snoxn, KaK 

Ha npOB03BeCTHHKa MHCTepHH 5KH3HH. H HC3aMeTHO flJIfl Ce6fl 3aCJIOHHeT 

MHCTepHio 3KH3HH no^MOCTKaMH cijeHw: pHTM CTaHOBHTCH y Hero cyaopo- 
roft. TocTenpHKMHo npHHHMaeT oh CMepTb no,o; CBoe noKpoBHTejibCTBO b 
jiHue 6orono^o6Hwx mhchhkob «Kojibija» - Ha caMOM aejie aKTepoB, TOJib- 
ko aKTepoB. TaK npo6yaefleHHe pHTMa CMeuiHBaeT oh c BaraepoBCKOH no- 
30H - reHHajibHoft no30H, ho - no3oft. H BwpacraeT ajih Hniune ano(J)eo3 
6e3o6pa3HH - Baraep. TyT oco3HaeT oh b ce6e aeKaaeHTa: HecnpocTa ace 



69 



npoKJiHJi oh Baraepa h ero HanwmeHHyio pHTopHKy aeicaaeHTCTBa. Ce6n 
npoicjiHJi b ce6e caMOM. « Ax, stot cTapwft pa36oftHHK! - BOCKJinijaeT oh no 
a#pecy BarHepa. - Oh pa3ra#aji b My3biKe cpe^CTBO B036y5K,zjaTb ycTajiwe 
HepBbi, oh 3thm caejiaji My3biKy 6o;ibHOH». Bo3po»caeHHe nyxa My3biKH 
HHUUie CBH3aJI CnepBa C B03pO}K£eHHeM jihhhocth. Chmhtomom B03poac- 
^eHHH npH3Haji Baraepa, cyMeBiuero, no ero cjiOBaM, «oTpaBHTb 6ojie3Hbio 
aaace h My3biKy». 

Hnmne npHiueji k My3biKe, aHajiH3Hpyn anoHHCHHecKHe KyjibTbi apeB- 
HOCTH. B HCTOpHH pa3BHTHfl HejiOBenecTBa yBHfleji OH %Be chjiw: CHJiy ah- 

HaMHKH H CTaTHKH. >KH3HeHHbIH pHTM JIHHHOCTH OTo6pa>KaeTCH B My3bl" 

Ke. My3WKa B3pbiBaeT b Hac HOBbie chjim, ho Hpe3MepHbiH B3pwB MoaceT 
pa30pBaTb h Hac. H bot hbjihctch mh(J) - stot npe^oxpaHHTe^bHWH Kjia- 
naH, 3aKpwBaiomHH ot Hac My3biKajibHyio cymHOCTb »ch3hh. CMeHa pHTMa 
MH(J)HHecKHM o6pa30M, nocTpoeHHbiM h npeaonpeaejieHHbiM phtmom, b 
HCTOpHH HejiOBenecTBa oTo6paacaeTca no Hnmue 6opb6oft ayxa /InoHHca 
c AnojuiOHOM. B Tpare^HH o6pa3 HajiaraeTCH Ha phtm. TyT - CBoero po^a 
npHJio^ceHne ajire6pw (pHTMa) k reoMeTpHH (MH({)y). Ho o6pa3 b Tpare^HH 
pacHjieHHeTcn: nojiynaeTca cncTeMa o6pa30B, onpeaejineMafl kojijih3hch. 
06pa3, npHHHBiiiHH b ce6n phtm, Ha^HHaeT nHTaTbcn phtmom - pa3- 

MHO»CaeTCH; 06pa3yeTCH HCTOpHH pa3BHTHfl 06pa30B. HCTOpHH pa3BHTHH 
o6pa30B - HCTOpHH pa3BHTHH peJIHrH03HbIX KyJIbTOBJ 3aKOHbI 3TOrO pa3BH~ 
THfl - 3aKOHbI pa3BHTHH peJIHrHH| HOpMbI pa3BHTHH BnOCJieflCTBHH o6pa3y- 

iot pe;iHrH03Hbie ^orMaTbi; npHcnoco6;ieHHbie k no3HaHHK), 3th ^orMaTbi 
CTaHOBHTCH H^eHMH. Kor^a ace n^ea craHOBHTCH ueHTpoM o6mecTBeHHOH 
KpHCTajuiH3auHH, oHa npeBpamaeTCH b H^eio MopajiH. HTaic: TBopnecKHH 
o6pa3 napa3HTHpyeT Ha pHTMe; no3HaHHe - Ha o6pa3e, Mopajib - Ha no3Ha- 
HHH. y 5KH3HeHHOrO pHTMa pa3BOflHTCH MHoro napa3HTOB - H oh xHpeeT, a 
C HHM XHpeeT H JIHHHOCTb. B03Bpamafl JIHHHOCTb K ee My3bIKaJIbHOMy Kop- 

hk), Hnijine onpoKH^biBaeT pejinrHio, (J)hjioco(J)hio h Mopajib. Hnmiie Bep- 
ho nocTaBHJi Bonpoc; ho, peuian ero npn noMomn BarHepa, OKa3aBiiierocH 
o6Manm i uKOM y oh b cymHocTH B03poaczjaji ne lepox, a axmepa, ne MU3Hb, 
a ci^eny. CnoxBaTHBiiiHCb, Hnnme yKa3biBaeT Ha Tpn nonpaBKH k CBoeii 
3CTeTHKe: 1) umo6u meamp ne zocnodcmeoecui ndd ucicyccmeoM, 2) umo6u 
aumep ne eo3epamfui xydojtcHwea, 3) umo6u Mysuna ne o6pawfuiacb e uc- 
Kyccmeo Jizamb. 

H mw, noKJiOHHHKH ^dexadeuma^, h TOJibKO ^deKadenma* Hnuuie, 
npocMOTpeBinne ero npH3biB k 3flopoBbio, nocTynaeM KaK pa3 Hao6opoT: 
1) npeBpamaeM TeaTp b xpaM peBOjnouHeft Ha cijeHe: B3pwB 6yTa(|)opcKHX 
omeft, 2) na^aeM hhu npea peacnccepoM, 3) pa3flnpaeM ce6e yinn jdkh- 
boh My3biKoft, xopouio eme, ecjin BamepoM hjih Ckph6hhwm (b nyMe ecTb 
cboh KpacoTa); HeT, - mw pa3flHpaeM ymn PerepaMH, UlTpaycaMH, /te6ioc- 
ch, cnoco6HbiMH chm4>ohhio npeBpaTHTb b KaecuiepuucKuu Mapw. Yinn 
Hauin flocraTOHHo pa3opBaHbi: kto-to hx eme pa3opBeT? 



70 



OnepaijHOHHbiM hohcom, cjiynaHHO no,zjo6paHHWM Ha nyra, - 6hojio- 
rHefi, OTcenaeT Hniune ce6a ot ce6n caMoro, CBH3aHHoro c nepeaoBWMH 
^ereHepaiaMH CBoero BpeMeHH - IIIoneHrayspoM h BaraepoM, - h co3flaeT 
«3apaTycTpy». 3aecb ocraeTCH HenoHHTWM b HaniH ahh. A H3 Hnijine, jie- 
KaaieHTa, BaraepHaHija h TaHHoro neccHMHCTa - napraepa IIIoneHrayspa 
no Hrpe Ha (fxneirre, BbipoacaaiomaflCH 6ypHcya3HH Bcex CTpaH co3flajia ce6e 
6oacica. Mhjio pa3flejifleT oh c BaraepoM TpoHHoe ceaajiHiije. Boo6paacaio 
ce6e TyT rpHMacy acHBoro Hnmne. Bee sto othochmo k py6pHKe: «Cmep- 
Heuiuuu uenoeeK b pojiH CHMeoHa BoronpHHMija». 

Tpn npH3HaKa xapaKTepH3yioT /yin Hmjine aeicafleHTCTBo: jioacHan 
B03BbimeHH0CTb, Bw^yMaHHOcTb h HaHBHHHaHbe. «By,zjeM 6jiy5K,zjaTb Ha# 
o6jiaKaMH, 6y^eM 6opoTbcn c 6ecKOHeHHWM, oKpy^KHM ce6n bcjihkhmh 
CHMBOJiaMH», - CMeeTCH oh, h ao6aBJifleT: Bum-bum!.. H mh 6opeMCH c 
6ecKOHeHHbiM, b cnoKOHHOM Kpecjie KOHijepTHoro 3ajia: ao6pwe npocTbie, 

HO CMbUHJieHbie JIIOflH B HaiHH flHH 3aflBJIflK>T HaM, HTO OHH HflJTT «K HOCJied- 

neMy Kouiyncmey* (Bnepa ohh nonHCbreajiH b ra3eTax); h Ha hhx pa3eBaiOT 
pTbi jxesmibi a la Botthhcjijih (Bnepa mhpho 3a6aBJiHBiHHecH TaHijaMH) - 
cnjiouiHoe «bum-bum»! Bmccto Toro hto6w noHHTb npoKJurrae Hnijine, 
tohho npeOTH^eBiuero 3a 25 JieT CTeneHb Hauieii H3JiOMaHHOcra, mw, c 

XHTpOH yjIbl6KOH, nOHTHTeJIbHO BblCJiyiHHBaeM npOKJIHTHe: «BeJIHKOMy 

HejioBeKy-^e cbohctbchhw npeyBe;iHHeHHHl»... 

TaK-TaKH yca^CHBaeM Hnmne pa^OM c BaraepoM. 
«Bum-bum» - bot hto mw c^ejiajiH c Hnmne. 

I1o3tom Ha3biBaeM mm Hnijine. «TojibKo viynem mojibxo nosm*, - H3- 
bht 3apaTydpy ooth BOJiine6HHK. Mw aaace cnoco6Hw B3BajiHTb Ha njienn 
ruiocKyio docny - cucmejay Opudpuxa Hut^iue, - hto6w hccth ee... b apxeo- 

JIOrHHeCKHH IHKa4> KyjIbTypbl, B BH^e CBHHjeHHOH peJIHKBHH. TaK cnoKoii- 

Hee: a to 6peeno HMeeT cnoco6HocTb 6HTb no rojioBe: meopun Hnijine oKa- 
3WBaeTCH npanmuKou; bot nero mw 6ohmch, 3annpaH 6peBHO Ha 3aMOK. 

Hnmne He nepeHHCjineT MeTOflOJiorHH, roBopn o jihhhocth: nepeuue- 
jinmb, Korfla npnuijio BpeMH deucmeoeamb, - 3HaHHT, nncaTb BHJiaMH no 
Bo^e. «HaeM, H^eMl - pa3flaeTcn B03rjiac b «3apamycmpe». - Ilopa, Kpafi- 
HHH nopa». 

«riopa, no3OTo: nopa, - corjianiaeMCH h mw, - nopa... cnaTb». TacHM 
CBeny, 3aBepTWBaacb TenjibiMH aorMaTaMH. 

Hnmne He 6opojicH c aorMaTaMH b aKaaeMHHecKOM cnope: Ha BOHHe, 
KaK Ha BOHHe - oh hx o6jiaMWBaji. TojibKO Ha 3aBoeBaHHoii no3HijHH noa- 
HHMaji 3a6pajio BOHHa: TyT oh He floica3WBaeT; oh tobopht HaM 6e3 cjiob, 
yjiw6aeTCH... 

«0 ayina moh, Tenepb HeT ayuiH, KOTopan 6wjia 6w jno6Beo6HjibHee 
Te6n... Kto Mor 6w CMOTpeTb Ha tboio yjiw6Ky h y^ep^caTbcn ot cjie3». «He 
roBopn 6ojibnie, Bws^opaBjiHBaiomHH, - h^h k po3aM, k nnejiaM, k ctswm 
rojiy6eiiI» Kto 3to roBOpHT; Xphctoc? HeT, Hhiiuic 



71 



H mw yMOJiKHeM: He 6y/jeM roBopmb 06 yueuuu Op. Hut^tue. Tjie oho? 
Bejib 3Aecb h caM oh mojihht: oh yjiw6aeTCH, 3obct; He AOKa3WBaeT - noxa- 
3ueaem: lyi Hnijiiie 330TepHK, 30BymHH Hac Ha oKKyjibTHwii nyTb; TyT ero 
«uoza», ero npaKTHKa; oh BCTpenaeT Hac rpoMOM h mojihhch; ho h bxoah- 
iu;hx b xpaM ^eMeTpw b HOHb Snonmuu Toace BCTpenaji rpoM; stot rpoM - 
rpOM OHHCTHTejibHHH. «XoTHTe jih Moefl paaocra?» - cnpauiHBaeT Hac 
Hhuuic H tot, kto eudum ero, cKajtcem eMy: «H,ay 3a to6oh, PaBBH!» He 
HanoMHHaeT jih TaHHaa Benepfl, KOTopyio mw HaHHHaeM TyT c hhm, HHyio 
Benepio, Kor/ja Huou, OT^aBan Ce6n, roBopHJi: «neirre ot Hee Bee: chh 60 
ecTb KpoBb Moh HoBoro 3aBeTa»... JX&nee - nocjie^Hee HcnwTaHHe: yacac 
rojiro4>bi h CBeTJioe BocKpeceHHe npeo6paaceHHoii jihhhocth. 

y Hniuiie ecTb cboh rojiro(J)a. 

Kor/ja HOBOo6pameHHbiii roBopHT, hto oh Hauieji b cede ce6a> Hnmue 
eMy OTBenaeT: «TaK Bbmepaoi ce6n b Bchhocth, ecjiH tw - tw». Cboio Toji- 
ro4>y HHAHBH,aiyajiH3Ma, - 3Ty rHMHacTHKy ynpaacHeHHH ayxa, - Ha3biBaeT 
oh «eeuHbiM eo3epam t eHueM». 

«BeHHoe B03BpameHHe» - CHapyacH sto #eTepMHHHCTHHecKHH na- 
pa^oKC. yTBepacaeHHe 6eccMepraH 3toh >kh3hh 6e3 bchkoh 6yTacJ)opHH 

«HHo6bITHH». 3AeCb OH KaK 6bl TOBOpHT HaM! «ECJIH TbI CHJieH flyXOM H 

Bbi^epjKHiHb caMoro ce6a, to h Te6e OTKpoio, hto BOCTopr tboh c to6oh: 

BOCTOpr 3TOH >KH3HH; HO TOJIbKO H eCTb y Te6H 3Ta >KH3Hb BO BeKH BeKOB. 

Hy? Hto ocrajiocb c tbohm boctopidm?» 

Bee noBTopneTCH. CyMMa Bcex KOM6HHaijHH aTOMOB BcejieHHoii ko- 
HeHHa b 6ecKOHeHHOCTH BpeMeH; h ecjiH noBTopHTCH xoth 6bi o^Ha kom6h- 
HaijHfl, noBTopHTCH h Bee KOM6HHauHH. Ho cnepeflH h C3a^H - 6ecKOHen- 
HocTb; h 6ecKOHenHo noBTopnjiHCb Bee KOM6HHaijHH aTOMOB, cjiaraiomnx 

>KH3Hb, H B >KH3HH Hac; nOBTOpHJIHCb H Mbl. IIOBTOpHJIHCb H nOBTOpHMCH. 

MHJiJiHap/jM BeKOB, OT^ejiHiomHx Hauie noBTopeHHe, paBHbi Hyjiio; h6o 
c yracaHHeM co3HaHHH yracaeT rjih Hac h BpeMH. BpeMH H3MepneM mh 

B C03HaHHH. H 6eCKOHeHHOe nOBTOpeHHe KOHeHHWX OTpe3KOB BpeMeHH 

MHHyc TeneHHe BpeMeHH, Kor/ja Hac HeT, co3/jaeT /jjih Hac 6eccMeprae, 
ho 6eccMeprae 3toh 3kh3hh. Mw aojdkhw HanojiHHTb Kaacflwii mot 3toh 

5KH3HH BHHOM CHaCTbH, eCJIH He XOTHM Mbl 6eCCMepTHOTO HeCHaCTbH flJIfl 

ce6a. YnHTejib jierKOCTH, 3apaTycTpa, Tpe6yeT ot Hac paaocTHoro conia- 
chh Ha 3to: b cymHOCTH, oh Ha^eBaeT Ha Hac 6arpHHHijy aacKoro miaMe- 
hh h KOBapHO CMeeTCH npn stom: 3to «He njiaMH, a jienecTKH KpacHbix 
po3». «KaK? - mot 6w BocKJiHKHyTb y6HHua MaTepn h cecTpw AjieK- 
caHAP Kapp. - BecKOHenHoe hhcjio pa3 h 6yjxy cTOHTb Haa MaTepbio c to- 
nopoM h noTOM bck) 3KH3Hb HocHTb c co6oh yacac pacKaHHHH? Tbi eme 
Tpe6yeuib ot mchh h 3tot yacac npeBpaTHTb b BOCTopr?» «^a, - cypoBO ot- 
BeTHT eMy 3apaTycrpa-HHijiiie. - 51 3Toro Tpe6yio: hjih He BKycHuib tw mo- 
ero 3AopoBbH!» Ho «hto Moe jierno ecTb», mot 6w npn6aBHTb oh, cnpHTaB 
yjiw6Ky. H ot bchkoto, kto yacacHeTCH THJKecTbio npeflJioaceHHoro HCKyca, 



72 



Htmme OTBepHeTCH, npeBpaTHCb b cyxoro, 6e3yKopH3HeHHO BeacjiHBoro, 
6e3yKopH3H6HHO hhcto oaeToro npo(J)eccopa KjiaccHnecKOH 4>HJiojiorHH. 
B uHJiHH^pe, c KpacHHM ca4>bHHOBbiM nopT(J)ejieM (TaK oh xo^hji), npoft- 
AeT mhmo, 6biTb MOJKeT, Ha jieKUHK). Bji. CojiOBbeB He y3Haji b stoh Ma- 
CKe BejiHKoro TaHHOBH,zma 3kh3hh: yica3biBafl Ha «Humue e t^iuiundpe^, oh 
o6mojibhjich npe3pHTejibHMM: «CBepx-(J)Hjiojior», KaK o6MOjiBjiHBaeMCH 
mm b cymHOCTH npe3pHTejibHbiM «TOJibKO no3T». H nporjiH^biBaeM ero 
cymHocTb. Ho ecjiH 6bm y Hac xoth o/jhh momcht 6e3yMHoro yBjiene- 
hhh Hniiuie, Kor^a KOMHaTa inaTajiacb h, OTpbiBaacb ot «3apaTycTpbi», 
mm BOCKJiHijajiH: «Pa3Be sto KHHra?» - KaK 3HaTb, MoaceT 6biTb, b stot 
mom6ht TeHb OpnapHxa Hnijine CKJiOHHJiacb Ha^ HaMH, inenna floporne, 
r^e-To yyfn npo3ByHaBiHHe cjiOBa: «BH ( zurre, sto - h. BcKope He yBH^HTe 
MeHH. H noTOM BHOBb yBH^HTe MeHH, h pa^ocTH Bameft hhkto He otmmct 
ot Bac». Hauia anoxa ero He bhaht. HaH6ojiee BepHbie OTcrynnjiHCb ot 
Hero. Bhahm Tojiro^y CMepTH: Ha Hen - pacnnToro Opn^pHxa Hnijine, 
cyMacmefliiiero 3Kc-npo(j)eccopa. Ho HacTynHT jieiih: jionHyT MbijibHbie 
ny3bipH quasi-npeoAOJieHHH Hnijine coBpeMeHHbiMH Mo^epHHCTaMH. 
HoBbie jho^h ocTaHyTCH nepefl CTapwM 6ypacya3HbiM 6ojiotom... Tor^a 
HOBbie jiio^h yBH3HyT b 6ojiOTe, KOTopoe HanHHaeT h Tenepb yace npnca- 
CHBaTbCH k hhm. Ho, 6biTb MoaeeT, ycjibiinaT ohh neHHe neTejia: nofiMyT, 
hto npe^ajiH ohh BMecTe c Hnijine. B tot nac cMepTejibHoii tockh o6ep- 
HyTCH k CBoeMy y wrejiio. H ero c hhmh He 6yaeT. 

Ho, 6biTb MOJKeT, ycjibiinaT ohh jierKoe ayHOBeHHe: «BHOBb yBH^HTe 
MeHH: h pa^ocTH Baineft hhkto He otmmct ot Bac». Tor^a BCTaHeT Me»c 
HaMH Hnijine, BOCKpecniHft: «Ebui Mepme - u eom j/cue». ^ajieKOMy 6yay- 
meMy npoTHrHBaji pyKH, b ^ajieKOM 6y#ymeM oh BocKpecHeT. H b #ajie- 
kom 6y#ymeM k HMeHaM bcjihkhx yHHTejieii KH3HH, C03H£aBuiHx pejiHrnio 
>kh3hh, HejioBenecTBO npHCoeAHHHT hmh OpHflpnxa Hnijine. 

B cymHocra, nyTb, Ha kotopmh Hac npH3biBaeT Hnijine, ecTb «eeHHbiu» 
nyTb, kotopmh mh no3a6buiH: nyTb, kotopwm uieji Xphctoc, nyTb, koto- 
Pmm h uijih h H^yT «padoic-uozu» Hh^hh. 

Hnijine npnuieji k «eucweMy MUcmuuecKOMy co3nanwo^ y HapncoBaB- 
nieMy eMy «o6pas Hoeozo HejioeeKa*. 

B AaJibHeiiuieM oh CTaji npaKTHKOM, npe^JiojKHBUiHM b «3apamycmpe» 
nyTb k TejiecHOMy npeo6paaceHHio jihhhocth; Tyr conpHKOCHyjicn oh h c 

COBpeMeHHOH TeOCO(|)HeH, H C TaHHOH AOKTpHHOH flpeBHOCTH. 

«Bucwee co3Hanue pcuoebemcH cnepea, - roBopHT Ahhh Be3aHT, - 
a 3ameM yo/ce c(popMupyn)mcH mejiecnue opzanu, neo6xoduMue dun ezo npo- 

M6JieHUM». 

IIoa sthmh cjioBaMH noanHcajioi 6bi Hmjine. 

1907 



73 



MBCEH H flOCTOEBCKMM 



I 

Hmh .HocToeBCKoro ocTaHeTCH Ha CKpnacajiflx pocchhckoh 
anoBecHOCTH. /JocToeBCKHH - 6ojibinoH xyaoacHHK. BejiHK jiH oh, noKa- 
aceT 6yaymee. Mw eme 6jih3ko ctohm k HeMy. Mw He MoaceM eMy yKa3aTb 
MecTo b pocchhckoh anoBecHOCTH. Bnepa ero 3aKHflajiH 6paHbio. CeroflHH 
hmh ero OKpyaceHO coniacHWM xopoM xBajieHHH. Hejib3*i He co3HaTbcn, hto 

B 3TOM XOpe CJIHIHKOM CHJIbHbl fleTOHHpyK)IIJHe TOJIOCa. 3tH TOJIOCa 06fl3bl- 

BaiOT Hac, KaK hcthhhwx noHHTaTejieft /locToeBCKoro, OTHocHTbca caep- 
3KaHHeH ko BceM naHernpHKaM, pa3flaiomHMCH b necn> pyccKoro nncaTejiH. 
HaM xoneTCH npe^ocieperaiome 3aMeTHTb, hto Hapn^y c TajiaHTjiHBWMH 
nocjie/^OBaTejiHMH mw BCTpenaeM h acajiKHx BbipoflKOB, h sth nocjie^HHe c 
oco6eHHbiM acapoM Ha3biBaioT ^ocToeBCKoro ceoim. Hto-to ecTb o6mee y 
Hero c BbipoacaeHHeM pyccKOH JiHTepaTypw. KaK 6w KyjibT /locToeBCKoro 
He npHBeji Hac b nycTOTy! 

y /locToeBCKoro He 6wjio KpwjibeB opjiHHbix, a 6biTb MoaceT - hcto- 
nwpHHbie. /locToeBCKHH noAo6HO OBoay acajiHJi Hac b ahh 6e3rpo3Hbix 

TOMJieHHH MepTBOH nOJIOCW pyCCKOH 2KH3HH. H eme HeH3BeCTHO, 6bIJIH 

jih ijejie6Hw H3Bbi, hm HaHeceHHbie. Bo bchkom cjiynae oh ne Sojiee uy- 
aceH, neM H6ceH h Hnijiiie, OHHCTHTejibHoft 6ypeft npoHecuinecH Ha 3a- 
naae. 3Ta 6ypn h Hac 3aaejia. Ilocjie Hniuiie npa3flHO npoTHBonojiaraTb 
ero nyTH nyTb .flocToeBCKoro. MemaHCTBO, TpycjiHBocTb h HeHHCTOTa, bw- 

pa3HBHiaHCH B THHCeCTH CJIOra, - BOT OTJIHHHTeJIbHbie HepTW ^OCTOeBCKOrO 

no cpaBHeHHK) c Hniuiie. ^octocbckhh cjihiiikom «ncuxojioz», hto6w He 
B036y»c ( aaTb 6pe3rjiHBocra. OTcro^a 3aKJH0Hai0T o rjiy6nHe /locToeBCKoro: 
OH-^e 6paji Ayniy H3MopoM. Ijry6HHa, nocTpoeHHaa Ha ncHxojiorHH, nacTO 
4>ajibiHHBa. 3to - jiOByuiKa MapeBa, ocHOBaHHaa hhoh pa3 Ha pa3Ma3w- 
BaHHH Mep30CTeii; pacceeTCH MapeBO, OTKpoeTCH yHbijian njiocKocrb ayxa 
TaM, vjxe 3HHJia rjiy6nHa. 

HeHMOBepHan cjioacHOCTb /^ocToeBCKoro, HecKa3aHHan rjiy6nHa ero 
o6pa30B - HanojiOBHHy noflflejibHaa 6e3flHa, HapHCOBaHHaa hhoh pa3 
npHMO Ha njiocKOCTH. TyMaH hchchocth co3^aBajiCH Ha noHBe nyTaHH- 

IJW MeTO^OB OTHOUieHHH K fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH. 3T0T TyMaH 3HaHHTeJIbHO 

yrjiy6jiHJi npnpoflHyio rjiy6HHy TajiaHTa ,flocToeBCKoro. /Jjih Toro hto6w 

COe^HHHTb HHIUHeaHCKHH 6yHT BO HMH ^OJira C KapaMa30BCKHM 6bITH- 
eM - COeflHHHTb B (J)OpMaX npaBOCJiaBHH H 0(})HU;HaJIbHOH HapOflHOCTH, - 

hto6w peniHTbCH Ha TaKoe 6e36Kycue, BOHCTHHy Ha^o 6wTb bcjihkhm ny- 
TaHHKOM. To, hto HanyTaji oh, OKOHHaTejibHO 3anyTajiH ero TajiaHTJiHBbie 
nocjieflOBaTejiH (MepeacKOBCKHH, Po3aHOB). Haa HeKOTopwMH hx nojio- 
5KeHHHMH caM nepT rojiOBy cjiomht, a He npnfleT hh k KaKOMy pe3yjibTaTy. 
H bot HaM roBopHT, hto HacTynHJi KOHeu pyccKOH JiHTepaTypw, bmccto 



74 



Toro hto6i>i CKa3aTb oTKpoBeHHo: ZlocToeBCKHH npHBeji b 6ojioto, Haao 
HCKaTb hhmx nyTeii. 

Bmji cHjieH /locToeBCKHH. Oh Bbmec no KOHija 6peMH co6cTBeHHoro 
6e3BKycHH. HHbie H3 ero nocjieflOBaTejieii HajioacHJiH 3anpeT Ha pyccKyio 
jiHTepaTypy, apyrne H3HeMorjiH, o6eccHJie;iH b npa3flHbix Kopnax. Ro chx 

nop nOKJIOHHHKH ZloCTOeBCKOrO BCJie^CTBHe HenOHHMaHHH OCHOBHblX nepT 

ero TBopnecTBa aojiacHbi 6wjih MOJina hccth 6peMH ero 6e3BKycHH, aejiaTb 
bha, hto h HeT HHnero o6peMeHHTejibHoro. 3to yMomanue npoaojiacajiocb 
h Tor^a, Kor^a hmh .ZlocToeBCKoro 3a6;iHCTajio hpkhm cojmijeM. Tor^a no- 
jiyHHjiacb KapTHHa c uapcKHM njiaTbeM, KOToporo hhkto He BH^eji, ho aoji- 
aceH 6wji xBajiHTb, hto6m He ynoao6HTbCH aypaicy. 

KoHeij pyccKOH jiHTepaiypbi, npoB03rjiauieHHWH J\. C. MepeacKOB- 
ckhm, - ecTecTBeHHoe cjie^cTBHe HeacejiaHHH BH/jeTb ^odoeBCKoro b hc- 
thhhom CBeie. Ilopa CKa3aTb, hto hm He HcnepnbiBaioTCH cyflb6bi poccHii- 

CKOH CJIOBeCHOCTH. 

ZlocToeBCKHH 6wji nojiHTHKaHCTByiomHM mhcthkom. YacacHoe coe^H- 
HeHHel PejiHrHH coBMecTHMa c o6mecTBeHHOCTbio b cbo6oahom aKTe chh- 
Te3a. Tor^a pejiHran coBna^aeT c o6mecTBeHHocTbio. Tanoro coBnaaeHHH 
He Morjio 6biTb b jiyme y ^ocroeBCKoro, rjiy6oKo ne My3UKcuibH0U. Bot 
noneMy oTpnijaHHe o6mecTBeHHocra BbijiHJiocb y Hero b caMbiii npHHijHn 
o6mecTBeHHocTH. XyjiHraHCTBO h nepHocoTeHHOCTb OKpyacHjiH hmh ero 
opeojiOM MpaHHbiM h ^cecTKHM (^Mecmomu majiaum»l). Bot noneMy pe- 
;iHrH03HaH TaiiHa ayuiH ero ocKBepHeHa nojiHTHKaHCTBOM. 

y /locToeBCKoro He 6buio cjiyxa. BenHO oh demoHupoecui b caMOM 
rjiaBHOM. B caMOM rjiaBHOM y Hero oahh uadpueu. Bee nojioacHTejibHoe - 
b o6emaHHH. Byzjb oh b ijapcTBe fleTeii, oh pa3BpaTHJi 6bi hx (cm. «Coh 
CMeuiHoro HejiOBeica»). HanpacHO no/jxoflHT k HeMy c 4>opMyjiaMH caMoft 

CJI05KHOH rapMOHHH, HTo6bI npHJIHHHO o6T>HCHHTb eTO KpHKJIHBblH, 6oJie3- 

HeHHbiii rojioc. HeT MyacecTBa npH3HaTb, hto oh bcio 5KH3Hb 6paji (J)ajibiHH- 

Bbie HOTbl. HCKyCCTBO eCTb rapMOHHH, H B 0C06eHH0CTH My3bIKa, KOTOpaH 

ecTb coBepuieHHeHinee HCKyccTBo, 6jiaropoflHoe. 

ripeoAOJieHHe 6e3BKycHijbi ZlocToeBCKoro bo3mo5Kho #ByMfl nyTHMH. 
J\£BW3h\ 3thx nyTeii: 1) Bnepea k HHuuie, 2) Ha3aa k Torojiio. 

K Torojiio h IlyiHKHHy - sthm nepBOHCTOKaM pyccKOH jiHTepaTypbi - 

flOJIBCHbl Mbl BepHyTbCH, HTo6bI CnaCTH CJIOBeCHOCTb OT CeMHH TJieHHH H 

CMepTH, 3ajioaceHHbix b Hee hhkbh3htopckoh pyKoii /{ocToeBCKoro. Hjih 
ace Ha Hac jieacHT o6n3aHHOCTb onncTHTb My3WKoii, bojimioh h njiaBHoii, 

aBTHeBbl KOHIOUIHH nCHXOJIOrHH, OCTaBJieHHOH HaM B HaCJieACTBO nOKOH- 

HbiM nncaTejieM. 

IlyiHKHH H TorOJIb XOflHJIH nOXOflKOH 3a^yMHHBOH H B 3eJieHbIX, THXHX 

Kymax, h Ha KaMeHHbix CTorHax IleTporpa^a. 

/locToeBCKHH ceMeHHji apo6hoh noxoflKoft neTep6yprcKoro o6biBaTe- 
jih. H poccHHCKan CJIOBeCHOCTb 3aceMeHHjia BCJie^ 3a hhm. 



75 



TaKOBO o6anHHe 3Toro TajiaHTa. TaKOB HenonpaBHMbiH ymep6, HaHe- 
ceHHbiH hm OTenecTBeHHOMy HCKyccTBy. 

II 

B ayuie CBoefi hochji ^octocbckhh o6pa3 cbctjioh )kh3hh, 
ho nyTH, Beaymne b 6jiaaceHHbie MecTa, 6mjih HeBe^OMbi eMy. B3opbi ero 
6mjih ydpeMJieHbi Tyaa, r^e ncHbie jihkh aeTeii-aHrejiOB hbjihjih hobhh 
rpaa pyccKHH. A BOKpyr Hero 6biJio xMypo h CKynHo: b TyMaHe Mep3JiOH 
oceHH ycMexajiHCb oroHbKH Ka6anKOB, ^a iiiHbipnjiH nofl03pHTejibHbie Me- 
maHe - He to acyjiHKH, He to chiuhkh. Ha CBeTjibift o6pa3 6yaymeH 5KH3- 
hh jierjia nepHan TeHb ech3hh pa3BpaTHoii, h ot 3Toro aHrejibCKHe jihkh 
fleTeii ycMexajiHCb yjibi6KOio c(J)HHKca (cm. «Coh CBH^pHraHjiOBa»). 

PaBHHHHyio HCHOCTb 6yaymero HenpoH3BOJibHo CMeuiHBaji .HocToeB- 
ckhh c npeflCTOHmefi chpotjihboh paBHHHOH pyccKoii. Tepon ero xotcjih 
KynaTbCH b rojiy6oM ropHOM B03flyxe, ho KynajiHCb... pa3Be TOJibKO b ro- 
jiy6oBaTOM CHery, Koiyja yzjajian TpOHKa onpoKHflbiBajia b cyrpo6 KyTHmnx 
yaajibi^oB (Poro^CHHa hjih MHTeHbKy) - uinpoKHx HaTyp - yx, KaKHX ihh- 
poKHx! 

TopHan HCHOCTb Tpe6yeT BocxoacaeHHH, a bmcotm, bcjihhhh, ropHoro 
no^-beMa He 6hjio y .HocToeBCKoro. rioflo6eH oh nejioBeKy BecejioMy, yBe- 
cejieHHOMy rpa^OM cnacTbH, kotopmh acejiaeT H3o6pa3HTb 6jiaaceHCTBO 
mexMecm, ho acecTbi KOToporo He noBHHyiOTCH 3aKOHaM rpaijHH - noTOMy 
hto Tejio He npHo6pejio th6kocth, Heo6xo,ziHMOH rjir ropHbix noflteMOB. 
Bhah TaKyio pacinaTaHHOCTb cnacTjiHBoro nejiOBeKa, mm onacaeMCH, KaK 
6w cjiOBa, nopaacaiomne Hani cjiyx eecenueM eeunbtM, He 6bijiH BHyiueHbi 
eecenueM 3anouuhiM. He6ecHoe Becejine Tpe6yeT yTOHneHHocTH; oho nyae- 
AaeTCH HepBHoro apbiraHba acecroB, H3flepraHHbix nopbiBOB: HeycroHHH- 
Ban TOHKocTb ropiue rpy6ocra. ycTOHHHBOCTb co3^aeTCH 6jiaropoacTBOM. 
Bjiaropo^cTBO o6nTaeT b ropax: k HeMy HyacHO cyMeTb B3o6paTbcn. Oho 

BMBOflHT JHOfleft, OnbHHeHHblX BeceJIHeM BeHHMM, H3 Ka6aHKOB H npHTO- 

hob, oho 3acTaBJineT hx ctmajikbo npHTaTb nbHHCTBO ayuiH nofl MaCKOH 
cypoBoro aojira. Oho BjieneT b ropw cpaacaTbca c TyMaHOM h nponacTHMH. 
H TOJibKO TaM, iyje BenHoe He6o, TOJibKO TaM rapMOHHHHa BOJibHaa njincKa, 
Becejine BenHoe, OTTyaa hhcxo^ht k HaM jho^h c onnmeHHOH JiacKoii. Jleji- 
HHKOBoe 3ojioto 3opb cacnraeT Mep30CTb jiacKH, h »CH3Hb Hauia, B03HeceH- 
Haa aojiroM, jiacKOBO yjibi6aeTcn. Hto6m 3cmjih cTajia He6oM, HyacHO Haii- 
th He6o; a ajih 3Toro ctoht 3a6biTb o 3eMjie. TojibKo to mm yMeeM ueHHTb, 
k neMy B03BpamaeMcn H3 aojiroii pa3JiyKH. BoncTHHy He jik>6ht, He 3HaiOT, 
He ijeHHT 3eMjno npH3biBaiomHe Hac k 3eMJie, ecjiH ohh He yxo^HJiH ot Hee. 
HaM roBopHT, hto TaM, no,a; 3eMJiefl, to ace He6o h hto, h^h o6paTHbiM ny- 
TeM, h npH^y k HOBOMy He6y. Bee 3to TaK, ecjiH 6bi He HyTpHHoii oroHb, 



76 



onajiniomHH b ijeHTpe 3cmjih Bee acHBoe. He;ib3H cnopHTb npoTHB Toro, hto 
BOo6me cymecTByioT nyTH, nporaBonojioacHbie He6ecHbiM, - Bonpoc: ajih 
jnoaefi jih npeAHa3HaneHbi 3th nyTH. 

KaK 6yzjT0 Ha npaKTHKe 3a6biBaji Bee 3to ^octocbckhh, xoth b TeopHH 
He Mor oh He 3HaTb. He b TeopHH aejio. Koh-hto h norjiy6ace 3HaBaji Ro- 
CToeBCKHH b TeopHH. He 6hjio y Hero TejiecHbix 3HaKOB CBoero ^yxoBHoro 
BH/jeHHH. Cjihuikom OTBjieneHHo npHHHMaji ^octocbckhh cboh npo3pe- 
hhh, h noTOMy TejiecHan aeficTBHTejibHOCTb He 6biJia npHBe^eHa b conpn- 
KocHOBeHHe y Hero c ayxoM. OTCiofla HeoTKy/ja 6hjio ac^aTb ero repoHM 
TejiecHoro npeo6paaceHHH. Bhachhh hx BcnwxHBajiH b Kopnax h cyzjopo- 
rax ayuieBHbix 6ojie3Heft. Ebirae BjieKJio hx b xaoc 6e3yMHH, a aojir He Mor 
yMajiHTb acrynecTH hx CTpa^aHHH, h6o aojira h He 6buio y hhx. Rojit - cBoe 
nepBopo^CTBO - npo^aji ^octocbckhh 3ana/jy 3a HeneBKHHyio noxjie6Ky 
ncHxojiorHH. 

B caMOM aejie: HyacHa peuiHMocTb, hto6h, BOopyacHBinncb /jojiroM, 

Me^JieHHblM BOCXO^C^eHHeM nOflOHTH BnjIOTHyiO k BOCXHHjaiomeMy BHAe- 

hhk). Jlerne nbHHoft BaTaroft noBajiHTb H3 Ka6anica Ha cnaceHHe HejiOBene- 
CTBa. A repoH /JocToeBCKoro HacTO TaK hmchho h nocTynajiH, bmccto flOMa 
Boschh nonaaajiH b /jom... ny6;iHHHbiH. 

EcTb cxoflCTBo yHbijioft uiHpH 6ecnpe,zjMeTHbix cTenen c uiHpbio He6ec- 

HOH BblCOTbl, paCKHHyTOH Ha# HaMH. MeaCfly 3THMH pa3flOJIbHMH JieXCHT 

ropHan CTpaHa aojira h Boexoac/jeHHH, nacTo HeBHflHMan /jjih B3opa coBpe- 
MeHHoro o6biBaTe;iH, h yac kohchho He BHflHan o6HTaTe;iHM rpnaymero hc- 
Horo rpa/ja. IlycTb ace paBHHHa h3mopiijhhhtch rop6aMH, h TyMaHbi jinryT 
MexcAy MopmHHaMH CMymaTb Hac Tpy/jHOCTbio nyTH h bchkhmh CTpaxaMH. 
TojibKo Tor^a, Kor/ja mm BCTaHeM Ha BepuiHHax, y3HaeM, hto h ropw - 06- 
MaH, h BocxoacfleHHe - npH3paK, ho o6MaH, ho npH3paK Heo6xo,ztfiMbiH - 
co3/jaHHe Hainen bojih, hto6h mohih mh BbipacTHTb Haiue 6jiaropo,zjCTBO, 
hto6h npeoflOJieHHeM npennTCTBHH, xoth 6w h npH3paHHbix, HaynHTbcn 
xcecTaM njiaBHoro BecejibH. 

B jiynuiHX pyccKHX jho/jhx 3ajioaceHa npoponecKan cnoco6HOCTb bh- 
nejb jiyninee 6yaymee poaa HejiOBenecKoro. Ho b Me^rrax pyccKHe juojw 
3a6biBaioT o no3ope HacTonmero h, noflpaacaH o6pa3aM rpnaymero cboh- 
mh HeyMejibiMH MaHHnyjiHijHflMH, HanoMHHaioT o6HTaTejiefi cyMacinea- 
inero jxomb.. 

BjiaropoflCTBO aojira, Kyiomee nyTb BoexoacaeHHH, ecTb y/jeji 3ana#a. 
3a 3toh pa6oTOH nacTo 3a6biBaeTca nejib BocxoacaeHHH, ho ropHbie ycTynw 

CTaHOBHTCH y,fl;o6HbIMH flJIH HOHH. 

Bot noneMy mh o6n3aHbi (xoth 6w Ha BpeMH) 3a6biTb Bojmyiomero 
Hac, ho 6ecnjioTHoro /locToeBCKoro, HTo6bi c 6jiaro,zjapHOCTbK) npHHHTb 
nyTb, yica3aHHbiH H6ceHOM. 



77 



Ill 

Diy6oKHe HaTypw /locToeBCKHH h H6ceH. KpoMe Toro: JIocto- 
eBCKHH - HaTypa inHpoKaa, a H6ceH - BbicoKan. 

H6ceHa poahht c /locToeBCKHM to, hto 06a - o mhpobom 6yaymeM; 
o^hh MHoroe bhott, ho nyTH He HMeeT, a noTOMy nbHHO inaiaeTCH 6e3 
onpeaejieHHoro nyTH, ajih BH^a, cth^jihbocth pa#H, npHKpbiBancb CTapbi- 
mh ^orMaTaMH; apyroft xoth h MeHee bh^ht, ho 3aTO BepHee H^eT, cmo- 
tph ce6e nojx hoth, onpe^ejinn nyTb He CTOJibKO no KapTHHaM 6y#ymero, 
CKOjibKO no npoBajiaM h oTBecaM, o6paMJiniomHM HacTonmee. 

.HocToeBCKHH - MenTaTejib-npoBHfleij. H6ceH - HCKycHbift HH^ceHep 
h MexaHHK; no Mepe eo3MOMHOcmu oh npHBO/uiT b HcnojmeHHe xoth 6m 
nacTb reHHajibHoro, ho nona 6ecnoHBeHHoro njiaHa ZlocToeBCKoro. H6ceH 
BnepBbie HaMenaeT b ayine hh3hhw h ropw h tcm aaeT B03^yniHyio nep- 
cneKTHBy 6e3B03^yniHbiM niHpoKHM njiocKOCTHM ZIocroeBCKoro. 

H6ceH opraHH3yeT xaoc ayuiH. Bot noneMy oh #aeT pejibecj) h nepe3 
pejibecj) oh #aeT npocrpaHCTBO, peryjinpyn xaoc. JIio/ui, flocejie MenTaBurae 
o BbicoTe h HMKor^a He bocxootbuihc k cojmiry, a pa3Be KaTaBninecH Ha 
TpoiiKax BAOJib paBHHH, B^pyr HanHHaiOT aejiOBHTO CTpoHTb BbicoKHe 6am- 
hh h MOJina BexoflHTb Ha hhx. H6ceH, KaK ropHbiH HH^ceHep, He ynpomaeT 
h cyaeHBaeT OKpyaeaiomee, npHBOflH ero k onpe^ejieHHOMy, aaHHOMy no- 
cTpoeHHio. Bot noneMy oh orpaHHneHHee ZlocToeBCKoro. Ho, 6biTb MoaeeT, 
oh - MeHee BbicKOHKa, 6o;iee KyjibTypHbift nejioBeK. 

Cjie^yeT noMHHTb, hto oh KaaceTCH orpaHHneHHbiM ny6jiHKe, h3jiob- 
HHBnieiicH b pa3JiHHHbix ncHxojiorHnecKHx (J)OKycax, kotopwmh ee yroma- 
iot pa3JiHHHbie nncaTejiH Bpo^e TajiaHTjiHBoro IIuiH6binieBCKoro. HacTO 
noa TOHKOCTbio ncHxojiorHH pa3yMeiOT Toaee jiOBKoe niyjiepcTBo h nepe- 
^eprHBaHbe KapT. BopKMaHbi, CojibHecw, Py6eKH eme cjihuikom npnMOJiH- 

HeHHbl, THHCeJIbI CpaBHHTeJIbHO C JIOBKanaMH H3 pOMaHOB IIuiH6binieBCKO- 

ro. Ho 3aTO repoH H6ceHa - BOHCTHHy repon. 

H3MepeHHe TajiaHTOB .HocroeBCKoro h H6ceHa bo3moecho npn noMO- 
pa3Hbix MacniTa6oB. B to BpeMH KaK rjiy6HHa /locToeBCKoro H3Me- 
pneTCH CTeneHbio innpoTbi (BcenejiOBeK), r;ry6HHa H6ceHa onpe^ejiHMa 
BbicoToft (bcxo^hji Ha 6auiHio). BbicoTa h ninpoTa, noKa ohh He o6T>eflH- 
HeHbi neM-TO BbicniHM h 6e3ycjiOBHbiM (Bo^cbHM rpa^OM), BCTynaiOT bo 
BpeMeHHoe CTOJiKHOBeHHe. Bot noneMy H6ceH 6;iaropoflHee, ho yace JXo- 
CToeBCKoro; bot noneMy /locToeBCKHH HeH3MeHHO innpe H6ceHa, - HeH3- 
MeHHo ninpe h HH3MeHHeH. H6ceH - apHCTOKpaT. ^octocbckhh - Mema- 
hhh. TepoH flpyrnx coBpeMeHHbix aBTopoB nacTO CKOJib3HT no napKeTy 

TOCTHHblX HJIH UiaTaiOTCH K JIK)60BHHljaM - CKOJIb3HT H UiaTaiOTCH B IUU- 

puny, repon H6ceHa - nodmiMaiomcsi. Bot OTKy^a hx TH3KejioBecHOCTb. 
Ho TH^cecTb - npH3HaK noTeHiiHajibHoii 3HeprHH. repon H6ceHa CHJibHbi 
TaHHoii chjioh; hx MeuiKOBaTOCTb njieHneT Hac, h6o ohh b HyacHbift mo- 



78 



Mem He noKHHyT aejia, He npeaaayT, hbjihh no Mepe chji cboh noflBHr 
ropHoro 6jiaropo^cTBa. 

Ohh Bceraa Ha Meciax h noTOMy roTOBbi OTBeTCTBOBaTb 3a ce6n. Ot- 
BeTCTBeHHOCTb aejiaeT hx o6;ieHeHHbiMH BJiacTbio. Ohh no,zjo6Hbi a^MH- 
HHCTpaTopaM h noTOMy caepacaHHbi, CKynbi Ha cjiOBa h acecTbi, b npora- 
BOnOJIOJKHOCTb TpaKTHpHbIM 6ojiTyHaM .flocToeBCKoro c He3acTerHyTOH, 
3aMapaHHoft ayuiOH. 

Jlenco KpHTHKOBaTb MOJinaHHe a^MHHHCTpaTopa b tot momcht, Kor^a 
ot ero peuieHHH 3aBHCHT cnaceHHe hjih rH6ejib poflHHbi. Men™, xoth 6h h 
o6ojibCTHTejibHbie, He ajih Hero, h oh b CHJiy 3aHHMaeMoro nocTa o6peneH 
Ka3aTbCH orpaHHHeHHeft, HeacejiH ecTb Ha caMOM flejie. Tpy^HOCTb h cpaB- 
HHTejibHan HeMOTa h6cchobckhx repoeB - ot hx oTBeTCTBeHHocra, BOKpyr 
hhx Bcer^a HanpnaceHHOCTb hhctoto TparH3Ma. Ohh ra6HyT Ha cbohx no- 
CTax; repoH .flocToeBCKoro Bcer^a 3ajiHTbi noTOKaMH cjiob, HHor^a 5Kajio6- 
hmx; Bcer^a ohh njianyT o co6cTBeHHOH rn6ejiH. 

Cjie^yeT noMHHTb, hto SHeprnn, cnoco6Han Ha6pocaTb KaMeHHbie 
nibi6bi rpaHHTa, npe^nojiaraeT uejib stoh rnraHTCKOH pa6oTbi, xoth 6m 
pa3 hcho co3HaHHOH. H ecjiH repoH H6ceHa THHyTCH k He6y, ohh BH^e- 
jih ero, xoth 6bi noTOM h 3a6buiH, KaKOBO oho. Ho kto bhacji He6o, tot h 
rpa# Bohchh yBHflHT. H6ceH He pncyeT npefl HaMH KapraHbi 6;iaaceHCTBa; 
BHHMaHHe ero HanpaBjieHO Ha to, hto6w 3decb ceuuac Hora He CKOJib3Hyjia 
b nponacTb. OnacHOCTb MHHyTbi 3aKpwBaeT cojmije TyMaHOM, BbipacTaeT 
TpyzjHOCTb no^BHra. 

TBopnecTBo H6ceHa - ropHbin no,zn>eM, 3aHaBeuieHHbiH TyMaHOM. 
B jie^HHicax cbhctht 6ypH, a b npojieTax Tyn bh^hw 3ajiHTbie aoacaeM, 
noKHHyTbie hh3hhm, y6orHe. Tepon H6ceHa Bcer^a yxo^HT b ropw. 3to 

3HaHHT - OHH CTpeMHTCH K COJIHIjy. TepOH /loCTOeBCKOrO TOBOpHT O COJI- 

HeHHOM ropo^e TaK, KaK 6yzjTO no6biBajiH b HeM, h npn stom He bmxoaht 
H3 KOMHaT. TepoH H6ceHa TBep^o rn6HyT b ropax, He pa36o;iTaB toto, o 
neM HHbie KpnnaT b apHHHeHbKHx TpaKTHpax. CnacTbe BOJiHyeT hx cepa- 
ija, ho, B3BOJiHOBaHHbie, ohh He 3a6biBaioT o Tpy^HOCTHx no^BHra; OHH 
3HaiOT, hto 3KCTa3 He 3ajibeT cbohm njiaMeHeM ropHbie nyTH 6jiaropo,zj- 

HblX BOCXOECfleHHH. 

TepoH H6ceHa He BOcnjiaMeHeHbi mhcthkoh anoKajinncHca. BbiTb 
MoaceT, ohh - uejiOMy^peHHeii coxpaHHjin oroHb cboh rjix. bhcot, ajih 
ce6n, ajih noTOMCTBa, 6biTb mojkct, ohh yace nponbiJiajiH h Tenepb cpe^H 
rop yjibi6aioTCH ^tckhm 3KCTa3aM npouijioro, otouiczuuhm B^ajib. Mw He 
bhotm ^Ha hx ayniH, Tor^a KaK repoH /locToeBCKoro Bcer^a na due. Ro- 
CToeBCKHH pejiHTH03eH; ho oroHb ero pejinrHH He H^eT aajiee cjiOBecHbix 
^cHBonHcaHHH nepe^cHBaeMoro. 3th acHBonHcaHHH jiobko yKpwTbi pH3oii 

XpHCTHaHCTBa. JIOBKOCTb, C KOTOpOH npHrOHHJI /JoCTOeBCKHH CBOH aHap- 

XH3M k xpncTHaHCTBy, co3,zjaeT noHBy Rjin BceB03M03KHbix ynpeKOB ero b 
MHCTH(J)HKauHH, 6ecco3HaTejibHbix no^Jiorax. 



79 



TepoH H6ceHa ijejioMyapeHHeft Ha cjiOBa. Ho mm He HMeeM npaBa cica- 
3aTb, 6yzjTO anoKajinnTHHecKa^ HCTepHKa /locToeBCKoro hm coBepuieHHO 
nyacaa tojibko noTOMy, hto 3th nocjie^HHe Bbi6ajiTHBaK)T cbohd ayuiy b 
rpH3HeHbKHx TpaKTHpax. MpanHbi repoH H6ceHa, ho Be^b jiHKOBaHHe JXo- 
cToeBCKoro OKaHHHBaeTCH nacTo HcrepHKOH h anHjiencHen. 51 He 3Haio, hto 
yacacHee - xojioflHan roTOBHOCTb yMepeTb, 6opacb c pokom, hjih MHCTHKa 
6ecHOBaTbix KapaMa30Bbix. Mo>kho ycTaHOBHTb cooTHouieHHe Meacay ano- 
KajinncHCOM h TpareflHeft, ho He anHJiencneH. Ot Bcex sthx kjihhhhcckhx 

(J)OpM MHCTHUH3Ma nOflMMaeTCH flypHOH 3anaX MHCTH(J)HKaiJHH. 

TepoH H6ceHa Tnacejibi. CjiOBa hx kochoh3mhhm. Bcer^a ohh tobopht 
o BHeuiHHX npe^MeTax h OTHOiueHHHX. A Kor^a npnaaioT sthm OTHOine- 

HHHM CHMBOJIHHeCKHH CMblCJI, 3TO BMXOflHT TaK npflMO, TaK HBHO. HHTfle 

He nopBeTCH y H6ceHa BHeuiHHH MHp, ho oTnero TaK cHjibHbi 3th hbhmc, 
noHTH BonjiomeHHbie chmbojim? IIoHeMy mm apoacHM, Konia BopKMaH 6e- 
peT najiKy h H^eT 6opoTbcn c 5KH3Hbio? H, Hao6opoT, - He noTpncaioT y 
/locToeBCKoro cTpauiHbie cjiOBa KHpHJiJiOBa: «BbiBaK)T jih y Bac, LlIaTOB, 

MHHyTM BeHHOH rapMOHHH? » 

y H6ceHa KOJioKOJibHH ocTaeTCH Bcer^a KOjioKOJibHeft, 6epeTCH jih OHa 

npHMO HJIH KaK CHMBOJI. PaMKH .ZieHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH He pa3flBHraK)TCH BHeui- 

hhm o6pa30M fljiH Hero. Ho npHCJiyuiairrecb - CKOJibKO My3MKH b npocTbix 
xojio^hmx cjiOBax. IIoKa b ayuiax repoeB H6ceHa npoHcxo^HT npeo6pa- 
acaioman 6opb6a, - b ayuiax, o kotopmx mm HHnero He BeaaeM, ohh nojib- 

3yK)TCH CTapblMH HCnblTaHHMMH CpeflCTBaMH 3KH3HeHHOrO CTpOHTeJIbCTBa, 

Bjiaraa b hhx hobmh TpeneT B03pacTaiomeH TaHHM. B cjiOBax h qaaHHHx 
repoH H6ceHa KOHcepBaraBHee, cpaBHHTejibHo c repoHMH /locToeBCKoro 
h MHCTHKaMH HauiHx flHeft. Ho b aejiax ohh - HOBaTopbi. Bot noneMy ohh 
cKopee Teyprn, HeacejiH Bee mm, Haiomne Tpa^a Hoboto. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 
nocTa ^ejiaeT hx 6e3iviacHMMH b tom, b neM 6ojitjihbm mm, BJianamne 3a 
co6ofl THacejioe HacjieflCTBO ^ocToeBCKoro. Ho 3a hhmh noftayT TOJinbi. 
KapaMa30BM, BepcnjioBM 3HaiOT, hto 3a hhmh hhkto He non^eT; sto aejia- 
eT hx 6e30TBeTCTBeHHMMH. Bot noneMy ohh yMHjiaiOTCH 6ecnoHBeHHocTH 
co6cTBeHHbix npo3peHHH h njioflHT HeBonjiOTHMbie TaflHM Ha MyneHHe h 

CKOp6b HeCTHMM JHOflHM. 

TBopnecTBO H6ceHa He TOJibKo npH3MB k jie^HHKaM hjih H3o6paaceHHe 
naAeHHH b nponacTb, ho h HayKa o ropHOM nyTH: HH^ceHepHoe HCKyccTBO 

CTpOHTb MOCTM H B3pbIBaTb rpaHHTM. IlyCTb 3a6bITa IjeJIb BOCXOHCfleHHH. 

Kor^a 6yayT H3yneHM cpe^CTBa, nejib OTicpoeTca h pa3opBeTCH TyMaH 
6jiy»cziaHHH. Yace 30JioTbie mchh pa3py6ajiH TyMaHM, Kor^a Hniuiie 6po- 
cajicH b ropbi no xopouio npojioaceHHMM nyTHM H6ceHOBCKHx repoeB. TyT 
mm y3HajiH, KaKoe ocjienHTejibHoe 6oraTCTBO chhct 3a ropHMM TyMaHOM, h 
hhhto He yaepacHT Hac 6ojibine b hh3hhc Mm 3HaeM: cbct ecTb. C Hac ao- 
CTaTOHHO 3Toro 3HaHHH. Mm MoaceM noKa o6oHTHCb 6e3 HinpoKOBemaTejib- 
hmx anoicajiHnTHHecKHX 3KCTa30B, ecjiH ohh npeno^aiOTCH b Ka6aHKax hjih 



80 



npn 3ByKax oxpHnuieH inapMaHKH. Bjiaropo^Hoe o^hhohcctbo aaeT ot^bix 
ayine, BbipBaHHOH H3 thckob Ka6au;KOH mhcthkh. 

Tojioc 3apaTycTpw 3obct Tenepb Hac Tyaa, Ha Monuiu Py6eKa h BpaH- 
aa, 3thx cypoBbix 6opuoB ocBo6o»c5eHHH. MHoro mw cjibiniajiH o6emaHHH 
b Ka6anKax, r^e mhcthkh 6paTajiHCb c nojiHueflcKHMH, r^e ynacTOK He pa3 
BbmaBajiH 3a BeHHocrb xoth 6m b o6pa3e «6anu c nayKOMu*. 

He nopa jih HaM npocraTbca c TaKOH ihhpotoh, noflo6paTbcn, cy3HTbcn 
h h^th no ropHOMy nyTH, r^e ctoht o^hhokhh o6pa3 TeHpHKa H6ceHa? 

1905 

O UEJ1ECOOEPA3HOCTM 

JXojivoe BpeMH 3MnHpHHecKoe 3HaHHe npoTHBonojiarajiocb 

MeTa(J)H3HKe. CpaBHHTCJIbHO B He^aBHee BpeMfl B03pO,ZUUIOCb (J)HJIOCO(J)- 

CKoe HanpaBJieHHe, nbiTaBiueecn coBMecTHTb nepBOHanajibHO nporaBono- 
jioacHbie TeneHHH mwcjih. IloHBHJiacb MeTa4>H3HKa, ocHOBaHHaa Ha onbrre 
(ByHflT, Oyjibe) hjih MeTa4>H3HKa onbrra (Max, ABeHapnyc, OcTBajib^). 
Oco6eHHO HHTepecHa nonbmca ByHflTa, coBMecTHBiuero b CBoefl System 
der Philosophic aep3HOBeHHe h OTBary HaH6ojiee cmcjiwx MeTa(J)H3HKOB co 
cTporHM o6i>eKTHBH3MOM HayHHoro MbiHijieHHH. 3aecb 5i He 6yay icacaTbca 
Bonpoca o tom, HMeeT jih raison d'etre noflo6Hoe 4>Hjioco(J)CKoe HanpaBjie- 
hhc 51 6yay ncxoflHTb H3 o^Horo Hpe3BbiHaHHO xapaKTepHoro RJin ByHflTa 
BbiBO^a, aaiomero 6oraTyio nnmy rjix ^ajibHeiiiuHX 3aKJiK>HeHHH. 

BHyTpeHHHH onwT, no ByHflTy, coctohiuhh H3 npoijeccoB npeacTaBjie- 

HHH, CBH3aH C HyBCTBOBaHHHMH. DiaBHeHIHHe (|)OpMbI HyBCTBOBaHHfl B03- 
M05KHO OXapaKTepH30BaTb, KaK HyBCTBa y^OBOJIbCTBHH H Hey^OBOJIbCTBHH, 

B036y3K,zieHHH h 3a^ep3KHBaHHH, Hanpn^ceHHH h o6;ier i ieHHH. 3th nyBCTBa 

CBOflHJIHCb K npOTHBOnOJIO^CeHHK) Me5Kfly HyBCTBOBaHHHMH aKTHBHOCTH H 
naCCHBHOCTH. IlOJIHOrO CBOerO pa3BHTHfl 3TH HyBCTBOBaHHH flOCTHraiOT B 

npoueccax BOJieBbix. TaKHM o6pa30M, ohh CBH3aHbi c HanpaBJieHHeM bojih. 
B hhx o6Hapy3KHBaeTCH no^nac h CTeneHb bojicboh 3HeprHH. Bo3pa»caH 

npOTHB aCCOUHaTHBHOH nCHXOJIOrHH, Ha 3Ty ace TOHKy 3peHHH CTaHOBHTCH 

h HejinaHOB. 

AKTHBHocTb h naccHBHOcTb 3aBHCHT ot Hac caMHx. 3to HauiH co6- 
cTBeHHbie o6i>eKTbi, k KOTopbiM mh npHxoflHM nyTeM pa3MbinuieHHH o Hac 
caMHx. Ohh cooTHOCHTejibHbi. «CTapancb Haft™ rjix .zjaHHoro HaM npeaczje 

BCerO BO BHyTpeHHeM OnblTe TepMHH, o6HHMaK)mHH pa3JIHHHbie CTOpOHbl 

^eHCTBHTejibHbix npoijeccoB, mw He MoaceM... o6o3HanaTb hx hu kok nped- 
cmaejieHim, hu kok aKmueuocmb tuiu naccueuocmb, a mojibxo kok couemanue 
mozo u dpyzozo, KaK cocmonuue aKmuemcmu u naccueuocmu, cen3annoe c 
npedcmaejieuueM. Enazodapn smoMy npedcmaejienue cmanoeumcx neKO- 
mopbiM npou,eccoM, Komopuu mu MODtceM nonuMamb e mo Me epeMx, KaK 
Haiuy codcmeeHuyTO aKmueuocmb u naccueuocmb* (CncreMa (|)hjioco(|)hh). 



81 



XapaKTepHO, hto 3#ecb ByH^T noAXOflHT BiuiOTHyio k iiohhthk) o 6e3pa3- 
aejibHOM e^HHCTBe. Ho noHHTHe o 6e3pa3,zjejibHOM e^HHCTBe ecTb noHHTHe 
CHMBOJiHHecKoe. A Meacay TeM npe^ejibHwe iiohhthh Heo6xoflHMO cbo^h- 

Mbl K HeMy, eCJIH Mbl XOTHM H36e)KaTb MWCJIHTb HX, KaK OTpHIjaTeJIbHbie 
nOHHTHH. B 3TOM OTHOUieHHH IIOHHTH6 O CHMBOJie eCTb I10HHTH6 3anpe- 

AejibHoe. ByH^T yKJioHfleTCH ot o6pa30BaHHH TaKoro iiohhthh, npezuioHH- 
Tan MbicjiHTb b noHHTHH o HaineM «h» npeo6jiaaaHHe aKTHBHbix cbohctb, 

CTaHOBHmHXCH naCCHBHblMH OT npOTHBO^eHCTBHH HeKOTOpOTO o6*b6KTa. 

3to «h» ecTb xoTeHHe. Ho noHHTHe o eojie 6jih3ko k hohhthio o chmbojic 
nepe3 noHHTHe o nepeotcueanuu, KOTopoe HHace 6y^eT paccMOTpeHo. 3a6e- 
ran Bnepea, CKaaceM, hto hohhthh o nepeacHBaHHH o6mee noHHTHH o BOJie, 
Morymero 6wTb HCTOJiKOBaHHWM MHorocMbicjieHHo h npeBpaTHO. MeTOfl 
MOTHBauHH nepe3 nocpe^CTByiomee noHHTHe o nepeaeHBaHHH MoaceT 6biTb 
paccMOTpeH, KaK MeTOfl chmbojihhcckhh. Ho MOTHBaunn hbjih6tch, no 
ByH^Ty, Bbipa^ceHHeM ijejiecoo6pa3HOCTH. 

IIo KaHTy, ue;iecoo6pa3Hoe o6i>HCHeHHe CBH3eft Meaeay hbjichhhmh 
OTnpaBjineTCH ot ijejioro, a npHHHHHoe ot e^HHHHHoro. ByHflT £OKa3WBaeT 
o6paTHMOCTb npHHHHHOCTH, KaK cKopo mw jiHiiiacM ee Cy6cTaHUHaJIbHO- 
cth. U,ejiecoo6pa3HOCTb ecTb npHHHHHOCTb, paccMaTpHBaeMan b o6paraoM 
nopH^Ke. 3Ta o6paTHMOCTb noHHTHH o MexaHHnecKOH npHHHHHOCTH o6y- 
cjiOBjiHBaeTCH TeM, hto 06a HJieHa ee (npHHHHa h aeHCTBHe) noflBOflHTcn 
nofl o^Hy KaTeropnio. IIporpeccHBHoe noHHTHe npHHHHHOCTH nepexo- 
Aht b perpeccHBHoe noHHTHe uejiecoo6pa3HocTH. IloHHMaHHe co3HaHHH 
jiokht BHe o6jiacTH ncnxojiorHH, no /laceMcy, ecjiH mw 6yaeM pa3yMeTb 
nojx 3toh nocjie^HeH ncHxojiorHio 3MnHpHnecKyio; C03HaHHe, no ero MHe- 
hhk), Bcer^a Bbi^BHraeT uejiH cBoeft aeHTejibHocra, HHane oho CTaHOBHTca 
MHHMbiM. IIporpeccHBHoe h perpeccHBHoe TpaKTOBaHHe MoryT 6biTb Ha- 

CTOJIbKO 3KBHBaJieHTbI, no ByH^Ty, HTO npHHHHHOCTb MoaeeT COBnaCTb c 

uejiecoo6pa3HOCTbio. B npHHijHnHajibHwx nojioaceHHHx MexaHHKH mw 
HMeeM Reno c TaKHM coBnaaeHHeM. Padoma mcouuhu ecmb u i^ejib, u deu- 
cmeue. TejieojiorHnecKoe paccMOTpeHHe, no y6eacfleHHio ByH^Ta, 3axBa- 
TWBaeT o6;iacTb ayxoBHWX npoijeccoB. «Chjiw npnpoflw, - roBopHT oh, - 

Cpe^CTBa, KOTOpblMH CTaBHIUHH IjeJIH paCCy^OK CTpeMHTCH npOH3BeCTH 

,aeHCTBHe». HcKyccTBeHHwii MexaHH3M jiHiiib noTOMy noHHMaeM, hto oh 
HBjineTCH mpodynmoM eojiu, pyxoeoduMou npedcmaejiemieM*. Uejib nepe- 
xo^ht b mothb. UejieBoe o6"bHCHeHHe, noHHMaeMoe TaKHM o6pa30M, ecTb 
MOTHBaijHfl. Hawa 3adma yKc&antb, nmo i^ejieeoe o6bHCHenue ecmb o6bsic- 
nenue cuMeojiuuecKoe. Ecnu dMnupmecKOR ncuxonozun MODtcem nocmyjiupo- 
eantb mpaHcu^endenmnbiM nonnmueM dyiuu (uucmou eojiu, no Byndmy), nan 
OKomamejibHbiM eduncmeoM dyxoenbix npoi^eccoe, mo cmneoji, no-naweMy, 
MOMem paccMampueambCH e xauecmee nocmyjiama ncuxojiomu. Cum6omi3m 
nomoMy nauunaem pnd mebix ceH3eu Meotcdy HejienuxMU, ne M0iyiu,uu dumb 
uu npuuHmbiM, uu omeepmymbLM nayuHou ncwcojiomeu. 



82 



B caMOM aejie, uejiecoo6pa3Hocrb npeanojiaraeT cKanoK ot ^chctbhh 
k uejiH. .fleftcTBHe coBepuiaeTCH b (J)opMax npocTpaHCTBeHHO-BpeMeHHOH 
fleftcTBHTejibHocTH. IIoHHTHe o ijejiH HCTeKaeT H3 Haiuero BHyTpeHHero 
onbiTa. IlepepbiB Meacay TaKHM fleficTBHeM h uejibio hbch. JXannoe ne&- 
cTBHe mw MoaceM paccMaTpHBaTb KaK pe3y;ibTaT ecTecTBeHHbix npHHHH. 
Ll,ejib, ocymecTBJineMaH aaHHbiM aeftcTBHeM, ecTb pe3y;ibTaT BHyTpeHHero 
onbua. B ocHOBaHHH B3aHMO^eHCTBHH Meacay uejibio H CpeflCTBaMH, t. e. 
^eiicTBHHMH, jieacHT CMeuieHHe MeTOflOB. TaKoe CMeuieHHe HecoBMecTHMO 

C TeopeTHHeCKHMH nOCTpoeHHHMH HayKH H (|)HJIOCO(t)HH. HeCOCTOHTejIb- 

HOCTb HayHHO-(J)Hjioco(J)CKHx TeopHH b aejie oueHKH Hauiero 6mthh h b 

TO HCe BpeMH Heo6xO,ZlHMOCTb nOflo6HOH OIjeHKH, pa3 6bITHe HBJIHeTCH HaM 

^aHHbiM b ^eiiCTBHTejibHOCTH, - Bee 3to no6yacflaeT Hac, b uejinx na/moTbi 
MHponoHHMaHHH, nepeiiTH 3a npeaejibi TeopHH b o6;iacTb npaKTHHecicoro 
H^eajia. B ocHOBaHHH npaKTHHecKoro H^eajia aojiecho jieacaTb nosTOMy He- 
hto 3anpe,aejibHoe c tohkh 3peHHH HayHHO-4)Hjioco(J)CKHx TeopHH. Ecjih 
rpaHHUbi HaynHO-(})HJioco(J)CKHx TeopHH oToacecTBJiHTb c rpaHHuaMH no- 
3HaHHH, to npH^eTCH corjiacHTbCH c IeetK^flHHroM, hto mw o6peneHbi Ha 
co3,ziaHHe o6pa3Hbix npeflcraBjieHHii, nepecTynan 3th rpaHHijbi. Mm nepe- 
xo^hm Tor^a HeMHHyeMO k pejiHrH03HOH chmbojihkc, 6oraTOH o6pa3aMH, 
KpacKaMH, HacTpoeHHeM. 

KoHeHHOCTb bchkoh TejieojiorHH hbjihctch cjie^cTBHeM nepexo^a ee 
3a npeaejibi TeopHH. .ZlocTHHceHHe ijejiH npeicpamaeT cpe^cTBa ee ocymecT- 
BjieHHH. Mm .zjojDKHbi noaTOMy BCTpenaTbCH c noHHTHeM o npeKpameHHH 

BCHKOrO ^eHCTBHH, pa3 Mbl CTOHM Ha TeJieOJIOTHHeCKOH TOHKe 3peHHH. 

B to BpeMH KaK npHHHHHan 3aBHCHMOCTb npe^nojiaraeT HenpepbiBHOCTb 
h 6ecK0HeHH0CTb, a noTOMy h aKTyajibHyio Heonpe^ejieHHOCTb hbjichhh, 
ue;iecoo6pa3HOCTb onpeflejineTca npepbiBHOCTbio h KOHenHOCTbio hx. 
IloHOTHe o HenpepbiBHocra HBjineTCH b pe3yjibTaTe noHHMaHHH npn- 

HHHHOCTH KaK (J)yHKIJHOHaJIbHOH 3aBHCHMOCTH. HayHHblH ,ZjeTepMHHH3M 
CBOflHT HBJieHHH K HenpepblBHbIM (ftyHKUHHM. Ho B MaTCMaTHKe Mbl BCTpe- 
HaeMCH C HHbIM BHflOM (jtyHKIJHH - npepblBHblX. OyHKIJHOHaJIbHyiO Henpe- 
pbiBHOCTb H. ByraeB paccMaTpHBaeT KaK HacrabiH cjiynafi npepbiBHOCTH. 
IlpepbiBHOCTb MHoroo6pa3Ha, OHa MoaceT BbipaacaTbcn h b HenpepbiBHO- 
cth. 06jiacTb TejieojiorHH ecTb o6jiacTb npHMeHeHHH npepbiBHbix (J)yHK- 
uhh. 06jiacTb npHHHHHOCTH - HenpepbiBHbix. 

PaccMaTpHBan MaTeMaranecKHe chmbojim 6ecKOHeHHOCTH, Kamop 
npHxo^HT k flByM noHHTHHM 6ecKOHeHHOCTH! k noHHTHio o HeonpeaejiHMOH, 
a noTOMy h Heonpe^ejieHHoii 6ecKOHeHHocTH, h k hohhthio onpeaejiHMOH 
6ecKOHeHHOCTH. IlepBafl - noTeHijHajibHa, BTopan - aKTyajibHa. IIoTeH- 
LtHajibHaa 6ecKOHeHHOCTb Heo6xoflHMO npe^nojiaraeT aKTyajibHyio. Ot- 

HOUieHHe Me^C^y o6eHMH 6eCKOHeHHOCTHMH CHMBOJIH3yeTCH OTHOIIieHHeM 

onpe^ejieHHOH OKpyacHOcra, onpeaejiniomeH noTeHunajibHyio 6ecKOHen- 
HOCTb ToneK, jieacanjHX BHyTpn ee. Be3yc;iOBHaH He3aBHCHMOCTb aKTyajib- 



6 AHapett Bejiuft 



83 



hoh 6ecKOHeHHocTH noHHMaeTCH HaMH KaK oco6oro po^a KOHenHocrb. He 

HMeeM JIH Mbl B nOHHTHH 06 aKTyaJIbHOH 6eCKOHeHHOCTH HenpOH3BOJIbHbIH 

noaxoa k noHHTHK) 3anpeaejibHOMy, o6HHMaiomeMy KOHeHHOCTb h 6ecKO- 

HeHHOCTb? IIOHHTHe O CHMBOJie TaKOBO. CHMBOJI KOHeHeH Hepa3JIO»HMOH 

KOHeHHOCTbio. B 3TOM cMbicjie oh h npepbreeH, h aKTyajieH. TejieojiorHne- 
CKaa KOHeHHocTb ecTb oco6oro po^a KOHeHHocTb. B stom OTHOineHHH OHa 
AO HeKOTopoii CTeneHH OToacecTBHMa c aKTyajibHoft 6ecKOHeHHOCTbio KaH- 
Topa. Ilepexca ot fleiicTBHH k ijejiH Heo6xo,zjHMO npcanojiaraeT bo3mo»c- 
HocTb nocTH»ceHHH ijejiH b o6jiacra ^eHCTBHH h, Hao6opoT, nOCTH^CeHHH 
b aeiicTBeHHOM u;ejiecoo6pa3Horo. ^eiicTByiomHe Ha Hac o6pa3bi Moiyr 

6bITb TOJIbKO ()6pa3aMH fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH. B3HB o6pa3 fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH 

b KanecTBe Hauiero npeflCTaBJieHHH o uejiH, mw aojiacHw npeTBopHTb ero b 

CHMBOJI. CHMBOJI eCTb THnHHHblH o6pa3 fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH. CHMBOJIHHe- 
CKaH .ZieHCTBHTeJIbHOCTb eCTb TaKaH fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTb, K KOTOpOH flOJIECHa 

CTpeMHTbCH ^eflcTBHTejibHOCTb, aocTynHan HaineMy Ha6jno,aeHHK). IIo- 
cjie^HHH ecTb BejiHHHHa nepeMeHHaa. flepBan - nocroHHHaa . 

CiaB Ha TejieojiorHHecKyio TOHKy 3peHHH, 3a nocroHHHyio b to ace 
BpeMH aKTyajibHyio BejiHHHHy mw aojdkhw npHHHTb o6pa3 flyxoBHoft fleii- 
CTBHTejibHocTH. Ryx h ayma cyTb aKTyajibHbie, a He noieHijHajibHwe 6ec- 

KOHeHHOCTH. 3tO - CHMBOJIbl. 

A6cojiK)THoe noHHTHe o ayuie, no ByHzny, flocraraeTCfl HHCxoacae- 
HHeM k ajieMeHTy npe^cTaBjieHHH, h Tor^a mw nojiynaeM cy6cTaHu;Hajib- 
Hoe noHHrae ayum. Hjih ace oho hh3bo^htch k bojicboh aeHTejibHocra; 
nojiynaeM aioyajibHoe noHHTHe ayiiiH, KaK CBH3b ayxoBHWx npoueccoB. 
ByH^T ocTaHaBjiHBaeTCH Ha btopom, KaK OTKpwBaiomeM ^ocTyn k yHH- 
BepcajibHOMy ncHxojiorHHecKOMy nporpeccy. MeTa(J)H3HHecKoe noHflrae 
o cy6cTaHi^HH ByHflT npeBpamaeT b noHHrae o mhpobom ayxe; mw bh^hm 
oTO»cecTBjieHHe 3Toro hohhthh TerejieM, KaK aenTejibHoro Hanajia mwih- 
jieHHH, h IlIoneHrayapoM, KaK .zjeHTejibHoro Hanajia bojih. 06e Hflen Tep- 
nHT KpyuieHHe, no ero mhchhio, b snjiy hcmwcjimmocth npeflCTaBjieHHH 
6e3 aeHTejibHoro MOMeHTa bojih h o6paTHO. «Bchkhh aKT npe^CTaBjieHHH 
ecTb npcziCTaBjiHiomaH aenTejibHOCTb, - roBopHT oh, - h HHrae He cyme- 
cTByeT noKonmerocH npe6wBaHHH npe,zjcTaBjieHHH». OTCioaa oh bwbo- 

flHT Heo6xOflHMOCTb MWCJIHTb XOTeHHe H npeflCTaBJieHHe, KaK HHflHBH.Zry- 

ajibHwe npHHijHnw. 

Pacna^eHHe Ha cy6*beKT h o6i>eKT ecTb (J)opMa, nopn^oK. CoaepacaHHe 
3toh 4)opMw o6HHMaeT npeflCTaBjieHHe h bojiio b 6e3pa3,aejibHoe c^hhctbo. 
Ecjih k 3TOMy npHcoeziHHHTb cjiOBa ByHOTa o npeflcraBJieHHH, KaK hhot- 
BH^yajibHOH fleflTejibHOcra, a TaK^ce Mwcjib o HeKOTopoM e^HHCTBe, Heo6- 
xo^hmo jieacameM b ochobc ncnxHHecKHx npoueccoB h npo^BjiHiomeMCH, 

KaK HaiHH CnOCo6HOCTH, ^aiOIUiHe HaM BHeUIHHe H BHyTpeHHHe TepMHHW 

fleftcTBHTejibHOCTH, mo MU dojuKHU HcuiUHHOcmb Hdiuux nepeotcueaHuu cuu- 
mamb 3d pad maicux eduncme. 



84 



IlepeacHBaHHfl HaM aaHw KaK hchto aocTOBepHoe. MoacHo coMHeBaTb- 
ch b npoH3BOflHmeii npHHHHe nepeacHBaHHH, ho He b hhx caMHx. B nepe- 
aeHBaeMOM MOMeHTe MoaceT npeo6jia,zjaTb tot hjih apyroii 3JieMeHT Hainnx 
ayuieBHbix fleHTejibHOcreH (yM, nyBCTBO, bojih), ho ocHOBaHHe sthx ajie- 
MeHTOB Heo6xoAHMO KopeHHTCH b 6e3pa3,aejibHOH uejiocTHocTH nepeacn- 

BaHHH. 

HTaK, noHHTHe o nepeacHBaHHH OToacecTBHMO c noHHraeM o 6e3pa3- 

aeJIbHOH IjeJIOCTHOCTH. C 3T0H TOHKH 3peHHH nepeaCHBaHHe flOJiaCHO 6bITb 

paccMaTpHBaeMO, KaK hchto He3aBHCHMoe ot nioceojiorHH h SMnnpHne- 
ckoh ncHxojiorHH. Ecjih BbimeynoMHHyTbie flHcunnjinHw npeBpamaiOT 
HauiH nepeacHBaHHH b npH3paK, to caMH ohh CTaHOBHTcn npH3paKaMH 
npH3paKa, tchhmh tchh. Bejib ncHxojiorHH, b KOHue kohijob, CBOflHMa k 

TeOpHH n03HaHHH, a 3Ta nOCJieflHHH eCTb HHCTO (j)HJIOCO(})CKafl ahcijhiuih- 

Ha, onnpaiomaHCH Ha npoijecc npeflcraBJieHHfl. 3tot ace npoijecc hbjihctch 
npoH3BOAHHM nepeacHBaHHH. Ecjih npoH3BO^Hoe nepeacHBaHHH - mwiii- 
jieHHe - npHBO^HT Hac k o6pa30BaHHio npeaejibHwx OTpnijaTejibHwx no- 

HHTHH, Mbl CBo6oflHO o6paiIjaeMCH K nepeaCHBaHHK), KaK K eflHHCTBCHHO 

HaM aocrynHOH ijejiocraocTH. IlepeacHBaHHe c stoh tohkh 3peHHH ecTb 
He TOJibKO uejiocTHOcTb, ho h czjhhctbo, npocTOTa. Rjin stoh tohkh 3pe- 
hhh He cymecTByeT npHHHH nepeacHBaHHH. H3 stoto He cjieayeT, hto6w 
He cymecTBOBajio npHHunna, ynpaBjiniomero hmh. 3tot npHHimn Tejie- 
ojiorHnecKHH. IlepeacHBaHHe ecTb cpeacrBO. Ho ijejib - Toace nepeacHBa- 
hhc Ecjih Bbiuie mm xapaKTepH3HpoBajin TejieojiornnecKHH npHHijHn, KaK 
npHHijHn CMemaHHbiH, onnpaiomHHCH Ha pa3Hopo,aHwe MeToaw, Tenepb 
mw HMeeM npaBo CMOTpeTb Ha Hero hhwmh rjia3aMH. BwineH3JioaceHHWH 
B3TJIHA BbiTeKaji H3 paccMOTpeHHH TejieojiorHnecKoro npHHunna c tohkh 

3peHHH .ZJHCIJHnJIHH, onHpaKHIJHXCH Ha npHHUHn npHHHHHOCTH, o6paTHbifl 

TejieojioranecKOMy. 3th flHcijHnjiHHbi motjih aaTb TOJibKO H3BpameHHWH 
B3rjina Ha ijejiecoo6pa3HocTb. B chmbojihhcckom MeToae ajih npHBeaeHHH 
o6ohx HjieHOB TejieojiorHHecKoro npoijecca mw npHHyaczieHw 6wjih npn- 
BOflHTb hx k o6pa3aM aencTBHTejibHocTH. TaKoe npHBeaeHHe cTaBHJio 
ue;iecoo6pa3HocTb b cBH3b c chmbojih3mom, aaBan en 6ojiee ijeHTpajibHoe 
HCTOJiKOBaHHe. B HacTonmeM cjiynae mm npHBO^HM 06a HJieHa Tejieojio- 
rHHecKoro npoijecca (cpeacrBo h ijejib) k nepeacHBaHHH). Ho He cjieayeT 
jih 3aKJiiOHHTb OTCioaa, hto chmbojiw nepeacHBaiOTCH h hto nepeacHBaHHH 
hocht CHMBOJiHnecKHH xapaKTep? Ho ajih 3Toro nepeacHBaHHe, o6T>eMjno- 
mee h npeacraBjieHHe, h bojiio, «npedcmaejiHemcH» b nepeacHBaeMwx 06- 
pa3ax aeHCTBHTejibHOCTH. Chmboji BonjiomaeT nepeaCHBaHHe b sthx o6pa- 
3ax. IIoflHHHHfl nepeacHBaHHe TejieojiornnecKOMy npHHijHny, mw aojiacHw 
npn^TH k o6pa30BaHHio npe^ejibHoro nepeacHBaHHH - cHMBOJia (uejin), 
o6ycjiOBJiHBaiomero nocpe^CTByiomHe nepeacHBaHHH aeflcTBHTejibHOCTH. 
B o6pa30BaHHH npe^ejibHoro nepeacHBaHHH mw He Bna^aeM b Ty ace oiuh6- 
Ky, b KaKyio Bna^aeM c o6pa30BaHHeM hohhthh o nepBonpHHHHe, Kor^a xo- 

85 



6* 



THM IIOCTaBHTb npefleJI npHHHHHOH CBH3H HBJieHHH; IIpHHHHHOCTb ecTb p$m 

6ecKOHeHHbiii, HenpepbiBHbifl. KoHenHOCTb h npepbiBHocTb - Heo6xoflH- 
Mbie ycjiOBHH h cymecTBeHHeftiiiHe npH3HaKH chmbojih3mh, BHe KOToporo 
cboottch Ha HeT Becb cmwcji TejieojiorHnecKoro npHHunna. Chmbojih3m c 

3T0H CTOpOHbl HBJIfleTCH BOHCTHHy eflHHCTBCHHblM MeTOflOM npaKTHHeCKO- 

ro ocymecTBjieHHH HejioBenecKoro H^eajia. OKOHHaTejibHbift cumboji ecTb 
npe^eji TaKoro ocymecTBJieHHH. Ot npeaejibHoro, Bceo6mero cimeojia cjie- 
ayeT OTjiHHaTb npoo6pa3bi-CHMBOJibi, nojiynaromHecH ot MHoroo6pa3Horo 
ojiHiieTBopeHHH BH^HMOCTbio HauiHx nepeacHBaHHH. 3th npoo6pa3bi Mbl 
Mo^ceM Ha3biBaTb chmbo jiaMH i cjie^yeT oTJinnaTb hx ot E^HHoro CHMBOJia. 
B to BpeMH KaK ohh hbjihiot npou,ecc BonjiomeHHH E^HHoro b MHoroo6pa3- 
Hbie nepTbi fleflcTBHTejibHOCTH, b cuMeone - OKOHHaHHe aToro npoijecca, 
nojiHoe cjiHHHHe e^HHCTBa c MHoacecrBeHHOCTbio. H ecjiH npHHHHHoe o6t>- 
HCHeHHe He MoaceT HaM npeacraBHTb acHyio KapTHHy 3Toro cjihhhhh, mm 
AOJiacHbi y^oBjieTBopHTbCH TejieojiorHHecKHM yTBepacaeHHeM, mto maKoe 
cjiUHHue ueodxoduMO. IIocjieflOBaTejibHoe BonjiomeHHe E^HHoro b jik>6om 
H3 o6pa30B aeiicTBHTejibHOCTH Be^eT k nocjieaoBaTejibHOMy B03Be,aeHHK) 
3Toro o6pa3a b pnflbi npoo6pa30B. IlepBOHaHajibHbiH o6pa3 craHOBHTCH Bee 
6ojiee h 6ojiee OToacecrBHMbiM c okhom, CKB03b KOTopoe HaHHHaeT npocBe- 
HHBaTb chmboji, hjih c 3epicajiOM, ero OTpa^caiomHM. 3tot npoijecc aHajio- 
rHHHbiii o6*beKTHBauHH 3HaHHH, moecho Ha3BaTb cuMeojiuaaUfUeu. Chmbo- 
jiH3auHH HBjineTCH, TaK CKa3aTb, o6T>eKTHBauHeii nepeacHBaHHH. 

J\jin yncHeHHH TeKynero nepeacHBaHHH a aojiaceH nepeitra k nepeacn- 
BaHHio, CMeHHromeMy aaHHoe. 3to HOBoe nepeacHBaHHe h Mory paccMaTpn- 
BaTb HHor^a KaK pacuinpeHHoe h yrjiy6jieHHoe nepBOHanajibHoe. B TaKOM 
cjiynae h npeoaojieBaio aaHHoe nepeacHBaHHe H3HyTpH, bo3boah ero b ran 
mix ijejioro pn^a aHajiorHHHbix nepeacHBaHHH, aKTyajibHO onpeaejiHiomHX 
3tot paa. B rjiy6nHe Kaacaoro nepeacHBaHHH h Mory Haxo^HTb 3JieMeHTbi, 
npecymecTBjiHK>mHe ero. Ecjih oho craHOBHTCH aKTyajibHO onpeaejiHio- 
mHM pxnhi aHajiorHHHbix, ho He pacmHpeHHbix, He yrjiy6jieHHbix, noTOMy 
h He THnHHHbix nepe^KHBaHHH oKpyacaiomnx mchh cymecTB, to b aaHHOM 
MHe nepeacHBaHHH cjiHBaioTCH nepeacHBaHHH OKpyacaiomnx. .flaHHoe MHe 

nepe^CHBaHHe CTaHOBHTCH He TOJIbKO MOHM, HO H KOJIJieKTHBHblM. 

IIocjieflOBaTejibHbie CTajHH npecymecTBjieHHH nepe^CHBaHHH BeayT 
hjih k TaKoii ace CMeHe chmbojihhcckhx o6pa30B nepeacHBaHHH, hjih k cum- 

60JlU3dU,UU odnOZO 113 HUX. Pa3JIHHHbie CTaflHH CHMBOJIH3aiXHH o^Horo H 

Toro ace o6pa3a othochtch apyr k apyry TaK, KaK noHHran po^oBbie k cbo- 

HM BHflOBblM. MOJKHO n03T0My yCJIOBHO TOBOpHTb O BHflOBblX H pOflOBblX 
CHMBOJiaX C TOHKH 3peHHH MeHbHieH HJIH 6oJIbHieH peajiH3aiiHH E^HHoro 
CHMBOJia. Mo»CHO TaK»e rOBOpHTb O npOCTpaHCTBeHHOH H BpeMeHHoii 
CHMBOJIH3aiXHH. 

Be3pa3JIHHeH Bbl6op 06pa30B ^JIH npOCTpaHCTBeHHOH CHMBOJIH3aiJHH. 

TeM He MeHee 3tot Bbi6op KacaeTCH no npeHMymecTBy Han6ojiee xapaK- 



86 



TepHbix c(J)ep HejiOBenecKOH aeHTejibHoc™. TaKOBa ccj)epa oTHoineHHH, 
HanpaBjieHHbix k coxpaHeHHio hch3hh. OTCio^a nacTan CHMBOJiH3aijHH 
o6pa30B oTija hjih Maiepn, aceHHxa hjih HeBecTbi. HayKa, OTBjieKancb ot 
nepe»CHBaHHH, Be^eT k o6T>eKTHBauHH 3HaHHH. OcBo6o5KAeHHe nepeacn- 
BaHHH H3-noa oneKH HayKH npoH3BO^HT BnenaTJieHHe OTpnijaHHH HayKH. 
TaK nojiaraiOT, no KpaflHeft Mepe, 4>aHaTHKH HayKH. Ho OTpnijaTb npHMOH 
cmhcji HaynHoro no3HaHHH HeB03M05KHo. Mbi bhahm, k KaKHM a6cyp;jaM 

npHXOflHT TOJICTOH B CB06M (J)aHaTHHeCKOM OTpHIjaHHH. C OflHOH CTOpO- 

hh, nepea HaMH npH3panHOCTb nepeacHBaHHH, c apyroft - cy6i>eKTHBHaH 

TOHKa 3peHHH HHflHBHflyaJIH3Ma. Bee 3TO 6bIJIO CnpaBe^JIHBO npH yCJIOBHH 

paeH03HauHocmu nporaBonojiaraeMbix noHHTHH o cy6i>eKTHBHOM chmbo- 
jiH3Me h o6i>eKTHBHOM ,zjeTepMHHH3Me. Ho 3toh paBH03HaHH0CTH He cyme- 

CTByeT MeJK^y HH,ZlHBH,ZiyaJIH3MOM H 06l>eKTHBH3M0M. B HHflHBHflyaJIbHOM 

nepe»CHBaHHH cy6i>eKT h o6i>eKT no3HaHHH 3aKjnoHeHbi b Hepa3flejibHyio 
ijejiocTHocTb. PaccMaTpHBan 3Ty ijejiocraocTb KaK hchto cy&beKTHBHoe, 
a6cojnoTHO npoTHBonojio»CHoe o6i>eKTHBH3My, mm npoH3BOflHM CMeuie- 
HHe noHHTHii, Beaymee k OToacecTBJieHHio ijejioro c ero Hacrbio. KpoMe 
Toro: hcxo^h H3 hohhthh 06 HHflHBHflyajibHOM nepe»CHBaHHH, mw nepein- 

JIH K CHMBOJIH3aUHH 3THX nepe5KHBaHHH. CHMBOJIH3aiJHH Heo6xOAHMO 

BbiBo^HT nepeacHBaHHe H3 c(J)epbi paccMOTpeHHH ero, KaK nero-TO TOJibKO 
HH^HBH^yajibHoro. Ejiaroaapn cHMBOJiH3aijHH nepeacHBaHHe mo^kct daTb 

yHHBepcaJIbHHM. IlepBOHaHaJIbHO eflHHOJIHHHOe, OHO CTaHOBHTCH Bno- 
CJieflCTBHH KOJIJieKTHBHblM. IIpeHMymecTBeHHbiH Bbi6op o^hhx o6pa30B 
nepea apyrHMH o6t>hchhm 6ojibiiiHM yzjo6cTBOM KOJiJieKTHBHoro nojib30- 
BaHHH. TyT mh onHTb coBna^aeM c ByHflTOM, kotophh, nepBOHanajibHO 
onpe^ejiHB xoTeHHe h npeacTaBJieHHe HH^HBH^yajibHbiMH npHHUHnaMH, 
co3HaeTCH Bnocjie^cTBHH, hto TaKoe onpe^ejieHHe He pa3peuiaeT Bonpoca 
06 OTHoineHHH BOJieBbix eflHHHij apyr k apyry. CorjiacyiomeecH HanpaB- 
jieHHe sthx ejxuumx o6pa3yeT, no ero mhchhio, bojiio KOJiJieKTHBHyio. Ecjih 

peaJIbHOCTb TaKOH BOJIH Onpe^e^HeTCH HHTeHCHBHOCTbK) fleHCTBHH, TO OH 

npH3HaeT TaKyio bojiio aaaee 6ojiee peajibHoft. BjiHHHHe HHflHBHflyyMOB 
apyr Ha apyra o6ycjiOBjiHBaeTCH npeacraBjieHHeM, nepe3 nocpeacTBO ko- 
Toporo HHflHBHAyajibHoe xoTeHHe nepexoAHT b o6mee. OTCio^a oh 3aKJiio- 
naeT, hto B3aHMHoe onpe^ejieHHe HHflHBHflyajibHbix BOJien h nopoacaaeT 
3T0 npe^cTaBJieHHe. HHAHBHflyajibHan bojih hbjihctch TaKHM o6pa30M He 
nocjie^Heft bojicboh eflHHHijeH, a coBOKynHOH BOJieft. HHflHBHflyajibHOCTb 
ee - OTHocHTejibHan. /Ijih oHTOJiorHnecKoro paccMOTpeHHH OTKpwBaeTCH , 
no MHeHHio ByHOTa, «6ojiee my6oKoe nonuManue mozo nocjiedoeamenbHozo 
odnapyMeHtui eojiu, Komopoe, npueodx ece k 6onee u 6ojiee o6iuupnbiM eo- 
jieebiM eduHuu,oM, naxodum ceoe eupoMenue e udee eduuou, o6nuM(mw i eu 
uejioeeuecmeo o6m i eecejieucKou eonu» (CncTeMa 4>hjioco4)hh). HH^HBHAy- 
yM TaKHM o6pa30M HBjineTCH npedbxeumejieM BcejieHCKoft bojih, b tom hjih 
ApyroM OTHoineHHH orpaHHHeHHOH. YHHBepcajibHoe cahhctbo ^ocTHra- 



87 



CTCH TaKHM 06pa30M He TOJIbKO KOJIJieKTHBHWM o6T>e,aHHeHHeM B UeJIHX, 

ho h yrjiy6;ieHHeM HHflHBHflyajibHoft eflHHHuw. Hcthhhwh yHHBepcajiH3M 
noaTOMy Bcer^a HHflHBHflyajieH. Ho tot ace npouecc mw Ha6jnoflajiH h npn 
CHMBOJiH3au,HH. HHflHBHayyM ecTb npoo6pa3 CHMBOjia. B o6pa3e cHMBOJia 
HHflHBHflyajibHoe Hanajio coneTaeTCH c yHHBepcajibHbiM b Hepa3pbiBHoe, 
Hepa3AejibHoe, HecjiHHHHoe flByeflHHCTBO. B o^hom MecTe «CHCTeMw 4>h- 
jioco(J)hh» ByHflT yKa3WBaeT Ha to, hto ecjiH bo3mo5kho nocjieaoBaTejib- 
Hoe npoBeaeHHe Hflen o Bore, to mw aojihchw Ero MwcjiHTb KaK MnpoByio 
Bojik). B 3tom cMbicjie opraHH3aijHH H^eH HejiOBenecTBa ecTb Eoronejio- 
BenecKafl opraHH3auHH; ocymecTBjieHHe ee bo3bo,zjht HH^HBH^yajibHoe 
Hanajio k 6o5KecTBeHHOMy. «Pa3ee eu ne 3naeme y umo mu 6ydeM cydumb 
amejioe» (IlaBeji). OToacecTBjiHH aHrejioB c jiecTHHijeii H^efl-aHrejioB 
(hto mw BCTpenaeM b pejinrHH 3opoacTpa), mw npHHyacaeHw 3aicjnoHHTb, 
hto H^en HejioBenecTBa b B03BwiiieHHwx pejiHrnnx ctoht Haa hhmh. 3to 
npe^eji Bcex o6o6meHHH Hflen. B stom CMbicjie OHa - ^ecmneuwaa Xe- 
pyetiM u CjiaeneumaM 6e3 cpaenenuH Cepa<puM». Mw aojiacHw npH3HaTb, 
hto H^ea HejioBenecTBa He tojibko H^en, CTyneHb o6T>eKTHBaijHH bojih, ho 
caMa bojih. Mw npHHyacaeHW caejiaTb nocjie^Hee o6o6meHHe, coneTaH Me- 
Ta(J)H3HHecKyio bojiio c npeacTaBJieHHeM. 3to o6o6meHHe npoH3Be,zjeHO 
TapTMaHOM. TaKoe o6o6meHHe npHBejio ero k o6pa30BaHHio npeaejibHO- 
ro, OTpHuaTejibHoro hohhthh o 6ecco3HaTejibHOM. Ho npeaejibHoe otph- 
wejibHoe noHHTHe hjih hhhto, hjih chmboji. C apyroii ctopohw, ByHflT, 
KaK mw 3HaeM, nwTaeTcn 06'beflHHHTb HHflHBHflyajibHoe xoTeHHe c hh^h- 
BH^yajibHWM npeacTaBjieHHeM b npoijecc npe^cTaBjiniomero xotchhh - 
npoijecc, oTOJKecTBHMwii c chmbojihhcckhm npoijeccoM, nojiynaiomHM y 
Hac HarjiH^Hoe npHMeHeHHe b CHMBOJiH3aijHH. OTCio^a hcho, hto cjihhhhc 
yHHBepcajibHOH bojih c npeflCTaBJieHHeM ecTb npe^eji CHMBOJiH3aijHH, h b 
to ace BpeMH HBJieHHe CHMBOJia b nejiOBenecKOM o6pa3e. TaKOBw HaiiiH bw- 
boaw H3 3MnHpHHecKoii CHCTeMW ByH^Ta, no cnpaBeflJiHBOcra CHHTaeMoii 
3a Han6ojiee cepbe3Hyio nonwTKy SMnnpHHecKOH MeTacJ)H3HKH. 3th bwbo- 

flbl CX05KH C BWBOflaMH CoJIOBbeBa H3 KOHTOBCKOH HfleH O HeJIOBeHeCTBC 
BblBOflW n03HTHBHOH (|)HJIOCo4)HH 3aCTaBJIHK)T HaC paCCMaTpHBaTb 

nejioBenecTBO, KaK ECHBoe c^hhctbo (le Grand-Etre). IIocKOJibKy oho ecTb 
npe^MeT Bepw, He nofljieaca BHeuiHeMy Ha6jnoaeHHio, nocKOJibKy oho npea- 
MeT KyjibTa. CojiOBbeB OToacecTBjineT stot KyjibT c cpe^HeBeKOBWM KyjibTOM 
Ma^OHHw, okohhhbihhmch aoraaTOM o HenopoHHOM 3anaTHH BoroMaTepn. 
«OcHOBaTejib «IIo3hthbhoh Ohjioco4>hh» noHHMaji no,a; HeJIOBeHeCTBOM, - 
roBopHT CojiOBbeB, - cymecTBO, CTaHOBHmeecn a6cojnoTHWM nepe3 Bce- 
o6mnii nporpecc... Ho KoHTy... He 6wjio hcho, hto CTaHOBHmeecn bo Bpe- 
MeHH a6cojnoTHWM npe^nojiaraeT a6cojnoTHoe bchho cymHM, HHane caMoe 

3TO «CTaHOBJieHHe»... 6bIJIO 6bl B03HHKHOBeHHeM HerO-TO H3 HHHero... Hh- 

cthhkt, yra^wBaiomHH HcTHHy, 6wji y KoHTa, Kor^a oh npnnHcaji BejiHKO- 
My CymecTBy aceHCTBeHHwii xapaKTep. KaK CTonmee Meac^y orpaHHHeHHWM 



88 



h 6e3ycjiOBHbiM, kok nprnacmuee moMy u dpyioMy, oho no npnpofle ecTb Ha- 
najio ^BoiicTBeHHOCTH r| dopiaxoq bx>6u; nHcjbaropeiiijeB - caMoe o6mee ohto- 
jiorHnecKoe onpe/jejieHHe aceHCTBeHHOCTH» (Bji. CojiOBbeB). 

TyT HeBOJibHO nepexo^HM ot iiohhthh o Chmbojic k 06pa3y Ero. 
A pa3 3tot nepexoa coBepmeH, o6pbiBaioTCH HauiH no/inac 3aTacKaHHwe 
cjiOBa o Bceo6meM nporpecce h npoHOCHTCH BenHHe «>KeHbi, o6;ieHeHHOH 
b Cojimje». 

3HaHTe ace, BeHHan )KeHCTBeHHOCTb Hbme 
B Tejie HeTJieHHOM Ha 3eMjno H^eT. 

Ho Ee 06pa3 - oKOHHaTejibHbift. Ee BenHHe - BenHHe KOHija. 

H tojioc Bee tot ace 3ByHHT b thiiihhc 6e3 yKopa: 
KoHeu yace 6jih3ok: ace/iaHHoe c6yaeTCH cKopo. 

Bji. Conoebee 

HcxoflH H3 HH^HBH^yajiH3Ma nepeaeHBaHHH, mm nepeinjiH k hx yHH- 
BepcajibHOcra. Ilepe^cHBaHHe nocpe^cTBOM cHMBOJiH3an,HH BbipacTaeT H3 
npe^ejiOB jihhhocth. Oho cjiHBaeT HHflHBHflyyMbi b orylo ijejioe. Taicafl 
opraHH3aijHH nepeacHBaHHH ecTb opraHH3aijHH pejiHrH03Han, h o6pa3 Bce- 
jieHCKoft uepKBH BbipaacaeT TaKyio opraHH3anHio. BcejieHCKan ijepKOBb no- 
cpe^CTBOM cHMBOJiH3auHH npecymecTBjineT HH^HBH^yajibHoe MHoroo6pa- 
3He b o6pa3 yHHBepcajibHoro e^HHCTBa. 

Yr^y6jieHHe o6pa3a Run oT^ejibHOH jihhhocth eme He ecTb ycjiOBHe 
ero yrjiy6;ieHHH ajih oicpyacaiomHX. Ecjih Becb ijhkji MHpoBoro pa3BHTHH 
Mo^ceT OTpa3HTbCH b nocjieaoBaTejibHOM npoHCHeHHH jiio6oro o6pa3a Rim 
OT^ejibHoro HH^HBH^yyivia, to ycjiOBHeM TaKoro npeo6paaeeHHH hbjihctch 
^eHTejibHoe pa3BHrae caMoro HHflHBHflyyMa. Diy6HHa noHHMaHHH b stom 

OTHOHieHHH BCTynaeT BO BpeMCHHblH KOH(J)JIHKT C IHHpOTOH. IlOTOMy Bbl- 

pacTaeT noTpe6HOCTb nepe^aTb nocjie/jOBaTejibHyio CHMBOJiH3aijHK) oflHoro 
h Toro ace o6pa3a BbipaaceHHeM cooTHomeHHH 3Toro o6pa3a k apyrHM. TaK 
B03HHKaeT cumsojiuso^vm emopozo nopndKa. IIojiyHaeM CHCTeMy chmbojiob, 
yncHHiomHx HaM npoijecc CHMBOJiH3aijHH nepBOHanajibHoro o6pa3a. Mc- 

XOAHWH 06pa3 B TaKOH CHCTeMe 6epeTCH H3 fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH, KOHeMHblH 

o6pa3 ecTb tot ace o6pa3, oKOHnaTejibHO npecymecTBjieHHbiii. Ilocpefl- 

CTByiOmHe o6pa3bI CyTb 06pa3bl, 3aHMCTBOBaHHbie H3 fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH, 

HarjiH^Ho H3o6paacaiomHe npoijecc npeo6paaceHHH. TaKOBbi chctcmw chm- 
bojiob, BbipaacaiomHe BHyTpeHHHH nyTb. J\jin ^enTejibHoro ycBoeHHH hx 

Heo6xOflHMO COBMeCTHO npOXO^HTb, T. e. CJIHBaTbCH BO BpeMeHH. TyTb Mbl 

HMeeM Reno c hcm-to aHajiorHHHbiM mhcthhcckoh flpaMe, o6 , be ( zjHHeHHOH 
e^HHCTBOM fleiicTBHH. 3Ta ApaMa o6*beMJieT HejioBenecKyio aoreHb. Ctoh- 
mee b Hanajie h b KOHije MHCTHnecicoro AeftcTBa - e^HHoe, nepBOHanajibHO 

3aCJIOHeHHOe BpeMeHHblMH OTHOUieHHHMH H B KOHIje CBo6o^Hoe OT HHX. 



89 



Tana* CHCTeMa ecTb pejinrHH, npeTBopniomatf acH3Hb b chmboji. « Alles ver- 
gaengliche ist nur ein Gleichnis». JlK>6aa nepTa fleftcTBHTejibHoc™ MoaceT 
CTaTb fljra Hac He tojibko chmbojihhcckhm o6pa30M, ho h CUM60J10M. Boc- 
xoflH ot o6pa3a k e^HHOMy cHMBOJiy, mw yace MoaceM hhcxo^htb ot Hero k 
jno6oMy o6pa3y h Bee npeTBopHTb. C 3Toro MrHOBeHHH bch aeHCTBHTejib- 

HOCTb CTaHOBHTCH np03paHHOH. Rjlfl C03epijaHHfl KapTHHbl npHpOflbl He- 

cymecTBeHHa hh 4>opMa CTeioia, hh pa3Mep ero: eedb mu CMompuM CK603b 
nezo. HecymecTBeH h o6pa3 CHMBOJia: hto6w 6biTb BOCxHmeHHWM ro co- 
3epi^aHHH ero, Heo6xoflHMO jiHiiib MrHOBeHHe, pa3BepHyBineecH b BeHHOCTb. 
Tan h 6biBaeT b 3KCTa3e. Pa3 mw HMeeM flep3HOBeHHe h cnjiy .zhjih npeTBO- 
peHHH jno6oro MOMema b BenHocrb, to noHHrae o BpeMeHH Hcne3aeT, h6o 
cyMMa BeHHOCTeii (t. e. MHroB) - BeHHOCTb. TyT mw noaxoflHM k HaH6o;iee 
ueHTpajibHOMy noHHMaHHio CHMBOJia, KOTopwii cTaHOBHTCH ajih Hac HH 

eAHHCTBOM, HH MHOHCeCTBOM, HO TeM H flpyTHM. ECJIH MHOXCeCTBeHHOCTb 

ecTb ajib(J)a, a e/jHHCTBO oMera, to h o6parao. TyT fleHCTBeHHaa pejinran 
Heo6xoAHMO nepexoAHT b AnoicajiHncHC, a naccHBHan b ummo. 

ECJIH Mbl MO^CeM pa36HTb 3KH3Hb Ha 6eCMHCJieHHOCTb MHrOB, TO HaM 

AOCTynHO c apyroii CTopoHbi npeBpaTHTb mht b BeHHOCTb. >KH3Hb, Ka3aB- 
inancH HaM xaoTHHecKHM Boaona^oM MrHOBeHHH, HanHHaeT cHHTb Henoa- 
bhecho Bee toh ace paayroii. llycTb Tenepb B03JieTaK>T, HHcna#aiOT moth - 
npo3panHbie 6pw3ra Boaonaaa - nojieT BOflonaaa Bee tot ace; b MHrax mh, 
hjih HaA hhmh - Bee Ta ace HaM cbctht jiynesapHan pa^yra. OTcyTCTByeT 
yacac xaoca: Ero CBeTJian Ronh npocrapaeT Ha MHrax cboio ceflMHUBerayio 
HeTjieHHyio pH3y h OHa HenoflBHaoio bwchtch, tohho CMaparaoBwe BpaTa 
BeMHoii )Kh3hh. 

Ecjih mh yrjiy6njiH acH3m>, 6e3pa3JiHHHO, 3aKJiK>HaeM jih mw ee b MrHO- 
BeHHH, HJIH B03BbIIHaeMCH Hafl HHMH - MW B BeHHOCTH. 

PejinrHH Heo6xoaHMa. Be3pa3jiHHHO, OTpni^aeM jih mw ee, hjih hct. 
Ecjih mw ycTpaHneM ee, CTaHOBHCb Ha TOMKy 3peHHH HaynHoro no3HTHBH3- 
Ma, OHa Bwpa3HTCH b nocjie^oBaTejibHOM npoBeaeHHH Hanien no3HTHBHO- 
cth. He^eiicTBHTejibHO H3niaHHe pejinrHH, Kor^a H3 rjiy6nH no3HTHBH3Ma 
BwpacTaeT nepea hbmh pejiHrno3Hoe npeacTaBJieHHe o HejioBenecTBe, KaK 
6e3ycjioBHOM, Bcee^HHOM Hanajie. Tanoe npe^cTaBJieHHe HeMHHyeMO nepe- 
xo^ht b KyjibT. Mw flOJiacHw B03BecTH HejiOBenecTBo b BejiHKoe CymecTBO, 
b «}Keny, odjieueHuyTO e CojiHU,e», KOTopyio, xoTb h nwTaeTCH nporjiOTHTb 
apaKOH Hanien HenocjieflOBaTejibHocra, ho kotopoh aaHw flBa opjihhwx 
Kpwjia, hto6w OHa yjieTejia ot 3mhh. Si nous voulons etre positivistes, nous 
devons poser PEtre. 

KyjibT BeHHoft )KeHw BwpacTaeT H3 rjiy6nH no3HaHHH. Oh npeBpa- 
maeT no3HaiomHX b pwuapen «IIpeKpacHOu JIqmu*. 06pa3yeTCH hobwh 

pbmapCKHH Op^eH, He TOJIbKO BepflmHH B yTpeHHOCTb CBOeH 3Be3^W, HO H 

no3HaiomHH Ee. 

1905 



90 



CBflLUEHHblE UBETA 



«Eoz ecmb ceem u nem e HeM hukqkou mbMU». Cbct OTJimaeT- 

CH OT IJBeTa nOJIHOTOK) 3aKJIK)HeHHbIX B Hero UBeTOB. U,BeT eCTb CBeT, B TOM 

hjih apyroM oTHomeHHH orpaHHneHHbiH TbMOK). OTCio^a 4>eHOMeHajib- 
HocTb UBeTa. Bor hbjihctch HaM: 1) KaK cymecTBO 6e3ycjiOBHoe, 2) KaK cy- 
mecTBo 6ecKOHeHHoe. 

Be3yc;ioBHoe Haa cbctom. EecKOHeHHoe MoaceT 6biTb CHMBOJiH30BaHO 
6ecKOHeHHOCTbio iibctob, 3aioiK)HaiomHXCH b jiyne 6ejioro CBeTa. Bot no- 
neMy «Bor ecTb cbct h hct b HeM HHKaKOH TbMbi». «yBHfleji h, - roBopHT 
npopoK /JaHHHji, - hto nocTaBJieHbi 6mjih npecTOJibi h B03ce;i Bctxhh ahh- 
mh: o^enHHe Ha HeM 6wjio KaK CHer»... Mbi cymecrBa, co3flaHHbie no 06- 
pa3y h nozio6HK) Bora, b rjiy6oHaSmeM Hanajie Hauiero 6wthh o6pameHbi k 
CBeTy. Bot noneMy OKOHHaTejibHaa npoTHBonojioacHOCTb 6oacecTBeHHOCTH 
OTKpbiBaeTCH HaM ycjioeno orpaHHneHHeM ijBeTa no nojmoro ero OTcyT- 
ctbhh. Ecjih 6e;ibiH ijbct - chmboji BonjiomeHHOH nojiHOTbi 6hthh, nep- 
HbiH - chmboji He6biTHH, xaoca: «IIoceMy ohh (HenecraBbie) nopaaeeHM 
6buiH cjienoTOio... Kor^a, 6yayHH o6t>hth rycToio TbMOK), HCKajiH Ka^c^biH 
Bbixo^a»... HepHbift ixbct 4>eHOMeHa;ibHO onpeaejraeT 3Jio KaK Hanajio, Ha- 
pyuiaiomee nojiHOTy 6mthh, npnaaiomee eMy npH3panHOCTb. BonjiomeHHe 
He6biTHH b 6biTHe, npH^aiomee nocjie^HeMy npH3paHHOCTb, CHMBOJiH3yeT 
cepbiH i^BeT. H nocKOjibKy cepwii uper co3,zjaeTCH oraoiiieHHeM nepHoro k 
6ejioMy, nocTOJibKy B03MoacHoe ^jih Hac onpe^ejieHHe 3Jia 3aKjnoHaeTcn b 
OTHocHTejibHOH cepeflHHHocra, ^BycMbicjieHHocTH. OnpeaejieHHeM nepTa, 
KaK lopKoro ceporo npoxo^HMija c HacMopKOM h c xboctom, KaK y ^aTCKOH 
C06aKH, MepeKKOBCKHH 3aJIOHCHJI npOHHblH (^yH^aMeHT ajih Teoco(})HH 
UBeTOB, HMeiomeH 6y,aymee. K coacajieHHio, caM oh, otkpmb flBepb k aajib- 
HeHHiHM BbiBO^aM, aaace He 3aniHHyji b Hee. 

Hcxoot H3 xapaKTepa ceporo UBeTa, mm nocTHraeM peajibHoe ae&- 
cTBHe 3Jia. 3to aeiicTBHe 3aKjnoHaeTCH b B03Be,aeHHH k cymHoc™ oTHome- 

HHH 6e3 OTHOCHIIZHXCH. TaKOe OTHOUieHHe - Hyjlb, MaillHHa, C03flaHHaH H3 

BHxpeii nbiJiH h nenjia, KpyTHmanca HeH3BecTHO 3aneM h noneMy. JIorHKa 
3toh cepeOTHHOcTH TaKOBa: nojioacHM, cymecTByeT hchto 6e30THOCHTejib- 
Hoe; Tor^a npoHBJieHHe 6e30THOCHTejibHoro coBepuiaeTcn oco6oro po^a 
H3MepeHHeM; Ha30BeM sto H3MepeHHe niy6HHHbiM, a npoTHBonojioacHoe 
eMy n^ocKOCTHbiM. Kor^a rjisi H3MepeHHH npe^MeTOB mh BoccTaHOBJin- 
eM Tpn Koop^HHaTHbix och, to ot Hac 3aBHCHT oflHy H3 Tpex ocen Ha3BaTb 
H3MepeHHeM rjiy6nHbi, a och, jieacamne b njiocKocra nepneH^HKyjinpHOH, 

CyTb nJIOCKOCTHbie H3MepeHHfl IHHpHHbl H flJIHHbl. M05KHO o6paTHO! H3- 

MepeHHe niy6HHbi Ha3BaTb H3MepeHHeM uiHpHHbi. Ot Hac 3aBHCHT Bbi6op 
KOopflHHarabix oceft. Ecjih 6e30THOCHTejibHoe rjiy6oKo cpaBHHTejibHO c 

OTHOCHTeJIbHblM, TO Bbl6op TJiy6HHbI H nJIOCKOCTH C HaiHeH CTOpOHbl BCer- 

jXdi OTHOCHTejieH. Mbi yno,zjo6jiHeMCH tohkc nepeceneHHH KOop^HHaTHbix 



91 



oceii. Mw - Hanajio Koop^HHaT. Bot noneMy otchct c Haineii ctopohw no 
jihhhhm rjiy6HHbi, uiHpHHbi h ^jiHHbi npoH3BOJieH. TaKan jiorHKa paciuiio- 
mHBaeT BCHKyro r;iy6HHy. Bee cpwBaeT h yHOCHT... ho HHKyzja He yHOCHT, 
coBceM KaK KaHTOBCKHii HoyMeH, orpaHHHHBaiomHH npH3paHHyio aeiicTBH- 
TejibHOCTb, ho h caM He-cymHH. Mnp HBJineTCH HeHyacHoft KapTHHOH, me 
Bee 6eiyr c HCKaaceHHbiMH, no3ejieHeBiiiHMH jiHijaMH, 3aHaBeineHHbie Rbi- 
mom 4>a6pHHHbix Tpy6, - 6eryr, b HeHy^KHOM nopwBe BCKaKHBaioT Ha koh- 
kh - Hy coBceM KaK b ropoaax. Ka3ajiocb 6bi, e^HHCTBeHHoe 6ercTBO - b 
ce6n. Ho «H» - sto e^HHCTBeHHoe cnaceHHe - 0Ka3broaeTCH TOJibKO nep- 
hoh nponacTbio, Kyaa btophhho BpwBaiOTCH nbiJibHbie bhxph, cjiaraacb b 
6e3o6pa3Hbie, BceM HaM H3BecTHbie KapTHHbi. H bot nyBCTByeuib, KaK Ben- 
ho npoBajiHBaenibCH - co bccmh npH3paKaMH, npH3paK co BceMH HyjiHMH 
Hyjib. Ho h He npoBajiHBaenibCH, noTOMy hto HeKyaa npoBajiHTbcn, Kor^a 
Bee paBHOMepHO jictht, yMeHbinancb paBHOMepHO. TaK hto mhp npH6jiH»ca- 
eTCH k Hyjiio, h yace Hyjib, - a kohkh njieTyrcn; 3a hhm 6eiyr sth noBHTbie 
6jieflHOCTbio HyjiH b uijwnax h KapTy3ax. XoneTcn KpHKHyTb: « OnHHTecb I . . 
Hto 3a HecicjiatfHija?», ho kphkom co6Hpaeuib TOJiny 3eBaK, a MoaceT 6biTb h 
ropoflOBoro. HejienocTb pacTeT, mcth 3a nonwTKy npocHyrbcn. BcnoMHHa- 
euib HHijme: ^IlycmuHH pacmem: zope moMy, e kom mamncH nycmuHU* - h 
hto-to OMep3HTe;ibHoe oxBaTbmaeT cepaue. 3to h ecTb nepT - cepan nwjib, 
oce^aiomaH Ha BceM. 

TojibKO Tor.zja BCKOJiwxHeTCH cepoe MapeBO, racnmee cbct, Kor^a H3 
ayuiH BbipBeTCH kphk OTHaHHHH. Oh pa3opBeT 4>aHTacMaropHio. «H 3a- 
peBeT Ha Hero b tot .zjeHb KaK 6w peB pasbRpennozo Mopn; h B3rjiHHeT oh 
Ha 3eMjno; h bot TbMa, rope h cbct noMepK b o6;iaKax» (Mcana). B stom 
coctoht o6MaH Heo^CH^aHHocTH; oh o6Hapy»CHBaeT KaK 6w 6e3flHy y hot. 
Kto CKaaceT, hto sto aeHCTBHTejibHaa 6e3^Ha, tot oTHomeHHe npHMeT 
3a cymHocTb. CoBpeMeHHbie jno6HTejiH co3epi*aHHH b HCKyccTBe bchkhx 
6e3OT - noHra Bee ohh HaxoflHTcn Ha stoh CTa^HH. CjieayeT noMHHTb, hto 
3^ecb eme HeT hhkhkoh 6e3flHbi. 3to - onraHecKHH o6\iaH. Tyna nwjiH 
3aracHJia b pyKax CBerajibHHK, 3aHaBecHB HenpoHHuaeMoii ctchoh Ben- 
hmh CBeT. 3to - nepHaa CTeHa nwjiH, KOTopan b nepBbift momcht KaaceT- 
ch nponacTbio, noao6Ho TOMy KaK HeocBemeHHbiH nyjiaH mo^kct Ka3aTbcn 
6e3aoHHo-HepHOH BcejieHHOH, Kor^a MpaK, He no3BOJiHiomHH pa3niHfleTb 
ero npe^ejiw, cjienHT rjia3a. He cjieayeT 6oHTbcn 6yHTyiomero xaoca. Cjie- 
ayeT noMHHTb, hto oh - 3aBeca, HCKyc, KOTopbift HyacHO npeoaojieTb. Hyac- 

HO BCTynHTb BO MpaK, HT06bI BblHTH H3 Hero. 

IlepBoe cHHHHe, pa3pe3aiomee MpaK, OKpauieHO Ecejrro-6ypbiM 3JiOBe- 
lu,hm HajieTOM nwjiH. 3tot 3JiOBemHH 0T6;iecK xopouio 3HaKOM BceM npo- 
6yac5aiomHMCH, HaxoaamHMCH Meac/jy chom h fleftcTBHTejibHOCTbio. Tope 
TOMy, kto He pacceeT 3tot 3JiOBemHH ot6jicck npeoaojieHHeM xaoca. Oh na- 
aeT, pasaaBJieHHbiH npH3paKOM. H JlepMOHTOB, He cyMeBuiHii pa3o6paTbcn b 
npHrpe3HBiueMCH eMy nyTH, Bcer^a o6pwBaji cboh rjiy6oKHe npo3peHHH. 



92 



XpaHHTCH IUiaMeHb He3eMH0H 

Co flHeft MJiaaeHHecTBa bo mhc 

Ho Be;ieHO eMy cyAb6oH, 

KaK aaiji, norH6HyTb b thiuhhc 

Yacac HeBonjiomeHHbix npo3peHHH BHceji Ha# hhm, KaK 3aHeceHHaii 
ceKHpa najiana: 

Diaacy Ha 6yaymH0CTb c 6oH3Hbio, 
TjiH»cy Ha npouuioe c tockoh 
M, KaK npecTynHHK nepe/j Ka3HbK), 
Mmy KpyroM ayiiiH po/jHOH. 

H 3aKaT, b kotopom caM ace JlepMOHTOB BHfleji CBHmeHHyio yjibi6Ky, 
6;iemeT, KaK Hcrynee iuiaMH: 

3aKaT ropHT orHHCTOH nojiocoft, 

JIio6yiocb hm 6e3MOJiBHO no,a okhom, 

BbiTb MoaceT, 3aBTpa oh 3a6jiemeT Haao mhoh, 

Be3»CH3HeHHbIM, XOJIOflHbIM MepTBeuoM. 

H JlepMOHTOB 6wji o6peneH Ha nojiHoe HenoHHMaHHe cymHOdH yrae- 
TaBinero ero HacrpoeHHfl, KOTopoe Morjio Ka3aTbca (o, yacacl) 11030H, 6jiaro- 
AyuiHWM neccHMH3MOM, MHpoBOH cKop6bio, mosmunecKOU* rpycTbio, Toraa 
KaK Ha BceM stom jiokht OTnenaTOK CBameHHoft npoponecKofl tockh. 

Ho TaKOBa ynacTb «enepeue omKpueaiou^ux zna3a». Ohh paBHo A&zieKH 
h ot CHa, h ot no6eflbi. 

C;ie3a no meKe orHeBaa KaTHTCH, 
OHa He ot cepaua hact. 

HTO B CepAUe 06MaHyT0M HCH3HbK) XpaHHTCfl, 

To b HeM HaBcer^a h yMpeT, 

noTOMy HTO 

He BCTpeTHT OTBeTa 
Cpe/u> myMa MHpcKoro 
H3 iuiaMH h cBeTa 
Poac/jeHHoe cjiobo. 

B cyAb6ax oTflejibHbix BbmaiomMxca jimmhoctcm, KaK b KaMep- 
o6cKype, OTpaacaioTca cy,ztf>6bi ijejibix anox, HaKOHeu;, cyflb6bi BceMHpHO- 
HCTopHHecKHe. OTAejibHbie jiHua Bee name cTaHOBHTca aKTepaMH, pa3bi- 



93 



rpbmaiomHMH HauiH 6yaymHe Tpare/jHH - CHanajia aKTepaMH, a noTOM, 
MoaceT 6biTb, h ^eHTejiHMH co6bithh. Ha^eTaH MacKa npnpacTaeT k Jinny . 
TaKHe Jinija nacTO 0Ka3biBai0TCfl TOHKaMH npHJioaceHHH h nepeceneHHH 
BceMHpHo-HCTopHHecKHx chji. 3to - OKHa, nepe3 KOTopbie flyer Ha Hac Be- 
Tep 6yaymero. 

TaKHM jihijom 6biji JlepMOHTOB. B ero cy/jb6e y3Haenib BceM HaM rpo- 
3Hmne cyab6bi. CeKHpa, 3aHeceHHan Haa hhm, rpo3HT BceM HaM. 

Hto cyAb6w BaM apnxjieiomero MHpa? 
HaA Bauieii tojioboh KOJie6jieTCfl ceKHpa. 
Hy hto hc? Pi3 Bac oahh ee yBH»cy h. 

Yacac nepea dpsuvieiomuMMupoM, aw kotophm 3aHeceHa ceKHpa, Hano- 
MHHaeT cjioBa o ahhx, b kotophx 6y^eT «maKdH cKopdb, kokou ue 6buio om 
naucuia meopenuH» - o nocjie^HHx ahhx. Eme CTyneHbio /jajibine, h o6pa3 
rpwymero Mcthtcjw aojiaceH BdaTb nepea JlepMOHTOBbiM. H oh BCTaer: 

HacTaHeT roa, Pocchh nepHMH roa, 
Koiyja ny\ia ot CMpa^Hbix MepTBbix Teji 
HanHeT 6poAHTb cpe^H nenajibHbix ceji... 
Pi 3apeB0 oKpacHT bojihh pen... 

B TOT fleHb HBHTCH MOIIJHblH HCJIOBeK... 

H 6yzjeT Bee yacacHO, MpanHo b hcm. 

TyT oh nepeicjiHKaeTCH c coBpeMeHHbiMH noaTaMH h nncaTejiHMH: 

KoHeu yace 6jih3ok, HeacaaHHoe c6yzjeTCH CKopo. 

Bji. Cojioebee 

MHe ny^HTCH - 6eaa BejiHKaa 6jiH3Ka! 
Ho 6jih30cth ee hhkto eme He cjihuiht... 

ToneHuwpe-Kymysoe 

«rpH3HeHbKHe» TpaKTHpbi... BcrpenaiOTCH bo Bcex poMaHax /locToeB- 
CKoro. B hhx-to h npoHcxo/jHT caMbie BaacHbie, OTBJieneHHbie h CTpaniHbie 
pa3roBopw rjiaBHbix repoeB ero o nocjie^HHX cyzjb6ax pyccKOH h BceMHp- 

HOH HCTOpHH. H... HyBCTByeiHb, HTO HMeHHO nOHIJIOCTb 3TOH... JiaKeHCKOH 

«CMep,aHKOBCKOH» o6cTaHOBKH. . . npn/jaeT 6eceaaM sthm hx oco6eHHbiH, 
coBpeMeHHbiii, pyccKHii... rpo30Boii h 3JiOBemHH - KaK He6o nepe^ yaapoM 
rpoMa... anoKajinnTHHecKHH ot6jicck» (Mepe^KKOBCKHH). 

Jlyn BenHoro CBeTa npn^aeT 3/jecb, 6e3o6H^HOH Ha B3rjum, cepe/jHH- 
hoh cepocTH 3tot yacacHbiii, HCTHHHbifi rjix Hee ottchok. IIpeoflOJieBafl 
3Ty CTa^Hio, mw npH6jiH5KaeMcn k ^pyroMy HcnbiTaHHio - BHe3anHO Bee 



94 



OKpauiHBaeTCH orHeHHWM 6;iecKOM KpacHoro 3apeBa. B (f)H3HKe h3bcctho 
cbohctbo 6ejioro Jiyna OKpauiHBaTbCH KpacHbiM ubctom npn npoxoacaeHHH 
CKB03L 3anbiJieHHyio, Henpo3paHHyio cpeay onpeaejieHHOH TOJimHHbi h 
njioTHOCTH. HTaK, BnenaTjieHHe Kpacmzo co3flaeTCH oTHOineHHeM 6ejioro 
CBeTona k cepoft cpe^e. OraocHTejibHOCTb, npH3paHHOCTb KpacHoro upe- 
Ta - CBoero po^a TeococJ)CKoe OTKpbiTHe. 3#ecb Bpar OTKpwBaeTCH b no- 
cjie^HeH CBoeii HaM aocTynHoii cymHOCTH - b njiaMeHHO-KpacHOM 3apeBe 
a^cKoro orHH. CjieayeT noMHHTb, hto sto - nocjieflHHH npeaeji othoch- 
TejibHocra - npH3paK npH3paKa, cnoco6HbiH, oflHaKO, OKa3aTbcn peajibHee 
peajibHoro, npHHHB onepTaHHH 3mhh: «Bot, 6ojibinofl Kpacnuu apaKOH c 
ceMbio rojiOBaMH h ^ecHTbio poraMH, h Ha rojioBax ero ceMb flHa^HM. Xboct 
ero yBJieK c He6a TpeTbio nacTb 3Be3^» (OTKpoBeHHe). 

3to - MapeBo; sto ropnT ociaTKH nwjiH, HaceBineft Ha nejiOBeKe; 
sto - b rjia3ax y Hac. «5Ibjihjihch hm, - roBopHTca b IlpeMyapocTH Co- 
jiOMOHa,— TOJibKO caMH co6ok) ropnmHe Kocrpu, nojiHbie yacaca, h ohh, 
CTpauiacb neeuduMoio npii3paKa, npeflCTaBJinjiH ce6e fleiicTBHTejibHOCTb 
eme xyfluieii*. 

JIio6oBb Ha 3toh CTa^HH OKpameHa orHeHHWM uBeTOM Bceno^CHpaio- 
meii CTpacra; oHa noraa TeMHbix nap h 3Jioro, 3eMHoro orHH. 

O^hhokhh k Te6e npHxoacy, 

OKOJIflOBaH OrHHMH jik)6bh. 

Th raaaeuib - mchh He 30bh: 
H h caM yac aaBHO Bopoacy. 
Bopoac6oH nojioHeHHwe ahh 
H Jiejieio roaa - He 30bh. 
TojibKO CKopo Jib noracHyT oihh 

3aKOJIflOBaHHOH, TeMHOH jho6bh. 

Bjiok 

TaKaH jiio6oBb cnoco6Ha hbhtb o6pa3 toh, o kotopoh CKa3aHO b 
OTKpoBeHHH: «H h yBHaeji aceHy, CHAHmyio Ha 6arpHHOM 3Bepe... H Ha 
nejie ee HanHcaHO hmh: TaHHa, BaBHJioH bcjihkhh, MaTb 6jiyflHHuaM h 

Mep30CTHM». 

3#ecb He;ib3H ocTaBaTbCH. 3aecb cropHuib. HyacHO hath Bnepea. Be^b 
h cjiOBa anocTOJia IleTpa aocTaTOHHo hcho tobopht, hto 3to - HCKyc: «Bo3- 
jno6jieHHbiel Oznennozo ucKymemm y flJia ucnumanuH BaM nocbiJiaeMoro, He 
HyacaaHTecb, KaK npHKJiioHeHHH ajih Bac CTpaHHoro; ho, KaK bw ynacTByeTe 
b XpHCTOBbix cTpaaaHHHx, paayiiTecb». «Ecjih 6yayT rpexn BaiiiH KaK 6a- 
zpnnoe, KaK CHer y6ejno, - tobopht npopoK HcaHH, - ecjiH 6yayT Kpacnu y 
KaK nypnyp, KaK BOJiHy y6ejno». «Ho b stom orae, b 3tom noacape, ot koto- 
poro MHp flOJiaceH 3aropeTbCfl h cropeTb, ocTaeTCH CBeacecTb rajiHJieiicKHx 
jiHJiHH HeyBH^aeMbix. KaKaa TafiHa b 6jiaroyxaHHH 3thx 6ejiwx jihjihh, 



95 



b 6;iaroyxaHHH 6ejioft, KaK jihjihh, BocKpecuieft I1jioth» (MepeacKOBCKHft). 
Ot Hauieii bojih 3aBHCHT co6ctbchhoh KpoBbio noracHTb noacap, npeBpa- 
THTb ero b 6arpHHHuy crpaaaHHH. A to mw cropHM, h BeTep iiomhht cepwft 
neneji h 6yaeT jienHTb H3 hhx npH3paKOB. MojiHTBa ao KpoBaBoro noTa 
no,zwepacHT Hac b nacw ropeHHH, pa3pyuiHT napw KpacHbix yacacoB. <JIyu- 
me Mne yMepemb, neotcejiu ocmaeumb MOJiumey» t - roBopHT npopoK Rdam- 
hji. TojibKO mojihtboh JXbhuuji yrauiaji acrynecTb «neu(u omewiou*. 

«H noKa3aji oh MHe Hncyca, BejiHKoro Hepen, - roBopHT 3axapHH,— 
h caTaHy, CTonmero no npaByio pyKy ero, mto6w npoTHBoaeftcTBOBaTb... 
H cKa3aji Tocnoflb caTaHe: Tocno^b aa 3anpeTHT Te6e, caTaHa, aa 3anpe- 
tht Te6e Tocnoab, H36paBiiiHH HepycajiHM. He zojiobhh jiu Oh, ucmop- 
ZHymaH om ozhh». 3/jecb CnacHTejib Ha3BaH «zojioeHeu, ucmopznymou U3 
ozhh*. HyacHO 6mjio BonjioraTbCH XpHdy b cpe^OTOHHe 6opb6w h yaca- 
ca, cohth bo aa , b xpacHoe, HTo6bi, npeoflOJieB 6opb6y, ocTaBHTb nyTb juin 
Bcex CBo6oflHbiM. Oh no6ezmJi. HcKyuieHHe Bcnjibijio Ha noBepxHocTb, 
KaK orHeHHan peKa, KOTopan, no cjioBaM ^aHHHjia, «ebixodwia u npoxo- 
dtuia neped hum*. 

B KpacHOM uBeTe cocpeflOToneHbi yacac orHH h TepHHH cTpaaaHHH. 
IIoHflTHa TeococJ)CKaH flBOHCTBeHHocrb KpacHoro. He b cHJiy jih npe^ine- 
CTByiomeH cTpaaaHHio CTa^HH ropeHHH CaTaHHHJi y 6oroMHJioB - CTap- 
iiihh 6paT XpHCTa? He noTOMy jih y MaHHxeeB flBa Bora TBopua: ao6pbiH h 
3jioh. Bee sto He 3anojiHHT 6e3flHbi Meacay ,zjo6poM h 3jiom... Xphctoc ocra- 
HeTCH npoTHBonocTaBJieHHbiM caTaHe, KaK b bh^chkh npopoKa 3axapHH. 

KpoBb He^apoM o6arpHJia Ero. B 6arpnHHuy HeaapoM o6jieKJiH Ero... 
Cua noma ecmb hosuu 3aeem b Ero kpobh, KOTopyio Oh 3a Hac npojiHJi. 
He^apoM yacacajicn h TOCKOBaji Oh, o6paman ropecTHbift B3op cboh Ha 
apeMjiiomnx yHeHHKOB: «,Zlyiiia moh ckop6ht CMepTejibHo»... H noT Ero, 
KaK KpoBb, opoinaji 3eMJiio. «H o/jejiH Ero b 6arpnHHuy h, cnjieraiH Tep- 
HOBbiii BeHeu, B03JioacHJiH Ha Hero»... «Ebiji nac Tperaii, h pacnnjiH ero»... 
«B iuecTOM ace nacy Hacrajia TbMa»... «B aeBHTOM nacy B03onHji Hncyc 
rpoMKHM tojiocom: «3jioh, sjioh! JIaMMa CaBaxcJ)aHH» (ot MapKa). KpecT, 
B03flBHrHyTbiH Ha rojiroc|)e, HaBceraa pa3^ejiHeT yacac ot rpnflymeft paao- 
cth BToporo npHinecTBHH, Kor^a Oh npn^eT c He6ecHbiMH BOHHCTBaMH, 
o6;ieHeHHbiMH e eucon 6ejiuu. 

KpecT, B03flBHrHyTbiH Ha Ibjiro^e, Becb noKpbiTbiii Kan jih mh kpobh, 
h BeHeu apoMaTHwx, HeTJieHHwx h 6ejiwx mhcthhcckhx po3l IlepBbie BeKa 
xpHCTHaHCTBa o6arpeHbi KpoBbio. BepuiHHbi xpHcraaHCTBa 6ejiw KaK CHer. 
HcTopHnecKan sbojiiouhh ijepKBH ecTb npoijecc «y6ejienusi pu3 xpoebw Az- 
Hii,a». J\jin Hameft ijepKBH, eme He no6eflHBiiieH, ho yace npeflBKyiiiaiomeH 
cjia^ocTb no6e^bi, xapaKTepHbi Bee ottchkh 3apeBoft po30Bofi MeMTaTejib- 

HOCTH. P030BbIH IXBeT COeflHHHeT KpaCHblH C 6eJIbIM. Ecjih TeOCO(J)CKOe 

onpeAejieHHe KpacHoro UBeTa KaK oTHocHTejibHOCTH 6opb6w Meacay Bo- 
roM h flbHBOJiOM conocTaBHTb c po30BWM, b KOTopoM yace hbho BbipaaceHO 



96 



npeo6jiaaaHHe 6ejioro CBeTona He;iOBeKo6o»cecTBa, to cjie^yiomaH CTaann 
ayuieBHoro nepeacHBaHHH OKpauieHa b po30BHH ubct. 

IIpH6jiH>KaHCb k 6e3ycjiOBHOMy, no3HaeM HfleH. Ilo3HaHHe ujxen hch- 
botbopht. B HCKyccTBe H^eH - hctohhhk HacjiaacaeHHH. Koraa ohh npe- 
BpamaiOTCH b 3HaMeHa, BjieicymHe k ijcjihm, HCKyccTBO conpnicacaeTCfl c 
pejiHrHeii. Torzja H^eH babohhc echbotbophm. BocxoacaeHHe k bmcihhm 
c(J>epaM 6wthh Tpe6yeT BHyTpeHHero 3HaHHH nyTeft. Ham BepHbiii npo- 
bo^hhk - MOjiHTBa. OHa nponcHneT TycKJioe CTeKJio, nepe3 KOTopoe MM 
bhotm. OcjienHTejibHbiii 6jiecic H^eajibHoro nocjie npojiHTbix c;ie3. Mo- 
jiHTBa - ycjiOBHe, nepenjiaBjiaiomee cKop6b b paaocTb. BocTopr ecTb pa- 
.zjocTb 06 H^enx. MojiHTBa 6ecnpennTCTBeHHO npoBO^HT b flyuiy Hflen. 

B MOJIHTBe BepiUHHbl HCKyCCTBa COe^HHHIOTCH C MHCTHKOH. CoeflHHe- 

HHe mhcthkh c HCKyccTBOM ecTb TeyprHH. 

TeyprHH npeo6paacaeT OTHOineHHe k HfleHM. H^en - npoHBjieHHe 60- 
»cecTBeHHbix Hanaji. B pejinrHH 3opoacTpa Hflen OToacecTBjieHbi c aeBH- 
Tbio aHrejibCKHMH Ha^ajiaMH. B xpHcraaHCTBe aeBHTb aHrejibCKHx hhhob. 
B HCKyccTBe Hjxen naccHBHa. B pejiuzuu ona ejiunem. Co3epijaHHe njxen b 
HCKyccTBe ocBo6oaeflaeT ot crpaflaHHH. TeyprHnecKoe co3H^aHHe npn- 
o6maeT jik)6bh. Mm HanHHaeM jiio6HTb HBJieHHe, bh^h ero H^eio. Mm Ha- 
HHHaeM jiio6HTb MHp H^eajibHOH jiio6oBbK). HyBCTBa, no UIoneHrayapy, 
cyTb ^eHTejibHOCTH bojih. JIio6oBb - niy6oHaHiiiee nyBCTBo: rjiy6oHaftiiiaH 
^eHTejibHOCTb bojih. « Ecjih h po3flaji Bee HMeHHe Moe h oraaji Tejio Moe Ha 
coaoKeHHe, a jiio6bh He HMeio, hct MHe b tom HHKaKOH nojib3bi». Bot mto 
cKa3aji IlaBeji. Pa3HOo6pa3Hbi hbjichhh jho6bh. HacTo 3epHO jiio6bh 3aTy- 
MaHeHo. HacTo noTepnH jxjir Hac ee hcthhhmh KopeHb. 

Ecjih ^eHTejibHOCTb jho6bh flOJDKHa 6wTb opraHH30BaHa paccy^KOM, to 
Bonpoc o CTeneHH bjihhhhh paccyzjica Ha nyBCTBO nepeHOCHT onpe^ejieHHe 
jiio6bh b o6;iacTb (J)hjioco(J)hh. Ho rapMOHHH Meacay paccy^KOM h nyBCTBOM 
He flocraraeTCH KOMnpoMHccaMH Meac^y TeM h apyrHM. Henocpe^CTBeHHoe 
BjiHHHHe nyBCTBa Ha paccyzjoK, no KaHTy, hbjihctch hctohhhkom 3a6jiyac- 
aeHHH. IIpeoaojieHHe paccyzjica h nyBCTBa o6T>e,zjHHeHHeM hx HeH3MeHH0 
pacuiMpneT (J)opMbi no3HaHHH no caMbix o6mnx. Myapocrb - Han6ojiee ihh- 
poican CTyneHb no3HaHHH. Chmbojih3m - o6jiacTb ee npHMeHeHHH. BcHican 

JIK)60Bb OTCIOZia - np006pa30BaTeJIbHa, CHMBOJIHHHa. CHMBOJIHHeCKaH JIK)- 

6oBb nepeHOCHT b BeHHOCTb TOHKy ee npHJioaceHHH. BonjiomeHHe bchho- 
cth ecTb TeyprHH. JIio6oBb TeyprHHHa no cymecTBy. GneflOBaTejibHO, b Heft 
MHCTHKa. OpraHH3auHH jiio6bh pejiHrao3Ha. 

Ecjih ace HCTHHHan jno6oBb 3aKJiioHaeTCH b HeopraHH30BaHHOM nyB- 
cTBe, hobmh pna BonpocoB HMeeT MecTo: KaKOBo OTHomeHHe jiio6bh k 
HpaBCTBeHHOCTH, k npaBy, k 3aKOHy? HeKOTopwe couhojioth roBopnT, 
hto HpaBCTBeHHOCTb ecTb oijeHKa HHTepecoB. IlpaBo, no CojiOBbeBy, ecTb 
HCTopHnecKH noflBHHCHoe onpe^ejieHHe npHHy^HTejibHoro paBHOBecHH 
npyx HpaBCTBeHHbix HHTepecoB - jihhhoh CBo6oaw h o6mero 6jiara. IlpaBo 



97 



CBOflHTCH k HpaBCTBeHHOCTH. 3aKOH ace - 3Ta o6H3aTe;ibHaH opraHH3auHH 
npaBa - no^HHHeH 6jiaroflaTH. Bjiaro^aTb - npoHBjieHHe 6oEcecTBeHHOH 
jik)6bh. JIio6oBb, ot6jicck cymHOCTH, 6yayHH BHe npaBa, HpaBdBeHHo- 
cth, 3aKOHa, He aojiacHa ynpa33HHTb hh Toro, hh apyroro, hh TpeTbero. 
Ee cymecTBeHHbiMH npH3HaKaMH flJifl 3Toro aojiacHbi 6biTb Bceo6mHocTb 
h nocTOHHCTBO - BeHHOCTb. B TeyprHH BomiomeHHe Bchhocth. IIosTOMy 
Henocpe^CTBeHHoe nyBCTBO jik>6bh aojdkho 3aKJiK)HaTb b ce6e hchto pe- 
jiHrH03Hoe. OHa H^eajibHa. VLjieu MoryT 6biTb po,zu)Bbie h BH^OBbie. Hflen 
MHpa h HejioBenecTBa HaH6o;iee Bceo6mH. B bh^hmom MHpe nejioBeic 06- 
pa3yeT Bbicuiyio CTyneHb o6T>eKTHBauHH H3 ^ocTynHbix HauieMy Ha6jno- 
.zjeHHK). B HeM cymHOdb MHpoBoro npouecca. H^eH MHpa h HejiOBenecTBa 
ycjiOBHO coBna^aiOT /yia Hac. H^eio MHpa moecho Ha3BaTb flyuioH MHpa. 
Ryuia. MHpa, CocJ)hh, no CojiOBbeBy, ecTb coBepineHHoe HejiOBenecTBo, Ben- 
ho 3aKjnoHaiomeecH b 6o^k6ctbchhom cymecrBe Xpncra. TyT MHCTHHecKaa 
cymHOCTb uepKBH coBMemeHa c o6pa30M bchhoh aceHCTBeHHocTH, HeBecTbi 
Annja. Tyr Ajib(J>a h OMera hcthhhoh jik)6bh. OTHomeHHe Xpncra k ijepic- 

BH - »CeHHXa K HeBeCTe - 6e3/IX)HHO-MHpOBOH CHMBOJI. BCHKyK) OKOHHa- 
TeJIbHyK) JIK)6oBb 3TOT CHMBOJI BblCBCHHBaeT. BcflKaH JIK)6oBb eCTb CHMBOJI 

3Toro CHMBOJia. Bchkhh chmboji b nocjie^HeH uinpoTe hbht o6pa3 ^KeHHxa 
h HeBecTbi. 3ByK Tpy6w npH3biBHO pa3,zjaeTCfl H3 «Hoeozo MepyccuiiLMa». 
BepuiHHbi BCHKoro CHMBOJia - o nocjie^HeM, o KOHije Bcero. OKOHHaTejib- 
Han cymHOCTb nocjie^Hero CHMBOJia oTKpoeTca TaM, r^e 6yaeT «ho6or 3eM- 
jih h meoe He6o»... OTKpOBeHHe HoaHHa OKaHHHBaeTca tojiocom HeBecTbi: 
«IlpHH4H». BepuiHHbi Bcex (j)opM jik)6bh, c6jiH»ceHHbie o6mHM CHMBOJIOM, 

npHrOTOBJIHIOT HaC K BeHHOCTH. To, HTO HaHHeTCH 3^eCb, OKOHHHTCH TaM. 

Ot6jicck pejiHrH03Hoii jiio6bh na/jaeT Ha 6paK. B 6paKe, no cjiOBaM Co- 
jioBbeBa, mw HMeeM o6pa3, ocBflmeHHbiH cjiobom Bo^chhm, o6o3HaHaio- 
iuhh cok)3 XpncTa c U,epKOBbio. «TjiaBHoe 3HaneHHe b 6paKe, - roBOpHT 
CojiOBbeB, - npHHa^jie^CHT na(J)ocy jik>6bh. CBoe npnpoflHoe aonojme- 
HHe - aceHiuHHy nejioBeK bh^ht 3aecb He TaK, KaK OHa HBjraeTcn BHeiime- 
My Ha6jno,zieHHK), a npo3peBaeT b ee H^eio, b to, neM OHa nepBOHanajibHo 
Ha3HaneHa 6biTb, neM ee ot Bena BH^eji Bor h neM OHa aojiaoia OKOHHaTejib- 
ho cTaTb... OHa yTBep^caaeTCH, KaK caMouejib... KaK cymecTBO, cnoco6Hoe 
k «o66oiceHwo» («OnpaB^aHHe ao6pa»). IloKa 6paK He ^octht coBepuieH- 
CTBa, npeeMCTBeHHocTb noKOJieHHH aojiacHa BbinojiHHTb 3Ty 3a,ziaHy. 

«}Ka}K ( zja b co3HaaK)meM, CTpejia h CTpeMjieHHe k CBepxnejiOBeKy; ro- 
Bopn, 6paT moh, TaKOBO jih TBoe CTpeMjieHHe k 6paKy» (HHinne). 

IlocTeneHHoe ocymecTBJieHHe 6paKa ecTb 3a#a*ia bccmhpho-hcto- 
pHHecKafi. Ero cmwcji TOJibKo mhcthhcckhh. BcnKoe HHoe OTHomeHHe k 
6paKy 4>opMajibHo. TaKoe OTHomeHHe ecTb hctohhhk HeocymecTBHBiiiHx- 
ch Ha#e>K£. 

«IlyCTb H KOrO-HH6yAb JIK)6jIIO, JIK)60Bb He KpaCHT 5KH3Hb MOK)», - 

roBopHT JlepMOHTOB. Ho 3^ecb HaH6ojibiuee npH6jiH5KeHHe k cymHocTH. 



98 



Pa30HapoBaHHocTb tutu daotce npecuwpnHocmb jik>6bh ecTb hctohhhk Ben- 
Horo HCKaHHH. BeHHan jno6oBb - bot 3apn bo bckd aojiryio hohb. 

Hhhto He c6jih3ht 6ojibine Hac. 
Hhhto MHe He owct noKOH. 
M cepaue menneT MHe no^nac: 
H He Mory jno6HTb flpyrofi. 

JlepMOHtnoe 

Be3 MyneHHHecKoro BeHua He 3acHneT BeHHaa 3Be3flHOCTb jiio6bh. 
TojibKO Tor^a, Kor^a ocTpwe uiMnw pa3opByT crpaaaiomee nejio h c6po- 
HieHHwii BeHei^ nyHijoBbix 3Be3fl 03apHT He6o po3aMH, - pa36HTbift o njio- 
THHy noTOK opraa3Ma noBbicHTCH, Mepuaa 3Be3^HbiM. IlaMHTb ocbo6o^ht 
aoporoft o6pa3 ot nepT cjiynaHHoro, KOHenHoro, yrjiy6HT ero no CHMBOJia, 
a ayuia cKaaeeT: 

- H He Mory jno6HTb flpyrofi. 

«HeT, He Te6n TaK nbuiKO a jik>6jik>», - roBopHT JlepMOHTOB. Ho Koro 
ace, Koro? 

JIk)6jiio MeHTbi Moefi co3/iaHbe 

C rjia3aMH, nojiHWMH jia3ypHoro orHH. 

Bot Koro jik)6ht JlepMOHTOB. 

Ecjih 6w JlepMOHTOB ro kohijh co3Haji B3aHMOACHCTBHe Meacay pecuib- 

HblM C03AaHHeM MeHTbl «C ZJ1030MU, UOJlHbLMU Jl03ypH0Z0 OZHM» H eTO CHM- 

bojiom, kotopwm CTaHOBHTCH jiio6HMoe cymecTBo, oh cyMeji 6w nepeftra 
nepTy, OTAejiHKDmyio 3eMHyio jiK)6oBb ot bchhoh. 

BpaK h poMaHTHHecKan jiK)6oBb TOJibKo Tor^a npHHHMaioT Haajieaca- 
iuhh OTTeHOK, Kor^a hbjihiotch CHMBOJiaMH hhwx, eme He aocrarHyTbix, 
cBepxHe^OBenecKHx OTHomeHHH. 

«Hto jihjihh MejK^y TepHaMH, to B03JiK>6jieHHafl moh Meacay aeBHija- 
mh». TaK roBopHT b «IIecHH IIecHeH» JKeHHx U,epKBH, HeBecTe CBoeii. 

«Hto n6ji0Hb Meacay jicchmmh aepeBbHMH, to B03Jiio6jieHHbiH moh 
Meacay K)HouiaMH» - TaK OTBenaeT HeBecra-IJepKOBb )KeHHxy. 

PacceHHbi HaM yrpoaeaBuiHe HCKycbi, h jiacKOBaa 3apa 6pe3acHT po- 
30BWMH HHTapHMH. H bot Hmeuib yjiw6Ky 6jieAHo-MaTOBbix aceMnyroB, 

30peBbIX. yTpeHHHe 3Be3flbI TaK H 6jiemyT, BnHBaHCb b KycoK 3opeBoro 

nepjiaMyTpa, - BenHbie 6pHJijiHaHTbi He6ec. TepHOBbift BeHeij Becb b Kpo- 
bh 6pouieH k HoraM. Iae-TO BHH3y, B^ajiH, KJiy6ncb, aoropaeT «3Jioe ruia- 
mh seMuozo ozhh», kslk roBopm CojioBbeB, aoropaeT, cBHBa^cb b 6arpoBbie 
KOJibua: 3to KpacHbift apaKOH, no6e3KAeHHbiii, ynoji3aeT b 6e3BpeMeHbe; a 
eme HHace, rae-TO b TyMaHHbix nponacTnx, rjiyxoe poKOTaHbe OTCTynHBHie- 
ro xaoca. IIoKa eme HeT iiojihoh no6eflbi, HeoacHflaHHbift CMepn nwjiH, nofl- 



7 AHApeii Eenuft 



99 



HHBiiiHCb H3 6e3flH, eme MoaceT 3aMyTHTb cbct; Tor^a BceMHpHbiii oroHb 
onHTb no^o^OKeT npocTpaHCTBa; onaTb o6opBeTcn tojioc HeBecTbi - h 
on^Tb, h onHTb noHeceTCH b 6yHTyiomeM xaoce o6pa3 bcjihkoh 6jiymmu,bi 
Ha 6arpHHOM 3Bepe. TepHHH eme BonbioTCH b ^ejio. 

Ho bha OTXjibmyBinHx 6ypb h 3opeBaH jiacKa kpotko ycnoicaHBaiOT 
6e^Hoe cepaije. 

06pa3 MHCTHHecKoii uepicBH Ha rpaHHuax BpeMeH h npocrpaHCTB. 
TaioT npocTpaHCTBa. Hanajio BpeMeH cjiHBaeTcn c kohuom. 06pa3yeTca 
Kpyr BpeMeHH - ^nojibup KOJieu, - Konvup eo3epama». Oiryfla 6pbi3aceT 
cojiHeHHocTb. Bot OHa hbht o6pa3 cboh; ho noflbiMae-rcH tojioc H3 6e3Bpe- 
MeHbn: «Eii, rp*my CKopo». 

Xphctoc - BonjiomeHHaa BeHHOCTb - Ham nojiHOBpeMeHHbift aeHb. 

IlpHKaHHHBaeTCH CHMBOJIH3M, Ha^HHaeTCH BOnjIOmeHHC Mbl flOJDKHbl BO- 

njiomaTb XpncTa, KaK h Xphctoc bohjiothjich. Btopoh peajibHocTbio pe- 
ajibHa Hauia jno6oBb ko XpHCTy. «Hcthhho, hcthhho roBopio BaM: H ecMb 
xjie6 >Kh3hh... H^ymHH Moio fljioTb h nniomHH Mohd KpoBb bo MHe npe- 
6biBaeT h H b HeM». 3to h edb eonjioineuue, meypmn, TaK hto mh, aeTH, 
HMeeM HaziejK^y cTaTb TaKHMH, KaK Oh. H KaK b npeo6paaceHHH jno6oBbio 
nocTHraeM Ero, TaK bo BCHKyio npeo6paaceHHyio jno6oBb BonjiomaeTCH Oh. 
HHijmeBCKHH «deub eejiumzo nojiydun*, b KOTopbift hbhtch CBepxnejiOBeK, 
6hji h onHTb 6y^eT, btophhho B03BpaTHTcn: «BcKope bw He yBH^HTe MeHH 
h onHTb BCKope yBH^HTe MeHH... H pa^ocra Bauieft hhkto He othhmct y 
Bac; h b tot aeHb bw He cnpocHTe MeHH hh o neM... Cue CKa3aji 51 BaM, *ito- 
6w bw HMejiH bo MHe MHp. B MHpe 6yaeTe HMeTb cKop6b, ho Myacairrecb: 
H no6eAHJi MHp» (HoaHH). «fl BaM cKa3HBaio, 6paTHe: BpeMH yace kopotko, 
TaK hto HMeiomHe aceH aojiacHbi 6biTb KaK HeHMeiomne, h njianymne - KaK 
HenjianymHe... H6o npoxoziHT o6pa3 MHpa cero» (IlaBeji). 

IlpoHTH CKB03B (jiopMbi «Mupa ceio», yft™ Tyaa, r^e Bee 6e3yMHbi bo 
XpHCTe, - bot Ham nyTb. «Hyuia npocuyjiacb, smo Hecnpocma» f - roBopHT 
MeTepjiHHK. Mw Ha nepeBajie h eme He 3HaeM, Kyaa mo^cho npHHTH. Ko- 

HdJ (J)OpMaM BOCnpHHTHH Be^eT K HHbIM (J)OpMaM. MHp Cefl B03HHKaeT B 

(J)opMax BpeMeHH h npocTpaHCTBa. JlepeMeHa sthx (J)opM rjih Hamero He- 
npeKpaTHBmerocH co3HaHHH H3rjia^HT o6pa3 «Mupa cezo». Tor^a 6yaeT 
HOBan 3eMJiH h HOBoe He6o. 3to h 6yzjeT kohuom MHpa cero. BecKOHeHHan 
jihhhh npHHHHHOCTH, pa3BepHyTan bo BpeMeHH, c ycrpaHeHHeM BpeMeHH 
o6pamaeTCH b TOHKy. Gronmee b Hanajie h KOHije - oaho. «fl ecMb Ajib(J)a h 
OMera, Hanajio h KoHeu, KoTopbiii ecTb, h 6wji, h rpnaeT, Bceaep»CHTejib» 
(OTKpoBeHHe). Kto H3 Hac BbiH^eT 3a BpeMH, tot CKaaceT co Xphctom: 
«5I yace He b MHpe, ho ohh b MHpe, a h k Te6e Hay, Othc cbhtoh»... Mbi 
nocMOTpHM Ha Hero. H jia3ypHO-HCHbiH B3op HHnero He yKaaceT. H bot H3 
OTyx pa3Hbix mhpob nocMOTpHM apyr Ha apyra. B KOHije MHpa nojiHOTa 
yTBepacaeHHH, oKOHnaTejibHOCTb o6pa30B. H o6paTHo: b nepnozibi npo6y»c- 
^eHHH jiyuiu o6pa3bi, BCTaiomHe nepe/t HaMH, aojiacHbi npHHHTb OKOHHa- 



100 



TejibHbie 4>opMbi. IIpocHyjiacb ayiiia, h onHTb 3aroBopHJiH o KOHije. Mw He 
3HaeM, 6yzjeT jih Ham nepeBaji HanajioM KOHija hjih npoo6pa30M ero. Ho b 

nepBHX CHeJKHHKaX, 3aKpy5KHBIHHXCfl Haa HaMH, Mbl npOHJIH CBHmeHHbie 

o6eTbi. B rojioce nepBofi Bbiorn ycjiwmajiH paaocrawH 30b: «Bo3Bpama- 
6tch, onnTb B03BpamaeTCH»... HacTO 3acTHrHyTbie b o^hhokhx nepeyjiKax 
rjiy6oKOio nojmoHbio, ociaHaBjiHBajiHCb nepea nyHijOBWM oroHbKOM jiaM- 

na^KH, MOJIH O TOM, HTo6bI BCH }KH3Hb 03apHJiaCb nyHIJOBWM. IlyHUOBWH 

TpeneT Ha cepe6pHHo-cHe»CHOH nbiJiH, TeMHO-cHHee He6o c 3ojiotom - hc- 
hoc. H HecjiHCb, h HecjiHCb rpycrao-MHJibie CKa3KH Bbiora h neii-To tojioc 
no^biMajicH H3 6e3BpeMeHbn: «5I yBHacy Bac onnTb, h B03pa#yeTCH cepaije 
Baine, h pa^ocTH Bauieii hhkto He othhmct y Bac... Bbi He cnpocHTe MeHH 

HH O MeM» (HoaHH). OKOHMaTejIbHOCTb XpHCTHaHCTBa, HOB03aBeTHOCTb 

MbicjiH o KOHixe, HeoxcH^aHHoe o6jienieHHe h pa^ocTb, KOTopan HeH3MeHH0 
coaepacHTCH b 3toh mhcjih, - bot cbct, 3anaBuiHH HaM b flyiny. OTKyaa 
HaM cne? 3a hto? 

Koraa pa3JieTHTCH ocTaTKH nbiJiH h 6jiecHeT B03,zryiHHaH 6e;iH3Ha... h 
bot cennac ace 3acKB03HT rojiy6biM. H yace cpedu 6ena dux mw HaynHMCH 
y3HaBaTb Hamy pa^ocTb, B3Hpan Ha HCHo-Jia3ypHoe rpycTHmee paaocrbio 
He6o. Bejioe chhhhc Ha BHeijBeTHOM 4>OHe mhpobhx 6e3^H ckbo3ht rojiy- 
6wm. TaKOB onTHnecKHH 3aKOH! 3to 6biBaeT Bcer^a, Kor^a 6ejioe noacrajiaeT 
6ecijBeTHaH 6e3flHa. H bot, tjihah b Jia3ypb, mw bh^hm, hto hcbosmohchwh 
bha 6e3^H MHpa 3aHaBeuieH B03,zryiHHO-6ejioH 4>aTOH. TojibKo npncrajib- 
hwh B3op o6Hapy3KHBaeT 6e3flHy, oTKpwBaiomyiocH b npo3panHOM OKeaHe 
6ejioro B03,zjyxa, KaK noacTHjiaiomHH 3tot oneaH 4>oh, KaK aho - 6e3- 
AOHHoe aho - KaK 6e3flHy. Coe^HHeHHe 6e3^Hw MHpa, HaxoflnmeftcH TaM, 
r^e HeT hh BpeMeH, hh yonoBHH, c B03^yuiHO-6ejiOH npo3paHHOCTbio KaK c 
chmbojiom H^eajibHoro nejiOBeMecTBa - sto coe^HHeHHe OTKpwBaeTCH HaM 
b coe/iHHHiomeM uBeTe He6a - stom chmbojic 6oroHe;iOBeHecTBa, /iBye^HH- 
CTBa. « ripHHHMaa MeHH, npHHHMaeTe Onja... 5i b OTue h OTeij bo Mho>, - 

TOBOpHT XpHCTOC. B03^yiHHaH 6eJIH3Ha, CKB03HHi;aH 6e3flHOH MHpa, - BOT 

hto TaKoe He6o. «Kto no3HaeT npnpo/ry Bemefi h cboio co6cTBeHHyio, tot 
no3HaeT, hto TaKoe He6o, - roBopHT KoH^yuHH, - noTOMy hto oho hmchho 

H eCTb BHyTpeHHHH cymHOCTb». 

HcXOflH H3 IJBeTHWX CHMBOJIOB, MW B COCTOHHHH BOCCTaHOBHTb o6pa3 

no6eflHBiuero MHp. IlycTb stot o6pa3 TyMaHeH, mw BepHM, hto pacceeTca 
TyMaH. Ero jihijo aojiacHO 6wTb 6ejio, KaK CHer. Ijia3a ero - flBa npojieTa b 
He6o - y/iHBjieHHO-6e3flOHHwe, rojiy6we. KaK pa3JiHBaiomHHCH Mea - boc- 
Topr cbhtwx o He6e - ero 30JiOTwe, rycTwe bojiocw. Ho nenajib npaBe^HH- 
kob o MHpe - 3to HajieT bockoboh Ha JiHue. KpoBaBwii nypnyp - ycTa ero, 
KaK tot nypnyp, hto 3aMWKaji jihhhio ubctob b Kpyr, KaK tot nypnyp, ko- 
Topwfi oraeM HCTpe6nT MHpw; ycTa ero - nypnypHwft oroHb. To 3flecb, to 
TaM mw b coctohhhh noflCMOTpeTb Ha jiHijax OKpyacaiomnx Ty hjih apyryio 

HepTy CBHTOCTH. To Jia3ypHO-6e3^0HHbie OHH yflHBHT HaC, H MW OCTaHO- 



101 



bhmch nepefl hhmh, KaK nepea nponacTHMH, to CHeroBoii ottchok nejia Ha- 
noMHHT Ha\i o6;iaKO, 3aTyMaHHBinee Jia3ypb. BjiecHeT BeHHocTb Ha actckh 
hhctom jiHue. BjiecHeT h noracHeT, h He y3HaiOT rpycTHbie aera, neuamb 
kokozo uMenu y hhx Ha nejie. 3Han ot6jicckh BenHoro, mm BepHM, hto hc- 
THHa He noKHHeT Hac, hto OHa - c HaMH. C HaMH jho6obi>. JIk)6h, no6eflHM. 
JIyMe3apHOCTb c HaMH. O, ecjiH 6, npocHHB, mm B03Hec.JiHCb. C HaMH noKoii. 
H cnacTbe c HaMH. 

1903 

MACKA 

UocenvifiHo Bmecmey Heanoey 

HoHHan flyiua 

JXzbho He npHCJiyniHBajiocb HejioBenecTBo c TaKHM Hanpn- 

»CeHHeM K 3ByHaBIHHM CTpyHaM flyiHH. B 3aTaeHHbIX MblCJIHX OTKpblJIHCb 

HeoacH^aHHbie yicnoHbi. 06HapyacHJiHCb cipaHHbie jia6HpHHTbi nepeacH- 
BaHHii, Tannine HeBeaoMoe. IlyTH OTKpblJIHCb TaM, r^e, Ka3ajiocb 6bi, He 
Morjio 6biTb HHKaKHx nyreH. I1ph6jih3hjich KaKOH-TO pokoboh py6e»c, 3a 
KOTopbiM hjih CMepTb, hjih no6eaa. 

H bot c TaftHbiM CTpaxoM yrjiy6HJiHCb 3opKHe b jia6HpHHTbi nepe- 
)KHBaHHH, onacancb, KaK 6bi H3 rjiy6nH He noMHajicn Ha hhx 6mhhh jihk 
cyMacHieaiuero MHHOTaBpa, rpo3nmero c peBOM BOH3HTb ocTpwe pora 
b aep3HOBeHHoro CMejibnaKa. Bot yac pa3^aeTCH npoTHHCHoe CTeHaHbe b 
rjiy6HHe nepexoflOB h 3Cmjih coaporaeTCH ot TonoTa 6eineHbix KonbiT. 
Eme MrHOBeHbe - h xpa6peij yBH^HT npea co6oii flBa oroHbKa, CBepjin- 
mne TeMb. 

HoHb «xMypan, KaK 3Bepb ctookhh», Ha^BHHyjiacb H3 TaiiHbix Heap. 
Kor^a jieTHT HOHHan 6ypa, 

Toraa rycTee HOHb, KaK xaoc Ha Boaax, 
BecnaMHTCTBO, KaK ATJiac, aaBHT - ayiny. 

HacTynaeT «BceMHpHoe MOJinaHbe», o kotopom no3T tobopht: 

Kto 6e3 tockh bhhmbji H3 Hac, 
CpeflH BceMHpHoro MOJinaHbfl, 
DiyxHe BpeMeHH creHaHbfl, 
IlpopoHecKH-npomajibHWH rjiacl 
HaM mhhtch: mhp ocHpoTevibiH 
HeOTpa3HMbIH poK HacTHr, 
H mw b 6opb6e c npHpo^oH ijejioH 
IloKHHyTbi Ha Hac CaMHX... 



102 



CaMbie HyrKHe H3 Hac hcbojibho 3aTbiKaiOT yniH, hto6w He cjiwuiaTb 
HOHHbix 6ypb «CTeHaiomero» BpeMeHH - niyxoro peBa thihhhm, noxoacero 
Ha BonjiH o6e3yMeBinero MHHOTaBpa b nycTWHHOM Mpaice hohhmx jia6H- 

pHHTOB. HeBOJIbHO OTBOflHIHb TJia3a OT I\7iy6HH K nOBepXHOCTH C03HaHHH, 

xoth h 3Haeuib, hto Tyzja npH^euib HeMHHyeMO, hto Tyaa CTpauiHO hath. 

Tjia^KH noBepxHOCTH co3HaHHH, ho Ha ropH30HTe TpeBora. Ha ropn- 
30HTe BCTajia TyMaHHan 6auiHH h rjiyxo nporpeMejia, 6;iecHyB oroHbKOM. 
Kto noMO^ceT, kto 3HaeT? Ho MOJinaT cnnmne rjiy6oKHM chom. ^paxjibift 
CTapeu, BCTpeBoaceHHbift 6ypHbiM nopwBOM xojioflHoro BeTpa, nepeBepHeT- 
ca c 6oKy Ha 6ok, 6opMoneT cnpocoHbn: «Bce cnoKOHHo: ycHH»... H onaTb 
3aMOJiHHT b 6jia»ceHHOM HeBe^eHbe. 

IIpH6jiH»caeTCH nac, Koraa 

HoHb xMypaa, KaK 3Bepb ctookhh, 
Dihaht H3 Kaacaoro KycTa, 

h 6e3yMHO TOCKyiOT HOHHbie ayuiH HcnyraHHbix. IIpohochtch xojioflHan 
6ypn peBynHM, 6euieHbiM HajieTOM, B3MeTaa npax, j& 6auiHeii bwchtch c 
ropH30HTa rjiyxoHeMoft, chhhh ATJiac, KaK 6ecnaMHTCTBO HaBajiHBiiiHHCH 
Ha cyuiy. 

MacKM 

EcTb cymecTBa 3ara^0HH0-CTpaHHbie. O cymecTBOBaHHH hx He 
nofl03peBaioT coHHbie, noTOMy hto ajih hhx sth cymecTBa TaKHe ace jhoah, 
KaK h Bee, HHHeM He OTJiHnaiomHecH ot Apyrnx. Ho KaK 6ecKpoBHbie npn- 

3paKH, CKOJIb3HT OHH npefl 30PKHM - 3TH o6opOTHH, Ha^eBUIHe JIHHHHy. 

Ohh Bee 3HaiOT. Ohh Bee bh^ht. Ho ohh He roBopHT. Hx rjia3a ckbo3ht 
6e3^0HHbiMH .aajiHMH h 3MeHTCH yjibi6Koft hx ycTa. Hx jiHiia - Ha^eTbie 
MacKH. BrjiH^HCb, cKOJibKO MacoK noKa3ajiocb cpe^H Had K noBepxHocTHM 
C03HaHHH cHOBa npH6jiH3HjiHCb 3a6biTbie yacacw, h BOCKpecjia MacKa aH- 

THHHOH Tpei^HH. 

Tjia3a OTpa^caiOT jinuib to, Ha hto ycrpeMJieHbi. Kyzja BnepHJiH ohh 3a- 
ra^OHHbie ohh, ecjin ohh sth - pa3pwBbi, k kotopwm npnacajiacb 6e3flHa. 
Ha ycMexaiomnx ycTax, HcnojiHeHHbix h crpaxa, nojiyHOHHbift BeTp Han- 
rpwBaeT oahhokhc necHH cboh: bot noneMy ot hx cjiob HaHHHaeTca ckbo3- 
hhk. EcTb onHTb 3axjie6HyBiHHecH rjiy6HHOH, ho ohh HaaejiH JIHHHHy CHa h 
MOJinaT o niy6oKOM, hto6w hhkto He y3Haji, Haa neM ohh noBHCJiH. 

H3-nO,a JIHHHHbl BHflHMOrO 3HHCT HeBHflHMOC JlHHHHa CJIHBaeT nJIO- 

CKOCTb c rjiy6HHOH. Bot noneMy MacKH OTMeneHW chmbojiom: kto-to rjiy- 
6okhh 3arjiHHyji b hctohhhbihhhch jihk hx. Mw HHKoraa He CKaaceM, kto 
Ha Hac cmotpht TaM, nofl jihhhhoh, ho HaM acyTKO, Kor^a 3a HaMH CJie/tHT 
3aMacKHpoBaHHbie. 



103 



ToBOpHT, HTO CHMBOJI - 3epHO MH(j)a, a B C03flaHHH MH(J)a reHHH co- 

jibeTCH c TOJinoii*. Ilo MacKaM y3HaiOTCH 3aroBopmHKH rpaaymero Aeft- 

CTBa. 

TparHnecKan Macna - chmboji co3peBaiomero aeiicTBa - HecKa3aHHbiM 
BHflOM cbohm cnoco6Ha npeBpaTHTb co3epu;aTejiH b H3Ba^HHe - yacacHafl, 
rjiH^nman nyeroToii, MacKa ToproHbi b opeojie 3MeHHbix bojioc. 

Bot noneMy mh HanHHaeM no,zj03peBaTb, hto jiHua, npn BceM 6jiaro- 
o6pa3HH cnoco6Hbie 3apa3HTb Hac CTpaxoM, - jihhhhm, H3-no,zi KOTopwx 
ycTaBHjicH Ha Hac Me#y3HH yacac. 

fleMCTBO 

HecKa3aHHoe 6e3MOJiBHO. He HCCHKaeT noTpe6HOCTb o6meHHH 
y no3HaBHiHx rjiy6HHy HecKa3aHHoro. Hao6opoT, 3Ta noTpe6HOCTb B03- 
pacTaeT, noTOMy hto MynHTejibHO oflHHonecTBO, Koraa OTOBcioay cjiczjht 
3a HaMH 3opKHe ohh 6e3BpeMeHbH. XoneTCH BMecre eudemt, BMecTe BCTpe- 
naTb rjiy6HHy. Cjiobo He b CHJiax Bbipa3HTb HecKa3aHHoro: ocTaeTCH My3bi- 
Ka. Ho My3biKa - npH3biB k /jeiicTBy. H nocKOJibKy b My3biKe BbipaacaeTcn 
6e3ycjiOBHan ocHOBa 6wthh (bojih), nocrojibicy OHa hbjihctch 6e3yc;iOB- 
hwm 3HaMeHbeM ^eflcTBa, Bbipaacaiomero 6birae. 

HecKa3aHHoe cjiobom MoaceT 6biTb CKa3aHO aeiicTBHeM. TparHnecKaa 
Macna, noHBHBiiia>iCH cpe/jH Hac, 30BeT Hac, no3HaBiHHx, k o6meMy aeii- 
CTBy. O^HHaKOBOCTb onbHHeHHH, ycTaHaBjiHBaiomaH KpyroBopoT ayineB- 
hwx BcnwiueK, bot Hanajio /jeiicTBa. BHxpeBoft KpyroBopoT OT/jejibHbix 
nepeacHBaHHH, npoHH3aHHbix apyr apyroM h cjihtwx My3biKOH b nypnyp- 
Hoe flHOHHCHnecKoe njiaMH, B03HOcnmee 3aaoKeHHbix b cancjwpHyio nauiy 
He6ec, - He aojiaceH jih TaKoii KpyroBopoT co3/jaTb h o6pnflbi KpyroBoro 
^eficTBa, xopoBo^w, njiHCKH, necHH? 

ByayT oth, h onHTb Ha ijBeTymHx BeceHHHx jiyrax, cpe^b (J)HajiOK h 
jiaH^biiueH, no/j HCdynjieHHoe CTeHaHbe BonHiomHx ^jihhhwx Tpy6, uojx 
xoxonymHH 6y6eH 3aBepTHTCH npn jiyHe o6HaaceHHbie iohoiuh b rarpoBbix 
imcypax, yBeHnaHHbie BeHKaMH H3 3e;ieHbix jiHCTbeB, hto6w uejiOMyapeH- 

HOH nJIHCKOH OCBHTHTb BejIHKOe flCHCTBO. 

OpMflpnx HuMLue 

CjioBa - TeHH nepeacHBaHHH. Yrjiy6jiHH nepeacHBaHHe, 3a- 
TpyAHneM ero nepe^any. B ayuie ocTaeTCH h36wtok HHKOMy He nepe/jaBae- 

MblX BOCTOprOB H CTpaflaHHH. 



* Cm. CTaTbio BanecjiaBa HBaHOBa «/7oam u uepHb». 

104 



KaK cepauy BbicKa3aTb ce6a? 
flpyroMy KaK noHATb Te6a? 

IlOHMeT JIH OH, HeM TBI 3KHBeiIIb? 

Mwcjib H3peneHHafl ecTb jioacb. 
B3pwBa«, B03MyTHinb kjiiohh: 

IlHTaHCH HMH H MOJIHH! 

HcKyccTBO nepecTaeT yAOBjieTBopnTb. Bmccto 6e3AOHHbix o6pa30B 
Ayma npocm 6e3AOHHOH 5kh3hh. XyAoacHHKH, noaTbi, My3biKaHTbi, - bot 
Te HeMHorne, KOMy AOCTynHO co3epuaHHe 6e3AH. A MeacAy TeM xyA05KHHK, 
u3o6paotcaH 6e3flOHHoe, bmccto Toro, mto6m yiiTH b 6e3AHy, y^ajineTCH ot 
Hee, oT^ejibiBaeTCH H3o6paaceHHeM, ocBo6oacAaeTCH ajih hobmx co3epu.a- 
hhh. IlepeA hhm - KpyroBopoT co3epuaHHH, a He KpyroBopoT AeiicTB. Bot 
noneMy xyAoacHHK h He MoaceT 6biTb pyKOBOAHTejieM Hauieii 5kh3hh. 

Hmeuib unozo pyKoeodumejin, MOJinajiHBO npomeAiiiero HaA 6e3AHa- 

MH, OKOHMHBHierO nyTb OT^blXOM Ha TOM 6epeiy. CKB03b TparHHecKHH jihk 

ero, pa3opBaHHbift b kjiohkh, BbicTynaeT hobwh jihk, o6peTeHHbift HaBe- 
kh, - jihk pe6eHKa, ycnoKoeHHoro Ha tom 6epery, - jihk, rjiHAHmnft Ha Hac 
c yjiw6KOH mhtkoh rpycTH. YacacHbie, CHHiomne nepTbi yTOHHeHHO npo- 

3paHHbI OT pa^OCTH, HOKHOCTH, THIUHHbl. 

IIocjieAHHe roAbi 2CH3HH Hniuiie thxo MOJinaji. My3biKa Bbi3biBajia 
yjiw6Ky Ha ero H3MyneHHbix ycTax. 

Kor^a Hac nocraraiOT TaHHbie yacacw, TaHHbie CTpaxn, hhkto H3 OKpy- 
acaiomnx Hac He MoaceT HaM npHHecTH yTemeHHH. Be3yMHbiH Hnijiiie, ko- 

HeMHO, 3HaJI, KaK nOAOHTH B MHHyTy TaHHOH OnaCHOCTH H AOJITHM B30pOM 

6e3 CJIOB o6oApHTb. 

IIpo3paMHo-TOHKHe, 3acTbiBiHHe nepTbi, 6ejio-6jieAHbie, to KaK HaAeac- 
Aa, to KaK npeAOcrepeaceHHe, MejibKaiOT HaM H3peAKa h b Tojine. 06ep- 
HeiiibCH - BHAHiub jiHiub cnHHy Aa MHTKyio injinny Ha TpoTyape. Bot npo- 
MejibKHyBiiiHH CHJiysT yace CKpbiJicn 3a noBopoTOM yjiHix. H He 3Haeiiib, 
npHrpe3Hjiocb jih see Brno, hjih hto-to, AeiiCTBHTejibHO, npoH30iujio. 

IlpeACTaBJiHio ce6e rAe-HH6yAb Ha yjiHije H3HmHbifi 3acTbiBiiiHH ch- 
jiyaT, 6ejioe, bmcoko noAHHToe jihijo c mhtkhmh 6ejioKypbiMH ycaMH, b 
6eji0M uHJiHHApe, rjiy6oKHii B3op, actckhh, noBHTbifi KomaHbefi mhtko- 

CTbK), KaK TyMaHOM, B KOTOpOM M0I7IH 6bl CBepKaTb CTpeJIbI THrpHHOH 

npocTH. IlpeACTaBJiHio ce6e pyKy, o6THHyTyio nepnaTKOH, cacHMaiomyio 

KpaCHblH, Ca(J)bHHHbIH nopT(J)eJIb, - CHJiy3T, KaK BHAeHHe, CKOJIb3HmHH 

cpeAH yjiHu. 

Bot Ha toh CTopoHe 6eryT ABa CTyAeHTa h noHTHTejibHO CHHMaiOT cboh 
manoMKH, a oh, cnoxBaraBiiiHCb, tohho OHHyBiiiHCb ot CHa, c KaKoii-TO 
BKpaAHHBOH yMTHBocTbio npHnoAbiMaeT cboh 6ejibiH uhjihhap. Oahh npo- 
xojkhh roBopHT ApyroMy: «Herr professor Nietzsche...». 



105 



ApTyp Hmkmqj 



y ApTypa HHKHina crpaHHoe jihijo. Kor^a oh thxo no/uiHMa- 

eTCH Ha CBOe MeCTO, MeflJieHHO o6BOflHT My3bIKaHTOB 3a#yMHHBbIM B30pOM, 

ocropcoKHO no^HHMaeT pyKy, cjiobho yrauiafl peB eme He rpHHyBuiHx cth- 
xhh, h noTOM, BbiTHHyBuiHCb, KaK CTpyHa, npeo6paaceHHbiii, cpbmaeT rpo- 

MOBbie 3ByKH, B KOTOpblX 3ByHaT HaM 

DiyxHe BpeMeHH creHaHbfl, - 
IlpopoHecKH-npomajibHbiH rjiac, 

Kor^a H3HmHan 6ejian pyKa ero 6yflTO njiaBaeT, 3aMHpan, 6yflTO TaeT b 
B03^yxe - no nero 3HaMeHaTejibHo sto jihijo c npHmypeHHbiMH onaMHl 
BjieflHoe, 6jieaHoe, co b36htmmh BOJiocaMH, CBHcaiomHMH Haa hctiom, 
c TpeyrojibHOH, ce^eromeft 6opo,n;KOH - 6yflTO yac BH^eji Kor^a-To stot 
aaBHHH jihk, Kor^a oh BbiTHraBajiCH H3 cyMpanHbix bojih xaoca c rpycT- 
hoh ycMeuiKoii, npeaocTeperan ot jia6HpHHTOB yaeaca. H bot onHTb no- 

HBHJIOCb CTapHHHOe JIHIJO fleTCKHX CHOB, 3HaMCHyfl B03BpaT 3a6bITOrO 

6peaa... 

A BOT, 3aMHpaH, BblTHHyjI pyKH H nOTOM CTpeMHTeJIbHO HX onycTHji 

h 3acTbm, tohho o6opBaji nbHHyio HCTepHKy 3ByKOB. H Tor^a noflHHJiacb 

pOKOBaH TeMa CHM(J)OHHH H3 CTapHHHblX Jia6npHHTOB. 

Bot, KaK h npeac^e, noMnajicn c HCcrynjieHHbiM BonjieM pokoboh 6bi- 
hhh jihk MHHOTaBpa, pa36HBaioii{HH cepaenHbie Ha^eaeflbi. 

..TycTeeT HOHb, KaK xaoc Ha Bo/jax, 
BecnaMHTCTBO, KaK ATjiac, rbbht ayiuy... 

HapoAeM 

Cayman HcnojmeHHe To^MaHOM 6axoBCKHx 4>yr HaHHHaeuib 
noHHMaTb, hto h My3biKe ^ocTynHa anojuiOHOBCKan OTHeTJiHBOCTb. Jlynme 
oueHHBaeuib ocTpoyMHoe onpe^ejieHHe IIIjierejieM My3biKH, KaK meKyueu 
apxumeKmypu. Cjiyuian HnKHina, ayina pa3pbmaeT njiOTHHbi (J)opM h yHO- 

CHTC5I B XaOTHHeCKOM BHXpe. 

MHe cjiynajiocb 6biBaTb Ha peneraijHJix HHKHHia. 51 nopaacajica tot- 
aa co3HaTejibHOCTbio, KaKan nporjiflflbiBajia y Hero b noHHMaHHH H3BecT- 

HblX MeCT CHM(J)OHHH. CnOKOHHO H TOJIKOBO MOTHBHpOBaJI OH nepefl Op- 

KecTpoM Heo6xo^HMOCTb H3BecTHoro 3aMe^jieHHH hjih ycKopeHHH TeMna, 
KaK 6bi npHrjiainaa hx cbo6oaho h co3HaTejibHO pa3^ejiHTb ero B3rji*mbi. 
H y6e^HJicH Tor^a boohhio, hto o6pa3uoBaa oTneTjiHBOCTb, CBoeo6pa3- 
HOCTb noHHMaHHH, HCHocTb fleTajieft - Bee 3to pe3yjibTaT ^ojirofi h Tma- 
TejibHofl o6^yMaHHocTH, r^e TaK Ha3biBaeMOMy «nympy» HeT MecTa. 



106 



IIomhk), b C-dur-Hoii chm(J)ohhh IIIy6epTa oh co3HaTejibHO BbiflBHraji 
Te Meda, KOTopbie o6hkhob6hho npoxoflHT HesaMeneHHbiMH. Pe3yjibTaTbi 
nojiy^HJiHCb y^HBHTe^bHbie. IIIy6epTOBCKaH chm(J)ohhh npe^cTajia, bch 
yr^y6;ieHHaH. OopMajibHbiii pncyHOK ee ciaji npocBenHBaTb. Ha (J)OHe ero 
BbicTynajiH 6e3AOHHbie aajiH ahohhchhcckhx yacacoB. 

Ho Kor^a Bee pa3yneHO h thchhh acayT ot Hero 6o»cecTBeHHbix 3ByKOB, 
thxo Bbixo^HT Ha acTpaay, ocropoacHO o6bo^ht Bcex napyiomHM B30pOM, 
MefljieHHO no^HHMaeT pyKy h noTOM, BbiTHHyBiHHCb, KaK CTpyHa, OTKpw- 
BaeT Kacicatf 3ByKOB. HcKpoMeraoe bhho b^oxhobchhh 6pbiaoiceT H3 npn- 
mypeHHbix oneH ero, KaK 3apn, KaK 3JiaTO-nypnypHbiii oroHb. 

MccTyn/ieHHbiM 

BH^eHbH npoTnrHBaioTCH Ha# nponacTHMH ayxa. 

TOHHO KpHHHT HCCTynJieHHblH, pa36HBIHHH O CKaJiy CBHpeJIbl 

«fl Tenepb o^hhI Hto nbHHHuib mchh, cojmije, BHHOTBopeij? H Bee 3a6biJiI 
IIponacTb ocKajiH^acb thihhhohI CTpaHHo MHel Kyaa h nonaji? Yace 3/jecb 
HeT HHKoroI Bee yuijio - KaHy;ioI» 

BblOTCH nTHI^bl Ha^ HHM - BOnHKHIJHe Tpy6bi BOCTopra - H KpHHaT, 

6ejiorpy/jbie. MnpoBbie aTOMbi npojiHBaioT cbct. Cbct Bee 3aTonH;iI OpyH 
CBeTa npo6HjiH acaflHO flbimamyio rpyflb. Crpyn cBeTa BiiHjiHCb b cepaije - 
3o;iOTbie cTpejibi, 30JioTbieI 

JleonapaoBaa uiKypa 6beTCH 3a njienaMH HCCTynjieHHoro. B njracKe 
npnacaji oh TepHbH k 6ejio-6jieaHOMy nejiy. Bejio-6jieflHoe nejio H3opBa- 

HO TepHbHMH. OHO HCTOHaeT KpOBb. H KpHHHT, JIHKyH! «MeHH HeT I MeHH 

HeT I Moh KpoBb npeTBopHjiacb b bhho! IIpHxoflHTe ko MHe, neiiTe, neiiTe, 
Tep3aiiTe - 

- 03apeHHbie 

CBeTOM BenepHHM, nypnyp KpOBH b bhho npeTBopaHTe - b 30JiOToe, 3aKaT- 

HOe nbHHCTBO - 

- npeTBopHHTe, o, bw, 

BHHO-nypnypHbiel » 

Bhji nbHHbiH cnacTbeM. Ho oh ayiny 3aKaTy otkpwji, h coiner Ha Hero 
npKO-nypnypHbiH orHb. Ce - ropnmHH (J)HTHjib 6jiaroBOHHbix BeceHHHX 

3(J)HpOB. 

rioxMe/ibe 

IIpoBoaH pyKoii no BOJiocaM, noBepTbiBaeT ApTyp Hhkhih k 
BOCTop^ceHHbiM TOJinaM cBoe ycTajioe 6jieflHoe jihijo 3HaKOMoe, ocropoac- 

HO KJiaHfleTCH H nOTOM THXO yXOflHT C OnymeHHOH TOJIOBOH, HTo6bI BHOBb 
BepHyTbCH. 



107 



flpocBeT 



JIhiiib tojibko HeHacrabie nTHijbi, cTeHan, noMHaicn h chhhc 
TOJinw ATjiaHTOB nojie3yT, KaK ropw, Ha Bac - 3Hairre bm, hohhhc ayiiiH, 
Tanmne rpo3y, hto BKycHTe cjia^ocTb BocTopra 6e3MepHoro. Hhkto He 
y3HaeT 6jiaaceHCTB Tex, KOJib 6ypn h cMepTH nyraeTCH. Ce6n OT/jaBaftTe 
BceM BeTpaM, BceM rpo3aM - o, nyum HOHHbie! 

Bot HanjibiBaeT Ha Bac chhhh h 6ypHbifi raraHT c 30JiOTOBHHHoro He6a. 
Bot 3aiviaxHyjicH Ha Bac oh rpoivio6oHHOH CKajioft. Jlbiuubie rjizlhh ero b 
BenepoBbix He6ecax. 

Ryurn HOHHbie, Tannine rpo3bi, He 6ofiTecb! 

H3 He^cHOcra niejiKOBoft coTKaHHbiii napa, raraHT rpoMo6oHHbift ao- 

5K#eM 30JIOTWM H30JIbeTCH. CTpyHKaMH 30JIOTa, B 30pHX CBepKaH, K MOpiO 
pOAHMOMy CHOBa BepHeTCH - 

- K BeJIHKOMy MOpK), 

neS B3/JOX 6Hpio30BbiH ot BJiara ero OTopBaji, B03Hecn b He6eca cHHe- 

6jie/JHbIM rpeMHIItHM KOMKOM. 

1904 

OKHO B BYflyiHEE 

KpyroBopoT 

MHJIJIHOHbl CTOJieTHH JieTHT B npOCTpaHCTBaX H CMblBaiOT 

cojiHua, h CMblBaiOT Apyr apyra, KaK MHMOJierabie bojihh. 

3^ecb MHp ynaji Ha MHp. H ocrbiBiiiHe njiaHeTbi onHTb 3anbmajiH. 

A TaM crymaeTCH o/jHHOKaa TyMaHHOCTb, hto6h HeKor/ja pa3po/jHTb- 
ch cojmijaMH h 6e3AHy nbijiaiomnx flparoijeHHocTefi Bbi6pocHTb k 6epery 
BpeivieH. Hapo^bi 6y/jyT BoeBaTb c Hapo^aiviH cpe/jH HeH3MeHHbix HeBe/jo- 
mwx npocTpaHCTB Ha xojioahoh Kope oran, pBymerocn H3 Heap cothhmh 
ByjiKaHOB. 

Bee noTOM pacceeTcn. H3BecTHoe 3axjie6HeTCH HeH3BecTHOCTbio, h 

3TOT TOpOA C flOMaMH, flBOpijaMH H XpaMaMH pa3JieTHTCH, KaK CTapHHHblH 

npH3paK, yace He pa3 CMymaBiiiHH THiiiHHy Bchhocth. 

HeH3BecTHoe crymajio TyMaHHOCTH. KHTaftcKHe Myapeijbi ero Ha3bi- 
BaioT «Tao». «Tao» coTpncaeT 3(})HpHbie cKJia^KH mhpob. H3 34>HpHbix 
CKJiaaoK paccwnaiOTCH, KaK pa3opBaHHbie 6pw3ra paKeT, mmjijihohw hc- 

KpHCTblX 06pa30B. 

«Tao» Bcer^a MejibKaeT. To jictht oho 6jieAHbiM aceMHyroM b Jia3yp- 
hom aTJiace, to cpwBaeTCH c KpyHH h 6pbi3»ceT b rpaHHTbi /joac/jeM. Mm 
roBopHM Tor/ja, hto bh/jhm H^eio. 



108 



Mm, - cymecTBa, bo3hhkiiih6 Ha xojioahoh Kope oraeHHoro 6pe^a, - 
mm 3aiuiejiH jiyHe3apHyio cymHOCTb b nayraHHbie TKaHH iiohhthh. H Kor- 
aa rji^HT Ha Hac «Tao», pa3flBHraa nayraHy, mm roBopHM, hto npnxoflHT 
6e3yMHe. 

Ho pa3Be mm He 6e3yMHM, Kor^a oahhoko OT^bixaeM b CTapHHHOH 

HeH3BeCTHOCTH H BCe 6jIH3KOe pacnJIMBaeTCH, KaK TyMaHHOCTb, B MH- 
POBOM. 

He CTpaHHO JIH HaM TOr^a, HTO Bbipe3M B Heo6T>HTHOCTb MM 30BeM 

okhomu, a 6jiemymHH njiaMeHHHK - jiomhou? 
Cmmboji 

Jlyn CBeTa mojkct npoHH3aTb pna npH3panHbix ctckoji. Oh He 
MoaceT pacnjiacTaTb Ha hhx ^eficTBHTejibHocTb. HyaeHO npeBpaTHTb creK- 
jio b 3epKajio, noKpbiB ero aMajibraMOH. TojibKO Tor/ja 6e3MepHOcn> MHpa 

OnpOKHHeTCH B 3epKaJIbHOH nOBepXHOCTH. 

BOT KaKHM flOJIECHO 6bITb 3HaHHe, nOTOMy HTO nOHHTHe - CTdCJIO, a 

3epKajio - 3to noHHTHe, B03BeaeHHoe k H^ee. 

y KaacflOH Bemn ecTb cboh TeHb. 3Ta TeHb H^eH - noHHTHe. Ho no- 
HHTHe He Hflea. 

Hflea MOJKeT conpHKacaTbcn c noHHTHeM, KaK KacaTejibHaa c OKpyae- 

HOCTbK), B OflHOH TOJIbKO TOHKC 3T0 B03M05KHOCTb MMMOJieTHOTO Kaca- 
HHH - HCTOHHHK BeHHMX 3a6jiy5K,ZjeHHH, nOTOMy HTO HfleK) CMeiHHBaiOT C 

noHHTHeM. 3a^aHa jiorHHecKoro npoijecca mhcjih - bo3bccth yncHHeMoe 
noHHTHe k H/jee KaK 6m nepe/jBHaceHHeM ero no oKpyacHocra ro MecTa Ka- 
caHHH 3toh oKpyHCHOCTH c npHMOH. ^aHHbie BHeiHHero onbiTa coBna^aiOT 
Tor^a c aaHHMMH BHyTpeHHero. H3yMJieHHO euduuib TaM, r/je eme HeaaBHO 
noHHMaji. 

Cpe^H paBHOMepHo 03apeHH0H noBepxHOCTH MMimieHHH o6pa3yeTCH 
npojieT, OTKyzja HanHHaeT 6HTb cbctoboh CHon. 

B HCKyccTBe mm no3HaeM HfleH, bo3boah o6pa3 k CHMBOJiy. Chmbo- 
jih3m - 3to MeTO^ H3o6paaceHHH Hfleft b o6pa3ax. HcKyCCTBO He MOHCeT OT- 

peiHHTbCH OT CHMBOJIH3Ma, KOTOpblH M02CCT 6bITb TO 3aMaCKHpOBaH (KJiaC- 
CHHeCKOe HCKyCCTBO), TO HBeH (pOMaHTH3M, HeopOMaHTH3M). B HCKyCCTBe 

Bcer^a ecTb hchto coe/jHHHmee. 3aecb 6epeTca momcht, Kor/ja pa3flBHra- 
iotch cKJia^KH MHpoBofi nayTHHbi: mo, nmo 6buio eneiuniiM, nepecmaem um 
Ka3ambCH. ConocTaBjieHHe npe^MeTa hjih nacTeii ero c /jpyrHM npe^MeTOM 
bo3boaht aaHHMH npe^MeT e H6H17I0 mpembe. 9mo mpembe CTaHOBHTCH ot- 

HOHieHHeM, COe^HHHIOmHM MHOrOe B OflHO, t. e. CHMBOJIOM. H nOCKOJIbKy 
B 3TOM OTHOUieHHH COnOCTaBJIHIOTCH OTHOCHTeJIbHbie ((J)eHOMeHaJIbHMe) 
HepTM npe^MeTOB, nOCTOJIbKy OHO BCKpblBaeT OTHOCHTeJIbHOCTb othoch- 

TejibHoro, HanpaBjiHH 3thm cnoco6oM ot npoTHBHoro BHyTpeHHee 3peHHe 

K TOMy, HTO BMCTynaeT H3-nO^ JIHHHHM OTHOCHTeJIbHOCTH, pa3 3Ta JIHHHHa 



109 



o6HapyHceHa. Bot noneMy b chmbojih3mc Bcnicoe ycjioacHeHHe OTHomeHHft 
nojiHee o6HapyacHT BHyTpeHHee, hto BbiCTynHT H3-noa cjiohchocth. Bot 
noneMy cpe^CTBa H3o6pa3HTejibHOcra (cpaBHeHHe, MeTac})opa, mctohhmhh 
ht. a.) hbjihiotch opyflneM CHMBOJiH3Ma. Chmboji - o6ojiOHKa HfleH, 060- 
jiOHKa «Tao». 

Ecjih noHflrae MOMceT 6biTb B03Be^eHO k Hflee, a o6pa3 k CHMBOJiy, ecjiH 

CHMBOJI BCer^a HBJIHeTCH o6oJIOHKOft HA6H, TO B CHMBOJIH3MC 3aBH3bIBaeT- 

ch y3eji Meaczjy BepuiHHaMH 3hhhhh h HHTynijHH. .flaeTCH Hanajio mcto- 
jxy, o6T>eaHHHiomeMy 3HaHHe c TBopnecTBOM. TyT o6HapyacHBaeTCH, hto 
^aHHbie pa3JiHHHbix MeTOflOB hbjihiotch npoeicimeft odnozo u mozo Me Ha 

pa3Hbie njIOCKOCTH 6bITHfl. OTKpblBaeTCH B03M05KHOCTb HCKaTb 330TepHH6 - 
CKHH CMblCJI Tex HJIH HHblX BHeillHe-OHepHeHHblX HCTHH. H3-nOfl (J)OpMyjIbI 

BaH aep Baajibca mohcct cKB03HTb HaM to, hto b Jia3ypn jiennjio o6jiaica, 
hto HaHH3biBajio 3th o6jiaKa b ooto oacepejibe h npoTHTHBajio ero no ro- 

pH30HTy. 

Ecjih chmboji nocraraeTcn H3 OTHonieHHH flByx hbjichhh, conpnKoc- 

HyBUIHXCH B OflHOM, TO OTHOHieHHe CyilJHOCTH (My3bIKH) K ee npOHBJieHHK) 

poacaaeT oco6bift KJiacc chmbojiob - TparnnecKHX. XapaKTepoM OTHoine- 

HHH H^eH K BHflHMOCTH OnpefleJIHCTCH Hailie MHponOHHMaHHC HJIH pa3JIH- 

HHe o6pa30B y HHHTO^caeTCH , norpyacaeTCH b rjiy6HHy, hjih caMa rjiy6nHa, 
Bonjiomaacb b sto pa3JiHHHe, npn^aeT hm Bee 6ojibinyio OTHeTjiHBOCTb. 
3^ecb KopeHHTCH HeH36e5KHa*i ^BOHCTBeHHocTb OTHOineHHH k TparHne- 

CKOMy MH(J)y. «MbI CMOTpeJIH Ha flpaMy H npOHHKaJIH HCHOBH,ZJHmHM B30- 

poM, - roBopHT Hnmne, - bo BHyTpeHHHH MHp, BOJiHyeMbiH ee MOTHBaMH, 
h npHTOM HaM Ka3ajiocb, hto nepea hsmh pa3BepTWBaeTCH He 6ojiee, KaK 

CHMBOJIHHeCKaH KapTHHa. A6cOJIK)THaH HCHOCTb KapTHHbl He y^OBJieTBO- 

pnjia Hac, h6o Ka3ajiocb, hto OHa oflHOBpeMeHHo hto-to CKpwBaeT h ot- 
KpwBaeT»... TparnnecKaH MacKa, rjiH^nman Ha Hac c yjibi6icoft Meay3bi, 
B036y»caaeT He^oyMeHHe. Hto tjih^ht Ha Hac H3-noa Hee? He nycTOTa 
jih ycTaBHjiacb Ha Hac? Hto HaM aejiaTb, ecjiH mh copBeM Macny h yBH- 
Ahm, hto nop, Heft HeKOMy npHTaTbCH? Kaicafl CHJia 3aioiK)HeHa b poKOBoft 
yjibi6Ke Me^y3bi IbproHH, npHKOBaHHoft k mHTy HeH3BecTHoro HaM Ilep- 
cen, ecjiH 3Ta MacKa cnoco6Ha HHoraa npeBpaTHTb Hac b yacacHyBiiiHecfl 
KaMeHHbie H3BanHHH. H, oflHaico, stot yacac npH3paneH. He cnoco6Ha jih 
ocjienHTb Hac HeoacHflaHHo 6jiecHyBiuaH H3-no^ TyMaHHbix CKJia^OK 5KH3- 
hh jiyne3apHOCTb? BbiTb MoaceT, b cjie^yiomnft momcht Jiynn pa3o6bK)T 
orpoMHoe nepHoe nflTHO, npH3paHHO Bbipocuiee Meacfly hsmh h cbctom. 
Ha Hac ycTaBHTCH 6ejibift jihk, Ha Hac 6jiecHyT MOJiHHHHbie aocnexn Ilep- 
cea - HOBoro AnojuiOHa, HBJieHHoro HaM. «Bcio^y, rae 6ypHO B3flbiMaiOT- 

Cfl flHOHHCHaHCKHe BOJIHbl, - TOBOpHT HHUUie, - flOJIHCCH CHH30ftTH TaiOKe 
H CKpblTblft o6jiaKOM AnOJIJIOH». 

He OKaaceTCH jih no^nac yacacHan MacKa ToproHbi, oKpyaceHHaa 

OpeOJIOM 3MeHHbIX BOJIOC, TyMaHHbIM 06jiaK0M, C KOTOpbIM He3aMeTHO 



110 



npHinjio k HaM jiyne3apHoe 6oEcecTBO. Bot pacceajrocb o6jiaKo. Bot 
HeT ero. 

3MeeBH,ziHbie nojiocKH cepwx TyneK npaneTaioT, o6Haacaa 6jiecK 6oace- 
CTBeHHbix flocnexoB. 

MMCTepMfl 

Bonpoc 06 OTHomeHHH flHOHHCOBCKoro Hanajia k anoji- 
jioHOBCKOMy BnepBbie y Hnmue BbipaciaeT bo bccm cbocm BceMHpHo- 

HCTOpHHeCKOM CMblCJIC 

MncTepHH jxduidi (J)opMbi jinn My3biKajibHoii flpaMbi. Be3flHbi, eio 06- 
Hapy»CHBaeMbie, Bnocjie^CTBHH OKa3ajiHCb 3aTHHyTbiMH nayraHHoio TKa- 
Hbio ajieKcaH^pHHCKoro 3KJieKTH3Ma. Tenepb mm bh^cjih, KaK H3-noa 3Toii 
TKaHH onflTb 6pw3Hyjia Ha Hac My3biKa. He hbjihctch jih oTCio^a MHCTe- 
pHH KOH6HHHM 3BeHOM nepeacHBaeMoii 3bojiiouhh? Pa3 3to TaK, pa3 apa- 
Ma nepexo^HT b MHCTepHio, aKTep aojiaceH daTb cBameHHOcjiyacHTejieM, 
a 3pHTejib - ynacTHHKOM TaHHCTB. /IpaMa nepexo^HT b 5KH3Hb rjisi kobkh 
H3 Hee CBHmeHHbix chmbojiob. To, hto b momcht TparHHecKoro aeHCTBHH 
3acTaBjiH^o Hac ycrpeMJiHTb B3opw KaK 6w 3a mh(J), rjix nocTHaceHHH ero 
CBflmeHHoro, npoo6pa30BaTe;ibHoro cMbicjia - 3to h ecTb 6jiaraa BecTb o 
hobom flHe, b KOTopbiH TpaninecKan MacKa cji6tht c jiHua aaBHO oacHflae- 
Moro 6o»cecTBa, rpaaymero b MHp. Hniune, hch3M6hho noflnepKHBaiomHH 
cjie^cTBHH, BbiTeKaiomHe H3 ero mwcjih, mojihht 3^ecb, KaK Monma. Cjihih- 
kom xopomo noHHMaji oh onacHOCTb Ha3BaTb nocjieflHHH BbiBOfl Hauieft 
KyjibTypw MHCTepHeii. 3tot bmboa nociaBHJi 6w ero b Heo6xo^HMocTb 
roBopHTb o pejinrHH h npHTOM c coBepineHHO hoboh, 6biTb mohcct, y6HH- 
CTBeHHoii una Hero caMoro CTopoHbi. 

Bot noneMy oh HCKaji cnaceHHH b My3biKe, Ha3biBaa My3biKajibHyio 
apaMy nocjie^HHM 3bchom, 3aBepmaiomHM KyjibTypy. Bot noneMy oh no- 
cneuiHJi HMeHeM Baraepa 3aMKHyrb npH6jiH3HBiHHecfl jihhhh no33HH h 
My3biKH, ynycTHB tot (J)aKT, hto Baraep TOJibKO o^hh H3 nHOHepoB, B03Be- 

maiOmHX HaM 0 CJIHHHHH n033HH C My3bIKOH - CJIHHHHH, HeH36e>KHO Befly- 

meM k MHCTepHH. B flajibHeftiueM npH6jiHaeeHHH k ijeHTpajibHOMy nyHKTy 
nepeBajia HameS KyjibTypw Baraep IlapcH^ajieM hcho aaji HaM noHHTb, 
hto 3to 3a nyHKT. Oh 3aroBopHji, npaB^a, eme HeyMejio TaM, rae Hnmue 
OTKycHJi 6w ce6e h3hk; noHHTHo, Baraep 0Ka3ajica h3mchhhkom ajix. Hhu- 
me. Tor^a Hnmue aeJiaeT cboh pokoboh cKanoK ot Baraepa k BH3e, ot 
IIIoneHrayspa k no3HTHBH3My. 3tot CKanoK OTpa3Hjicn HeH3rjia#HMo Ha 
BceS aajibHeiiiueH aeHTejibHOcra Hnmne, bhoch xaoc h cKencnc Tyzja, r^e 
eme He mohcct 6jiecHyTb cojmije. 

Ecjih 6bi Hnmne nocMOTpeji b rjia3a npH6jiH3HBineMycfl 6yaymeMy, 
oh He mot 6w ot onep Baraepa acaaTb nero-jiH6o HCTHHHO-TparHnecKoro. 
yrjiy6jieHHbiii jxo MHCTepHH TparH3M HeH36e»CHo CBH3aH c npocTOTOH. 



ill 



B flpeBHocra co6HpajiHCb jhoah ajih mojihtb nepea CTaTyeii 6ora. Tenepb 

B03flBHraK)TCH TeaTpbl C BepTHmeHCH CUeHOH. Ho HCTHHHafl MOJIHTBa 

OTcyTCTByeT. Ecjih cymHOCTb MHCTepHH pe;iHrH03Ha, He b apaMe h He b 
onepe OHa AOJDKHa B03HHKHyTb. 

OjieHMHa-fl'A/ibreMM 

Koraa nepeA aaun OHa - 3Ta H3o6pa3HTejibHHija r;iy6HH 
ayxa - Kor^a noeT OHa HaM cboh necHH, mbi He CMeeM cKa3aTb, hto ee tojioc 
He 6e3yKopH3HeHHbiH, hto oh npeaeae Bcero HeBejiHK. 

Mw 3a6biBaeM o KanecTBax ee rojioca, noTOMy hto OHa 6ojibiue, neM 
neBHua. 

OTHOHieHHe My3bIKH K n03THHeCKHM CHMBOJiaM yi\7iy6jIHeT 3TH CHM- 

bojiw. OjieHHHa-A'AjibreHM c 3aMenaTejibHOH Bbipa3HTejibHOCTbio nepe- 
AaeT 3th yrjiy6jieHHbie chmbojiw. OHa ottchhct cBoe OTHomeHHe k nepe- 
AaBaeMbiM CHMBOJiaM 6ecnoflo6Hoii HrpoH jiHija. IIosTHHecKHH chmboji, 
ocjioacHeHHbiii oraomeHHeM k HeMy My3biKH, npeo6pa»ceHHOH tojiocom h 
OTTeHeHHOH mhmhkoh, paciuHpneTCH 6e3MepH0. H^ea BbinyKJio BbicTyna- 
eT H3 pacniHpeHHoro, yniy6jieHHoro cHMBOJia. HaKOHeij, yuejibm noa6op 
chmbojiob AaeT B03MoacHOCTb npome Bbipa3HTbCH H^ee. 

Bot noneMy OHa, 6epymaa CTOJib cjio^chwh aiacopA na cipyHax Hauiefl 
AyuiH, nepecTynaeT nepTy My3biKH h noa3HH. Mw He MoaceM ce6e npea- 
cTaBHTb HCKyccTBO, nojiHee coeAHHHiomee no33Hio c My3biKOH, BHe apaMbi 
h onepw. Ho apaMa h onepa cjioacHocrbio cpeacTB, Heo6xoflHMbix jxjisl hx 
HcnojiHeHHH, ocjia6;iHK)T HenocpeACTBeHHO 6biomyK) cTpyio Bchhocth. 
CoBpeMeHHan apaMa h onepa rpo3HT nacTb noa 6peMeHeM ocjio^chhb- 
uieHcn xyAO»cecTBeHHoii tcxhhkh. Bot noneMy ayxoBHMH noTeHijHaji, 
o6Hapy»ceHHbiH apaMoii h My3WKoii, aojiaceH nepeiiTH Ha hchto npocToe, 
ynpa3AHHK>mee to h apyroe, hto6w noflHHTbcn Ha eme 6ojibuiyio BbicoTy. 
He flOJDKHa jih poac^aiomaflCH MHCTepHH npHHHTb orHeHHyio (J)opMy ne- 
ceHHbix npoponecTB? 

A6cojnoTHoe cjiHHHHe My3biKH c no33Heii bo3mo)kho TOJibKO b aynie 
nejioBeKa. Bot noneMy coe^HHeHHe My3biKH c no33Heii cnoco6HO poac^aTb 
He xyaoacecTBeHHbie npoH3BeaeHHH, a jihhhocth, CHJibHbie ayxoM. 3th 
jihhhocth aojdkhh cTaTb npoo6pa30M 6yaymero CBnmeHCTBa. 

IIoHBJieHHe Bjia^HMHpa CojioBbeBa, HHKHiiia, OjieHHHOH-a'AjibreHM 
3HaMeHaTejibHO ajih HauieH KyjibTypw. MnHOBajia snoxa reHHeB h bcjih- 
khx MbicjiHTejiefl. Ha CMeHy hm to 3flecb, to TaM hbjihiotch nepea uslmh 
jiHua, b KOTopbix mw bh^hm npoponecTBeHHbiH na(f)oc, kotopwm Ha,zyie- 
*cht b 6yaymeM coeAHHHTb acH3Hb c MHCTepHeii. 

OjieHHHa-A'AjibreiiM pa3BepTHBaeT nepea hsmh rjiy6nHbi ayxa. KaK 
OHa pa3BepTbiBaeT 3th rjiy6HHbi h hto o6Hapy»CHBaeT nepea hsmh - Ha 



112 



BC6M 3tom jieacm TeHb npopoMecTBOBaHHH o 6yzjymeM. Bot noneMy c oco- 
6eHHoii HacTOHHHBOCTbio HanpaniHBaeTCH mwcjib o tom, hto OHa caMa - 
3BeHo, coe^HHHiomee Hac c MHCTepneii. 

Haine co3HaHHe - TOHKaa rpamma Meacfly no,zjco3HaTejibHbiM h 
cBepxco3HaTejibHbiM. Pa3jiHHHbie othoihchhh Meacay flaHHMMH ncHXH- 

HeCKHMH C(J)epaMH npH^aiOT H3MeHHHBOCTb 3TOH rpaHHIje. BBOOT HOBbie 

K0M6HHauHH-3M0UHH b Hauiy flyuiy nocpe^cTBOM pa3BepTWBaeMbix chm- 
bojiob, mw ^aeM hobwh MaTepHaji HaiiiHM HepBaM. A nocKOJibKy Ta hjih 
HHan aTM0C(J)epa HepBHbix B03,zjeHCTBHH hbjihctch noHBoii rjix. hoboh 
neperpynnHpoBKH MaTepnajia Hauien co3HaTejibHOH aenTejibHOCTH, 3Ta 
aTMOc4>epa cnoco6Ha bjihhtb Ha H3MeHeHHe rpaHHuw Meaeay CBepxco- 

3HaTeJIbHbIM H nOflC03HaTeJIbHbIM. MHCTHKa, 6pbI3»CymaH H3 CTapHHHblX 

neceH b HcnojiHeHHH OjieHHHOH-fl'AjibreiiM, MoaceT oica3aTbCH pbmaroM, 
Ha kotopom Bnocjie^CTBHH jiioot nepeBepHyT bcio aeiicTBHTejibHOCTb. H3- 

M6HHH Hauiy nCHXHKy, OHH B COCTOHHHH H3M6HHTb He TOJIbKO HaCTHbie 3Jie- 

MeHTbi co3HaHHH, ho h o6mne 4>opMbi ero. 

BHeuiHe onpe^ejineMaH, pejiHrnn hbjihctch chctcmoh nocjieflOBaTejib- 

HO pa3BepTWBaeMbIX CHMBOJIOB. 3Ta BHyTpeHHflfl CBH3HOCTb CHMBOJIOB 

OTJiHnaeT pejiHrH03Hoe OTKpoBeHHe ot xyzjOEcecTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa. 
C BHeuiHeH CTopoHbi rpaHHija Meaeay HCKyccTBOM h pejiHrHeii oTcyT- 
CTByeT. CymecTByeT jinuib pa3HOCTb b KanecTBe h KOJinnecTBe o6pa30B, 
BHyTpeHHe CBH3aHHbix. Ha3HaneHHe HCKyccTBa - BbipaaceHHe H^efi; 
yrjiy6jieHHe ace h onnmeHHe icaac/jon H^en HeH3MeHHO paciiiHpneT 3Ty 
H^eio ro MHpOBOH. TyT BbicTynaeT pejiHrH03HbiH ottchok bchkoh Hflen- 

HOCTH B HCKyCCTBC 

Chmboji noaTOMy, yrjiy6jieHHbiH h pacuiHpeHHbiH aHajiorHHHO H^ee, 

CBH3aH C MHpOBbIM CHMBOJIOM. 3TOT nOCJieflHHH ~ HeH3MeHHbIH (J)OH BCeX 
CHMBOJIOB. TaKHM CHMBOJIOM HBJIHeTCH OTHOUieHHe JlorOCa K MHpOBOH 

Zlyuie, KaK MHcranecKOMy Hanajiy nejiOBenecTBa. Bot noneMy ocHOBaHHH 
CHMBOJiH3Ma Bcer^a pejiHrH03Hbi. Bot noneMy cjioacHocrb 3aTparHBaeMbix 
H^eii-CHMBOjiOB neHHeM OjieHHHOH-^'AjibreHM HaKJiaflbiBaeT Ha Hee ne- 
naTb pejiHrH03Horo cjiyaceHHH. 

KoHuepT 

C Kpenico no^BH3aHHOH MacKOH Ha Jiune cpe^H 03apeHHbix 
3jieKTpHHecTBOM 3aji CKOJIB3HT Heft-To 6ecneHHO-He6pe>KHbiH HepHblH 

KOHTyp. Ha# 6e3flHOK) CKOJIb3HT ZiaMbl, HaBO^H JIOpHeTbl H 06MaXHBaflCb 

BeepaMH. Haa 6e3^HOio KOJiwinyTCH 4>aji^w ciopTyKOB, 3acTerHyTwx Ha Bee 
nyroBHUw. Bee 6e3 hckjhohchhh 3aTbiKaioT MacKaMH 3HHK>myio rjiy6nHy 
cbohx flym, hto6w H3 nponacTeii ayxa He noTHHyjio ckbo3hhkom. Kor^a 

JiyeT BeHHOCTb, 3TH JHOflH 60HTCH CXBaTHTb MHpOByK) jiHxopa^Ky. 

Kto-to KOMy-TO inenneT: «TajiaHTjiHBan neBHua»... H TOJibKO? 



113 



HeT, HeT, KoneuHO, ne mojibKO, ho He cnpaiiiHBaHTe hh o neM, He cpw- 
BafiTe c ayniH noKpoBOB, Kor^a hhkto He 3HaeT, hto eMy aejiaTb c noa- 
KpaBineiicH rjiy6HHofi. Cjihiukom Bee HeoacHAaHHO. KaK o6Hapy»cHTb 
KapjiHKaM nopbiB TmaHa - BejiHKHe nyBCTBa yacacaioT, Koraa npnxoAHT 
6e3 BejiHKHx jieji. CTpaHHa OHa Ha KOHuepTHOH acTpaae, KOTopan, otkphb 
r;ia3a cnnmHM, noKHAaeT hx bmccto Toro, hto6 bccth hx k cojmuy. IlycTb 
yac noflCKaKHBaioT, npnna ayuiy, Te ABa rocnoflHHa: bot ohh mejiKaioT 
najibuaMH no a4)Hine. Bot HaKJioHHioT ohh apyr k apyry cboh jinua, toh- 

HO 3arOBOpmHKH, HT06bI o6MCHHTbCH nOUIJIOCTbK). Beflb He nOBepXHOCTb 

npH6;iH3Hjiacb k noBepxHocra, a flBa nepHbix npoBajia rjiy6HHbi, 3aKpw- 
Tbie MacKaMH. 

Ho THine, THiiie. 

BbicoKan aceHmHHa b nepHOM KaK-To hcjiobko bxo^ht Ha acipa^y. B ee 
CHJiyaTe hto-to ^aBHmee, hto-to cjihiukom 6ojibiuoe juin nejiOBeKa. Ee 6m 
cjiyiuaTb cpeflH nponacTefi, ee 6w BHfleTb b pa3pbiBax Tyn. B pe3KHX iinpH- 
xax ee Jinua npocTOTa coneTajiacb c nocjie^Hefi HCKJiiOHHTejibHOCTbio. Bch 
OHa - ynpomeHHaa, cjihiukom cipaHHan. HeonpeaejieHHbie rjia3a aciyr Hac 
HenoMepHbiM 6jiHcraHbeM, tohho OHa npH6jiHacajiacb k 3Be3flaM ckbo3b 
npojieTbi TyMaHHoii 5KH3HH. 

IIoeT. 

O TOM, HTO Mbl 3a6bIJIH, HO HTO HaC HHKOTfla He 3a6bIBaJIO, - O 3ape 30JIO- 

toto cnacTbH. H 3ape toh He 6yaeT npczjejia, noTOMy hto cnacTbio He 6yaeT 
npe^ejia. Oho 6yaeT 6ecKOHenHO. CTeHaHHH ee, tohho njian 3hmhch Bbiora 
o tom, KaK 6paT y6nji 6paTa... H3 aajieKHx mhpobmx npocTpaHCTB pa3flaeTca 
»cajio6a CTaporo Araaca, b oflHHonecTBe no/mepacHBaiomero MH P- 

Ich ungliickselger Atlas! eine Welt, 

Die ganze Welt der Schmerzen muss ich tragen... 

Ha#o noMOHb CTapoMy THTaHy. 3biHHbifi ATjiac, noBHTbiH TynaMH Ha 
ropH30HTe, Kyaa y6eraeuib tw BMecTe c ropH30HTOM ot Hac, hto6m cHOBa 
njiaKaTbCH Ha CBoe oflHHonecTBo? 

HepHbie KOHTypbi ciopTyHHHKOB, hx MacKH CTaHOBHTCH npo3panHO- 
cTeKJiHHHbiMH. Bee yTonaeT b crapHHHOM mhpobom npocTpaHCTBe. 3to 
oho bchho jienHT cboh rpe3bi h BpamaeT cojmijaMH. 

3^ecb MHp ynaji Ha MHp. H xojioflHbie njiaHeTbi 3anbiJiajiH. PByTCH 

KpaCHbie H3bIKH OTHH, TOHHO pbDKHe BOJIOCbl, BJieKOMbie BeTpOM. 

A TaM crymaeTCH o/jHHOKaji TyMaHHOCTb, hto6h HeKoraa pa3poflHTbcn 
cojiHuaMH - ajibiMH HxoHTaMH, MHpoBbiMH aMeracTaMH h 6e3flHy aparo- 
izeHHOcTeii Bbi6pocHTb k 6epery BpeMeH. Hapoflbi 6yayT BoeBaTb c Hapo- 
aaMH cpe^H HeH3MeHHbix, HeBeaoMbix npocTpaHCTB . Bee noTOM pacceeTCH. 
H3BecTHoe 3axjie6HeTCH HeH3BecraocTbK), h 3tot ropoa c aoMaMH, flBopua- 
mh h xpaMaMH pa3JieTHTCH KaK CTapHHHbiH npH3paK, yace He pa3 CMymaB- 

UIHH THUIHHy BeHHOCTH. 



114 



To, hto Ka3ajiocb npo3panHbiM h ckbo3hjio 6e3flHOH MHpa, bot 
oho onHTb noTycKHejio h hhhcm He ckbo3ht. Bot ctoht oHa OHeMeB- 
iiihm nopwBOM. CTpoiiHaH ejib, o6e3yMeBinaH ot ropa, TaK 3acTbiBaeT 
b MOJib6e. 

Ho OHa yxoAHT. TpoM pyKonjiecicaHHH pa3^aeTcn eft BCJiejx. Becuejib- 
hw nopbiBbi THTaHa y KapjiHKOB. BejiHKHe nyBCTBa h Majiwe aejia. 

Macicapaa B03o6HOBJiHeTCH. IIjiaTbH niejiecTHT. Macna cnpaniHBaeT 
MacKy: «Hy hto?» MacKa OTBenaeT MacKe: « y ahbhtc jibHo » . 

OacHBJieHHbie penn h cjihihkom pe3Bbie acecrbi. CTyaeHT OTXjionaji jia- 
AoniH. IloacKaKHBaioT ciopTyHHHKH. Pa3BeBaioTCH fysuwhi hx oaeacfl. - 

- 3jiOBem;HH TaHeu 3aMacKHpoBaHHbix Haa Bee toh ace nponadbio. 

Koraa OHa noeT, Bee ckbo3ht rjiy6HHoii. Ho ecjiH xoneuib OKyHyrbcn b 
3th 6e3AHbi, HeH3MeHHO noKa pa36HBaeuibCH o njiocKocm 

Koraa ace sto kohhhtch? 

1904 

OEHHKC 

Ernnei 

CTapnecKHH jihk nycTbiHH tjihaht TWCHHejieTHeii flyMoii. Ca- 
MyM B3BHBaeT h pa3BHBaeT necoHHbie jiokohw. O tom ace, Bee o tom ace 
3BynaT cToycTbie rojioca BeTpa. ^wmhwh ctoji6 necKOB Taacejio B3JieiaeT, 
rpo3HT 6e3Bo^beM, cyxocrbio rpo3HT dpaHe 6jiaroAaTHOH. 

EraneT - CTpaHa 6jiaroaaTHaa. Hckohh 3flecb H^eT 6opb6a sch3hh h 
cMepTH. H BeHHO HanjibiBaeT Thc})oh H3 acejrroH Tynn necoHHoii h B3JieTa- 
eT, h B3JieTaeT, h jictht, h jictht ctoji6 3a ctoji6om, tohho CTpoHHan najib- 
Ma. TaK 6ypwe najibMOBbie jieca 6e30craHOBOHHO HecyTcn Ha EraneT H3 
Caxapw, 3acwnaH njioaopoflHbie nojia. TaK 6beT nycTbiHH b njioaopoflHoe 
Tejio EranTa. EraneT - mhpoboh 6apa6aH, orpoMHbiH, onoBemaiomHii Hac 
o 6opb6e cojiHua c TbMoio. 

y^HBHTejibHO jih, hto MHoro pejiHrao3Hbix TaiiH, CKpwTbix b KyjibType 
ajijiHHCKOH, a TaKHce h Hy^eiicKOH, hmciot kophh cboh b Erame. He pa3 
oTcioaa BbijieTaji OeHHKC pe;iHrao3Horo noacapa, CHOBa h cHOBa B03poac- 
Aancb H3 nenjia hctophh. CaMoe yneHHe o BOCKpecaiomeM B03poacaeHHH 
HMeeT b EranTe CBoe r;iy6oKoe ocHOBaHHe. 

KaK TporaTejibHa jiereHfla o nyflHOH nraije - opjiono,ao6HOM OeHHK- 
ce. Kaacawe 500 jieT npnjieTaeT OeHHKC H3 ApaBHH b Hjinonojib yMHpaTb. 
OeHHKC - cojiHeHHan nraua, nocBHmeHHaa 03HpHcy. Ochhkc - caMa 
ayma cojmeHHoro 6ora. 

EraneT hckohh ctohji na rpaHHue Meacay acH3Hbio h CMepTbio. Era- 
neT co3flaji npHMenaTejibHbie o6pa3bi, 3HaMeHOBaBniHe no6e,ay CMepTH. 
Ha rpaHHue necKOB Heo6o3pHMbix EraneT B03ABHr KaMeHHoe Tejio hc- 



8 AHApeH Eejiuft 



115 



nojiHHa C(J)HHKca. 3to - chmboji 3BepHHoro npouuioro. 3to - Topace- 

CTBO CMepTH. 

Ho h EraneT ace KOJibi6ejib mojihhhhbix mh(J)ob o hchoh nTHue, yMHpa- 
romeft h BOCKpecaiomeH b Tperafi jxeub no iracaHHio. Yace aaHa b chmbojic 
3tom pejiHrH03Han Tpare^HH CTpa^aiomero BOCKpeceHHH, jiynoM 6yaymero 
03apHBina« Bee KyjibTypw. Ochhkc - BeHHoe BocKpeceHHe - oraeM cbcto- 
hochwx nepbeB, tohho 3apeii CBeTHmefi, nonajinn, njiaBHTb Tnacejioe npo- 
injioe. PacceHBaiOTCH c(J)HHKCbi, hckohh 3ajieTeBuiHe b CBnmeHHyio CTpaHy 
BMecTe c acejiTbiMH TynaMH necoHHbiMH. 

Hckohh KpbuiaTbie c(J)HHKCbi neprajiH Jia3ypb ErHirra, HanoMHHan 
B3BH3rHyBinHX b BeTpe jiacToneK, peacymnx B03^yx ocTpo-nypnypHbiM 
kphkom. H He pa3-TO Ha hhx, 6biTb MoaceT, ycTpeMjiHji 4>apaoH pacceHHHO 

B30p CBOH, BblXOflfl OCBeaCHTbCfl Ha CTyneHH flBOpija, 3aMbIIHJIHH, 6bITb mo- 

aceT, Ka3Hb MjiaaeHijaM eBpeiicKHM. 

OeHHKC M CcJmhkc 

C(J)hhkc h OeHHKC - o6pa3bi 6opb6bi czjhhoh. To, hto hchbo- 
nHcyeT 3th o6pa3bi, ecTb HeKaa uejibHocTb. Pa3HOCTb b noHHMaHHH #aH- 
hoh uejibHOCTH H3o6paacaeT ee to KaK no6eay npouuioro (c(J>hhkc), to 
KaK no6e/*y 6yaymero ((J)eHHKc). C(J)hhkc h Ochhkc nporaBonocTaBJieHbi 
Apyr apyry. Kto cyMeeT npeBpaTHTb TaftHy C(J)HHKca b hhhto, noiiMeT, hto 

H HeT B C(J)HHKCe HHKaKOH TaHHbl. TOT XOTb pa3 B 5KH3HH fla BHfleJI HCKpH- 

Hoe nepo OeHHKca, 3apHHueft caMOijBeTHOH B3MaxHyBinee no ropH30HTy 

HaiHHX HaHHHH. 

C(J)HHKC - 3TO, C06cTBeHH0 TOBOpH, HenOHHTblH OeHHKC. 3TO CTpeM- 
JieHHe K 3KH3HH 6e3 UeHHOTO OTHOUieHHH K HCH3HH. BblTHe HCTHHHOTO H 

ueHHoro noflMeHHeTCH 6biTHeM Boo6me. TKuBoe CTaHOBHTca hchbothhm. 

C(J)HHKC H OeHHKC - eflHHMH CHMBOJI no CymeCTBy. HO B C03HaHHH co- 

3epuaTejiH ohh /jbohtch Ha neub h HOHb, yTpo h Benep, 6y/jymee h npo- 
uijioe, oKpbijieHHO jierKoe h HenoflBHacHO KaMeHHoe. C(J)hhkc h Ochhkc 
Toiyja hbjihiotch npoTHBonocTaBjieHHbiMH apyr apyry. 3to - Hanajia 60- 
piomHecH. 

OTKpoBeHHe cjiOBa opjiHHoro npoTHBonocTaBjineTCH OTKpoBeHHio 
cjiOBa 3BepHHoro. Ho 3Bepb AnoKajinncnca hbjihctch nocjie^Heft pa3raa- 
koh c(J)hhkcob. Ho KpbiJiaTbiii opeji HoaHHOBa OTKpoBeHHH onpo3panHBa- 
eT mhcJ) o ropnmeM h BOCKpecaiomeM OeHHKce. 

TopHHH opeji - nTHija, a BCJiKaji nraija - oKpwjieHHbiH raa, t. e. apa- 
koh. MoacHO h opjia npeBpaTHTb b apaKOHa: TaK roBopnT HaM napw MarHH. 
Ho h o6paTHo: b caMOM apaKOHe Moaoio BbmejiHTb nepTbi nranbH. 

3to 3HanHT - H3raaTb 6eca H3 nepT 3BepHHbix. Taima OeHHKca 6ecoB H3- 
roHHeT, Haynan xo^HTb no BO/jaM. BepyiomHH b TafiHy 4>eHHKCOBy «He cy/jHT- 
ch, a HeBepyiomHH yace ocyacaeH... Cy/j ace coctoht b tom, hto cbct npnuieji 



116 



b MHp; ho jiiqzjh 6ojiee bo3jiio6hjih TbMy» (MoaHH, rji. Ill, 18, 19). C(})hhkc h 
OeHHKC 6opioTCH b HauiHx aymax. H Ha BceM, hto ecTb npoH3BeaeHHe ayxa 
HejioBenecKoro, jieacHT nenaTb OeHHKca h C(J)HHKca. Bot noneMy h H3 CTpon 
MbicjieS, h b npoH3Be^eHHHx HCKyccTBa h HayKH, h b o6mecTBeHHOM TBopne- 
cTBe BOCKpecaiOT Bemne o6pa3bi Emma: OeHHKC h C<J)hhkc. 

Ohh nporaBonocTaBJieHbi b o^hom HanpaBjieHHH. B apyroM ohh hb- 

JIHIOTCH Hepa3AeJIbHbIMH. TaHHa 3aKJIK)HaeTCH B TOM, HTO OeHHKC He co- 

aepacHTCH b C(J)HHKce. A C(J)hhkc - nojioBHHa uejibHoro OeHHKca. Cro- 
pan orHeM, OeHHKC yMHpaeT. OeHHKC pacceHBaeTCH nenjioM. EcTb CMepTb 
OeHHKca. Ho C(J)hhkc - 3to no6eaa 3BepHHoro npoiujioro Haa 6yaymHM. 

HO C(J)HHKC H eCTb HMeHHO CMepTb. H C4)HHKC H OeHHKC OflHHaKOBO paC- 

ceHBaiOTCH nbiJibio h npaxoM: OeHHKC ,zjo6poBOjibHO npnjieTaji jxjik sto- 
ro, C4>hhkc - npoTHBo6opcTByn. 06a 6opiotch c pokom. O/jhh - hbhoh 
Bpa^c^oH, apyroii - jno6oBbio no6e5KflaeT poK. H OeHHKC BOCCTaeT schboh 
h uejibHbift. Bot noneMy 6opb6a C<j)HHKca c Ochhkcom He ecTb 6opb6a Ha- 
naji paBHonpaBHbix, a 6opb6a nacreS c ijejibiM. 

3to 6opb6a acH3HH BOo6me c acH3Hbio TBopnecKOH. Ho acH3Hb Boo6me 
BbiTeKaeT H3 TBopnecTBa. )KH3Hb - nacTb TBopnecTBa. 

C(J)HHKC - nOJIOBHHa OeHHKCa. B 3TOH nOJIOBHHHOCTH H 3aKJIK)HaeTCH 

HeH36e»CHaH rn6ejib ero, KaK Hanajia cepe^HHHoro h o6oco6jieHHoro. 
06mecTBO m rocyflapcTBO 

06mecTBO - echboh, ijejibHMH opraHH3M. Hanajia rocyaap- 
cTBeHHbie Bbi^ejiHioTCH, KaK nacTb Hanaji o6mecTBeHHbix. Tocy^apcTBo, 
oTBjieneHHoe ot chji o6mecTBeHHbix, ero o6pa30BaBHiHX, flaBHT Hac thctom 
3BepHHbiM. EcTb TOJibKO nacTb, B03BbicHBUiaHCH Hafl uejibiM - rocyaap- 
ctbo, CTaBinee caMOijejibio. 

H nocKOJibKy Hanajia rocyaapcTBeHHOH ech3hh, o(J)opMJieHHbie o6me- 

CTBOM, CTaHOBHTCH BnOCJieflCTBHH (J)OpMaMH pa3BHTHH CHJI o6meCTBCHHbIX, 

nocTOJibKy Hanajia 3th CTaHOBHTcn npouiJibiM, HacnjiyiomHM HacTonmee h 
6yaymee. Ecn> noflHHHeHHe uejioro nacTHM b no^HHHeHHH acHBoro Hanajia 
Hanajiy, OTBJieneHHOMy ot Hero. 

TyT HeMHHyeMO B03HHKaeT kohcJxjihkt b noHHMaHHH o6mecTBeHHoro 
pa3BHTHH. HBjineTCH Bonpoc: ecTb jih »cH3Hb o6mecTBeHHaa pa3BHTHe H 
npn6jiH»ceHHe nejieft KOHenHbix, hjih sto pa3BHTHe MexaHHHecKoe, no/j- 
HHHeHHoe 3aKOHaM cypoBoro poKa? B 3aBHCHMOcra ot peuieHHH 3Toro 
Bonpoca o6mecTBeHHan 5KH3Hb BOCKpeuiaeT npea hbmh to tcmhwh o6pa3 
C(J)HHKca, to HpocTHHH nojieT o6e3yMeBiuero OeHHKca. 

Ilepea HaMH pa3BepTbiBaeTca cepnn yneHHH, noflHHHHiomHX 5KH3Hb 06- 
mecTBa rocy^apcTBeHHbiM 3aKOHaM, a TaKace h pna nonbiTOK ocBo6oflHTb- 
ch ot rocy^apcTBa. 3bojiiouhh rocy^apcTBeHHbix B033peHHH HeH36e»cHO 
Be^eT Hac k UHKJiy yneHHH, o6i>e ( aHHeHHbix HaHMeHOBaHHeM couHajiH3Ma. 

117 



8* 



H3yneHHe HopM SKOHOMHHecKoro CTpoHTejibCTBa KJia^eTCH b ochoby bo3- 

3peHHH COUHaJIHCTHHeCKHX. 

CoijHajiH3M - nocjie^Hee 3bcho b p<13bhthh H^eH rocyaapcTBeHHoft, 
e^HHCTBeHHoe yneuue o rocyaapcTBe, nocjieaoBaTejibHO pa3BepTbiBaiomee 
cboh jiorHHecKHe nocwjiKH, Bceuejio ocHOBaHHbie Ha aaHHbix skohomhhc- 

CKOH HayKH. TojIbKO C HHM H npHXOflHTCH Cepbe3HO CHHTaTbCH, npHBOflH 

b conpHKOCHOBeHHe H^eio SBOjiiouHOHHoro pa3BHTHH o6mecTBa c H^een 
rocyaapcTBeHHoii. 

Bot noneMy, He3aBHCHMO ot cBoero OTHoineHHH k rocyaapcTBeHHbiM 

B033peHHHM Ha o6meCTBO, Mbl npH3bIBaeM BCeX nOfl 3HaMH COI^HaJIH3Ma B 

6opb6e rocyaapcTBeHHbix yneHHH apyr c apyroM. CoijHajiH3M - aeHCTBH- 
TejibHoe o6be^HHHK)mee yneHHe. TojibKO c o6be^HHeHHeM rocyzjapcTBeH- 
hwx yneHHH bo3mo5kho He TOJibKO nocraBHTb pe6poM Bonpoc 06 OTHouie- 
hhh o6mecTBa, ho h npaKTH^ecKH peuiHTb ohwh. 

Ho, conyBCTByH coijHajiH3My, mm b to »ce BpeMH ocTaBjiaeM 3a co6oh 
npaBO HaHecTH einy cMepTejibHbift yaap b aeHb, Kor^a oh BocTopacecrByeT. 

Coi^HajiHCTHHecKoe rocyaapcTBO - C(J)hhkc. IlycTOTa h He6brrae cmo- 

TpHT H3 erO TeMHblX rjia3. 

Ecjih MexaHHHecKoe pa3BHTHe o6mecTBa Becb oKpbijieHHbiH nojieT 

HCTOpHH CBOflHT K (J)aKTOpaM MaTepHaJIbHbIM C pOKOBOH Heo6xOflHMOCTbK), 

He;ib3H daBHTb ijejiH KyjibType. A Beflb To^bKO onpeaejieHHafl nejih mohcct 
B03^eHCTBOBaTb Ha mok) bojik). Beflb bchkhh nocTynoK onpeflejiaeTCH u,e- 
jiecoo6pa3Hocn>io. 

Ecjih MexaHHKa jieacHT b ochobc HdopHHecKoro pa3BHTHH HapoaoB, 
bchkhh nocTynoK npe^onpe^ejiHeTCH. Bee moh nocTynKH Tor^a jiHineHw 
pa3yMHoro ocHOBaHHH. H - aBTOMan ho Toraa He ctoht paaoBaTbca, He 
ctoht ropeBaTb, He ctoht 6opoTbca. 

By^H3M H He6bITHe TJIflflHT H3 MepTBblX Bna^HH COUHaJIbHOrO C(J)HHK- 

ca, ecjiH oh B03flBHraeTca Ha rpaHHue c necKaMH CMepra, ecra oh - uejib, a 
He cpeacTBO, ocTaHOBKa, a He nepexoa. 

Ho mohcho paccMaTpHBaTb coijHajiHCTHHecicoe rocy^apcTBo h KaK 
nepexoa k cbo6oahoh o6mHHe, b kotopoh mw yTBepacaaeMca KaK 6ora h 
uapH. yperyjiHpoBaHHe skohomhhcckhx OTHOuieHHii Toraa He co3^aHHe 
OKaMeHejioro C(J)HHKca Ha rpaHHuax rocyaapcTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa, a 
B3JieT OeHHKca 5KH3HH Ha mojihhhhmx nepbHx H3 pa3BenHHoro npaxa ro- 

Cy^apCTBeHHOH 5KH3HH. 

>KM3Hb M TBOpHeCTBO 

CoBpeMeHHbie raoceojiorH HopMbi no3HaHHH OTflejiaiOT ot 

(J)OpMbI MblUIJieHHH. OHH OTHOCHT K Hflee ^OJI^CeHCTBOBaHHH no3HaBaTejib- 

Hbie HopMbi. TaKoe MHponoHHMaHHe ycraHaBjiHBaeT npaKTH^ecKHH xa- 



118 



paKTep caMoro no3HaBaHHH. Ho H^en aojiaceHCTBOBaHHH ocHOBonojiaraeT 
h npeaonpeflejineT 6birae. OHa hbjihctch He cymecTByiomeH, He aaHHoii 
KaTeropHeS MbiuijieHHH. BbiTHe OKa3biBaeTCH noflHHHeHHbiM cyacAeHHio. 
Ho h caMo cyacaeHHe nojiynaeT TBopnecKHH xapaKTep. 

«Ra 6ydem» - 3tot nepBOHanajibHWH aKT TBopnecTBa conpoBoacaa- 
eT cyacaeHHe. TaK 6mjio b nepBbift jienh TBopeHHH. TaK ecTb. TaK 6yaeT. 
3thm TBopamHM aKTOM paccyacaaiomee «H» bwhochtch H3 o6jiacTH 
6wthh. Oho ocHOBonojiaraeTCH BHe o6pa30B »ch3hh h CMep™. HopMa 
^oji^ceHCTBOBaHHH o^opMjiHBaeT TBopnecTBO. HopMa aojiaceHCTBOBa- 
hhh - e^HHCTBeHHan no3HaBaTe;ibH2iH HopMa. Ilo3HaHHe OKa3biBaeTCH 

BeHHO 3Be3flHbIM BOflOMeTOM COTBOpeHHblX UeHHOCTeH. O^OpMJieHHbie 

ueHHOCTH BOCC03flaK>T npea TBopnecTBOM paccyaeflaiomHM KapTHHy 
MHpoBoro ijejioro. Bo3HHKaioT MHpw, njiaHeTHbie CHCTeMbi. Bo3HHKaeT 
hctophh Hapo^OB. H H3 HdopHHecKHX KapTHH npoinjioro poacaaeTCH Moe 

JIHHHOe 

JlHHHOe «H» paCTBOpHeTCH B 6eCUeHHbIX (J)OpMaX 5KHBOTHOH 5KH3HH. 

Oho yMHpaeT. Ho B03BbiuiaeTCH HeH3MeHH0 cyfybeKT no3HaHHH b stom 
e^HHOM, 6e3JiHHHOM, paccyacaaiomeM Hanajie. 3to TBopnecKoe Hanajio bm- 
boaht oflHHaKOBO h o6pa3 6o3KecTBa h nejioBeica. 

XyaoacHHK - TBopeu BcejieHHoii. XyaoacecTBeHHan (J)opMa - cotbo- 

peHHblH MHp. HCKyCCTBO B MHpe 6bITHH HaHHHaeT HOBbie pHflbl TBOpeHHH. 

3thm HCKyccTBO OTToprayTO ot 6biTHH. Ho h TBopnecKoe Hanajio 6wthh 
3ac;iOHeHO b xyaoacecTBeHHOM o6pa3e jiHHHOCTbio xyzjoacHHKa. Xyaoac- 
hhk - 6or CBoero MHpa. Bot noneMy HCKpa EoacecTBa, 3anaBHian H3 MHpa 
6mthh b npoH3BeaeHHe xyaoaeHHKa, OKpauiHBaeT xyaoacecTBeHHoe npoH3- 
BeaeHHe aeMOHHHecKHM 6jiecKOM. TBopnecKoe Hanajio 6mthh npoTHBono- 
cTaBjieHo TBopnecKOMy Hanajiy HCKyccTBa. XyaoacHHK npoTHBonocTaBjieH 
Bory. Oh bchhmh 6oro6opeij. 

C(J)hhkc »h3hh npeoaojieBaeTCH, ho apyniM eme 6o;iee yacacHbiM 
CcJmhkcom - C(|)hhkcom no3HaHHH ao6pa h 3Jia. Ho eme TOJibKO mar - 

H C(|)HHKC n03HaHHH flo6pa H 3Jia, MOiymHH OKa3aTbCH flHaBOJIOM H OTIJOM 

jdkh, npeBpamaeTCH b OeHHKca hchbotbophoix) TBopnecTBa. 

CaMbie HopMbi aoJiJKeHCTBOBaHHH npHBo^HMbi k o6pa3aM ijeHHOCTeii. 
UeHHbiMH MoryT 6biTb TOJibKO nepeacHBaeMbie coaepacaHHH co3HaHHH. 
Ho npeacae coaepacaHHe co3HaHHH pa3Jiarajiocb HayKoft h ncHxojiora- 
eft, KaK cyMMa, Ha MexaHHHecKHe cjiaraeMbie. CaMbie 3th oTBJieneHHbie 
cjiaraeMbie o6T>eflHHHJiHCb, KaK oco6bift poa coaepacaHHH co3HaHHH. Pa3- 
HOo6pa3Han rpynnnpoBKa coaepacaHHH co3HaHHH h npHBOflHT Hac k 
THOceojiorHHecKHM noHHTHHM, KaK 4>opMaM 3thx coaepacaHHH. J\ojvK.en- 
CTBOBaHHe oKa3ajiocb 3anpeaejibHOH hopmoh, CBH3yiomeH npeaejibHbie 
rHoceojiorHHecKHe 4>opMbi. 

Ho oho aojiacHO BHceTb b nycroTe. Tor^a oTBjieneHHoe MbiiiuieHHe, 
npeflonpeaejiHiomee 6biTHe BMecTe c 6biTHeM, pa3peniaeTCH b Kpyrjioe hh- 



119 



hto. Hjih caMoe .zjojiHceHCTBOBaHHe Heo6xo^HMO npe/jonpeflejifleTCH o6pa- 
30M nepe^CHBaeMOH ijchhocth. 3to nocjie^Hee B03Bpamaiomee ot hopmw 
k 6hthio 3BeHO nporpeccHpyiomero eflHHCTBa (J)opM mwcjih OKa3biBaeTCH, 

B CymHOCTH, eflHHCTBOM HaHaJI OTBJieHeHHblX H nOJIO^CHTeJIbHblX. 3to - 

e^HHCTBO cjiOBa h mioTH. 3to - BOCKpeinaiomaH ueHHOCTb. 3to - coczjh- 
HeHHe, chmboji. Mbi B03BpamaeMCH k 6wthk). Ho He b tom y3KOM orpa- 

HHHeHHOM CMblCJie B03BpamaeTCfl 6bITHe, B KaKOM OHO HBJIHJIOCb HaM RO 

OTiuibiTHfl Haniero b cipaHy mmcjih. BbiTHe 6epeTcn oTHbme He co dopo- 
Hbl npOIHJIOrO (^CHBOTHOrO, poKOBoro, 4>H3HOJiorHHecKoro), a CO CTOpOHbl 
6yaymero (ijejibHoro, acHBoro, CBo6oflHoro, pe;iHrH03Horo). OTKpoBeHHe 
CjiOBa 3BepHHoro npeBpamaeTCH b OTKpoBeHHe CjiOBa OpjiHHoro. Op- 
jionoao6Hbiii OeHHKC B3BHBaeTca nepea hhmh h3 pacnaBuierocn npaxa 
AnoKajinnTHHecKoro /IpaKOHa. 

Haina )KH3Hb craHOBHTCH ijeHHOCTbio. Mbi, KaK ynacTHHKH ech3hh ueH- 
hoh, o6HTaeM BHe npeflejioB cTapoii ech3hh h CMepTH. Mbi yaee He MoaceM 
yMepeTb. CMepTb h 6eccMeprae - TOJibKO H^ea Haniero pa3y\ia. 

«H Bbmeji hx boh... h, no/jHHB pyKH cboh, 6jiarocjiOBHji hx h, Kor^a 
6;iarocjioBJiHJi hx, CTaji OTflejiHTbca ot hhx h B03HOCHTbcn Ha He6o» ( Jlyica, 
tji. 24, ct. 50,51). 

OeHMKCOBa TaMHa 

OeHHKC BocKpecaiomero 6eccMepTHH yace onajuui HaM cepa- 
ija oraeM Ha#rpo6HbiM, CMeTaji npax OKaMeHeHHH, njiaBHji c(|)hhkcob jihk 

HaUieft 5KH3HH. H BOT Mbi - (J>eHHKCbI - THXO OT/jeJIHJIHCb OT 3CMJIH. Mbi 

oKpy^KeHbi Hbme co3HflaiomeH cnoco6HOCTbio Haniero pa3yMa, KaK rojiy- 
6wm MopeM He6ecHbiM. 

B COTBOpeHHOM 3aHOBO MHpe 6bITHH, MHpe UeHHOM, Mbi CHOBa H CHO- 

Ba HaHHHaeM npoijecc TBopnecTBa. CoTBopeHHbiH mhp ixeHHocTeH CHOBa 
h CHOBa npeo^ojieBaeTCH. Oh OKaMeHeBaeT y Hac 3a njienaMH b (J)opMax 

BHflHMOIX) 6bITHH C HCTOpHeH rOCyflapCTB H HapOflOB. CHOBa H CHOBa Mbi 

nora6aeM b stom KaMeHHOM MHpe. Bot noneMy MHp ceft cTaHOBHTca Rjia 
Hac He cymecTByiomHM b npouuioM. H Mbi norn6aeM b hcm, hto6w b jienb 

TpeTHH BOCCTaTb, KaK (J)eHHKCbI, B HOBOM o6pa3C 

Ecjih C(J)hhkc npoinjioro pncyeT nepea hrmh nycTyio 6ecKOHeHHOCTb, 

OeHHKC BeHHO B03HOCHTCH Ha^ 6eCKOHeHHOCTbK) MHpOB, HHKOr^a He BHflfl 

6ecKOHeHHOCTH Kaacaoro H3 hhx. 

ECJIH C(J)HHKC - OJIHIXeTBOpeHHe TeMHOH 6eCKOHeHHOCTH 6bITHH H 

xaoca, OeHHKC - ojiHijeTBopeHHe hhoh, bchho B03HocnmeH opjihhoh 6ec- 
KOHeHHocTH. To ace e^HHoe, hto HanpaBJiHeT nojieT TBopnecrBa, ecTb TaftHa 
HCKynjieHHH ,zjo6poBOJibHOH cMepra b coTBopeHHOM MHpe BocKpece- 

HHfl B HOBOM MHpe, TBOpHMOM. 



120 



Jlera OeHHKC, cojmije, Ha 6pw3HyBuiHx Kpwjibnx, ho He cMeit ycra- 
BaTb! EcTb y Te6n yacac, OeHHKc: hto c to6oh 6yaeT, Koraa tw noiiMeinb, 
hto CKOJibKO 6w pa3 tw hh BOCKpec, th pa3JieraiiibCfl npaxoM OnHTb H 
omrrb? Tw 6ecKOH6HHoe hhcjio pa3 npHJieraiiib Ha cboh KOCTep HcnwTaTb 

MyKH COHOKeHHfl. 

Ho OeHHKC jno6oBbK) npeoflOJieBaeT cMepTb. H e^Ba oh cicaaceT «da 
6ydem» CMepTH, yacacHeTCH 6e3rjia3an cnyTHHua AHeft h KaK C(|)hhkc 
pa3BeeTCH. H e^Ba o^eHeT KpacHyio 6arpnHHijy orHH, yace npoxjia^Hbift 
BeTepoK 3ainenHeT eMy: «Bo3BpamaeTCH, onHTb B03BpamaeTCH». H 6ec- 
CMepTHe Ha Kpwjibnx MHpa coft^eT k HeMy. H BoccTaHeT b TperaH jxenb 
no nHcaHHio. 

H CKaaceT: «Bo3BpaTHjiocb ko MHe 6eccMepTHe moc Oho, TOJibKO oho, 

TJIH^HT Ha MeHH CKB03b 5KH3Hb H CMepTb». 

Myflpeu 

Bw, Myapeijbi, cTaBiiiHe 4>eHHKcaMH! Bw H^eTe no MjienHOMy 
nyra. Mjichhwh nyTb - npHropuiHH ijeHHOCTeft, pa36pocaHHbix b MHpe. 
MjienHbiH nyTb - moct, nepepe3aBuiHH He6o. Hon BauiHMH HoraMH o6pwB 
yacaca. Hto6w CTynHTb aajibuie, bh co3flaeTe HOByio ijeHHOCTb. H, co3^aB, 
npeo^ojieBaeie. H TBopHTe HOByio ueHHOCTb. H, co3^aB, npeoaojieBaeTe. 
TaK npo^ojiMcaeTCH 6e3 Komja, 6e3 KOHija. Be3 KOHija h co3^aeTe, h npeoflo- 
jieBaeTe. 

Bw - KOMeTbi, 6e3yMHO paaocTHbie, 6e3yMHO pBymne hckohh TKaHH 
nepHoro Mpana. CaMO 6bi™e 3a njienaMH KaMeHeiomeft hctophh - hc- 
kphhoh, jierKHH, nepHCTbifi xboct komcthmh, npo3paHHan pH3a jieTame- 
ro Myapeija. H ot pH3bi 6ecKOHeHHoft 6ecKOHenHO 3auBeTaeT MpaK hohh 
flojirofi. 

Myapeu; o6epTWBaeTCH Ha cboio pray, pacnjiacTaHHyio b He6e Kpw- 
jiaTWM B03ayuiHbiM napycoM. Oh y3HaeT MJienHbift nyTb. H TyMaHHOCTH. 
H njiaHeTHbie CHCTeMw. Bee y3HaeT oh, co3epijaH CKJia^KH pH3w cBoefi. 
Oh y3HaeT MHpoByio 5KH3Hb njiaHeT. Oh y3HaeT B03HHKHOBeHHe HapoflOB. 
Oh bhott ce6n caMoro, 6pomeHHoro b KpyroBopoT 6biTHH. Oh cMeeT- 
ch ce6e caMOMy. Oh Bjno6jieHHO cmotpht Ha ce6n. Oh B3biBaeT: «IlpHflH 
ko MHe». H ^ajieKHH 3ob ero, KaK 3apn, npoHHKaeT b coh, r^e oh caM ce6e 
chhtch. H eMy, apyroMy, 3aKOBaHHOMy b coh, chhtch 3apn h neft-TO mh- 
jibiit 3HaKOMbiii tojioc, 30BymHH jiacKOBWM ycnoKoeHHeM: «ripHflH ko MHe, 
npHflH, TpyaczjaiomHHCH. 51 ycnoKOK). ripHflH, npnflH»... 

TaK My^peu co3epijaeT HanepTaHHH pa3BenHHbix pH3 cbohx. TaK My- 
jxpeu, 3a6bmaeT ce6n, norpyacancb b cboh co6cTBeHHbiH coh. H rpe3HTCH 
eMy 6ecKOHeHHOCTb 6mthh. Ho ctoht noBepHyTb 3aByajieHHbift jihk cboh, 
KaK npea B3opoM ero pa3Bep3aeTCH KapTHHa co3Be3^HH, cpe^H KOTopwx oh 
6poineH b cTpeMHTejibHOM nepeMeHHHBOM nojieTe. 



121 



Myapeij - KpHKJiHBaa KpacHaa jiacTOHKa, peacyman nycTOTy HOHeii 
nojieTOM h necHbio BeceHHeii. 

JlerKoe o6jiaKO pH3, Koraa o6epH6TCH Myapeij Ha CBoe npouuioe, cjiara- 
eTCH Rjin. Hero b 3acTbiBinHH o6pa3 C(J)HHKca. 06jiaHHoe HanepiaHHe, ny- 
uihcto B3BenHHoe b He6e, oKaMeHeBaeT. 

Ho C(J)hhkc - TOJibKO HanepTaHHe Ha cjiennmeM nepe (J)eHHKCo- 
bom. 3apeBbie nepbH OeHHKca HcnempeHbi, KaK naBJiHHbH nepbH, ona- 
mh MpaHHbiMH c(J)hhkcob. TaK 3apn HCHcLH #a paaocTHan, HcnempeHHan 
TynKaMH T6MHWMH, HanoMHHaeT jieonap^oByio uiKypy, npoTHHyTyio y 

T0pH30HTa. 

JleonapAOBa^ LUKypa 

Jleonap^OBaH uiKypa 3apH paHHT cep^ije HecjibixaHHoft 6jih30- 

CTbK). TaM - B^aJIH, BflaJIH - HCKOHH 3ByHHT JIIOflHM TaiiHa nocjie^HHH, - 

coeAHHHiomaH TaiiHa hch3hh h cMep™. 

H jieonapaoBan 3apn BCTaeT h b ycrpeMJieHHH ayxa k BenHbiM TaiiHaM 

peJIHrH03HbIM, H B HCnOJIHCHHOH CTpaCTH My3bIKe UbiraHCKHX pOMaHCOB. 

Tojioc ApeBHHH noeT HaM o tom ace, Bee o tom ace. H ecjiH noinjiocTb ono- 
injiHJia necHH ijbiraH onieBbie, BHHOBaTbi jih mm, hto jiio6hm hx, He no- 
uijiocTbio, a 3apeii BOCKpecaiomero 6eccMepTHH? UpeBnuA tojioc 6yflTO 
erHneTCKoro 6eccMepTHH, pa3pbiBan cepwe Tynn nouuiocTH 3apeS Jieo- 
napaoBOH, ckbo3ht b pa3pbiBax uey&jxy cjiOBaMH. H 3flecb tboh tojioc, 
EraneT, 

B HaneBax CTapnecKHx tboh iohmh ayx hchbct. 
TaK b xope mojiqzjom: Ax, cjibiwuuib, pa3yMeeuib! - 
UwraHKa CTapaa o/jHa eme noeT. 

Oem 

H, cjiyinan tojioc EranTa CKB03b pna ctojicthh, flOHecniHxcH k HaM 
b necHHx ubiraHCKHX, mm tobophm ce6e: «,Zla, aa. Cjimihhm h pa3yMeeM». 
Bee mm 6e3yMHO jho6hm necHH ijbiraHCKHe, KaK jik)6hji hx TaHHOBH^eu 

IlyillKHH. 

Eapxaraan uiKypa 3apn pa36pocaeT no He6y h 30jioto, h 6arpeij. 
H 30JiOTwe 3opH caMOo6o»cecTBJieHHH, h KpacHwe 3opH rojirocJ)bi 
o^HHaKOBO coaepacaTCH b jieonapaoBOH 3apeBOH niKype. H He caM jih 
OeHHKc BocKpeceHHH npojieTaeT b ayine Hanieft, Koraa Ha ochhhhom 
ropH30HTe npoTHHeTCH jieonapAOBan uiKypa. He tjih^h jih Ha Hee, no#- 
cjiyniaji bcjikkhh My3biKaHT jichtmothb IIapcH(j)ajiH, a Hnmiie-TO yac 
HecoMHeHHO Tor^a hmchho h B3flbixaji o 30jiotoh Kanjie cnacTbH - 30- 

JIOTOTO BHHa. 



122 



IloflCJiymaTb tojioc Bee tot ace, Hac c 3apefi TaK 6apxaTH0 npH3WBaio- 
mHH, He 3HaHHT jih CTaTb (J)eHHKCOM? Mm Bee HeMHoro 4>eHHKCbi Ha 3ape. 

H eCJIH XOTb pa3 B 3KH3HH Mbl CTaHOBHMCH (J)eHHKCaMH, 3HaHHT, TafiHa Oe- 

HHKca c HaMH. OHa Hac jik>6ht, KaK HeBecTa aceHHxa. BapxaTHo noaicpa- 
AWBaeTCH OHa, OHa uejiyeT Hac - MHJian, MHJiaa, MHJian cepauy (J)eHHKcoBa 
TaiiHa - 3apH. 

H aepeBbH inyMHT Ha 3ape: «Bo3BpamaeTCH... 06i>HBHCb... Tw onHTb 
OeHHKC... Tw BOCCTaji H3 nenjia... Bpbi3HyBiHHM kpwjiom pa36eft B03flyin- 
Hoe 3epKano He6ec»... 

- Kto tw? Kto? 

- 3to - h, h... Ilo6yflb co mhoh, no6yAb co mhoh. Be3 mchh tw BJia- 
hhjich b nycTbme. Haa to6oh penjiH C^hhkcw, tohho nepHwe jiacTOHKH. 
Ax, tw b cepaue CBoeM 3aMwinjiHJi Ka3Hb ce6e h /jeTHM. H no3Bajia Te6n, 
OeHHKC. 51 no3Bajia Te6n. H tw BepHyjiCH k jiio6bh cBoeft... IlnTbcoT jieT 
MHHOBajiH... 51 onHTb c to6oh: 6arpaHHijy othh h Ha^eHy Ha Te6a. OroHb 
H3opBeT TBoe Tejio, a npax h pa3Beio. Ho tw BepHenibca ko MHe b Tperaii 
,zieHb». 

TaK uiennyT .zjepeBbH. Hhkoto KpyroM. IIoTyxaeT 3apa, h B^pyr B03- 
BpamaeTCH nponuioe. 

BcnoMHHaenib, mto aajieKHH 3ob ce6a caMoro npoHHKaeT b coh, r^e 
caM ce6e cHHiiibcn b 6ecnenHOM 6wTHe, b BOCKJiy6HBineMCH o6;iaKe pH3, 
pa3BeHHHOM 3a njienaMH. Tw noBepTWBaeuib jihk cboh ot pH3 cbohx, h 
pa3Bep3aeTCH nacTb MHpa, cpe^H KOTopofi 6poineH b CTpeMHTejibHOM nepe- 
MeHHHBOM nojieTe. 

H jieTHHib KpHKJiHBoii KpacHoit JiacTOHKofi, peacymefi nycTOTy HOHeii 
nojieTOM h necHbio BeceHHeft. 

BocKpecHeT! 

Mw aczjajiH OeHHKca. C acepTBeHHHKOB BcraBaji h3wk njiaMe- 

HH. BblTHTHBaJICH H C5KHMaJICH, JIH3aJI B03flyX HCHWH. >KeHmHHW nJiaKa- 

jih, norpe6a5i toto, KOMy Ha^Jieacajio onoacaTbCH njiaMeHeM. }KeHmHHw 
njiaKajiH, aepaca b pyKax ypHw, hto6w npHHHTb b hhx ero cohokchhwh 
npax. 

H npHineji OeHHKC. H B3oineji Ha KOCTep, Tonna 6ocwmh HoraMH H3W- 
kh acapKHe njiaivieHH. Ero 6ejiwe pH3w B3BHxpHJiHCb npaxoM, a »cejie3Han 
aecHHi^a cxBarajiacb 3a cepflije. Ho cepwe ohh bhacjih aajin, h My ^cecTBeH - 
ho 6opojicH c MyneHHeM cbohm. 

Bejiwe pH3w OeHHKca Hnijine B3BHxpHJiHCb, ho oh npHHHji H3 pyK 
BeHHOCTH 6arpHHHuy orHH. H OHa coaerjia ero Tejio. H aceHmHHw, KaK 
aeeHw mhpohochijw, co6HpajiH b ypHy ero pa3BeaHHWH npax. 



123 



Bot Ha 3ape TpeTbero nun pacnaxHercH rpo6HHija. Bot oh k HaM Bbifi^eT 
BOCKpecuiHM. yBH^HT pbmaiomyio - cicaaceT eii: «Hy, nero tbi njianeuib, no 
MHe njianenib? IIocmotph, Be^b rpo6HHua nycTa. H c to6ok> OTHbme h ro 
Beica, xoth Tbi eme b MHpe, a a y»c He b MHpe. 51 ocTaBajica BepHbiM 3eMjie. 
OTOaBaji Tejio CBoe Ha coaoiceHHe. 51 pacnaaajicn nenjiOM. H bot BOCCTaji, 
BoccTaji BepHbiH 3eMjie h He6y». 

OxMeJieHHblH BHHOM 3apH, OH B03JI03KHT Ha HaC CBOH 30JIOTbie, - OT 

CBeTa, - npenHCTbie yTpeHHHe pyKH. Bot mm paflocrao pa30H#eMCH, npn- 

HOCfl BeCTb O TOM, HTO HCeJiaHHafl TaHHa OTKpblJiaCb, H HTO BOCKpeC H3 MepT- 

bwx OeHHKc Hhuihc 

1906 



CMMB0J1M3M 

M COBPEMEHHOCTb 



KPM3MC C03HAHMH M TEHPMK MBCEH 



I 

Mm nepe^CHBaeM KpH3HC. 

HHKor^a eme ocHOBHbie nporaBopenHH HejioBenecKoro co3Ha- 
hhh He cTajiKHBajiHCb b ayuie c TaKofl ocrpoTofi; HHKoraa eme ayajiH3M 
Meacay co3HaHHeM h nyBCTBOM, co3epijaHHeM h BOJiefl, jiHHHOCTbio h o6me- 

CTBOM, HayKOH H pejIHrHeH, HpaBCTBeHHOCTbK) h KpacoToii He 6bIJI TaK ot- 

MeTjiHBO Bbipa^ceH. 

/Iyajiu3M Meotcdy co3nanueM u uyecmeoM. 

HauiH nyBCTBa o6ocTpeHbi, yr;iy6jieHbi, hctohhchm; b ce6e caMHx yMe- 
eM mw nepeacHBaTb He TOJibKO bcio nojiHOTy OKpyacaiomeft fleftcTBHTejib- 
hocth, ho h bcio nojiHOTy Hedeucmeumejimocmeu, Be/jOMbix HaM H3 nosTH- 
MecKHX CKa30K, pejiHrH03Hbix mh(|)ob h TaK hcho HaM Tenepb roBopnmeH 
mhcthkh; nyBCTBOM KaK 6bi npoHHKaeM mm b peajiH3M CKa3KH; nyBCTBOM mw 

2KHBCM BO MHOrHX MHpaXJ Mbl HyBCTByeM He TOJibKO TO, MTO BHflHM H OCH3a~ 

eM, ho h to, hto HHKOiyja He BH^ajiH r;ia3aMH, He ocH3ajiH opraHaMH nyBCTB; 
b 3thx HeBe^OMbix, HecKa3yeMbix nyBCTBax OTKpwBaeTCH nepea hsmh mhp 
TpaHCiieH^eHTHoii aeiicTBHTejibHOCTH, nojiHoit /jcmohob, ayui h 6oacecTB; 
nyBCTBO o6H3WBaeT Hac 6biTb MHCTHKaMH; h fleficTBHTejibHo, HHKor^a eme 
He 6buio TaKoro KOJiHHecTBa KyjibTypHbix jHoaefi, OTKa3aBiiiHxcH ot npe/j- 
paccy^KOB h nepeacHTKOB npouijioro, KOTopwe 6bi npoBO^HJiH cboh aocyr 

3a HTeHHeM (J)aHTaCTHHeCKHX n03M, MHCTHMeCKHX KOHUeni^HH; 5KH3Hb nyB- 
CTBa y hhx - b HeH3peneHHOM. Hx ace co3HaHHe? Hx co3HaHHe o6ocTpeHO, 
yrjiy6jieHO, hctohhcho: HHKor^a eme npo6jieMbi co3HaHHH He craBHjiHCb c 
TaKOH OTneTjiHBOcTbio, KaK b HauiH ahh; co3HaHHe b Hac 06 OKpyacaiomeft 

HaC ^eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH? HO OHO BbipaacaeTCH B 3HaHHH 3TOH fleftCTBHTeJIb- 

hocth. 3HaHHe ^eiicTBHTejibHocTH? Ho oho pa3JiaraeTCH b MHoroo6pa3HH 
HayHHbix MeTOflOB, He Bceiyja CBeaeHHbix k e^HHCTBy. Co3HaHHe e^HHCTBa? 

Ho OHO - B e/JHHCTBe CaMOC03HaHHH; e^HHCTBO ace CaMOC03HaHHH CKa3bI- 
BaeTCH B CHCTeMe nOHHTHH O fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH. TaK, BMeCTO C03HaHHH 

^eiicTBHTejibHOCTH nepea hsmh HeKOTopoe MHoropa3JiHHHe tohhmx 3Ha- 
hhh h czjhhctbo no3HaBaTejibHbix npHHi^HnoB, hx onpeaejiHiomHX. Bmccto 

C03HaHHH nepe,fli HaMH - 3HaHH5I H TeopHH 3HaHHH. HO, MOECeT 6bITb, C03Ha- 

HHe Haine onpeaejineTCH co3HaHHeM b Hac Haniero A Haiue «h»? Oho 



126 



0Ka3biBaeTCH to cbh3i>k) ncHXHHecKHx b Hac npoTeKaiomnx npoijeccoB, h, 
KaK TaKOBoe, co3HaHHe o HaineM «h» 0Ka3WBaeTCH npe^MeTOM H3yneHHH 
oflHoft H3 Hayn; a to co3HaHHe o HaineM «h» OKa3biBaeTcn e^HHCTBOM no- 
3HaBaTe;ibHbix npHHUHnoB, Bceo6mHx h Heo6xo,zjHMbix; b o6ohx cjiynanx 
Hainero «h» He oica3biBaeTCfl BOBce: oho to otxqzjht k oKpyaeaiomeft aeft- 
CTBHTejibHOCTH, pacTBopflHCb b Heft, to 0Ka3biBaeTCH Bceo6meft h Heo6xo- 
AHMoft HopMoft 6ecKOHeHHoro pa3Hoo6pa3HH HH^HBHayajibHOCTeft; Haine 
«h» OKa3WBaeTCH b nocjie^HeM cjiynae b Hac npoHBjiniomHMCH npHHijH- 
noM; h 3tot npHHijHn - no3HaBaTe;ibHbift. Co3HaHHe b Hac Hauiero KaK 
h co3HaHHe b Hac oKpyacaiomeft aeftcTBHTejibHOc™, KaK cKopo co3HaHHe 
3to npHBOflHTCH k OTHeTJiHBocTH, pa3jiaraeTCH b pnfl npo6jieM H OTHOUie- 
hhh Meacay no3HaHHeM h 3HaHHeM; ho hto6h no3HaHHe h 3HaHHe 6hjih 
hcthhhwmh, ot Hac Tpe6yeTca OTpeineHHe ot hchboto nyBCTBOBaHHH b Hac 
HejiOBenecKoro PeuieHHe npo6;ieMbi co3HaHHH b no3HaHHH h 3HaHHH 
y6HBaeT b co3HaHHH Bee nejiOBenecKoe, a cjie^OBaTejibHo, y6HBaeT npeacae 
Bcero nyBCTBo; BCHKoe co3HaHHe HppaijHOHajibHocTH Hainero «h», Bee sth 
H3HyTpH omymaeMbie b Hac o6pa3bi HaM He aaHHoft aeftcTBHTejibHoc™, - 
aaaee 6ojiee toto: bch echbo nepeacHBaeMaa b nyBCTBe aeftcTBHTejibHocrb 
OKa3biBaeTCH BpeAHbiM npH^aTKOM, y KOToporo nocTaHOBKa npo6jieM co- 
3HaHHH OKa3biBaeTCH HeHy^cHoft; co3HaHHe, npe^cTaB HaM b cjioaoioft 
CHCTeMe B3aHM00TH0ineHHft MenKxy no3HaHHeM h 3HaHHeM, y6HBaeT hch- 
BOomymaeMyio b Hac MHCTHKy nyBCTB; MHCTHKa nyBCTBa, npHBeaeHHaa 

K 3HaHHK), OKa3bIBaeTCH TJiaBOft nCHXO(|)H3HOJIOrHH: MHCTHKa HyBCTBa, 

npHBefleHHaa k no3HaHHio, OKa3biBaeTca oTHeceHHoft k o6T>eKTHBHoft aeft- 
CTBHTejibHOCTH; 3Ta ace nocjie^HHH npe^onpe^ejieHa noHHraeM o aeftcTBH- 

TeJIbHOCTH; pejIHrH03Hblft 3KCTa3 06yCJI0BJIHBaeTCH nCHXO(f)H3HHeCKHM 

npoueccoM, nosTHnecKaa CKa3Ka, yrjiy6jiHiomafl nyBCTBO, - OTpaaceHHeM 
b Hac npoijeccoB nHTaHHH Hainero opraHH3Ma. Bor - CMyTHoft 6peflHeft co- 
3HaHHH, CMeuieHHeM nyBCTBa h mhcjih, a caMbie yneHHH o pe;iHrH03Hoft 
hch3hh, Bee 3th njieHHiomHe Hac ILiothhm, BeMe, Psftc6pyKH - »cajiKH- 
mh nyTaHHKaMH, o6jieKaiomHMH ecTecTBeHHbie OTnpaBjieHHH opraHH3Ma b 
oaeacflbi nosTHnecKHx mh4>ob, hjih o6parao: ocKBepHHTejiHMH H^eajibHoft 
hchocth npHBHeceHHeM b H,zjeajiH3M rpy6wx nyBCTBeHHbix B036y»caeHHft. 
Ho TyT MHp coBpeMeHHoro co3HaHHH BCTynaeT b nporaBopeHHe c 

yrJiy6jieHHbIM H yTOHHeHHbIM MHpOM HyBCTBOBaHHft, C TOHKH 3peHHH ko- 

Toporo caMbie MeTa(J)H3HKH h mhcthkh cyTb KJiaccH(|)HKaijHH 3TanoB nyTH 
ecTecTBeHHO yrjiy6jineMbix nyBCTB; yniy6jiHeMoe nyBCTBO bh^ht CBoe bh- 
paaceHHe aaace b caMHx no3HaBaTejibHbix npo6;ieMax; tohkocth no3HaHHft 
cyTb CHMBOjiw yTOHHeHHbix HyBCTB; yrjiy6^neMoe co3HaHHe b TeopHH no- 
3HaHHft, Hao6opoT, caMyio aaHHocTb nyBCTB npe^onpeaejiHeT no3HaBa- 
TejibHoft KaTeropneft. 

A nejiOBeK HaniHx flHeft nocjie echbotc) nyBCTBOBaHHH b coBpeMeHHoc™ 
no3THnecKoft cKa3KH, nocjie H3yneHHH mhcthkob, TaK bhhtho roBopnmHx 



127 



eMy o tom, hto caMaa cica3Ka ecTb chmbojihhcckoc OTo6paaceHHe TpaHC- 
ueHfleHTHoro MHpa, nocjie Bcex nojieTOB h MHCTepHH nyBCTB npHHHMaeTCH 
3a KHHra KoreHa, Tyccepjin, r^e MHcrepHH no3HaHHH 3aKJiK)HaeTCH b tom, 
hto6w y6HTb Bee, neM hchbo nyBCTBO, r,ae BCHKoe yTOHneHHe nyBCTBa pac- 
CMaTpHBaeTCH KaK B03MoacHocTb 3arpH3H6HHH no3HaHHH. B pe3yjibTaTe - 
TpH THna HCKajieneHHbix jno^eft: thii nejioBeKa, OTHaHBinerocn npHMHpHTb 
no3HaHHe c nepeacHBaHHeM h paan rapMOHHH co3HaHHH yMepmBjiniomero 
nyBCTBa; nejiOBeica, npoB03i\7iacHBinero MHCTepnio nyBCTB e,ztfiHCTBeHHWM 
KpHTepneM 3HanHMOCTH; HaKOHeu, 6ecnyBCTBeHHoro h MepTBoro cKenTHKa 
b nacbi no3HaHHH h nyBCTByiomero (J)aHTacTa b nacw nepeacHBaHHii; nep- 
bwh thii pa3BHBaeTCH b coBpeMeHHOcra b pnaax nocjie^oBaTejibHbix tho- 
ceojioroB; BTopoii thii cymecTByeT cpe^H 6ecHHCJieHHbix Tenepb Mo^epHH- 
ctob; TpeTHii THn name Bcero ecTb thii CKenraica, xoth pa3,aBoeHHe 3flecb 
yica3biBaeT Ha npoaojiaeaiomyiocH (xoth 6w h ckphto) 6opb6y Meaeay co- 

3HaHHeM H HyBCTBOM. 

He jinn nocjieflOBaTejibHbix rHOceojioroB nncaji TeHpHK H6ceH cboh 
H3yMHTejibHbie apaMbi; nocjieaoBaTejibHoro raoceojiora c ero HCH3HeHHWM 

3MnHpH3MOM CMyTHT MHp CHMBOJIOB B H6ceHOBCKHX flpaMax; HO H He flJIH 

^eKa^eHTa-^aHTacTa 3th apaMw HanncaHw; coBpeMeHHbiH 4>aHTacT CTOJib 
ace Majio TparnneH, KaK h raoceojior; coBpeMeHHbiH (JraHTacT HaiJaeT pe30- 
HepcTBO b TBopnecTBe H6ceHa; rjih. Hero cjioacHwe Bonpocw, 3aTpoHyTbie 
H6ceHOM, - «mo3zojiozur»: coBpeMeHHbiH 4>aHTacT npe^noHTeT cthjih30- 
BaHHyio nocTaHOBKy cpeflHeBeKOBwx apaM h Coc|)OKJiy, h H6ceHy. H6ceH 
nncaji cboh apaMbi rjix Tex, kto, He npnnacb ot mhcthkh nyBCTB, He npn- 

HeTCH H OT C03HaHHH; KTO JiejX n03HaHHH COeflHHHeT C OrHeM HyBCTBJ apaMbi 

H6ceHa HanncaHw He rjik H3o6paaceHHH Tpare^HH Ha cijeHe; ohh - CHraaji, 
6poiueHHbiH TeM, kto b caMoft xch3hh nepeacHBaeT Tpare^Hio. H6ceH e^Ba 
jih He e^HHCTBeHHbiH BejiHKHH TparHK Hauieii snoxn: TaK ace, KaK h Hhu- 
ine, oh He nepeacHT. Mo^a Ha H6ceHa b HacroHmee BpeMH yace KOHHHJiacb; 
nocjie snoxH yBjieneHHH H6ceHOM nepeacnjiH mw yBjieneHHe MeTepjiHH- 
kom, GrpHH^eproM, roc|)MaHCTajieM, yaiuibflOM, aaace BeaeKHHflOM, aaace 
IIiuH6biiHeBCKHM; yace caMbift 4>aKT CTOJib 6wcTporo oxjiaacaeHHH k H6ce- 
Hy b no;ib3y HecoH3MepHMo MeHbHiHx no 3HaneHHio aBTopoB, Bpoae Be^e- 
KHH^a, yKa3bmaeT Ha to, hto h BOBce mw H6ceHa He 3HaeM. 

JXyajiu3M MeoKdy C03epi^anueM u eojieu: yTOHneHHe nyBCTB; MHCTHKa 
HauiHx nepeacHBaHHH 6pocaeT TeHb Ha OKpyacaiomyio Hac aeiicTBHTejib- 
HocTb; aeiicTBHTejibHOCTb npeacTaeT HaM npeo6paaceHHoii; mw cmotphm 
Ha Hee CKB03b npH3My smouhh; b 3aBHCHMOcra ot ocHOBHoro xapaKTepa 
HauiHx smoijhh fleftcTBHTejibHOCTb npHo6peTaeT Rjin Hac oco6wh ottchok; 
OHa npe^CTaeT npea HaMH b tom hjih hhom crajie; Bee paccyjKaeHHH JXtko- 
Ha PecKHHa o KpacoTe ocHOBaHw Ha npeanojioaceHHH co3epuaHHH smoijhh 
npeo6paaceHHOH ^eftcTBHTejibHocTHi xyzjoacecTBeHHwe hikojiw b HCKyc- 
CTBe, CTHJib pa3JiHHHbix 3nox HBjineTCH Tenepb pa3JiHHHO OKpameHHoii 



128 



aeHCTBHTejibHocTbio; npefleraBjieHHe o MHpe hckycctb KaK MHpe Hflen He 
npeOTOJiaraeT jih peajibHoe nocTHaceHHe pa3JiHHHbix CTHjieft fleftcTBHTejib- 
hocth, no-pa3HOMy npeo6pa^ceHHbix nyBCTBOM? Kor^a 3to npeo6pa»ceHHe 

CTaHOBHTCH 06T>eKT0M C03epijaHHfl, TOr^a TOJIbKO MOHCeM Mbl TOBOpHTb o 

hhctom co3epuaHHH IljiaTOHOBbix Hfleft b uioneHrayspoBCKOM CMbicjie; 
inoneHrayapoBCKan MeTa(J)H3HKa, npeAnncbiBaiomaH HaM B3I7IHA Ha MHp 
KaK Ha 3CTeTHHecKHH 4>eHOMeH, npeanojiaraeT co3epijaTejibHoe OTHouie- 
HHe k MHpy yace pa3BHTHM; HHane OHa jiornnecKH ociaeTCH HenoHHTHoii; 
to, hto 3acTaBJineT Hac ee noHHTb H3HyTpH, ecTb co3epijaHHe ^eiiCTBHTejib- 
hocth, npeo6paaeeHHOH mhcthkoh nyBCTB; caMan ace MeTacj)H3HKa, nocTpo- 
eHHaH Ha 3toh mhcthkc, ecTb Jinuib CTpeMJieHHe onpaB^aTb peajibHo cyme- 
CTByiomyK) b Hac noTpe6HOCTb k co3epuaHHio; co3epijaHHe jiokht b ochobc 

3CTeTHHeCK0H KyJIbTypbl, HHTepeC K CTHJIK) pa3JIHHHWX 3nOX, CMaKOBaHHe 

pa3JiHHHbix 3CTeTHnecKHx noapo6HOCTeH; TexHHKa Tor^a CTaHOBHTcn ca- 

MOUeJIbK); B03HHKaeT KyjIbT KpaCOTbl, pa3BHBaK)mHHCH H3 nOTpe6HOCTH K 
C03epuaHHK); C03epijaHHe, TO eCTb OTKa3 OT BOJIH K ACHCTBHK), CTaHOBHTCH 

ijejibio; C03epijaHHe, noHHToe KaK caMoijejib, npeanojiaraeT MeTacJ)H3HKy 
h MHCTHKy; TaKOH MeTa4>H3HKOH hbjihctch CHCTeMa IIIoneHrayspa; TaKoii 
mhcthkoh hbjihctch MHCTHKa BocroKa; bot noneMy co3epuaTejibHan Me- 
Ta(J)H3HKa KpacoTbi CMyTHO omymaeTCH b xyztoacHHKe, KaK npH3WB k 6ec- 
i^ejibHOCTH b HCKyccTBe; pa3BHBaeTCH TeopHH HCKyCCTBa flJIH HCKyCCTBa H3 
3toh noTpe6HOCTH k co3epijaHHK); h aajiee: b3tjiha Ha HCKyccTBO, KaK Ha 
caMOijejib, He HMea HHKaKoro npjiMoro onpaBflaHHH, nepexoflHT b yneHHe o 
MHoroo6pa3HH KyjibTypHbix naMHTHHKOB KpacoTbi; b KyjibType, b Bocnpo- 
H3BeAeHHH pa3JiHHHbix CTHjieii, nmeT cBoe onpaBflaHHe screraKa co3epija- 

HHH; BCeB03M05KHbie CnOCo6bI CTHJIH30BaTb, KaK H nOTpe6HOCTb BOCnpOH3- 

Bo^HTb cthjih, ecTb jiHuib CTpeMJieHHe k co3epijaHHK), npeanojiaraiomee 
OTKa3 ot bojih, ycnoKoeHHe b 6e3AeiicTBHH; b ochobc 3CTeTH3Ma jieacm 

HHCTO HHrHJIHCTHHeCKOe OTHOUieHHe K OKpyacaiOmeft TteHCTBHTeJIbHOCTHJ 

ho 3CTeTH3M nacro nepexo^HT b CBoe npoTHBonojioaoioe. 

yMeHHe BOCnpOH3BOOTTb CTHJIH nOKOHTCH Ha OC060M 3CTeTHHeCKOM 

BHHMaHHH k co3epijaeMOH 3noxe; cTHJiH3aijHH, HBjiHiomancH pe3yjibTaTOM 

3CTeTHHeCKOrO C03epuaHHH TOH HJIH HHOH 3nOXH, TeX HJIH HHHX paCOBWX 

oco6eHHOCTeii, npeanojiaraeT o6mne npHHijHnbi cthjih ono3HaHHbiMH; 
crajib ecTb Ta hjih HHaa screTHHecKaa cxeMa, rpynnnpyiomaH mcjiohh 
snoxn; co3epijaHHe, ocBo6o5K/jaH Hac ot Bcex HacTHocreH, o6HaacaeT nepea 
HaMH 3Ty cxeMy; TaKan cxeMa ecTb, b cymHOcra, IljiaTOHOBa Hflen b moneH- 
rayspoBCKOM CMbicjie; pa3BHBaiomaHCfl cnoco6HOCTb k co3epuaHHio poac- 
^aeT npe/t HaMH h TaKHe cxeMbi b oKpyacaiomeft ^eftcTBHTejibHOCTH, koto- 
pbie He jieacaT b ochobc hh oahoi-o cthjih; TaK hbjihctch cboh co6cTBeHHbiii 
opHrHHajibHbiii CTHJib co3epijaHHH. KaK CKopo coBepmaeTCH TaKOH nepe- 

XOfl K C06cTBeHH0My CTHJIK), 3CTCTH3M y>Ke He HMeeT MeCTai BCHKOe CHJIb- 

ho BbipaaceHHoe xyaoacecTBeHHoe TBopnecTBO conpnaceHO c Bbipa6oTKOH 



129 



co6cTBeHHoro cthjih. Hapnay co cthjicm scchphhckhm, rpenecKHM cth- 
jieM apaM, roTHKOH mm M05K6M roBopHTb o CTHjie Hnijiiie. B CymHOCTH, BCH 
4>hjioco(J)hh Hnijiiie iiokohtch Ha co6ctbchhom crajie; Te hjih HHbie pac- 
cyacaeHHH ero Ha Ty hjih HHyio TeMy ecTb, b cymHOCTH, otbct opnrHHajib- 

HOrO CTHJIH Ha TOT HJIH HHOH KOHKpeTHblH CJiyHaft 5KH3HH; (j)HJIOCO(j)HH 

Hnuiiie ecTb TaKan ace cth jiH3aijHH , KaK h pa6oTbi aHrjiHHCKHx npepac^aa- 
jihtob; ho ecTb KopeHHan nepTa, OT/jejiniomaH CTHjib Hnmiie ot cthjih npe- 
pa4>a3JiHTOB. CTHJib Hnmiie opHrHHajieH; oh He HMeeT BToporo no,ao6Horo 

Ce6e B HCTOpHH. H, MeECfly npOHHM, T60pHH ero npHMO npOTHBOnOJIO^CHbl 

TeopHHM HHCToro co3epuaHHn: Hnijiiie npoB03rjiaiiiaeT fleftcTBHe: OTKa3 ot 
co3epuaHHH h yTBep^eHHe bojih k aeiicTBy oh nponoBeayeT; Meacay Te\i 
nponoBe^b ero npHMO BbiTeKaeT H3 pa3BHBiuerocH co3epuaHHH. 

IIpOTHBopeHHe MejK^y C03epijaHHeM h BOJieft b 6ojiee yrjiy6jieHHbix 
njiacTax nepeacHBaHHii cHHMaeTcn; o6Hapy5KHBaeTCH ycnjiHBaiomHHCH 
pocT bojih b caMOM co3epuaHHH; sjieMeHT BHHMaHHH, npHcymnii bo bch- 
kom co3epuaHHH, cBH3aH c BOjieH; c poctom choco6hocth K C03epijaHHK) 
BHHMaHHe pa3BHBaeTCH, a BMecTe c BHHMaHHeM pa3BHBaeTCH bojih; Hanajio 
BCHKoro co3epuaHHH ecTb, b cymHOCTH, «Mne eudumcx*; «Mne eudumca* 
nepexo^HT b peuiHTejibHoe «h euotcy»; «h euwy* aajiee CTaHOBHTCH «h xony 
eudemb maK-mo»; b stot momcht CHHMaeTcn npoTHBopeMHe Meaeay boji- 
HeHHeM h co3epuaHHeM; bojih k 5KH3HH craHOBHTCH Bojieft k co3epqaHHio; 
bojih k co3epijaHHK) ecTb hctomhhk bchkoto meopuecmea; aKTHBHan ace 

pOJIb TBOpMeCTBa B H3MeHeHHH yCJIOBHH 6bITHH HpKO Bbipa^CeHa B HCTOpHH 

MejioBenecTBa. 

MeHHeTCH TOMKa npHji05KeHHH bojih, a BOBce He ynpa3flHneTCH caMan 
bojih, KaK to nojiaraji IIIoneHrayap. Ilpeacfle stoh tohkoh npHjioaceHHH 

6bIJIH yCJIOBHH aaHHOrO MHe 6bITHH (3MnHpHMeCKOH aeHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH), 

Tenepb tohkoh npnjioaceHHH bojih CTajia cnoco6HocTb Bocco3,aaHHH fleft- 
CTBHTejibHoc™ b o6pa3ax xyfloacecTBeHHoro h yMCTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa; 
a 3th o6pa3bi, ecjiH b hhx CHJibHo Bbipa^ceHO TBopnecKoe Hanajio, craHo- 
bhtch aojiroe BpeMH pbinaroM, nepeBopanHBaiomHM fleftcTBHTejibHOCTb; 
jiHHHan bojih k ^eiicTBHK) He npeKparajiacb: 0Ha Haimia ce6e jiHiiib flpyroft, 

OKOJIbHblH nyTb. 

Bojih k deucmewo ecTb TaftHbift hjih hbhwh bmboa BCHKoro rjiy6oKo- 
ro TBopnecTBa, oco3HaHHoro hjih Heoco3HaHHoro; eojin k co3epi^anwo ecTb 
ocHOBa Toro TBopnecTBa; npxMoe bjihhhhc jihmhoh bojih b TBopnecTBe 
nepexo^HT b nenpaMoe; crpeMJieHHe k npnMOMy yTBepjK^eHHio Toro hjih 
HHoro 3^ecb cymecTByeT KaK enymenue nocpe^cTBOM o6pa30B, cthjih h 
npeaonpeaejieHHoro TBopnecKHM cthjicm MHpoco3epuaHHH. B caMOM aejie: 

TaK 6bIJIO C HHIJHie, TaK 6bIBaeT CO BCHKHM nOflJIHHHMM XyflOECHHKOM, (J)H- 
JIOCO(})OM, yHCHblM. 

BHanajie Hnmiie yrjiy6njiCH b H3yneHHe TpeuHH; 3to H3yneHHe 6hjio 
BcecTopoHHe; oh noHHJi CTHJib TpeqHH, to ecTb TBopnecKyio ayuiy ee; ^jih 



130 



Toro hto6m noHHTb h ycBOHTb TpeijHK), eMy HyacHo 6wjio co3epuaHHe, to 
ecTb OTKS3 ot bojih k fleftcTBy; xapaKTepHO, hto b anoxy, Kor^a bch ero 
4)hjioco(J)hh 6bijia cTHjiH3auHeii hm ycBoeHHOH TpeuHH, oh no/maeTca 
bjihhhhio KaK pa3 Toro 4>HJioco(j)a, KOTopbifl apne Bcero pa3BHJI B CHCTeMe 
(J)hjioco(J)hio co3epuaHHH, - IIIoneHrayspa; Koraa ace H3 conpHKOCHOBeHHH 
fpeuHH c oKpyacaiomeH Hnmiie fleftcTBHTejibHOCTbio poacaaeTca cTHJib 
Hnmiie, opHrnHajibHbifi, oh CTaHOBHTca (J>hjioco(J)om aeHCTBHH, npeo6pa- 
30BaHHH, yTBep^caeHHH bojih: IIIoneHrayap OT6pouieH, c BaraepoM nponc- 
xo^ht pa3pwB; co3flaeTCH «3apaTycipa». 

Ho aajiee: Bee ycnjiHBaiomHHCfl pocT TBopnecKoro co3HflaHHH, Bee 60- 
jiee oco3HaBaeMan cHJia TBopnecTBa, Morymero BMeuiHBaTbCH b ycjioBHH 
6wthh, CBH3aHbi c oco3HaHHeM caMoro 6mthh KaK TBopnecKoro npoijecca; 
TBopnecTBO npe^cTaeT HaM KaK fleftcTBHTejibHbiH KopeHb 6mthh; TaK ncn- 
xojiorHH xyao^cecTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa, noKOflmeroca Ha bh^hmom OTKa3e 

OT BOJIH (B C03epuaHHH), C03flaeT (J)HJIOCO(J)HK) 5KH3HeHHOrO TBopnecTBa, 

noKonmerocH Ha yTBepac^eHHH bojih k achctbhio (nyreM bkjhohchhh co- 

3epuaHHH B aCHCTBHTeJIbHOCTb CaMOrO 6bITHfl). BblTHe, KaK KOMnjieKC 

aHeprHH, pa3BHBaiomHHCH BHe MeHH no MexaHHnecKHM 3aKOHaM Heo6xo- 
Ahmocth, CTajiKHBaeTCH c 6wthcm Moero TBopnecKoro yTBepacaaio- 
iijhm ce6a KaK «h» cBo6oflHoe, cnoco6Hoe k H3MeHeHHio caMHx sthx ycjio- 
bhh Heo6xoOTMOCTH. TojibKo TaKoe CTOJiKHOBeHHe poacaaeT Tpare^Hio, to 
ecTb 6opb6y repoa (TBopija) c pokom (oKpyacaiomeH fleftcTBHTejibHOCTbio, 
yTBep^aiomeH ce6a He3aBHCHM0 ot TBopnecKOH bojih); TOJibKO 3jiecb Ha- 
HHHaeTCH noaJiHHHaii KyjibTypa; TaKan TpareflHfl ecTb HepB hctophh. IloKa 
TBopnecKoe co3HaHHe (npe3 oTKa3 ot tohhoh aeficTBHTejibHOCTH, C03H- 
^aHHe co6cTBeHHoro cthjih, oco3HaHHe chjiw TBopnecTBa) He jxovijxeT no 
hcthhho TparHnecKoro B3rjiH^a Ha 5KH3Hb h hctophk) HejioBenecTBa, nofl- 
jihhhwh pecuiU3M meopuecmea, KaK h nofljiHHHMH peajiu3M 6umuH, Heoco- 
3HaHbi. B caMOM jiejie: MexaHHHecKaa BJiacTb OKpyacaiomero Haa ca\ioco- 
3HaHHeM napajiH3yeT bojho, a TOJibKO b ynpaacHeHHH Moen bojih hchb ajm 
MeHH oKpyacaiomHH MHp; Hao6opoT, BJiacTb Ha,zio mhoh Moero Boo6paace- 
hhh, yxofl b co3epuaHHe 3aKpwBaeT ot mchh acHByio aeftcTBHTejibHocTb 

CHOM, CHJia H fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTb KOTOporO B H3MeHeHHH yCJIOBHH 5KH3HH; 

nepBOHanajibHo mm omymaeM b ce6e nse fleftcTBHTejibHocTH (fleftcTBH- 
TejibHocTb BHeuiHero onbiTa h aeftcTBHTejibHocTb onwTa BHyTpeHHero); 
noOTHHHH ce6a BHeuiHeMy onbrry, mw TepneM co3HaHHe CBoero «h»; noa- 
hhhhh ce6n onbiTy BHyTpeHHeMy, mm TaKace pacrBopneM c^hhctbo Hauie- 
ro co3HaHHH b Mope hjijik)3hh; TOJibKO b TpeHHH o6ohx onbiTOB, b 6opb6e 
Haiue «h» omymaeTCH cbo6oahhm «h». 

Co3epuaHHe He ecTb 0TKa3 bojih, a cjio)khmh npoijecc nepeMemeHHH 

TOHKH npHJIO^CeHHH BOJIHJ C03epVfLHUe He MOaceT 6bITb UejIbK); OHO - TOJIb- 

ko cpe^CTBo no-uuoMy B3rjiHHyTb Ha MHp, hto6m HHane k HeMy BepHyTbcn. 
JIo3yHr Hnmne: «Ocmaeaumecb eepmiMu 3eMJie», HMeeT MecTO h b co3ep- 



9 AHflpeft Be^uft 



131 



ijaHHH; y co3epijaHHH ecTb cboh nyTH, cboh ^HHaMHKa; HeaapoM Boctok h 
3ana# b pejiHrH03Hofi npaKTHKe (to ecTb npaKTHKe BHyTpeHHero onwTa) 
Bwpa6oTajiH cboh uiKonu, to ecTb cxeMbi nocTpoeHHH pn^a co3epijaHHH; 
3th cxeMbi nocTpoeHHH C03epuaHHH cyTb cxeMbi nocTpoeHHH CTHJieii; 3th 
cxeMbi hhcto npaKTHnecKHe, vjxe co3epuaHHe, crajib, bhahmmh 0TKa3 ot 

BOJIH eCTb Cpe^CTBO flJIH B03BpaiU6HHH K fleHCTBHK), 3KH3HH H yTBepJK^e- 
HHK) BOJIH, HO nO-HHOMy; He^apOM peJIHTH03HaH uejib BCHKOH npaKTHKH 

co3epuaHHH b boctohhmx uiKOJiax 3Toro C03epijaHHH (HanpHMep, b fiore) 
ecTb aocraHceHHe eceMozymecmea; He^apoM pejiHrH03Hoe npeaaHHe pncy- 
eT HaM jiHua, npouie^uiHe uiKOjiy onwTa co3epuaHHH, KaK nyaoTBopueB, 
cnoco6Hbix BjiHHTb Ha caMbie cyzu>6bi hctophh. 

3cTeTH3M nocjieAHHX AecHTHJieTHii, BJiHHHHe LUoneHrayspa h Hnmiie 
Ha eBponeficKoe o6mecTBO - rjiy6oKo xapaKTepHoe RBJienne: b npoTHBO- 
Bec MaT6pnajiH3ai(HH bhciiihhx ycjiOBHH 5KH3HH, b npoTHBOBec Bee pacTy- 
meii MexaHHKe, crapaiomeH jiHHHocTb, Bcio^y mw bh^hm npoTecryiomee 
npHCHTHOBeHHe co3epuaHHK>; Bpaacae6Haa Hfleojioran Bceijejio o6t>hchh- 
eT pocT 3CTeTH3Ma 6ercTBOM ot hch3hh; ho 0Ha He npaBa ao KOHija; ecjiH 

6erCTBO OT 3KH3HH y HHflHBH#yyMOB, HecnOCo6HbIX CnpaBHTbCH C 5KH3HbK), 

h Bbipa^caeTCH b neccHMH3Me (4>hjioco4)hh co3epijaHHfl), to OTcioaa eme 
He cjieayeT 3aKJiK)HeHHe o 6ccchjihh co3epuaHHH, 6eccHJiHH 3CTeTH3Ma 
KaK ncHxojiorHHecKOH noanoHBbi nofljiHHHoro TparH3Ma; KaK ctopohhhkh 
3CTeTHHecKoii KyjibTypw, TaK h Bparn ee npocMaTpHBaioT o^hh cymecTBeH- 
hmh npH3HaK BCHKoro co3epuaHHH; ero BOJiioHTapHCTHHecKHH xapaKTep; 
b co3epuaHHH MeHneTCH pycjio bojih, ho BOBce He coBepiuaeTcn OTKa3 ot 
Hee; pocT co3epijaHHH BeaeT k HOBOMy TBopnecTBy KyjibTypHbix ijeHHO- 
CTefi (noKa3aTejib, hto bojih Haimia CBoe HHoe pycjio), k uiKOJiaM co3ep- 
uaHHH, BOcnHTbiBaiomHM bojik), k TparnnecKOMy MHpoco3epuaHHio. He 
npaBbi 3CTeTbi, OTKa3biBancb ot hchshchhoh (J)hjioco4)hh: cpeacTBO (co- 
3epuaHHe) npeBpamaiOT ohh b caMOijejib: KyjibT KpacoTbi npHBo^HT hx k 
6biCTpoii rH6ejin; ho He npaBbi h Te, kto b 4)hjioco(J)hh neccHMH3Ma h b 
3CTeTH3Me He bhaht cpe^cTB pocTa jihhhocth; KyjibTypa co3epuaHHH ecTb 
peaKUHH Ha MexaHHKy hch3hh, Morymaa npHBecTH k ra6ejiH h, o6paTHo, 
Moryman co3flaTb noKOJieHHH, 6ojiee cnoco6Hbie BjiHHTb Ha cjioacHocTb 
»CH3HeHHbix oTHomeHHH, HeacejiH mh; H3 co3epuaHHH poacaaioTCH o^HHa- 
kobo h 6bicTpoHorHH Axhjiji, h npe3pHTejibHbiH TepcHT. Co3epuaHHe B 
HauiH zihh nopo^Hjio h HBjieHHe .aeKa^eHTCTBa, h BMecTe c TeM oho Bbi6po- 
chjio Ha noBepxHOCTb *ch3hh pna npaKranecKHX cobctob, KaK 6opoTbcn c 
^eKa^eHTCTBOM. 

IIpoTHBopeHHe Meacay Bojieii h co3epuaHHeM - noKa3aTejib npn6jiH- 
»ceHHH npmuca HauieH KyjibTypw. Hbme coBepuiaeTCH 6opb6a Bbipoaeae- 

HHH C B03pO»CaeHHeM He B 06meCTBe, a B OTfleJIbHblX C03HaHH5IX. H 3CTe- 

ranecKaH KyjibTypa - npoo6pa3 TparHnecKofi MacKH, H3-no,zi KOTopofi Ha 

OflHOrO B3TJIHHyT OHH 5KH3HH, Ha flpyrOTO - HepHbie OHH CMepTH. 



132 



HaM He H36eacaTb HCKyca 3ctcth3mom h neccHMH3MOM; He cnoKOH- 
CTBHe TyT, a (J)epMeHT 6poaceHHH. 

RajieKo B36Hpancb Ha Kpynn 6yaymero, Hnmne HapHcoBaji nepea HaMH 
o6pa3 TparHHecKoro repon, paBHO aajieKoro h ot noBepxHOcraoro onra- 
MH3Ma, h ot neccHMH3Ma - 3apaTycTpy; 3apaTycTpa He oiithmhct: aaace 

BblCIUHe JIIOflH BbI3bIBaK)T B TOM npOTeCT H pa30HapOBaHHe, KaK BbI3BaJI B 

Hnmne pa30HapoBaHHe Baraep, chmboji Bbicmero nejiOBeKa; Ka3ajiocb 6h, 
b 3apaiycTpe Bee npH3HaKH niy6oHaHHiero neccHMH3Ma h 3CTeTH3Ma; oa- 
HaKO 6ojiee Bcero neccHMH3Ma Bbi3biBaeT b hcm chmboji ayxa yHbiHHH - 
CKeepneuiuuu HenoeeK CBoen necHbio «riycTbiHH pacTeT». CoBpeMeHHocTb 
He 3HaeT repon, noflo6Horo 3apaTycTpe, coe^HHHBiuero b ce6e bcio cnjiy 
co3epuaHHH (no flee*™ jieT 3apaTycTpa npeflaBajicn co3epuaHHio) c aej- 
ckoh paaocTbio, o6pameHHofl k jhoahm, nnejiaM, uBeTaM. CoBpeMeHHocTb 
He 3HaeT nozuiHHHO TparHHecKoro repoa; mm Bee, KaK 6bi mm hh rjiaaejiH Ha 

MHp, Mbl TOJIbKO OnTHMHCTbl, TOJIbKO neCCHMHCTMJ HeT, Mbl He TpaTHKH! 

IIOflJIHHHMH TparHK He rOBOpHJI 6bl, KaK TOBOpHM Mbl, neCCHMHCTbl H 

onTHMHCTbi: «Hado o/cumb, nado yMepemb; nado cnooKumb pyxu nped 06^- 
cmeoMy nado dtno odiqecmeo paseueamb^. 

«JXpyz, ecnu cepdi^e meoe nonuo comiupM u mu cyMeeiub yMepemb c eoc- 
mopzoM u yjiudicou, cclmuu muz meoezo ucnemoeeHUH npeepaiqaM e i^eemy- 
iquu cad mu3hu, mo yjupu: nunmo me6n ne Mowem sdecb ydepotcamb; comclh 
moon CMepmb - nodeda; ecnu Me cepdi^e meoe coKpyiuem u nem nuuezo, cno- 
co6nozo me6n ydepoicamb e mu3hu, meoii omK03 om 6opb6u - mcuikoh mpy- 
cocmb; ho mu Moweiub KaK yzodno CMompemb na o/cii3Hb, ecnu, uyecmeyn ne- 
eo3MOMHocmb jfcumb, mu CKaotcetub «nem» u comou neeo3MOMHocmu. JJpyz, 
ecnu mu ciuien, ne 6opucb c epazoM, no 6opucb c dpyzoM, noKa xeamum meo- 
eu mohu: mo, umo hqm 6jiu3ko, dojiomo dumb coeeptueHHbiM; 6e3Majiocmuo 
ynmmoMamb ecHKue cjiedu necoeepmencmea e jitoSumom u 6jiu3K0m Sjiazo- 
podnee, nej/cejiu comou ruiodomeopnaM 6opb6a c uyotcdbiM; mojibKO cm6ocmb 
meoH daem mede npaeo na 6opb6y c dcuibHUM*. 

Bot 3aBeT TparHHecKoro repon; jxo TaKoro 3aBeTa paBHO aajieKH caMbie 
npoTHBonojioaeHbie MopajiHCTHnecKHe ji03yHra coBpeMeHHOcra. Ilepefl 
HaMH ra/ibKO CTyneHH k TpanraecKOMy MHpoco3epuaHHK), nepea HaMH bch 
raMMa C03HaHHH ot HaHBHoro onraMH3Ma jxo yrjiy6jieHHoro neccHMH3Ma, 
BOo6paacaiomero ce6n TparH3MOM; bch raMMa ranoB ot y3Koro npaKTHKa 
nepe3 acTeTa - co3epuaTejia, CTpeMnmeroca 6biTb h tbopuom hch3hh, jxo 
repoa; ho caMoro repoa, puu,apH y eme HeT. 

Hnmue HanepTaji nepefl HaMH o6pa3 6y#ymero repon, kotopmh 6biji 
Bbiuie ero caMoro. M6ceH BbirpaBHpoBaji nepea HaMH uejiyio rajiepeio aen- 
bhx jihu, y KOTopwx BbipaaceHM Bee CTa^HH pa3Jia^a Me^y C03epuaHH- 
eM h BOJiefl; Hnmue jxzji peajibHbin o6pa3 Bbiuie ero cTonmero nejiOBeKa; 
H6ceH cTporo H3MepHJi h B3BecH;i ce6n h HH^ce ce6n Haxo^nmyiocH co- 
BpeMeHHOCTb; Hnuuie 6e3 H6ceHa HanoMHHaeT CBepKaiomee BejiKKOJienne 

133 



9* 



o6jiaica, k KOTopoMy hct flocryna; H6ceH 6e3 Hnmne o6pa3yeT cypoBbie 
TBepflbie dyneHH k... bot k aTOMy o6;iaKy. IIojioaeHTejibHoro o6pa3a He aaji 
H6ceH, ho oh jxaji 3cmhoh nyTb k MenTe, KOTopyio peajibHO omyraji Hnmne, 
ho k KOTopoft nyTH He aaji oh, noTOMy hto >khboh nyTb k 6yaymeMy nepe3 
HacTonmee; k HacToameMy Hnmue othochjich nojieMHnecKH; aa h, KpoMe 
Toro, cymHOCTb nojieMHKH Hnmne b jihphhcckhx h3jihhhhhx, a He b ra- 
jiepee hchbmx jihu; hhkto He 3Haji jiynine H6ceHa TaftHHKOB coBpeMeHHoft 
ayuiH, h ee otjihji b pnae o6pa30B TeHpHK H6ceH; ho o6pa3w ara pncyiOT 
jiecTHHiiy Bocxo^caeHHH k TOMy, hto npHCHHJiocb HHUine CHanajia b JlpeB- 
Heft TpeuHH h hto oh oco3Haji KaK aa^bHee 6yaymee; Hmune jxsui peajibHbift 
o6pa3 aajibHero 6yaymero, nepecKaKHBaa nepe3 «nymh u cmpeMJiemie* k 
6yaymeMy; Bee TBopnecTBo H6ceHa ecTb onncaHHe MHcrepHH SToro nyra 
h CTpeMJieHHH b 5khbmx jiHijax, cpezui hchboh o6cTaHOBKHj nojieMHKa npo- 
thb coBpeMeHHocTH y H6ceHa He b jinpHKe, ho b peajibHO pa3BepTbiBaio- 
mnxcH co6wthhx, r^e 6yaymee MynaeTcn b Kopnax coBpeMeHHocTH; caMoft 
ace uejiH nyTH HeT y H6ceHa; TaM, rjie o6pamaeTca H6ceH k 6yaymeMy, y 
Hero He roBopnmafl >khbo cxeMa «mpex u/apcme*, «cuume3a» h t. a. Hnijine 
CMOTpeji TOjibKo Bbime ce6n: H6ceH cMOTpeji HH^ce ce6a h BOKpyr ce6n. 
IlepBbiH nocTaBHji HacToameMy peajibHyio nejib c bhchiijhmh b B03^yxe 
cpe^CTBaMH, BTopoft j&ji peajibHbie cpe^CTBa k BHcameH b B03ayxe nejiw, 
Hniune h H6ceH 06a He ro KOHija peajiHCTbi b rjiy6oKOM 3HaneHHH SToro 

CJIOBa, HO OHH H He HJIJIK)3HOHHCTbi: MOKfly TeM yTOnHHeCKHH pOMaHTH3M, 

KaK h yronHHecKHH peajiH3M MexaHnnecKoro MHpoco3epijaHHH hjijik)3ho- 
hhcthhhm HacKB03b. PeajiH3M poaeaaeTCH TOJibKo TaM, r^e SJieMCHT IjejIH 
nan b cpe^CTBax, h o6paTHo: rjisi Hnijiiie peajibHO 6yaymee - «ceepxuejio- 
eex - zepou»; ho repon He bh^ht oh b aeHCTBHTejibHocra h o6pyuiHBaeTCH 
Ha Hee b CBoeii nojieMHHecKoft jinpHKe; TaM ace, rae xoneT fleiicTBHTejib- 
HOCTb c^ejiaTb cpe^cTBOM Bocxoac^eHHH k 6yaymeMy, oh, hcxo^h H3 6y- 
aymero, cohhhhct cpe^cTBa, a BMecTe c hhmh h aeftcTBHTejibHOCTb: nojiy- 
naeTCH nojiy4>aHTacTHHecKaH fleftcTBHTejibHocTb c nojiy4>aHTacTHHecKHMH 
cbohmh fleiicTByiomHMH jiHuaMH, rocy^apcTBOM, 4>HJioco(J)HeH, HCKyc- 
ctbom; B3TJIXR Hmune Ha peajibHoe rocyaapcTBo, ijepKOBb, 4)hjioco(|)hk) 
4>aHTacTHHeH, KaK (^aHTacTHHHbi b ero H3JioaceHHH h KaHT, h BarHep; h, 
Hao6opoT, y^ajieHHbie ot coBpeMeHHocTH 3apaTycTpa, TepaicjiHT, CoKpaT 
CTaHOBHTCH ^CHBbiMH jxjik Hac b HHTepnpeTaijHH Hnmue. 

BnojiHe peajibHbi repon H6ceHa: ce6n y3HaeM mm b BopKMaHax, 
CojibHecax, Py6eKax: ho nocMOTpHTe, KaK nocTynaeT H6ceH c HauiHMH 
peajibHbiMH E[ejiHMH xch3hh: oh npeBpamaeT hx b KoniMap, b HejienocTb; 
3acTaBjineT BopKMaHa hoth 6opoTbca c »H3Hbio b 6yKBajibHOM CMbicjie; 
peajibHbie ycjioBHH »ch3hh hbjihiot HaM BCHKyio uejib KaK HejienocTb; ocTa- 
Bancb Ha noHBe aeiicTBHTejibHocTH, H6ceH npeBpamaeT »H3Hb b 4>aHTa- 
CTHHecKyio CKa3Ky, KaK npeBpamaeT ee h Hnmne, to y6eran b aajieKyio 
TpeuHio, to co3aaBaH ee b 6yaymeM. H6ceH bh^ht peajibHO acH3Hb, KaK 6w 



134 



cTaBHT efi «ruiK)c»; ho noa bjihhhhcm 3Toro njnoca bchksh uejiecoo6pa3- 
HOCTb y Hero npeBpamaeTCH b «Munyc»\ Hnijiiie, Hao6opoT, b yTBepacaeHHH 
HecymecTByiomero repon bh^ht nojioacHTejibHyio uejib 5KH3HH («+»)> ho 
caMoft peajibHoft »ch3hh oh He bh^ht: rocyaapcTBO y Hero - «JIeeua(paH» f 
KaHT - h^hot h t. a. («-»); b o6ohx cjiynaflx HMeeM «rui?oc» Ha «MUuyc» - 
MHHyc: ho, coe^HHHH nyTH H6ceHa h Hnmue b oahh nyTb, nojiynaeM: 
«rui7oc» peajibHOH aeficTBHTejibHOCTH Ha «Mimyc» xHMepHnecKHx ijejieii 
AaioT onpe^ejieHHe cpeacTB, ^aHHbix b AeHCTBHTejibHocra rjisi ocymecT- 
BjieHHH uejiH KaK «Munyca»; h aajiee: bhah jiaBHHy, cpbmaiomyio b 6e3flHy 
repoH, BMecTO uejiH 5KH3HH H6ceH onpe/jejiaeT 3Ty uejib 3hhkom «Mimyc»; 
o6paTHo, Hnmne peajibHO pncyeTCH CBepxnejioBeK, KaK acH3HeHHaa uejib 
(njiioc): «ruiioc» na «Munyc» omrn>-TaKH MHHyc: coeflHHHH nyTH, Hanep- 
TaHHbie Hnmiie h H6ceHOM, b orhii nyTb, mm onpeaejineM cpedcmea h 
upm o^hhmh MHHycaMH; TaK ypaBHHBaeM mm b oahh pna cpe^cTBa h uejin: 
h TyT h TaM - MHHyc; ho «MUuyc» Ha «MUuyc» aaeT njnoc; cTpaHHMH h 
cTpaniHMH bmboa: aojiacHa nora6HyTb caMan KyjibTypa, coBpeMeHHOCTb c 
ee npeacTaBjieHHeM o 6yaymeM, hto6m sto 6yzjymee peajibHO ocymecrBH- 
jiocb, a noKa peajibHoe npeacTaBJieHHe ijejiH y Hnijiiie ecTb jinuib 3M6jieMa, 
chmboji KaKoro-To 6y,ziiymero, ho deucmeumejibHO cymecmeymqeio; Hao6o- 
Pot: aojiacHa norn6HyTb caMan aeftcTBHTejibHOCTb, HBjieHHaa HameMy 
B3opy, hto6m BOCKpecjia CKpbiTaa ot Hac nofljiHHHaa flencTBHTejibHOCTb: 
ho oHa - ecmb; aeflcTBHTejibHocTb (cpeacTBa, BeaymHe k uejin) - chmboji 
hhoh fleflcTBHTejibHocTH: ece npexodxiqee mojibKO nododue; stot aeBH3 re- 
TeBCKoro TBopnecTBa ckpmto npoBeaeH h b TBopnecTBe H6ceHa, h b TBop- 
necTBe Hnijiiie. Y Yere stot aeBH3 hocht xapaKTep co3epijaHHH: Hnijiiie h 
H6ceH BceM cbohm TBopnecTBOM pacKpbijin aep3HOBeHHoe 3HaneHHe 3Toro 
aeBH3a jxjix TBopnecTBa hch3hh: aencTBHTejibHocTb ne fleiicTBHTejibHOCTb, 
KaK H^eaji He H^eaji; HyacHO nepepoflHTbcn, hto6m «MUuyc» cTaji «runo- 
com», HHane Bee rn6HeT. 

H HaM ocTaeTCH o^hh nyTb: nyTb nepepoacaeHHH; TBopnecTBO 5KH3HH, 
KaK h caMaa aeH3Hb, 3aBHCHT ot Hainero npeo6pa»ceHHH; TOJibKO Toraa naaeT 

aHTHHOMHH MOKfly C03epuaHHeM JI5KHBMX aeHCTBHTeJIbHOCTeft (flaHHOH 

h 4>aHTacTHHecKOH) h BOJien k 5kh3hh: no,zuio»CHTb flHHaMHT noa caMyio 

HCTOpHK) BO HMH a6cOJIK)THMX IjeHHOCTeH, eme He paCKpblTMX C03HaHHeM, 

bot CTpamHbiii bmboa H3 jihphkh Hnmiie h apaMbi H6ceHa. B3opBaTbcn co 

CBOHM BeKOM flJIH CTpeMJieHHH K nOflJIHHHOH ^eHCTBHTCJIbHOCTH - eflHH- 

CTBeHHoe cpe^CTBO He norn6HyTb. 

TaK OTBenaiOT noHTH oAHOBpeMeHHo ABa BejiHHaiiiHHx reHHH BTopon 
nojioBHHM XIX CTOJieTHn; xoth 06a h OTBjieHeHHM eme b yKa3aHHH noA- 
jihhhmx njrren nepexo^a nepe3 o»HAaiomyio Hac KaTacTpocJ)y, ho 06a 
TOJibKO h bhaht npaKTHnecKHH bmxoa AJiH coBpeMeHHocTH. H mm BnpaBe 
coeAHHHTb HMeHa Hnume h H6ceHa KaK HMeHa BejinnaHiUHx peBOJiiouHO- 
HepoB Hauieii snoxH. 



135 



npomueopeuue Meotcdy jiuuHocmbTo u odmecmeoM. 

IlpoTHBopeHHe Meacay jihhhocti>k) h o6mecTBOM b HauiH /jhh ao Kpaft- 
hocth o6ocTpeHo: b couHajibHoii HayKe caMoe HH^HBH^yajibHoe co3HaHHe 
OKa3biBaeTCH b 3aBHCHMOcra ot KJiaccoBbix npoTHBopenHH Hainefl snoxn; 
6wt, ncHxojiorHH, cBo6oaa bojih - Bee 3to 0Ka3biBaeTCH npoayKTOM ot- 
HoineHHii MeTKjjy TpyzjoM h KanHTajioM; Meac/jy coimajibHOH (J)h^ococJ)h- 
eft, 3thkoh ht. fl. h HH^HBH^yajibHOH o6pa3yeTCH HenpHMHpHMWH npo- 
Ban; JiHHHOCTb ecTb npo^yKT coiiHajibHOH cpe^bi; 3Ta ace cpe^a 3aBHCHT 
ot opyOTH npoH3BO,ziCTBa; o6o6mecTBjieHHe opy#HH npoH3BOflCTBa hbjih- 
eTCH cjieflCTBHeM Hbme Bee B03pacTaiomeH 6opb6w; TaKOB BbiBoa skoho- 
MHHecKoii ^OKTpHHbi; cyMMa HHAHBHayajibHOCTeii, nopo^HB o6mHHy, a 
Bnocjie/jCTBHH yace (J)eTHiHH3M TOBapHoro npoH3BOflCTBa, OKa3biBaeTCH b 
HacTonmee BpeMH npo/jyKTOM CBoero co6cTBeHHoro nopoacfleHHH; c apy- 
toyl ctopohw, 0TBJieH6HHbie KaTeropHH Hainero pa3yMa, c HeH36eacHOCTbio 
jieacamne b ochobc MexaHHHecKHx iiohhthh, npe/jonpe/jejiHiOT caMbifi Me- 
tor 3KOHOMHHecKoro MaTepHajiH3Ma, Bnoc^e^CTBHH 06'bHBjiHiomero KaTe- 
ropHH Hainero pa3yMa npo/jyKTaMH caMHx skohomhhcckhx ycjioBHii; TaK 

CTaJIKHBaeTCH THOCeOJIOrHHeCKHH /jeTepMHHH3M C fleTepMHHH3MOM 3KOHO- 
MHHeCKHM B HenpHMHpHMOM npOTHBOpeHHH. 

JXdi h, KpoMe Toro, o6ocHOBbiBaH noTpe6Hocra jihhhocth hhcto Mexa- 

HHHeCKHMH yCJIOBHHMH ee pa3BHTHH, 3KOHOMHHeCKHH MaTepHaJIH3M, IIO- 
CKOJIbKy OH HMeeT ££710 C HHflHBHflyaJIbHOH nCHXO^OrHeH, M05KCT JIHIIIb 
060CH0BaTb H3 HeH36e5KHOrO (J)aKTa CymeCTBOBaHHH flaHHblX HHflHBHfly- 

ajibHbix noTpe6HOCTeH 3THnecKoe npaBO 3thx noTpe6HOcreH hjih Boo6me 

yHHHTOHCHTb 3THKy (h6o nOHHTHe O COIJHaJIbHOH 3THKe C ee KJiaCCOBbIM 
pa3JIHHHeM paBHO OTpHIXaHHK) 3THKH); Me5Kfly TeM 3K0H0MHHeCKHH MaTe- 
pHaJIH3M B 5KH3HH o6meCTBa CBH3bIBaK)T C CBOeo6pa3HOH nOJIHTHHeCKOH 

nporpaMMOH, OKpyacaa 3Ty nporpaMMy hhcto sthhcckhm cbctom; TyT npo- 
hcxoott onnTb-TaKH CMeuieHHe; STHKa BHe jihhhocth ecTb a6cypa; h no- 
CKOJibicy pa3H0CTb jiHHHOcTeH onpe/jejineTCH hhcto MaTepnajibHbiM co^ep- 
»caHHeM hx pa3BHTHH, nocTOJibKy cymecTByeT CTOJibKO ace sthk, cKOJibKo h 
jiHHHOCTeH (h6o Kaacaaa JiHHHOCTb xoth 6bi MHHHMajibHO, ho Bee ace pa3- 

HHTCH OT 6JIH3 Hee pa3BHBaK)mHXCH); TaKHM o6pa30M, 3THKa CTaHOBHTCH B 
3aBHCHM0CTb OT CHJIbI, TO eCTb 6oJIbIUHHCTBa. 

Ilpaeo - 6ojibiuuHcmeo: MeHbuiHHCTBo 3a6jiyacaaeTCH; TyT yace mw co- 

CKaJIb3bIBaeM B o6jiaCTb CTaTHCTHKH H nCHXOJIOTHH. 

HcraHa HHKoraa He hbjihctch npHHa^jieacHOCTbio 6ojibiiiHHCTBa; OHa 
poacaaeTcn b MeHbuiHHCTBe (KaK, HanpHMep, HaynHan HCTHHa); 6ojiee toto, 
OHa poamaeTCH b oraejibHOM HH^HBH^yyMe; KaK, HanpHMep, HCTHHa 3ko- 
HOMHnecKoro MaTepnajiH3Ma, 3Ta HCTHHa 6biJia ocJ)opMJieHa MapKcoM, ro 
MapKca He 6buia hcthhoh, h6o 6ojibiiiHHCTBO ee He npH3HaBajio; aajiee, 
6y^b 3Ta HCTHHa HcnoBeaaHHeM 6ojibuiHHCTBa, mw He rapaHTHpoBaHbi ot 
Toro, hto OHa ocTaHeTCH TaKOBOH bo Bee BpeMeHa. CoBpeMeHHan Teope- 



136 



THHeCKafl (J)HJIOCO(J)HH CKJIOHHa CaMOe IIOHHTHe HCTHHHOCTH CBH3bIBaTb c 
3THHeCKHM MOMCHTOM B II03HaBaTeJIbHOM TBOpneCTBe; HCTHHy JIHHHOTC) 
IIOBefleHHH HHKOHM 06pa30M HeJIb3fl CBH3bIBaTb C HCTHHHOCTbK) npHHIJH- 

na, jieacamero b ochobc nacTHOH HayKH: HCTHHa SKOHOMHHecicoro MaTepna- 
jiH3Ma, c BbiTeKaiomHM H3 3Toro npHHUHna yneHHeM o KJiaccoBOH Mopa- 
jih, hhkohm o6pa30M He CBH3yeMa c npHHunnoM noBe^eHHH; Meacay TeM b 
5kh3hh o6mecTBa mh HM6eM cnjiouib pn^OM no,zjo6Hoe CMeiueHHe. 

KpoMe Toro, kocbchho BbrreicaiomaH H3 3KOHOMHHecKoro MaTepHajiH3- 
Ma y3KOflorMaTHHecKafl h HenpaBOMepHan TeHfleHijHH npH3HaBaTb npaBO 
6ojibuiHHCTBa HMeeT rH6e^bHbie noc jic^ctbhh ; Moe y6e»^eHHe, nocKOJibKy 
oho BbipaacaeTCH b cjioBax, nacTO He noKpwBaeT rjiy6nHy mothbob, 3acTaB- 
jiHiomnx MeHH HcnoBe^oBaTb aaHHoe y6e>KfleHHe; BbicKa3aHHoe y6eacaeHHe 
yace HCKaacaeT nofljiHHHyio npnpofly 3Toro y6eacfleHHH; b corjiacHH ace Moe- 
ro y6e»caeHHH c nyacHM y6e>KAeHHeM KpoeTCH yace HaTHacKa; Moe y6e5K#e- 
HHe pa3aejiHeTCH Ha ocHOBaHHH Bbicica3aHHbix mhok) cjiOBecHbix (J)opMyji; 
h o6paTHo; ho b tom h apyroM cjiynae 4>opMyjia He aaeKBaraa coaepacaHHio; 
sto BO-nepBbix; bo-btophx, de facto HHKoraa He 6biBaeT flByx oflHHaKOBbix 
y6e»caeHHH, noKpbraaiomHx Bceijejio apyr apyra. Corjiacne ecTb Bcer^a 
KOMnpoMHcc, paBHO CTecHHiomHH o6e corjiacHbie ctopohw; coniacHe Mace 
nocTpoeHO Ha KpaflHeM OTBJieneHHH ot no,zyiHHHbix mothbob HHflHBHfly- 
ajibHoro y6e»caeHHH; a TOJibKo sth mothbh npn^aiOT y6e5KfleHHio rjiy6nHy 
h Bee; MHeHHe 6ojibuiHHCTBa ecTb paBHOfleficTByiomafl MHoacecTBa hhahbh- 
ayajibHbix y6eacaeHHH, jiHineHHbix peajibHbix mothbob; Kaacaoe HH/jHBH/ty- 
ajibHoe y6e»cfleHHe 6ecKOHenHO TepaeT bo BHyTpeHHeft cnjie, nocKOJibKy oho 

CJIHBaeTCH C MHOrHMH HHblMH HHflHBH^yaJIbHblMH y6e*CfleHHHMH; KaK 6bl HH 

6biJi h Myap, ho nocKOJibKy h ynacTByio b Bbipa6oTKe Tpa(J)apeTa (paBHOflefi- 
CTByiomeii y6e3KfleHHH), h Kaacycb 6ecKOHenHo rjiynee ce6n caMoro: paBHO- 
aeScTByiomaH cyMMbi mhchhh jiencoBecHee e^HHHix cyMMbi; Ha stom 3aKOHe, 
BepoHTHO, B03HHKJia noroBopKa: y cejm unneK dumn 6es uia3y. 

BMecTo BHyTpeHHefl y6eflHTejibHOCTH Bepa 6ojibuiHHCTBa HMeeT hhcto 
BHeuiHiOK) y6e^HTej[bHOCTb: craracTHHecKHH noflcneT, kojikhcctbo nyjien, 

npHCTaBJieHHHX K eflHHHIje, B03BOflHT e^HHHUy B MHJIJIHOHbi; KOJIHHeCTBO 
ace HBJIHeTCH CHMBOJIOM rpy6ofi (J)H3HHeCKOH CHJIbi; MHeHHe 60JIbIUHHCTBa 

npH6aBjineT jinuib HyjiH k eflHHHije (to ecTb aaHHOMy HHflHBHayajibHOMy 
y6eacaeHHio); Meacay TeM MHeHHe MeHbiHHHCTBa ecTb TOJibKo cyMMa e^H- 
hhix; ho cyMMa eflHHHu; 6ojibine cyMMbi nnceji, cocTonmeii H3 eflHHHijbi c 
npHCTaBJieHHbiMH HyjiHMH; cyMMa HHce;i aecHTH mhjijihohob paBHa czjh- 
HHixe, Meaeay TeM KaK cyMMa Bcero aecHTH eflHHHii; yace paBHa aecnra: %e- 
cHTb HHflHBH^yajibHbix y6e»cfleHHH b aecHTb pa3 aaiOT fljiH yMa 6oj[biHe, 
HeacejiH o^ho o6mee y6eac,5eHHe ^ecHTHMHjuiHOHHOH TOJinw; apryMeHTa- 
ijhh KOJiHHecTBOM noiij^aeT b o6mecTBe HecpaBHeHHO 6ojibinee 3HaneHHe, 
HeacejiH apryMeHTaixHH rjiy6HHOH h BecKOCTbio mothbob: jiHHHOCTb HeH3- 
MeHHo TepnHT b o6mecTBe. 



137 



H6ceH c HenoapaacaeMbiM MacTepdBOM BCKpbiBaeT nepea hsmh koh- 
4>jihkt Meacay o6mecTBOM h jikhhoctbio, co3aaB CBoero «IllTOKMaHa», 
«CTOJinw o6mecTBa» h «BpaH,aa»: tjht oh ctoht Ha ropa3,ao 6o;iee BepHoii 
noHBe, He»ce;iH Hnmne. 

Hycuiu3M Meotcdy uayicou u pemizueu. 

Ilo-HOBOMy mh noflxoflHM Tenepb k pejiHrH03Hofi npo6jieMe: ycnexn 
tohhoh HayKH h rjiaBHHM o6pa30M MHoroo6pa3Hbie HaynHbie MHpoB033pe- 
hhh eme TaK HcaaBHO, Ka3ajiocb, noKOHHHjin co bchkoh pejiHrHefi; BCHKaa 
no;io»CHTejibHaH pejiHran, Ka3ajiocb, ecTb nepeacHTOK. IIpoHijio HecKOJibKO 
aecHTHJieTHH, h hto ace? YcnexH HfleajiHCTHHecKofi (})hjioco(J)hh, o6ocho- 
BbiBaiomeH npHHunnw HayK, HaBceraa jihihhjih TOHHyio HayKy npaBa 6biTb 

MHpOB033peHHeM; TOHHaH HayKa B03MO*CHa, KaK pflfl 3MnHpHHeCKHX flHO 

UHnjiHH; BCHKan MeTa(J)H3HKa HayKH, 3aKJnoHaiomaflCH b pacuiHpeHHH Toro 
hjih HHoro Hacraoro noHHTHH OTflejibHOH HayKH jxo o6mero npHHimna ch- 
CTeMbi, c HayHHoii ace tohkh 3peHHH OKa3biBaeTCH Hbme HenpaBOMepHon; 
npnHu,nn nacTHOH HayKH OKa3biBaeTca Hbme jinuib npHHunnoM, o6ocho- 
BbiBaiomHM HayHHyio HCTHHy; HayHHan ace HCTHHa ajih Hac Bee 6o;iee h 60- 
jiee hocht npHKJia^HOH xapaKTep; TaK, HeaaBHo eme BbiBo^bi (J)H3HOJiorH- 
necKOH ncHxojiorHH pa3pyuiajiH KopeHHbie npeacTaBJieHHH o HameM 
OKa3biBaiomeMCH Jinuib CBH3bio (J)H3HOJiorHHecKHx npoijeccoB; Meac^y TeM 
OKa3ajiocb, hto, noflxoflH k o6*beKTaM ncnxojiorHHecKoro HccjieaoBaHHH c 
MeTo^aMH ecTecTB03HaHHH, mw h He MoaceM HMeTb HHoro npeacTaBJieHHH 
o nejiOBenecKOM aeTepMHHH3M ace ochobhwx hohhthh HayKH 3aBHCHT 
ot o6mnx npHHunnoB HejiOBenecKoro no3HaHHH; cjieaoBaTejibHO, bhbo- 
flbi ecTecTBeHHOHayHHOH ncnxojiorHH npeaonpeaejieHbi no3HaBaTe;ibHbiM 
npHHunnoM; nosTOMy ohh jinnieHbi KaKOH-jin6o 3HaHHMOcra, KaK cKopo 
ohh jioacaTCH b ocHOBy MHpoB033peHHH. Ho MoaceT 6biTb, 3to He TaK? Mo- 
aceT 6biTb, TeopHH 3HaHHH 3aBHCHT ot pnaa ncHxojiorHnecKHx npeanocbi- 
jiok? Bo bchkom cjiynae, Teopnn 3HaHHH He 3aBHCHT ot 3KcnepHMeHTajib- 
hoh ncnxojiorHH, noHHTOH KaK ecrecTBeHHOHayHHaH flHCijHnjiHHa: nocjie 
pa6oT 3nrBapTa, KoreHa, PnKKepTa, a b nocjie^Hee BpeMH h TyccepjiH HaM 
noHHTHa He3aBHCHMOCTb TeopHH 3HaHHH ot ncHxojiorHH; Tyccepjib ao- 
Ka3bmaeT, hto ncHxojiorHCTbi cMeiiiHBaiOT jioranecKHe 3aKOHbi c aKTaMH 
cyac^eHHH, b KOTopwx ono3HaiOTCH cyacaeHHH, ookohu, xax codepjfcanuH 
cyotcdenuu, c comumu cyj/cdemiHMu*... «HeTpyflHO noHHTb, - roBopHT oh, - 
hto c 3thm CBH3aHO eme BTopoe CMeineHHe, a hmchho CMeineHHe 3aKOHa, 
KaK 3BeHa npHHHHeHHH, c saKonoMy kok npaewiOM npununenuH^ («JIorHHe- 
cKHe hcc jie^oBaHHH » , I nacTb). OieflOBaTejibHO, ncHxojiorHCTbi He noHH- 

MaiOT pa3JIHHHH MOKfly H^eaJIbHblM HOpMHpyiOmHM 3aKOHOM H peajibHbiM 

(Kay3ajibHbiM); to, hto BCHKoe no3HaHHe HaHHHaeT c onbiTa, H3 3Toro BOBce 
He cjie^yeT, no Tyccepjiio, hto oho h B03HHKaeT H3 onbiTa; KpaHHHH 3Mnn- 
pH3M, yHHHToacaa pa3yMHoe onpaB^aHHe, yHHHToacaeT, no Tyccepjno, bo3- 

MOJKHOCTb Ce6« CaMOfO KaK HayHHO o6oCHOBaHHOH TeopHH. IIOA BJIHHHHeM 



138 



HccjieaoBaHHH TyccepjiH aaace TaKoii bh^hwh 3amHTHHK ncHxo;iorH3Ma, 
KaK Jlnnnc, CHHTaBuiHH eme TaK HeaaBHO jiorHKy ncHxojiorHHecKoft ahc- 

UHnJIHHOH, M6HH6T CBOK) n03HUHK) B CTOpOHy H0pMamU6U3M(l. 

OpHeHTHpyiomHM ueHTpoM no3HaHHH yace He MoryT 6biTb tohhmc 
HayKH; stot ueHTp nepeMecTHjicn Hbme; cjie^OBaTejibHO, h Bee MeTa(J)H3H- 
necKHe BbiBOflbi ecTecTBeHHOHayHHbix ^hci^hiijihh b jiynineM cjiynae hb- 
jihiotch jiHiub SMirapHHecKHMH BcnoMoraTejibHbiMH ranoTesaMH, He Mory- 
iij,hmh jienb b ocHOBy KaKoro 6m to hh 6hjio MHpoco3epuaHHH. Meacay TeM 
3th-to MeTa(J)H3HHecKHe BbiBO^w HayK h pa3pyinajiH pejiHrno3Hbie npea- 
CTaBJieHHH HejiOBenecTBa; BepHee - pa3pymajiH KpaiiHe AorMaTHnecKHe 
BbiBOAbi nojio^CHTejibHbix pejinrHH; b ocHOBe jno6oro pejiHrH03Horo Aor- 
MaTa jiokht Ta hjih hhcLh BbicKa3biBaeMaa HCTHHa, ocHOBaHHe KOTopofl 3a 
npeaejiaMH pa3yMHoro TOJiKOBaHHH; Meaeay TeM o6ocHOBaHHH stoh hcthhm 
nacTO 6biBaiOT pa3yMHbi b floraaTHHecKOM 6oroc;ioBHH; bo bchkom pejiH- 
rao3HOM aorMaTH3Me c TeneHHeM BpeMeHH npoHHO CBHBaeT rHe3,ao pauHO- 
HajiH3M; 3^ecb npoHCxo^HT HenpaBOMepHoe pacuiHpeHHe TeoperaHecKoro 
pa3y\ia, aHajiorHHHoe pacinnpeHHio ochobhwx iiohhthh HayKH b mhpobo3- 
3peHHH| OTHeceHHeM pejiHrH03Hoii aorMaTHKH k BOJie c npH3HaHHeM Heco- 
CTOHTCJIbHOCTH pejiHrH03Horo paUHOHaJIH3Ma H BMecTe C TeM npH3HaHHeM 
HeCOCTOHTeJIbHOCTH Ha^HOTO ,50rMaTH3Ma KaK CHCTCMbl MHpOB033peHHfl 

TeopHH 3HaHHH jinuiaeT acajia o6ohx 6opiomHxcH npoTHBHHKOB - HayKy 
h pejiHrnio; cyacaeHHe 06 OTHomeHHH Meacay HayKofl h pejiHrnefl nepeHO- 

CHTCH B 06jiaCTb TeopHH 3HaHHH| 3THM nepeHeceHHeM MeHHeTCH CymHOCTb 
aHTHHOMHH; Mbl BOBCe He CTaHOBHMCH Ha TOHKy 3peHHH paUHOHaJIbHOTO 

6oroc;iOBHH, ho mw He pa3AejineM h Kpaimnx bmboaob HayKH. 

C flpyrOH CTOpOHbl, HOpMaTHBH3M CTpeMHTCH OCBo6oflHTbCH OT BCfl- 

Koro onwTHoro coaepacaHHH; no3HaBaTejibHbie HopMbi jinuib cBH3yiOT 
npHHUHnw HayK; 3th aee nocjie^HHe o(J)opMjiHBaK)T coaepaeaHHH Kaacfloft 
^aHHOH HayKH; Kaacaan flaHHaa HayKa HMeeT CBoe MeTOAOJiorHHecKoe co- 
aepaeaHHe; orpaHHHHBaa KOMneTeHUHio MeTo^a, TeopHH 3h<ihhh o^HHa- 
kobo npoTHBonocTaBJieHa BceM SMnnpHHecKHM coaepacaHHHM nacTHbix 
HayK; coaepacaHHeM TeopHH 3HaHHH hbjihiotch, c oahoh ctopohw, mcto- 
AOJiorHnecKH o(J)opMjieHHbie HayKH (to ecTb o(J)opMjieHHoe coaepacaHHe); 
c apyroii ctopohw, TeopHH 3HaHHH npoTHBonocTaBjieHO Boo6me coaepaea- 

HHe C03HaHHH KaK HMMaHeHTHOe 6bITHe; OCHOBHbIM npH3HaKOM 3Toro co- 

^ep^caHHH ecTb ero Heno3HaBaeMOCTb; BCHKoe nepeacHBaHHe fleftcTBHTejib- 

HOCTH, B3HTOe BHe eTO HaCTHOH (MeTOAOJIOrHHeCKOH, yCJIOBHOH) (J)OpMbI, 

b stom CMbicjie 3anpefle;ibHO no3HaHHio, Hepa3JioaeHMo, HenocTH>KHo; oho 
o6jia#aeT bccmh tcmh aTpn6yTaMH, kotopwmh CTapwe mhcthkh Haaejin- 
jih 6birae; b 3tom CMbicjie BCHKoe nepeaeHBaHHe mhcthhho. TeopHH 3Ha- 
hhh, OT^ejiHH ce6n ot BCHKoro onwTHoro co^ep^caHHH, HaaejineT 5KHByio 

^eflCTBHTeJIbHOCTb MHCTHKOH, HO BMeCTe C TeM OHa JIHUiaeT MHCTHHeCKOe 

nepe^cHBaHHe npaBa o(J)opMJiHBaTb ce6n KaK nepeacHBaHHe TpaHcueH^eHT- 



139 



Horo MHpa; mhcthkh c tohkh 3peHHH coBpeMeHHbix TeopeTHKOB noKynaeT 
npaBO Ha CBoe cymecTBOBaHHe ijeHoii OTKa3a ot MeTa(J)H3HKH; He roBopn 
yace o tom, hto OHa He MoaceT 6biTb echbmm CBH^eTejibCTBOM o cymecTBOBa- 
hhh TpaHcueH^eHTHoro MHpa, peajibHOCTH, OHa He MoaceT jieacaTb b ochobc 
yneHHH o TpaHCijeHfleHTHOM; MHcranecKoe yneHHe o TpaHCijeHfleHTHOM ot- 

^aeT MHCTHKy BO BJiaCTb MeTa(J)H3HKH , a C MeTa(J)H3HKOH TeopHH 3HaHHH 
CTpeMHTCH B006me npHKOHHHTb; MHCTHKa CTaHOBHTCH b yneHHH coBpe- 

MeHHbix TeopeTHKOB jiHHib xaocoM nepejKHBaHHH, 3aTeMHHK>mHX pa3yM: 
OHa cjiHBaeTcn c 6e3yMHeM h K>poflCTBOM. B 3tom OTHonieHHH Jiio6onbiTeH 
B3rjum Ha MHCTHKy coBpeMeHHbix TeopeTHKOB (cm. CTaTbio C. H. Tecce- 
Ha «Mucmwca u Mema(pii3UKa». «JIoroc», I BbinycK). MncraKa - He mh- 
cthuh3m; roBopHTb o ee coaepacaHHH HjieHopa3flejibHo HeB03MoacHo; OHa 
a^eKBaTHa BCHKOMy nepeacHBaHHio, HppaijHOHajibHOMy no cymecrBy; np- 
paixHOHajibHoe nepeacHBaHHe jiokht b Hanajie bchkoto 4>HJioco4)CKoro hc- 
cjie^OBaHHH; oho ace ecTb npe^ejibHoe 4>HJioco(J)CKoe noHHTHe; ayajiH3M 
MHpa nepeacHBaeMoro 6hthh h (J)hjioco(J>ckoh, HayHHoft hjih KaKOH-JiH6o 
hhoh ueHHocTH npeo^ojieBaeM Jinuib (J)opMajibHo; 3tot #yajiH3M npoHB- 
jineTCH eme pe3He, neM ,zjyajiH3M 4>opMbi h coaepacaHHn; nponacmb Mejfcdy 
humu mookho Jiuuib nepeotcumb; HeonjiaTOHH3M H3 HppauHOHajibHoro eflHH- 
CTBa bwboaht paijHOHajibHO no3HaBaeMbiH MHpi TeopHH egressus'a (Hanp., 
3MaHauHH) BKJia^biBaioT b HppauHOHajibHoe Bee to, hto 3aTeM bwboaht 

H3 Hero: 3TOT BHfl MHCTHHeCKOH MeTa(J)H3HKH HeB03MO»CeH, KaK HeB03MO- 

yften h tot ran, KOTopwii npeBpamaeT nepeacHBaHHe b noHHTHe regressus'a 
(ABiycTHH, Ckot 3pnreHa); HeB03M05KHO o6ocHOBaTb MHCTHKy BBe^eHH- 
eM noHHTHH o6T>eKTHBHO cymecTByiomefi Bbicineft chjih, KaK h TeopHH, 
npeoAOJieBaromeH #yajiH3M 4>opMbi h coflepacaHHH paijHOHajibHbiM nyTeM; 
HHcraa MHCTHKa He cjiHBaeMa h c HeraraBHOH TeojiorHeft; TaK, TeopHH no- 
3HaHHH otboott MHcraKe o6jiacTb hhctoto, BHepaccyaoHHoro 6hthh; BCH 

HaiHa 5KH3Hb OKa3bIBaeTCH 6eCCJIOBeCHbIM, 6e3yMHO-My^pbIM lopo/jcTBOM, 

He noflflaiomHMCH ypa3yMeHHK). «Mucjib uspeHennaR ecmb jiooicb*, - flaB- 
ho eme CKa3aji Tiothcb, nbiTancb o(J>opMHTb CBoe nepeacHBaHHe b cjioBe; 
ho 6wji He npaB: HjieHopa3flejibHoe cjiobo yace HapyuiHJio MHCTHKy. 3thm 

KpaHHHM BblBOflOM OTpe3bIBaeTCH BCHKOe npaBO MHpOB033peHHH BJIHHTb 

Ha npe^CTaBjieHHe o MHpe h npnpoae nejiOBeKa; 3HaHHe ynopnflOHHBaeT 
MaTepnaji onbiTa; TeopHH 3HaHHH ynopn^OHHBaeT 3HaHHn; ho cmwcji stoto 
nopn^Ka npona^aeT; Meacay TeM caMbifi nopn^oK HaM HyaceH rjik 5KH3HH, 

flJIH MHpOC03epijaHHH, HO HCTHHa, CMblCJI, IjeHHOCTb OKa3bIBaiOTCH OTpe- 

3aHHbiMH ot *ch3hh; hx cmmcji b HecymecTBOBaHHH; cymecTBOBaHHe ace 
ecTb Ha6op 6eccMbicjieHHbix 3ByKOB h 3HaKOB, BCTaromnx b HauieM nepe- 
»CHBaHHH; »CH3Hb - 6e3yMHe; cmmcji ace h ijeHHOCTb b HecymecTByiomeH 

JIOTHHeCKOH HCTHHC 

BOT 6e3yMHbIH, HyflOBHIIJHblH BblBOfl COBpeMeHHOH (|)hjioco4)ckoh Ha- 

yKH, jiornnecKH npaBOMepHOH; jiorHKa onpaB^bmaeT 6e3yMHe i^eHofi cBoe- 



140 



ro npaBa 6wTb jiothkoh «nu dan uezo»: KpaflHHH no3HaBaTe;ibHbiH (})opMa- 

JIH3M y3KHBaeTCH C KpaHHHM ^KH3H6HHbIM (J)eTHIIIH3MOM, h6o, nOCKOJIbKy H 

ocTaiocb nejiOBeKOM ((J)hjioco(J)hh 0Ka3biBaeTCH BHeHejioBenecKOH ahcijh- 
iuihhoh), MHe ocTaeTCH co3^aTb 4>eTHin H3 cjiynaiiHoro nepeacHBaHHH; bch- 

KaH ace CBH3b nepe»CHBaHHH H OCo6eHHO CMblCJI 3TOH CBH3H, B03HHKaK>mHH 

aaace fljifl cyMacuie^niero, 0Ka3WBaeTCH HenpaBOMepHWM transcensus'oM*. 
aaace cyMacnie^niHe OKa3WBaioTCH Bee eme cjihhikom 6ojibiiiHMH paijno- 
HajiHCTaMH Rjm nocjieaoBaTejibHoro nioceojiora; ho Beflb pejmmn h ecTb 
CBH3b nepeacHBaHHH, poflHBinaflCH H3 rjiy6HHbi HppauHOHajibHoro onwTa: 
ho pejiHrHH He cymecTByeT ajih TeopHH 3HaHHH, o6ocHOBWBaiomeH mhcth- 

Ky 6bITHH. 

C npaBOMepHocTbio TeopHH 3HaHHH HaM He npHxoflHTcn cnopHTb, c 
BbiBO^aMH ace ee, KacaiomHMHCH KOHKpeTHoft 2CH3HH, mohcho He conia- 
uiaTbcn; ho Toraa cjieayeT aejiaTb pna peuiHTejibHwx bwboaob. 1) Cmwcji 

3KH3HH, HBJIHIOmHHCH BWBOflOM 0(})OpMJieHHWX nepe^KHBaHHH H HCCOH3- 
MepHMblH C n03HaHHeM, eCTb CMblCJI peJIHrH03Hblft; HO CymHOCTb pejiH- 
THH He B n03HaHHH, 3. B TBOpHeCTBej peJIHrH03Hbie flOTMaTW CyTb CHMBOJIbI 

TBopnecKHx nepeacHBaHHH; cBH3b nepeacHBaHHH, BbiBOflnmaa MHcraicy H3 
xaoTHnecKoro KpyroBopoTa nyBCTB, He HMeeT othohichkh k TeoperaHecKO- 
My pa3yMy; ecjiH ace mw oco3HaeM ee, KaK pa3yM npaKTHHecKHH, to hopmw 
3Toro pa3yMa aojdkhw mw 6yaeM npH3HaTb 3aBHcnmHMH ot flaHHbix onw- 
Ta (nepeacHBaHHH), HeocJ)opMJiHBaeMoro b MeTo^ax HayK; jiio6oh npe^MeT 
onwTa, pa3Jio»CHMbiH b Hayne, ecTb, c apyroii ctopohw, npe^MeT h pejiH- 
rno3Horo onwTa, Hepa3JioacHMWH b Hayice; ^By3HaHHOCTb TaKoro onwTa 
npH3HaeTCH mwcjihtcjihmh Bpo^e IecjxjiyjHHra h /laceMca. 2) I7pH3HaBaH 
3aBHCHM0CTb HopM npaKTHHecKoro pa3yMa ot aaHHbix pe;iHrH03Horo onw- 
Ta H CHHTafl peJIHTHK) OCMWCJieHHOH CBH3bK) MHCTHHCCKHX nepeHCHBaHHH, 

mw HeMHHyeMO aojdkhw 6y^eM npniiTH k npH3HaHHio pejiHrao3HOH Me- 
Ta(J)H3HKH KaK CBoero po,zja chmbojihkh, onnpaiomeHCH Ha nepeacHBaeMwe 

IjeHHOCTHJ THnOTeTKHHOCTb TaKOH MeTa(J)H3HKH, pa3 OC03HaH OTKpOBeH- 
HO TBOpHeCKHH ee CMWCJI, HHCKOJIbKO He Bpe^HT 2CH3HeHHOCTH peJIHTHH. 

3) Hao6opoT, bchkhh aorMaTHnecKHH paijHOHajiH3M oTKHflbreaeTCfl; aor- 

MaTHKa peJIHTHH, npHHHTaH KaK CHMBOJIHKa, OTJIHHaeTCH H OT HeraTHBHOH 

TeojiorHH; h6o 3^ecb ochobhwc pejiHrH03Hwe BepoBaHHH bwbo^htch He H3 
npeAejibHwx OTpHijaTejibHwx hohhthh, a H3 cbh3h MHCTHHecKoro onwTa, 
nojio^CHTejibHO nepeacHBaeMoro. Ba3Hpya pejiHraio b TBopnecKOM onwTe, 
mw nepecTynaeM rpaHHijw Meacay sctcthkoh h pejiHrneH. 

TaKOH BWBOfl K nOJIOHCHTeJIbHOH pejiHrHH mw o6H3aHw caejiaTb: B 
npoTHBHOM cjiynae mw ocTaHeMCH c ayajiH3MOM 6e3yMHOH 2CH3HH h He- 
HejiOBenecKoft, HecymecTByiomeH jiothkoh; BMecre c TeM mw y6nBaeM bo3- 
Mo^cHOCTb bchkoto MHpoB033peHHH BHepejiHrH03Horo (to ecTb nepe^CH- 
BaeMoro onwTa). CymecTByeT jih CBH3b Me^cziy TeopeTHnecKHM pa3yMOM h 
CTpeMJieHHeM »ch3hh k pe;iHrH03HOMy MHpoB033peHHK) - Bonpoc apyrofl; 



141 



k peuieHHK) aToro Bonpoca, k ero paflHKajibHOH nocTaHOBKe eme TOjibKO 

nOflXOflHT H THOCeOJIOrHH, H (})HJIOCO(j)HH TBopnecTBa. 

Ho yace hcho o^ho: cpe^H Been cjiohchocth mh no-HOBOMy tjih^hm b 
jihijo pe;iHrH03HOH npo6jieMe; b nejioBenecTBe KaK 6yAT0 CHOBa noflHH- 
MaeTCH 3Ta npo6jieMa; Ha stot pa3 oHa CTaBHTca b oKOHnaTejibHoii, 6ec- 
noBopoTHoii <J)opMe: mm ,zjoji5khm hjih ocTaTbca c 6e3yMHWM, 6ecuejibHbiM, 
HeMbiM h 6eccMbic;ieHHbiM MejiOBeMecKHM cymecTBOBaHHeM (pa3 jiorHKa h 
TeopHH 3HHHHH o6t>hbji5hot ce6a eueuejioeeuecKUMU duci^uruiuHaMu) y 6biTb 
aHrejiaMH hjih cKOTaMH, hjih aojiechm mw b npHHijHne aonycraTb cmmcji: 

HO 3TOT CMWCJI M05KCT HMCTb JIHIHb OnpaBflaHHe BO B3rjlflfle Ha 2CH3Hb, KaK 

Ha TBopnecKHH npoijecc: TOJibKo TaKofi TpaHcijeH3yc h B03MoaceH. Zlony- 
CKaa b npHHixHne pejiHrnio, mh aojiechm b CBeie hobmx MHpoco3epijaHHH 
pa3o6paTb nojio»CHTejibHbie pejinrHH, KOTopwe ajih Hac jxo chx nop 6mjih 
ocBemeHbi Hbme yracuiHM cbctom paiiHOHajiHCTHMecKoro hjih araHecKoro 
^orMaTH3Ma. #0 chx nop pejiHrH03Han CHMBOJiHKa HBjinjiacb npea HaMH b 
MeTa(J)H3HHecKOH onpaBe; Hbme caMyio MeTa(J)H3HKy mh paccMaTpHBaeM 

KaK 0C06bIH BHfl CHMBOJIH3Ma. He CHMBOJIH3M AOJI5KHM Mbl MeTa(J)H3HHe- 

ckh ce6e yacHHTb; caMyio MeTacj)H3HKy npHBO^HM mm k chmbojihhcckhm 
o6pa3aM, poac^aiomHMCH H3 cbh3h HppauHOHajibHbix nepe»CHBaHHH hch3- 

HeHHOH MHCTHKH. 

Moaoio AOKa3WBaTb peajiHCTHnecKoe MHpoco3epuaHHe H6ceHa; paa 
UHTaT c flocTaTOHHoii y6eaHTejibHOCTbio no^TBep^HT HaM ero cymecTBO- 
BaHHe: HeaapoM ace hbjichhh aereHepaijHH, HacjieacTBeHHocra c TaKoft 
MpaHHofl chjioh nepeaaHM b ero TBopnecTBe; mo»cho o6paTHo aoKa3MBaTb 
mhcthixh3m H6ceHa; caMbie (J)aKTopw HacjieacTBeHHOcra npe^CTaHyT Tor- 
jxa. KaK npoo6pa3w Mpa*mo Kapaiomeii BJiacTH poKa. HaKOHeu, b paae ^paM 
H6ceH KacaeTCH pejiHrH03HOH npo6jieMbi. H mm nacTO b Kpyre npoTHBO- 
peHHfl: H6ceH - aeTepMHHHCT; H6ceH - mhcthk; H6ceH - npopoK HOBoro 
pejiHrH03Horo co3HaHHH. H mm He noHHMaeM, kto ace no cymecTBy H6ceH. 
Ho mm He noHHMaeM h Been cjioechocth b nocTaHOBKe BonpocoB Meacay 
HayKoii h pejiHrneH; HOBoe ocBemeHHe pejiHrH03Horo co3HaHHH, KaK h ho- 
bmh B3rjiH,a Ha HayKy eme e^Ba HaMeneH cpe#H yMCTBeHHoii apncTOKpa- 
thh; HaniH ace xoflHHHe MHpoB033peHHH Bee TaK hjih HHane CBH3aHM c Teo- 

peTHHeCKH H35KHTMM ,ZJOrMaTH3MOM. Mbl TOJIbKO CMyTHO HyBCTByeM, MTO B 

3tom Ba^cHOM Bonpoce aejio o6ctoht He TaK CKJia^Ho; Boo6me nonyjinpHoe 
H3JIO»CeHHe BepxoB MHCTHKH, KaK h BepxoB HayKH, Be^eT k HeBoo6pa3H- 
MOMy cyM6ypy b npoijecce Bbipa6oTKH 5KH3HeHHoro MHpoco3epuaHHH. 
HacTO eme h Tenepb pa3^aiOTCH penn o MaHHaKajibHOM xapaKTepe caMoro 
H6ceHOBCKoro TBopnecTBa hjih crapaiOTCH ero yjioacHTb Ha npoKpycTOBO 
jioace oT^cHBinero aorMara3Ma, He noao3peBaH, mto 6e3yMHe, aep3HOBeH- 
HOCTb, 3aHacTyio npoTHBopenHBOCTb ero nojioaceHHii e^Ba jih c nojiHOToii 
OTpa^caiOT npoTHBopenHBOCTb, aep3H0BeHH0CTb, rpaHHHamne c 6e3yMHeM 
b caMHx BMBo^ax HayKH h TeopHH 3HaHHH. H3MeHHJiCH caMbiii cmmcji Tep- 



142 



mhhob «udeajihHuu», «pecuibHuu», «uayHHUU». IloflxoflH k H6ceHy b Me- 

TOflOJIOTHHeCKHX IUOpaX UblUe 0T2CHBaK)mHX MHpOB033peHHH, Mbl He iioh- 

MeM pobho HHnero. Meacay TeM H6ceH b ochobhom cbocm npoH3BeaeHHH 
«HMnepamop u Tamjuiennun^ ctsbht Ty ace Te3y b OTHonieHHH k Bonpocy o 
Bepe h 3HaHHH, KaK h coBpeMeHHbie TeneHHH mhcjih; TpeTbe uapcTBO npo- 
B03rjiainaeT H6ceH ycTaMH oflHoro H3 ^eiicTByiomHx jihu apaMbi (MaKCH- 
Ma) KaK rpaaymyio pejiHrnio; nepBoe uapcTBO - ijapcTBO MaTepnajibHOH 
ech3hh (mhp 6mthh); BTopoe uapcTBO - MHp Jloroca, cbma, npHHijHna; ho c 
yaajieHHeM TeopHH 3HaHHH 3a npe^ejiw Bcero acHBoro nepea HaMH flBa pa3- 
^ejieHHbix uapcTBa - MHp 6mthh h mhp JiornnecKHX npHHijHnoB; nepBoe 
6e3yMHO, 6eccMbicjieHHo; BTopoe 6ecnjioflHO, 6e3»CH3HeHHo; cmwcji TOJib- 
ko b coeflHHeHHH; i^apcTBO nejieA aojiacHO acHTb; uapcTBO cpe^CTB aojiecho 
HMeTb cmwcji; coeflHHeHHe ace pa3yMa c nepeacHBaeMbiM onbiTOM B03M05K- 
ho TOJibKO KaK pejiHrnn 5kh3hh; h 3Ty-TO pejiHrnio ech3hh npoB03rjiauia- 
eT H6ceH KaK rpaaymee uapcTBO ayxa. He6o h 3eMJiio coe^HHHeT H6ceH 
coBepuieHHo TaK ace, KaK coe^HHHeT He6o h 3eMjno Hhuhic H ocHOBaHHH 
turn TaKoro coe^HHeHHH aaiOT eMy cymecTByiomHe cjioechocth OTHonieHHH 
Meacay 3HaHHeM h MHpOB033peHHeM, pejiHrneH h HayKOH. 
npomueopeuue Meotcdy HpaecmeeHHocmbTO u Kpacomou. 

IlpOTHBOpeHHe Me2Cfly HpaBCTBeHHOCTbK) H KpaCOTOH TeCHO CBH3aHO 

c npoTHBopenHeM Meacay BOJieft h co3epijaHHeM. CymecTByiomHe (})op- 

Mbl 6bITOBOH MOpaJIH He B COCTOHHHH yKa3aTb nOflJIHHHO STHHeCKyiO uejib 

ech3hh; cjioacHOCTb ech3hh npeBbiuiaeT bo3m02chocth OTHonieHHH Meacay 
TaK Ha3HBaeMbiM ao6poM h 3jiom; pa3BHBaiomaHCH HayKa, c apyroft cropo- 
hh, MeHneT ecTecTBeHHbift B3Tjinji Ha HpaBCTBeHHocTb. A HayHHbie TeopHH 
3thkh yace noTOMy He b cnjiax 3aMeHHTb HauiH ecTecTBeHHO cjioMKBuiHecn 
npHHijHnbi sthkh, hto HayKa HecoBMecTHMa c MHpoB033peHHeM. HpaB- 
CTBeHHOCTb 3aMeHneT OHa b jiynuieM cjiynae coirnajibHOH rHrneHOH; c npy- 
roft CTopoHbi, 4>opMajibHbie npHHirnnbi sthkh (xoth 6w y Kama) OKa3biBa- 

IOTCH CJIHIHKOM OTBJieHCHHblMH OT BCHHeCKOTO 5KH3HeHHOTC) COflepacaHHflJ 

HaKOHeu, couHajibHbie yneHHH, HaH6o;iee zjocrynHbie cpe^HeMy noHHMa- 

HHK) IHHpOKHX MaCC, 3aMeHOH BCeo6meH H 06H3aTeJIbH0H 3THKH KJiaCCOBOH 

Mopajibio b cymHocTH h BOBce yHHHToacaiOT Hanie HH^HBH^yajibHoe npea- 
cTaBjieHHe o HpaBCTBeHHOcTHj jiHHHoe 6jiaropoacTBo, B03Bbiuiaiomee Hac 
b HauiHx rjia3ax, 0Ka3biBaeTCH HeHyacHbiM, 6ypacya3HbiM; KpHTepnft HpaB- 
CTBeHHOCTH yrepHBaeTCH BOBce; ho Hame HH^HBH^yajibHoe coaepacaHHe 
HmeT nero-To paBH03HanHoro HpaBCTBeHHOCTH! mw He MoaceM acHTb 6e3 
BHyTpeHHe peajibHbix ajih Hac ycToeB 2ch3hh; h ecjiH pyuiaTCH nepea HaMH 
KpHTepHH npaB^w h flo6pa, mw noHeBOJie nmeM hx b KpacoTe, b mhcthkc; 
h KyjibT KpacoTbi noHeBOJie bo3hhk h OKpen bmccto yTpaHHBaeMoro Hbme 
KyjibTa^o6pa; ho c(j)epa KpacoTbi CMyTHa h HeonpeaejieHHa; nma KpHTepHH 
KpacoTbi, mw nonaaaeM b hobwh uhkji npoTHBopeHHH; noacajiyii, KpacoTa h 
ecTb co3epuaHHe; h ^eftcTBHTejibHO, 3CTeTH3M HmeT onopw b C03epuaHHH; 



143 



MeTa(J)H3HKa, 3CTeraKa TaK hjih HHane cBH3aHbi c neccHMH3M0M. Co3epua- 
HHe, to ecTb 0TKa3 ot bojih, KaK mm yaee BH^ejiH, nepexo^HT b CBoe npoTH- 
BonojioacHoe; oho nepexo^HT b TBopnecTBO hobwx 5KH3HeHHbix oraoiiie- 
hhh; h nocKOJibKy 3to TBopnecTBO 6a3HpyeTca Ha jihhhom «h», nocrojibKy 

(J)HJIOCO(J)HH KpaCOTbl H3 neCCHMH3Ma nepeXOflHT B 3rOH3M| HpaBCTBeHHO 
TO, HTO H HaXO^Cy KpaCHBbIM; HO H TyT KpaCOTa CTaJIKHBaeTCH C HpaBCTBeH- 

HOCTbio; «mw dojiotcen* npoTHBonocraBJieHO «x xouy»; hbjihctch mhcthhc- 

CKHH OnbIT, KOTOpblH pa3JIHHaeT B «H» JIHHHOM «H» MHpOBOe; 3T0 BTOpoe 

OTKpbiBaiomeecH MHe bo MHe caMOM, o6pamaeTCH k «h» jiHHHOMy co 
Bee TeM ace «mu dojiMen* bo hmh KpacoTbi, h o6parao: «h» jihhhoc bhaht 
bo btopom HenTO HaflbiHflHBHflyajibHoe; k HeMy o6pamaeTCH oho, KaK 

K «77M>/». HO KaK TOJIbKO CyMeeM Mbl pa3JIHHHTb JIHHHOCTb OT Ha^blH^HBH- 

AyajibHoro KopHH jihhhocth, mm yace He mohccm He 3HaTb, hto bchkoc #py- 
roe HBjiHiomeecH HaM, KaK «mw», onpeaejifleTCH apyrHM Moe 
BTopoe (Ha^biHOTBHflyajibHoe) ecTb BMecTe c TeM HaAbiHAHBHAyajibHoe 

«H» AJIH BCHKOTO «TbI», HBJIHIOmerOCH MOeMy C03HaHHK); pa3 3TO OC03HaHO, 
«H» BTOpoe CTaHOBHTCH «OW», CBH3yK)mee BCHKHe HHflHBH^yaJIbHbie H 

«/m>/»; TyT MHCTHKa C03epijaHHH KpacoTbi nepexoAHT b pejiHrnio; KpacoTa 
h HpaBCTBeHHOCTb cjiHBaiOTCH: «h - dTTio mu». HHmueBCKHii 3roH3M, npo- 
B03rjiacHBiHHH ecTb He 6ojiee KaK TaKranecKHH npneM, no-HOBOMy 
npHBOflnmHH k CTapoS pejiHrH03HOH Mopajm; Hnmiie HaM, b cymHOCTH, 
roBOpHT! «jiio6h He 6;iH»CHero a ce6n («#»), ho 3Ta jno6oBb Hyac- 

Ha ajih Toro, hto6w <b 3tom> th OTKpwji Apyroe «h» h npeBparaji 
CBoe jiHHHoe (6jiH3Koe) «a» b nyTb h cTpeMjieHHe k ApyroMy AajieKOMy 

He 3HaH peaJIbHO CBH3H Me»CAy 060HMH HTO Tbl MOHCeillb 3HaTb o 

6jih5Khcm; TOJibKo nepe3 AaJieKoe «h» Moaceuib tw hoaohth k 6jiHacaHine- 
My «tw» (6jiH»cHeMy)». Ho bmboa H3 stoto nojioaceHHH TaKOB ace, KaK 
h bmboa ApeBHeHiueH mhcthkh BocroKa: «H - 97710 mu» («TambmeaM 

ACU»). B 3T0T MOMeHT He TOJIbKO KpaCOTa CTaHOBHTCH HpaBCTBeHHOCTbK), 
HO H (|)OpMaJIbHaH HpaBCTBeHHOCTb HBJIHeTCH £JIH C03HaHHH BHyTpeHHe 

HanojiHeHHOH coAepacaHHeM, to ecTb OHa hbjihctch KpacoToii; 3Aecb 3cre- 

TH3M CTaHOBHTCH 3TH3MOMJ 3THHCCKHM 3JieMCHTOM B 3CTCTH3MC BoflJI3pa 

6mji, b cymHocra, «Gout de Pinfini»; xapaKTepHO, hto 3ctcth3m BepjieHa 
nepexo^HT b KyjibT MaAOHHbi, 3ctcth3m yaftjibAa - b KyjibT xpHCTHaH- 

CKOH KpaCOTbl; TlOHCMaHC CTaHOBHTCH KaTOJIHKOM, BaTHep - n03TOM H 

t. a. To ace nponcxoAHT c H6ceHOM: npoB03rjiacHB HHAHBHAyajiH3M, H6- 
ceH pa3BepTbiBaeT nepeA HaMH rajiepeio sctctob, yKa3biBan BMecTe c TeM 
TparHHecKHH bmboa 3CTeTH3Ma, HaKOHeu, b ^TKemjUtUHe c Mopa», «9uojib- 
(pe» h «Kozda mu, Mepmeue, npo6yoicdaeMCH» bwcihhh momcht nejiOBe- 
necKoro TBopnecTBa cjiHBaeT KpacoTy h HpaBCTBeHHOCTb b He,aejiHMOM 
e^HHCTBe. 



144 



II 

AhTHHOMHH, KOTOpblX MW TaK KpaTKO KOCHyjIHCb, COeflHHflflCb 

apyr c apyroM, o6pa3yiOT b jihhhocth cjioacHeftuiHft jia6npHHT hchshchhwx 

OTHOUieHHH; B Ka^KAOM .ZU1HHOM KOHKpeTHOM CJiyHae CJI05KHOCTb fleftCTBH- 

TejibHOCTH bchkhh pa3 npeBwuiaeT npaKTHnecKHe OTBeTbi, flHioyeMwe 

BblBO^aMH H3 HbIHe OT5KHBIIIHX MHpOB033peHHHJ KdOKROe H3 3THX MHpO- 
B033peHHH pHCOBaJIO HaM 5KH3Hb ynpomeHHO; HBJIHJIHCb JIH TaKHMH MH- 
pOB033peHHHMH MaT6pHaJIH3M, II03HTHBH3M, neCCHMH3M HJIH HfleaJIH3M, 
MHCTHIJH3M - BCe paBHOI KOHKpeTHO nepe^CHBaeMOe OC03HaeTCH XOTfl 6bl 

b nepeacHBaHHH h 6ecKOHenHO cjioaoiee, h nporaBopenHBee; aeftcTBHTejib- 
HOCTb HBjineT HaM cjioacHoe coe^HHeHHe nocTynKOB h MHpoB033peHHft; 
HaniH aee npaBHjia OTHOineHHH k 5KH3HH, noKoncb Ha nepeacHToft npocTOTe, 
He MoryT Hac yaoBjieTBopjiTb. H6ceH nepBbift H3 apaMaTyproB OTpa3Hji b 
CBoeii apaMe aeftcTBHTejibHyio cjioacHOCTb oTHoineHHii; ero peBOJiioirHOH- 
Han aenTejibHOCTb 3aicjiK)HaeTCH b tom, hto oh cpbiBaeT c Hac MeToaojio- 
rHHecKHe ohkh. Ro H6ceHa mw echjih b aTMOc4>epe rHnH03a; xoth mm h 
nyBCTBOBajiH »CH3Hb cjioaoiee, HeacejiH o Heft roBopHjiH HaM rocno^CTByio- 
mHe MHpoB033peHHH, oflHaKo mw He cMejiH npH3HaTbCH apyr apyry h ce6e 
b tom, KaKOBa yMajiHHBaeMan HaMH nepeHCHBaeMaa aeftcTBHTejibHOCTb; mw 
HeBOJibHo npe^cTaBJiHJiH ce6n h apyrnx Bceuejio no3HTHBHCTaMH, poMaH- 
THKaMH, MHCTHKaMH; mw He xoTejiH npH3HaTbCH, hto mm to h apyroe - oa- 
HOBpeMeHHo; h b npoH3BeaeHHHx apaMaTHHecicoro HCKyccTBa rocnoacTBO- 
Bajia KpaftHHH OTBjieneHHocTb b H3o6paaceHHH fleftcTBHTejibHOcra; nepea 
HaMH HBjiHJiHCb munu, h TOJibKO munu; ho TOJibKO peflicoe xy^o^cecTBeH- 
Hoe npoH3BeaeHHe B03BwuiaeTCfl ro noflJiHHHoft munuuHOcmu, rjie man 
CTaHOBHTca BceHejioBenecKHM, BHeBpeMeHHbiM, 6eccMeprawM; o6whho ace 
THn Bbipoacaajicn b apaMe b xoflflnyio TeHfleHUHio; h 3to hmcjio MecTO KaK 
pa3 b peajiHCTHnecKoft apaMe; b apaMe Bwpaacajiacb cxeMaTH3HpoBaHHaa 
npocTOTa nocTynKOB, a BOBce He noflJiHHHan cjioacHOCTb mothbob, noa- 
roTOBjiHiomaH K0JUIU3UW. Tun b peajiHCTHnecKoft apaMe ao H6ceHa Bwpo- 
^hjich b TeH,5eHixH03Hbift (pyrruuip; b stot (J)yTJiHp BTHCKHBajicH nejioBeic; 
nepea HaMH 6wji uejioeex e (pymjiHpe, a mw npHHHMajiH stot uejioeeuecKuu 
(pymmp 3a noflJiHHHoro nejiOBeica. IToneMy? IIoTOMy hto h caMH mw 6wjih 
jiio^bMH b (pymmpe\ cxeMara3M, npHcymnft aorMaTHnecKHM MHpoB033pe- 
hhhm HeaaBHero npoiiuioro, cyacHBaji Hauie OTHonieHHe k hch3hh, a ctoh- 
mne Ha crpaace zopodoeue (pymjinpnhix Mupoeo33penuu rnnHOTH3HpoBajiH 
jiHHHocTb; icaacfloe MHpoB033peHHe HMejio CBoft njiaKarawft chmboji Bepw, 
Majieftinee OTcrynjieHHe ot KOToporo npecjieflOBajiocb CTporo ropoflOBw- 

MH OT n03HTHBH3Ma, paiJHOHaJIH3Ma, peJIHrH03HOrO ^OTMaTH3Ma H T. a. Mw 

Bee - 3CTeTw, jiH6epajiw, coijHajiHCTW h aHapxHCTw - 6wjih oflHHaKOBO 
y3KOKOHcepBaTHBHW k Tpe6oBaHHHM acHBoft jihhhocth. H Koraa H6ceH 
nepBwft noKa3aji HaM boohhio noflJiHHHoro nejiOBeKa co Bceft ero CKpwBae- 



145 



moh, noflnojibHOH cjio^choctbk), mw 33.6njiu TpeBory; JIHHHOCTb OKa3ajiacb 
HecoH3MepHMoii c caMoro pa3Hoo6pa3Horo copTa (j)yTjinpaMH, Kyzja mm 
ee dapajiHCb ynpniaTb; H6ceH pa36Hji (pyrrump Ha nejioBeKe - npaB^a, 
KaK 6w co cueHbi: 3to repoiicTBO ctohjio eMy MHornx CTpa^aHHH: oh npH- 
Hy^c^eH 6wji 6eacaTb c poflHHbi; ho cbohm repoHCKHM nodynKOM oh no- 
Mor pa36HTb (J>yTjiHp Ha MHornx H3 Hac; H6ceHOBCKan cijeHa OKa3ajiacb 
6ojiee 5KH3HeHHOH, He^cejiH TeaipajibHOCTb noKa3Hoii ctopohm hch3hh; 
mu3hu smozo nem» y - cKa3ajio eBponeftcKoe o6mecTBo, yBHflaB h6cchob- 
ckhx repoeB; «(popMU npoaejiemiH naweu MU3HU e o6tu,ecmee 6e3MU3Hen- 
hu», - OTBeTHji HaM H6ceH: «da, smo max*, - no^xBaTHjiH HeMHorae. 
3aBH3ajiacb Tflac6a. H no6e,zjHji H6ceH: nocjie H6ceHa mm yace He BepHeM- 
ch k apaMe Capay, 3ojih h aaace 3yaepMaHa. H6ceH pa36Hji (pyrruuip na 
uejioeexe TOJibKO b HCKyccTBe; nacTbio 6jiaroaapfl eMy 3tot (pyrruiap Hbme 
pa36HT h Ha Hac. 

B 3tom OTHonieHHH npaB o^hh H3 jiHTepaTypHbix kphthkob H6ceHa, 
JIoTap, Kor^a oh roBopm cjie^yiomHe xapaKTepHbie cjioBa: «Bce, umo npo- 
uuioe cmojiemue dcuio e odjiacmu mucjiu, ece ompa3Wiocb e xydojfcecmeeHHOM 
meopHecmee Mdcena. Ezo anajvus omdejibmu mmnocmu aejiHemca cunme30M 
eeua. PoManmu3M u pecuiu3M y neccuMU3M u onmuMU3M, cou,ucuiii3M u un- 
dueudycuiu3M - ece menemm epeMenu cyMeji H6cen 3acmaeumb cjiyotcumb 
ceouM i^ejuiM. H e smoM i^ejiOM mpyd ezo 6bui nocenm^n 6ydywpMy y Komo- 
poe dojiofCHO damb mod$M mo, umo um npunadjieMum, - npaea JiuuHocmu*. 
A bot hto roBopHT no 3TOMy noBOfly flerep: «RpaMa eoo6m i e ne cpasy okcl- 
3cuiacb na ypoene o6m i ezo dyxoenozo npozpecca e Eepone*. .HaTCKan ra3eia 
«Cov t uaji- i n,eMOKpam^ cjie^yiomHM o6pa30M xapaKTepH3yeT H6ceHa: «0« 
6bui, Kax com ce6n o6pucoeaji e odnoM U3 ceoux cmuxomeopeHiiu, pydoKO- 
noMy Komopuu ceouM mnotcejibiM mojiothom npodueaem cede nymb ezjiydb - e 
coMbie nedpa mu3hu u dywu uejioeeuecKOU*. H6ceH npoayMMBaji cboh apa- 
mm flo KOHija: pa36HBaa Ha Hac 6poHio Hainero oKaMeHeHHH CBoeii acejie3- 
hoh KHpKoii TBopnecTBa, H6ceH Kaacfloii penjiHKoii cbohx repoeB ycjioac- 
HneT jno6oe nojioaceHHe 5KH3HH, aaHHoe hm b Hanajie apaMbi; CHanajia oh 

BbWBHraeT TOT HJIH HHOH TC3HC B TOM 06meM, HaM BCeM 3HaKOMOM BHfle, 

b KaKOM ^aH 3tot Te3HC b KaTexH3Hce jno6oro MHpoB033peHHH: nepea 
HaMH - HeoTecaHHan rjibi6a, ryje eme HeT hch3hh; ^ajiee HanHHaeTCH paa 
nepeKpecTHbix cijeH, conpoBoacaaeMbix rpa^OM penjiHK, cbinjiiomHxcfl Ha 
Te3HC, KaK nacTbie yaapbi khpkh: nepBOHanajibHafl rjibi6a CTaHOBHTCH Bee 
nojiHorpaHHeH, h, HaKOHeij, H3 MHorax 5KH3HeHHbix rpaHeii HanHHaeT bm- 
CTynaTb no^jiHHHO ^chboh, 6ecKOHeHHO cjio^chmh KOHTyp, a mm He^oyMe- 
BaeM: «e otcmnu smozo nem». BepHee, He b »ch3hh, a e (pynvixpe, b KOTopbiii 
CTpeMHTCH 3a6nTb »cH3Hb zopodoGbie om dozMamu3Ma. B stom OTHomeHHH 
cnpaBe^JiHBO yKa3MBaeT BbepHCOH Ha uejiecoo6pa3HOCTb h rjiy6oKyio 
npo^yMaHHocTb h6cchobckhx penjiHK, TaK Macro nopa^caiomnx Hani rot- 
MaTH3M CBoeio napa^oKcajibHOCTbio: «Oh (Mdcen) - eejiuuauiuuu Macmep 



146 



e CMUCJie nocmpoeniLH ceoux m>ec. Bo3bMume ^/Iwcyto ymxy*. Tom hu odnou 
jiuiuneu peiuiwcu, xajfcdoe cjioeo UMeem ceow i^ejib. HacmoRwpe uydo ucxyc- 
crnea*. Ho hto, no mhchhio BbepHCOHa, hbjihctch nyaoM HCKyccTBa, to, no 

MHeHHK) HaiUHX KpHTHKOB, ew,e BHepa o6l>HBJIHJIOCb 6eccMbicjnmeH. Bot 

KaK xapaKTepn3yeT Beaejib oraomeHHe k H6ceHy mhothx ^aTHam «H6ceu 
cjiuuiKOM rtiHMeji. M6cen cjiuiukom xojiodeu u MpmeH... M6ceu cjiuwkom my- 
Mauen, - zoeopmn jiwdu, Komopue moxomno omeoMuemomcH 3a6upambca 
e manue zjiydome Mecma, zde yoice ne eudno dua. Tlpocmou 3dpaeuu cmucji 
nodbiMaem na du6u npomue M6cena mhozux... nucamejieu-pecuiucmoe... H6- 
ceu maKou cyxou, yzjioeamuu... H6cen cjiuiukom cnoxoeH, nmmu 6e3otcu3- 
nen... Ee3ynpeuen e CMUCJie mexHwcu... HedocmamoHuo apmucmmecKan na- 
mypa»... TaKOB 3apn^ o6bhhchhh npoTHB H6ceHa; 3ap*m o6bhhchhh He 
yMOJiK h no cio nopy. Ho hto moacho cKa3aTb nporaB? H6ceH thhccji - aa, 
Tnacejio pa36nBaeT khpkoh 4>yTJiHp Hanien ycnoKoeHHOcra 3tot py^OKon 
ayxa; xojiofleH, MpaneH - b no^3eMHbix rjiy6nHax Harnett 3eMJin xojioaho: 
aa, oh xojioaeH; b no^3eMHbix rjiy6HHax HeT cBeTa ^hh: aa, oh MpaneH. 
B ero rjiy6HHe nacTO He bh^ho flHa, hto B03pa3HTb npoTHB 3Toro? ripHJiHB 
ero TBopnecTBa yHOCHT b «neu3MepuM0cmb meMHbtx eomr. Bee 3to Bep- 
ho. IIpocTOH 3/ipaBbiH cmmcji BoopyacaeTCH npoTHB H6ceHa: ho 3^paBoro 
CMbicjia y 5KH3HH HeT, KaK HeT ero h y coBpeMeHHocTH, r^e yTOHneHHe Ha- 
yHHoro, 4>Hjioco(J)CKoro, o6mecTBeHHoro h pe;iHrH03Horo CMbicjia jiHinaeT 
3tot cmmcji florMaTHHecKoft «3dpaeocmu», t. e. 6oh3hh 3arjiHHyTb r;iy6oKO 
b ce6n h BOKpyr ce6n. H6ceH cnoKoeH h cyx: ero cnoKOHCTBHe - 3cmjih- 
Han Kopa, noa KOTopoft rjiyxo rpoxoneT ByjiKaH: o6biHHoe jyjin Hero cno- 
KoflcTBHe nepBbix Tpex-neTbipex aKTOB pa3pwBaeTCH b3pmbom nocjieflHero 
aKTa, KOTopbiS 3acTaBJineT ero repoeB npoaejibiBaTb 6e3yMHH, nyraromne 
3,3[paBbiH cmwcji; jieji ero cyxocra, pacnjiaBJieHHbiH 6e3yMHeM, HH3Bepra- 
eTCH Toraa rpeMnmHM 6ypHbiM noTOKOM Ha Hainy 6jiaronojiyHHyio «ejiaM- 
Hocmb» 5KH3HH. H6ceH 6e3»CH3HeH - ho KpaHHHe CTeneHH acapa h xojioaa 

BbI3bIBaK)T aHeCTe3HK) HyBCTB; 6e3»CH3HeH, nOTOMy HTO CJIHUIKOM BeJIHK 

pa3Max ero acH3HeHHOcra ajih HaniHx, e^Ba yjiOBHMbix ^bh^kchhh 5KH3- 
hh: y Hac nacTO He 0Ka3biBaeTCH opraHOB BocnpHHTHH H6ceHa: ohh - 
aTpo(J)HpoBaHbi. H, 6e35KH3HeHHbie, mm )KH3Hb H6ceHOBCKoro TBopnecTBa 
BocnpHHHMaeM 6e3aeH3HeHHO. H6ceH 6e3ynpeneH KaK tcxhhk - aa, on*iTb- 

TaKH JX?i. H BHHOBaTbl Mbl CaMH, eCJIH TeXHHHeCKafl 6e3flapHOCTb HBJIHeTCH 

fljiH Hac ycjioBHeM xy^o^cecTBeHHoro ^apoBaHHH. «H6cen nedocmamoHHO 
apmucmmecKaH namypa»; ecjiH noa apmucmuHHocmbio pa3y\ieeM mm He- 
BpacTeHHHecKyio pa3^epraHHOCTb nyBCTB, CBOHCTBeHHyio CTOJib mhothm 
nncaTejiHM, hjih aKTepcKyio uinpoTy HaTypbi, BbipaacaiomyiocH b nbHH- 
CTBe, HOUieHHH aJIbMaBHBM H THMHaCTHKe MycKyjioB Ha cueHe RJW. Bbipa- 

»ceHHH nyBCTB, to H6ceH - HaTypa ^eScTBHTe^bHo me apmucmmecKOM*; 
ero TBopnecTBO, KaK h oh caM, 6e3yKopH3HeHHo; oho, KaK h oh caM, b ijh- 
jiHH^pe; BOHCTHHy TynorojioBocTb nacTO mm Ha3MBaeM apracTHHHocTbio, 



1 0 AHApeft Bejihift 



147 



a TeMHoe, HH3MeHHoe HyTpo nyBCTB (iiohth npeBo) - xyAoacecTBeHHOH hh- 
TyHUHeii; TaKoe npeBO mojihht b TBopnecrBe H6ceHa. 

Cjio^choctb nepe»CHBaHHH y jihu; H6ceHOBCKoro nepcoHaaca npeBbiuia- 

d CJI03KHOCTB OTBeTOB TOH HJIH HHOH flOKTpHHbl, HCXOAH H3 KOTOpOH MM 

onpeaejifleM cBoe yMCTBeHHoe h HpaBCTBeHHoe oraoiiieHHe k co&ithhm 
hch3hh; h noTOMy-TO H6ceHa Hejib3H noABOAHTb noA paMKH toh hjih hhoh 
AOktphhm; H6ceH He peajincr, ecjiH noA peajiH3MOM pa3yMeTb cootbct- 
CTByiomHe aoKTpHHbi; ho H6ceH, OAHaico, h He mhcthk, ecjiH noA mhcth- 
koh mw 6yaeM pa3yMeTb cpeAHeBeKOByio MeTa4>H3Hicy nepeacHBaHHii; H6- 
ceH peBOJiiouHOHep; ho oh He coijHaji-AeMOKpaT, He aHapxHCT-KOMMyHHCT; 
couHajiHCTbi ^ocTaTOHHO noA^epKHBajiH peaKUHOHHbiii ottchok b TBopne- 
CTBe H6ceHa; h, OAHaico, noAJiHHHO peaKUHOHHbie ajieMeHTbi o6mecTBa h 
no cio nopy bhaht b hcm onacHoro peBOJiioijHOHepa. H6ceH He npncoeAH- 
HHeTCH hh k KaKOMy AomaTy; ho chctcmoh HCKycHO noAo6paHHbix penjiHK, 
a TaKHce Bceft 4>a6yjioH CBoeft ApaMbi AOCTaTOHHo pa36HBaeT Ty hjih HHyio 
^OKTpHHy; 3,aecb nojib3yeTcn oh toh hjih hhoh Hay^HOH Teopneii; TaM bh- 

BOAHT H3 JIK)60H ^OKTpHHbl BOBCe HeOJKH^aHHblH TC3HC, HTo6bI BHOBb pa3- 

Apo6nTb, onpoKHHyTb h no-HHOMy BbiABHHyTb ero b cjieflyiomeii ApaMe; 
KaacAaa cjieAyioman ApaMa 6pocaeT HaM pnA BonpocoB, Bbi6HBaiomHx Hac 
HeBOJibHO H3 jno6oro .zjorMaTHHecKoro KaTexH3Hca. JIio6onbiTHO npH3Ha- 
HHe H6ceHa, 3anHcaHHoe hcmcijkhm jiHTepaTopoM KoHpa^oM, no noBoay 
HCTOJiKOBaTejieii H6ceHOBCKoro TBopnecTBa: «JJa, da - yotcsmuMne mojixo- 
eamejiu. He ecezda-mo ohu ydmno cnpaejiMomcn co ceoeu 3admeu. Ohu juo- 
6nm ece ceodumb na cumgojiu, max kok ueyeaofcaTom deucmeumejibHocmu. A 
ecnu npenodHecmu um cumooji, ohu ezo onouuiaiom u 6paHsuncH...» 3th cjio- 
Ba H6ceHa o xapaicrepe cbohx ApaM Hpe3BbiHaiiH0 AparoijeHHbi: peajiHCT 
BbiBe^eT H3 hhx npoTecT H6ceHa nporaB CHMBOJiHHecicoro noHHMaHHH ero 
ApaM; chmbojihct ace npoHTeT b ero cjioBax npoTecT npoTHB peajiH3Ma; hc- 
thhhwh chmboji «ohu (ucmojiKoeamejiu) onouuLR7om»; «npenodHecmu um 
CUM6OJ1... ohu 6paHxmca». Ho H6ceH, no-BHAHMOMy, He peajiHCT, He chmbo- 
jihct b o6hhho noHHMaeMOM CMbicjie SToro cjiOBa; noA peajibHoii achctbh- 
TejibHOCTbio oh pa3yMeeT HeKyio AeficTBHTejibHOCTb, AonycKaiomyio MHp 

CHMBOJIOB, CpOCIUHHCH C HdO B CZtflHCTBe; nOA CHMBOJIOM, OHCBHAHO, BO- 

Bce He pa3yMeeT oh ajuieropnio; roBopa 06 onoinjieHHH HCTOJiKOBaTejiHMH 
ero CHMBOJiH3Ma, oh, oneBHAHO, pa3yMeeT BceB03MoacHbie ajiJieropHnecKHe 
cnoco6w HCTOJiKOBaHHH ero ApaM, to ecTb nonpocTy pai*HOHajiH3aijHio 06- 
pa30B. Ho npHMoro OTBeTa Ha to, KaK noHHMaTb ero ApaMbi, oh He Aaer oh 
TOJibKO CTaBHT Bonpoc: ero 3aAana c6nTb c AorMaTH3Ma; CTOJiKHyTb pa3HO- 

TO pOAa nOHHMaHHH AeHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH B HenpHMHpHMOM npoTHBopenHH; 

cxeMaTHnecKoe pa3peuieHHe Toro hjih HHoro Bonpoca, Kacaiomeroca 3KH3- 
hh, ero He yAOBjieTBopneT: 3ApaBbiii cmwcji pa3py6aeT oh TbicanaMH napa- 
AOKCOB, h 3ApaBbiii cmhcji naAaeT: mbi ctohm nepeA »chboh coBepuieHHO 
peajibHoii cjioacHOCTbio; TyT H6ceH hjih Hac noKHAaeT, hjih o6pamaeTCH k 



148 



CHMBOJiy, a mh - HefloyMeBaeM: «Kok nodyMaeuib o moM, - nnuieT H6ceH k 
BpaH^ecy b 1882 ro^y, - nacKOJibKoynac... ewp myzo, esuio, myno Kpumuue- 
CKoe noHUManue, npedcmaeuiub cede HU3KUU ypoeenb namezo odiqezo Mupo- 
co3epuflHUH, - neeojibHO enadaeuib e zjiydoxoe ynuHue, u Mue daotce nacmo 
KaotcemcH, umo Jiyniue ecezo HeMedjienno npeicpamumb ceoio JiumepamypnyTO 
demiejibHocmb. Y nac> e cyiu,Hocmu, He nyotcdatomcn e nosmuuecKux npou3- 
eedenuax*. Jlajiee: ^Ynac... ne ocodeuuo 3a6omnmcn o ceoSode, a mojibico ece 
o eojibHocrruvc - e 6ojibiueM imu MeHbiueM KOJimecmee, coznacm napmuunou 
mouKe spenuH. Kpaune nenpuHmno 3adeeaem Menn maxjfce sma neKyjibmyp- 
hoh ruie6eucKOH nawaManepa nojieMii3upoeamb». B 1882 roay eme ropbKO 
nyBCTBOBaji H6ceH rjiyxyio CTeHy (pyrruinpHbix modeu, aotoihho jie3ymHx 
Ha Hero co cbohmh y3eHbKHMH MHpoB033peHHHMH: (pymjinp, Hademuu na 
uejioeem, b cBoe BpeMH nyTb jih He 3aciaBHji H6ceHa 6pocHTb jiHTepaTyp- 
Hyio .zjeHTejibHOCTb; khkhm ctohom 3BynaT cjiOBa, o6pameHHbie 6e,zi;cTByio- 
iu,hm H6ceHOM k Kopojiio y»ce nocjie C03,zi;aHHH «BpaH^a», oflHoro H3 Be- 
jiHHaftniHx cbohx co3flaHHii: «IIojiyv,aeMbiMU eupaotceHURMU... odo6penun 
h ne MOiy cyiqecmeoeamb... ft xjionouy ne 06 odecneueHHOM nojiootcenuu, ho 
dopwcb sa dejio ceoeu otcu3HU, e xomopoe nenoKOJieduMO eepio... Bpyxax ea- 
mezo eejimecmea damb Mne yMOJiKHymb, CKJionumbcn nod SpeMeneM comozo 
zopbKOio ompeneHUH, - ompeuenusi om dejia ceoeu mu3hu. Mue npuuuiocb 
6u yumu c mozo nojia 6umeu t na KomopoM x, 3Haw, npu3ean 6opombCH...» 
H6ceHa yromajiH KouianbHMH KOHijepTaMH h BCHKoro poaa aeMOHcrpa- 
Uhhmh; ero CHHTajiH yna^OHHHKOM, BparoM o6mecTBa, aHapxHCTOM, 6e3- 
yivmeM; eme HeaaBHO h y Hac pa3AaBajiHCb rojioca, hto h6cchobckhx re- 
poeB He cymecTByeT; noMHjiyftTe: CojibHec bcxo^ht Ha 6aniHK), hto6w 
roBopHTb c BoroM; BpaHfl Be^eT Hapoa Ha BepuiHHbi; EopKMaH Ha^eBaeT 
najibTO h H^eT 6opoTbcn c ^CH3Hbio; Bee 3to - nenyxa: KaKHe-TO Jie^HHbie 
pyKH, XBaTaiomHe 3a cep,zme, - KaK HencHxojiorHHHo; TaK roBopHJiH no- 
HTeHHbie 6ypacya h He^oynHBuiHecH nncaKH H3 kphthkob; h npoaojiacajiH 
bwcoko flepacaTb rojiOBy, paccyacaaa o ncHxojiorHH, b to BpeMH KaK oahh 
H3 HaH6ojiee tohkhx ncHxojioroB Hainero BpeMeHH, Tapajibfl Iecj^aHHr, 
6hji r;iy6oKo 3axBaneH TeM caMbiM «JJ,mohom Ta6pusjieM Eopkmo.hom», b 
kotopom ycMaTpHBajiH 6eccMbicjieHHocTb h 6e3yMHe caMoro H6ceHa; 3tot 
ace ncHxojior .zjaeT cjieayiomHH ot3wb o r;iy6oKOM ncHxojiorHHecKOM ny- 
Tbe H6ceHa b npHBeTCTBeHHofi penH no noBo^y K)6HJien nncaTejiH. «Bu, - 
roBopHT recjxf^HHr, o6pama«cb k H6ceHy, - eeem e dpaMamuuecKoe uc- 
Kyccmeo nepcneKmuey... Xapanmepu u co6umuH pa3eepmueaK)mcH neped 
homu c cqmozo ux eo3HUKHoeeHUH t coKposeuHbiMu xodciMu npueodsMi nac K 
moMy Mecmy, omxyda pacnpueaemcn uiupoKuu zopu30wn Jfcu3nu nejioeeue- 
ckou. Kanyn) coKpoeuu^uui^y ncuxonozmecKux HadjiTodenuu u oicumeucKou 
Mydpocmu npedcmaejiMom dtnu ducuiozu». (H3 K)6HjiefiHOH peHH.) Ee3yMue, 
6ped f HepecuibHocmb, aumuncuxojiozuHHocmb - TaK xapaKTepH30Bajio apa- 
mh H6ceHa BMecre c kphthkoh TynorojioBoe MemaHCTBO Bcero MHpa h b 

149 



10' 



CBoeM ynopcTBe ccwjiajiocb Ha HayKy, ncHxa/iorHio, hctophio jiHTepaTypw; 
coKpoeum^uup, ncuxonozuuecKux nadjiTodenuu u dtcumeucKosi Mydpocmb - 
T3K xapaKTepH3yeT TBopnecTBo H6ceHa o^hh H3 BH^HeflniHx ncHxa/ioroB 
coBpeMeHHocTH; h mw noBepHM nocjie^HeMy: H6ceH - aeiiCTBHTejibHWH 
Bbipa3HTe;ib coBpeMeHHOH HejiOBenecKOH ncHxojiorHH, b3htoh bo Bceft ee 
cjioechocth; h ero onpaB^biBaeT nofljiHHHan HayKa, He 6onmaflCfl aorMa- 
THHecKoii yKa3KH. Hto repon H6ceHa nofljiHHHw, BHyTpeHHe peajibHbi co 
BceM hx chmbojih3mom, co BceM 3ara#OHHWM TyMaHOM, b KOTopwii hx no- 
rpyacaeT H6ceH, 3to mw 3HaeM Tenepb b ce6e, sto mw 3HaeM h no CBH^e- 
TejibCTBy recJx^^HHra. Bwji jih oh eme h co3HaTejibHo nocBameH bo Bee 
cjioechocth coBpeMeHHOH TeopeTHHecKoft mwcjih, nepejKHBaiomeH Tpare- 
zuno? Ha 3to cjie^yeT 3apaHee jiarh otbct: HeT, H6ceH caM HHTaji Majio, 
c (J)HJioco(J)HeH h HayKoft b ee TeoperanecKOM BwpaaceHHH oh 6wji Majio 
3HaKOM, XOTH erO TC3HCW H OnpaB^WBaiOTCH coBpeMeHHOH TeopeTHHecKoft 
MwcjibK). Bot otpwbok H3 nHCbMa k BpaH^ecy, pHcyiomHH HaM H6ceHa bo 
Bceft ero 4>hjioco(J)ckoh HaHBHocTH, co Bceft ero (J)hjioco(J)ckoh npoHHija- 
TejibHOCTbio; H6ceH nnineT: «Hy, a couuuenue JjMona CmToapma Mwum... 
He 3naiOy enpaee mi h eucKasambcsi no eonpocy, no KomopoMy ne nejiniocb 
cneUfUOJiucmoM. Ho kok ecnoMwo, umo cym^cmeyiom nucamejiu, paccyotcda- 
TotUfUe o (piuiococpuu, ne 3hoh Tezem u eoodiqe neMet^Kou naym, mo nojiazaw, 
umo u ne mo eu^e do380Jiem. H a uucmocepdeum co3Haiocb eaM, umo coeceM 
ne euotcy npozpecca imu kokozo-jiu6o 6ydywpzo e nanpaejienuu, yK03ueae- 
mom CmwapmoM MwuieM. He nonuMaio, umo bom 3a oxoma 6buia 6pamb na 
ce6a mpyd nepeeodumb smo couunenue, xomopoe no (ptuiococpcKOMy Mydp- 
cmeoeanwo nanoMunaem Uut^epoHa imu Cenexy. HySeotcden, umo eu comu, 
u npumoM e cpoic, edeoe MeHbiuuu, kokou nompamiuiu na nepeeod t mozjiu 6u 
nanucamb Kuuzy e decxmbpa3Jiyuwe. H, no-MoeMy, eu 0K03ueaeme Mujuito 
eejimauiuyio necnpaeedjiueocmb, coMHeeaRCb e npaedueocmu ezo ymeepM- 
deHun, umo ece ceou udeu oh 3auMcmeoeaji om ceoeu Menu». Mw HeBOJibHO 
yjiw6aeMCH, HHTaa stot ot3wb H6ceHa o cohhhchhh Mhjijih. YBepeHHocTb 
b tom, hto BpaH^ec MoaceT HanncaTb coHHHeHHe 6ojiee 3HaHHTe;ibHoe, He- 
acejiH Mnjijib, BbmaeT c tojioboh (J)Hjioco(J)CKyK) HaHBHOcTb H6ceHa; ho 
KpHTHnecKoe OTHOineHHe k HanpaBJieHHK) Mhjijih noKa3WBaeT Heo6w- 
naHHyio HHTejuieKTyajibHyio HHTynijHK); Tenepb HaM yace hchw npoMaxn 
Mhjijih; ho nncbMO HanncaHO b 1873 roay, Korzja aHrjiHHCKHii no3HTHBH3M 
Top»cecTBOBaji b EBpone. 

Byay^H r;iy6oKO HaHBeH b Bonpocax TeopeTHHecKoft (J)hjioco(J)hh, jio- 
thkh h ncHxojiorHH, H6ceH MeTO^OM ot npoTHBHoro npHxo^HJi k o6pa3HO- 
My BbipaaceHHK) cjiojKHeHniHx aHTHHOMHH coBpeMeHHOH TeopeTHHecKoft 
mwcjih, pa36HBan h npHBO^H k a6cyp^y orpaHHHeHHWH ^orMaTH3M. B 3tom 
OTHomeHHH xapaKTepHO o^ho BocnoMHHaHHe 06 H6ceHe, pncyiomee ero 
OTHOineHHe k cnopy; H6ceH jik>6hji 03a^anHBaTb CBoero co6ece,ziHHKa na- 
pa^oKcaMH, 3acTaBjiHH onpoBepraTb 3th napa^oKcw h BMecTe c TeM BHHMa- 



150 



TejibHO Ha6jnoflaa xapaKTep onpoBepaceHHii; TaK H6ceH co6Hpaji MaTepnaji 
rjix TBopnecTBa; oh bchhcckh HcnwTbiBaji ^HajieKTHKy h Jioraicy cnopnme- 
ro; OTToro-TO flHajiorn ero TaK 5KH3hchho y6e ( zurrejibHbi, TaK cjioacHbi, TaK 
He noxoacn Ha xoflHHyio nponncb, nonepnHyTyio H3 TeopHH, HecocTOHTejib- 

HOCTb KOTOpblX OHCBHflHa flJIfl COBpeMeHHblX CneUHajIHCTOB-(J)HJIOCO(j)OB, 

KaK 6wjia OHa BHyTpeHHe omyTHMa ajih bchkoto acHBoro HejioBenecKoro 

HHCTHHKTa, He 3a()HTOrO B (J)yTJIHp. 

H6ceH He 6hji cneuHajiHCTOM-(J)Hjioco(J)OM; TeM He MeHee xyaoace- 

CTBeHHblM HHCTHHKTOM OH npeflyra^aJI CJI05KHOCTb nOCTaHOBKH BonpocoB 
B TeopeTHHeCKOH (J)HJIOCO(J)HH, BblBOflbl KOTOpOH, JIOECaCb B OCHOBy COBpe- 
MeHHblX MHpoco3epijaHHH, HMeioT, xoth h nocpeacTBeHHo, 6ojibinoe bjihh- 
HHe Ha pemeHHe acH3HeHHbix aHTHHOMHH b tom hjih apyroM HanpaBjieHHH. 
Ha 3tom ocHOBaHHH MHorae yKa3biBaioT, hto ero apaMbi cKyHHbi; cjihiiikom 
MHoro b hhx OTBjieneHHH; acHBbie aeiicTByiomHe jiHija y Hero Macro 3M6jie- 
mw MHpoco3epuaHHH; acHBaa acH3Hb OTCTynaeT Ha 3aflHHH njiaH... Ho ecjiH 
npHHHTb bo BHHMaHHe, hto MHpoco3epijaHHe oTHbme ecTb rjiy6oHaiiniaH 
CBH3b, o6T>e,aHHHK)maH TBopnecKHe aKTbi, a npHMaT TBopnecTBa Haa no3Ha- 
HHeM Hbme HMeeT Bee 6ojiee h 6ojiee 3amHTHHKOB cpe^H (J)hjiococJ)ob, to 
HaM CTaHeT nOHHTHbIM, hto MHpoco3epuaHHe TaK peuiHTejibHo BMeniHBaeT- 
ch b aaraHb H6ceHOBCKHx repoeB; oho He HMeeT Toro oTBjieHeHHoro CMbicjia, 
KOTopwii b HeM xotht BHfleTb; Ha bchkom MHpoco3epuaHHH jieacHT nenaTb 
oTKpoBeHHoro BOJiioHTapH3Ma. yKa3WBaiOT Ha to, hto H6ceHOBCKHH repoii 
BMeniHBaeT apaMy cBoero MHpoco3epuaHHH b jiHHHyio acH3Hb; ho h Ha 3to 
jienco moecho B03pa3HTb: caMbie HopMbi MHpoco3epijaHHH He coe^HHeHbi 
c npaKTHnecKHMH ijeHHocTHMH TBopnecKH nepeacHBaeMoro 6hthh; Meatfly 
TeM 3th HopMbi npeaonpeflejieHbi TBopnecTBOM; caMoe MHpoco3epuaHHe - 
b npouecce o6pa30BaHHH; pna cymecTByiomHX MHpoco3epijaHHH b stom 
OTHomeHHH nepe^CHBaeT KpH3Hc; caMan 6ojibiuafl Tpare^HH ecTb Tpare^HH 
Hauiero no3HaHHH, co3Haiomero cboh KpH3Hc; h ecjiH no3HaBaTejibHwe 
(J)opMbi cyTb ycjiOBHH caMoii 3MnHpHHecKoii aeiicTBHTejibHOCTH, nepeacn- 
BaeMoii KaK acH3Hb, to KpH3Hc no3HaHHH OTo6paacaeTcn b 5kh3hh KaK caMoe 
CTpauiHoe KpyuieHHe >kh3hh. H6ceH OTKpwBaeT HaM He Tpare^Hio b 5kh3hh; 
Tpare^HH b »ch3hh cjiynaHHa; OHa MoaceT 6wTb, MoaceT h He 6biTb b ycjiOBH- 
hx aaHHOH >kh3hh; H6ceH OTKpwBaeT nepefl hhmh HenpepbiBHyio Tpare^HK) 
caMoii »ch3hh; Hania Tpare^HH npeaonpeaejieHa TparH3MOM no3HaHHH, o6y- 
cjiOBjiHBaiomero acH3Hb h He npHBe^eHHoro k TBopnecTBy; ecjiH TpareflHH 
no3HaHHH o6peKaeT Hac bo BJiacTb cypoBoro poKa, to H6ceHOBCKHe repoH 
npe^onpcaejieHbi pokom; oTcro^a ,aeTepMHHH3M h6cchobckhx apaM; H6ceH 
o6hhho noKa3biBaeT HaM Jinuib pa3BH3Ky b apaMe; oho h hohhtho: to, hto 
no^roTOBjineTCH HenpepwBHO, He MoaceT 6biTb npe^cTaBJieHO b ycjiOBHHx 
ci^eHbi; pa3BH3Ka y H6ceHa Bceraa cjiynaiiHa; ho cjiynaHHOCTb pa3BH3KH - 
b bh^hmocth; H6ceH HapoHHO noanepKHBaeT 6yTa(J)opcKHH xapaKTep 
CBoeH pa3BH3KH (Ha repoH jictht jiaBHHa, repoft cxo^ht c yMa h t. He 



151 



caMan 3Ta flaHHaa b Tpare^HH pa3BH3Ka eMy HyacHa; HeT y H6ceHa BHe3an- 
hhx, noTpncaiomHX xoji apaMw co6wthh; co6wthh HapacTaioT HenpepwB- 
ho; ohh HapacTaioT eme b npouijioM bwboahmwx repoeB; h bot OTCK)fla-To 
Ba^cHocTb H6ceHOBCKoro ^Hajiora; /jHajior bczjctch TaK, hto mw HanHHaeM 
npoHHKaTb b ^ajieKoe npouijioe repoeB; mw 5khbo nepeacHBaeM aajieKyio 
Tpare^Hio .flacoHa BopKMaHa; noAJiHHHafl Tpare^HH 3,zjecb - b KpyuieHHH 
Kapbepw BopKMaHa; ho caMoe sto KpynieHHe He Ha cijeHe; mw y3HaeM o 
HeM H3 ^Hajiora; noflJiHHHaa Tpare^HH CojibHeca He b tom, hto oh copBajicn 
c 6aniHH, a b tom, hto oh nepecTaji crpoHTb 6auiHH h KOJiOKOJibHH; kot- 
aa mw BnepBwe bh^hm Ha cijeHe CojibHeca, mw h He noao3peBaeM, hto oh 
yace nepeacnji cboio Tpare^Hio aaBHo; H3 nepeKpecTHoro anajiora HaM sto 
CTaHOBHTCH hcho; h Kor^a HaM cTaHeT 3to hcho BnojiHe, H6ceH Heo^CH^aH- 
ho y6HBaeT CBoero repon: CojibHec na^aeT. To ace h b flpaMe «MajienbKuu 
9uojib(p»\ TpareflHH, ot KOTopofi ra6HeT ShojimJ), HanHHaeTCH eme jxo poac- 
AeHHH caMoro Sftojib^a; Tpare^HH OcBajib^a H3 «IIpu6udeHuu» BOBce He b 
tom, hto oh couieji c yMa, a b tom, hto oh Boo6me po/uuiCH. H6ceHOBCKan 
apaMa HanHHaeTCH c KOHija Tpare^HH: Bee rjiaBHbie co6wthh yace coBep- 
uiHjiHCb; 3a^ana anajiora - peTpocneKTHBHO pa3BepHyTb nepea HaMH bcio 
»H3Hb repoeB, h6o bch hx >KH3Hb - TpareflHH: HeT nosTOMy y H6ceHa bh^h- 
Moro Hanajia h bh^hmoto KOHija Tpare^HH; ho noKa3aTb 5KH3Hb repon, a He 
TOJibKO flBa, TpH co6wthh H3 5KH3HH, - 3a#ana, He BonjiOTHMan Ha cijeHe; H 
noTOMy-To H6ceH noKa3WBaeT HaM CBoero repon He co ctopohw ero Kpyn- 

HWX ^yUieBHWX flBHECeHHH, B HeM npOHCXOAHmHX, a CO CTOpOHW BHeiHHHX 

nepT; ^eHCTByiomHe JiHija b reHHajibHO nocTpoeHHOM anajiore pncyioT HaM 
npouijioe repon caMWM aeTajibHWM o6pa30M; caM ace repon noKa3aH co cto- 
Pohw BHeuiHHx nepT; H6ceH CHa6»caeT cboh apaMw aeTajibHWMH peMap- 
KaMH! b hhx y3HaeM mw, KaK xoaht ero repon, KaKHe ohh hocht npHHecKH, 
koctiomw; mw y3HaeM Bee hx MaHepw, Bee acecTbi; name Bcero ohh Majio 

TOBOpHT O C06bITHHX, ECepTBOH KOTOpblX OHH CTaHOBHTCH ; TOBOpHT OHH He- 

motoh, ^cecTaMH, nacTO He3HanamHMH cjiOBaMH; 3a hhx roBopnT OKpyacaio- 
mne: TOHKoe KpyaceBo anajiora Bee BpeMH OKyTWBaeT hx; h mw nacTO Ha- 
HHHaeM hx y3HaBaTb npeacae, HeacejiH ohh otkpoiot pot; a Kor^a HanHHaiOT 
ohh roBopHTb, to roBopnT o npouijioM; bo Bcex cjiOBax, noHTH He3HanamHx, 
3ByHHT 3to npouijioe; OKpyacaiomHe hx jiHija b TaKOM cjiynae hbjihiotch 
KaK 6w xopoM; ohh noBecTByiOT HaM o npouijioM repon, ohh KOMMeHrapy- 
iot hx rjiyxoHeMwe acecTw; h Majio-noMajiy nepea HaMH BcraeT Bee to, hto 
6wjio c hhmh 3a^ojiro nepea TeM KaK ohh nonBHjiHCb npea HaMH; h Tor^a 
mw HanHHaeM BH^eTb, hto Tpare/jHH hx no3aaH hx, hto ohh - o6peneHHwe; 
eme oahh nocjie^HHH yaap, He3aMeTHWH, He3HanamHH, h ohh - Yi\(myi\ h 
bot npnxoflHT cjiynaiiHoe, HHoraa Majio HMeiomee othouichhh k hx >kh3hh, 
co6biTHe: h6cchobckhc repon Tor^a rn6HyT. 3to HecooTBeTCTBHe hx th- 
6e;iH c KaacymeiicH npHHHHOH no^aBajio CTOJibKo noBOflOB k TOMy, hto6w 
ynpeKaTb H6ceHa b 6eccMwcjiHH h HCKy cctbchhocth . Py6eK rn6HeT b tot 



152 



MOMeHT, Kor^a Haineji uejib cboch 5KH3HH, ot cjiynaHHO ynaBiuen JiaBHHbi; 
3HOJib(J) TOHeT cjiynaiiHo; BopKMaH yMHpaeT ot pa3pwBa cepaija b tot mo- 
MeHT, Kor^a, nojiHbiii Bepw b ce6a, oh H^eT 6opoTbcn c 5KH3HbK>; CojibHec 
na^aeT c KOJiOKOJibHH Toace cjiynaHHO, Kor^a oh yace B30ineji Ha Hee h eMy 
ocTaBajiocb TOJibKO - cnycTHTbCH; EpaHfl, nepeHecuiHH CMepTb aceHM h 
cbma, yMHpaeT Toace cjiynaiiHO. H6ceH KaK 6yflTO HapoHHO KH^aeT HaM b 
Jimxo 3thmh cjiynaHHOCTHMH, hto6m noflnepKHyTb, hto Bee paBHO, ot nero 
6w hh th6jih repoH, noTOMy hto ohh norH6jiH - aaBHO, no Hanajia pa3- 

BepTblBaiOmHXCH Co6bITHH. H3BHe CJiyHaHHOCTb, H3HyTpH ^eTepMHHH3M - 

bot o6mhhmh npneM H6ceHa, H6ceH xoneT KaK 6y^To cKa3aTb, hto He to 

B 5KH3HH flpaMa, HTO npHXOflHT B Co6bITHHX 5KH3HH BHe3anHO; BCH HCH3HB, 

Kor^a HeT rapMOHHH Meaefly Hen h C03HaHHeM ijejiecoo6pa3HO npoacHToro 
npomjioro, - cnjioiHHoii yacac; H6ceH MoaceT CKa3aTb, hto, Koiyja H35KHTa 
»CH3Hb, npHXOAHT cjiynaHHocTH, o6ycjiOBjiHBaK)mHe h BHeniHioio rn6ejib. 
H Tezwa Ta6jiep 3acTpejiHBaeTCH OTToro, hto JIeB6opr BMCTpejiHJi ce6e He 
b rpyflb, a b »chbot. H6ceH xoneT cKa3aTb, hto cjiynaHHOCTH He cjiynaftHM, 

HTO BHeiUHHe C06bITHH 5KH3HH He MOryT HaC CJIOMHTb; MM flOJI5KHM IjapHTb 

Haa cjiynaeM; mm aojiacHM 6biTb TBopijaMH co6cTBeHHOH 5kh3hh; H6ceH 
Bpar BCHKoro aeTepMHHH3Ma, ecjiH mm rjiy6»ce H3MepHM ero TBopnecTBo; 
^eTepMHHH3M ero, TaK CKa3aTb, hhcto TaKTHHecKHH j oh 6epeT coBpeMeH- 
hmx jHoaen, mar 3a iuaroM BCKpMBaeT npoTHBopeHHH hx hch3hh; aajiee 

CBH3MBaeT OH npOTHBOpeHHH 3TH C TpareflHefi HX 6e3BOJIbHOrO C03HaHHH; 

oh yKa3MBaeT Ha to, hto aeTepMHHH3M - cjie^CTBHe Hauieii pa3flBoeHHO- 
cth; pa3JiaA 5KH3HH BOKpyr Hac 3aBHCHT ot pa3Jia#a 3KH3HH b Hac. 

Mbi dojumu cosdamh ceoto oicu3Hb: bot e^HHCTBeHHbiii bmxo^ H3 apa- 
mm H6ceHa. y Hac aojihcho xBaraTb aocTaTOHHO chjim bojih, hto6m no6o- 
poTb poK. H6ceH nepecMaTpHBaeT coBpeMeHHocTb; oh pa3BepTbreaeT nepea 
HaMH cepnio Jinn: yneHMH, o6mecTBeHHMH aeaTejib, xyaoacHHK, nponoBea- 
hhk, MejiKHH cjiyacamHH; Bee ohh npoxoflHT nepea HaMH, h Bee ohh OKa3bi- 
BaiOTCH nofl 3HaKOM PoKa; Bee ohh - HecocTOHTejibHM nepea hmh ace bm- 

3BaHHMMH Co6bITHHMH 5KH3HHJ HeT B HHX UeJIOCTHOCTHI H6ceH CTpeMHTCH 
Bbl6paTb H3 5KH3HH HaH6oJiee CHJIbHMXJ CHJIbHafl JIHHHOCTb CMeHHeTCH 
CHJIbHOH JIHHHOCTbK); H, OflHaKO, 3TH CHJIbHbie JIHHHOCTH TH6HyT; H6ceH 
KaK 6bl CTpeMHTCH nOKa3aTb HaM, HTO CHJIbHMX JIHHHOCTeft H BOBCe HeT. Ho 

caM H6ceH Bepm b jihhhoctb. H ecjiH cpe^H Hac HeT toto, kto c aocTaTOH- 

HOH My^CeCTBeHHOCTbK) CyMeJI 6bl no6opOTb Co6cTBeHHMH pOK (6e3BOJIHe), 

oh c HaaeacflOH o6pamaeTCH k 6yaymeMy: npoB03rjiauiaeT TpeTbe ijapcTBO, 
BepHT b TBopnecKoe cjihhhhc BepM c co3HaHHeM; H6ceH - ^cmpanuuK no 
eucomoM*, KaK ero onpeaejiaeT JIoTap; bmcotm nejioBenecKOH jihhhocth 
chhtch H6ceHy; noa cKenTHUH3MOM h ,5eTepMHHH3MOM H6ceHa cKpbreaeT- 
ch lOHOinecKan Bepa b HOByio »cH3Hb; k 6yaymeMy, KaK h Hnuuie, o6pameH 
H6ceH. Bot KaK roBOpHT o HeM JIoTap: «0« - nosm naweu ttiocku no noeo- 
My eeny, no uoebtM juodxM - juodnM mpembezo i^apcmea, npedcmaeumejisiM 



153 



dyxoenozo djiazopodcmea!.. M6ceu - ^cmpannuK no eucomaM» f npocmupa- 
wtUfUU pyxu k cojinuy». 

TyT HaHHHaeTCH chmbojih3m H6ceHa; TyT - MemaHCTBo Bcex CTpaH, 
HaTOJiKHyBiiiHCb Ha H6ceHOBCKHe CHMBOJibi (KOTopwe Bcer^a CyTb BHAe- 
hhh 6yaymero), cnepBa kjichmht ero no3opHOH kjihhkoh aeKaaeHTa, a 
Bnocjie^CTBHH, Kor^a c H6ceHOM yace CTajio Tpy^HO pa3flejibiBaTbcn npH 
noMomn oahoh pyraHH, MemaHCTBo Bcex cipaH b noTe Jinija CBoero HanH- 
HaeT .aeuiH^pHpoBaTb H6ceHa, pa3i>HCHHH ero npH noMomn acajiKHx ajuie- 
ropHH h cepbe3HO Bepn, hto 3th ajuieropHH - chmbojih. 

«JJa f da - yo/c smu Mne mojiKoeamenu! - HpoHHnecKH OT3biBaeTca H6- 
ceH. - He ecezda-mo ohu ydauno cnpaejuuomcH co ceoeu sadaneu... A ecjiu 
npenoduecmu um cum60ji, ohu ezo onouuixiom u 6paHxmca». 

BrjiHflbiBaflCb b co/jepacaHHe apaM H6ceHa, mm bhahm b hhx KaK 6w 
TpH CMbicjia, TpH napajuiejibHO BbmepacaHHbix coaepacaHHH: nepefl hsmm 
npeBocxoAHbie peajiHcranecKHe KapTHHbi 6bna; mm bhahm acHByio Hop- 
Beraio; (J)a6yjia, aeiicTByiomHe Jinija othctjihbo 3apHCOBaHbi; HaHHHan c 
nepT jinija AeHCTByiomero repon, ero ofleacflbi, noxo^KH, acecra, H3biKa h 

KOHHaH 6bITOM H o6meCTBeHHMMH OTHOIII6HHHMH, Mbl HHrfle Ha BC6M npO- 

TH^ceHHH ApaMW He BCTpeTHM HeoTHeTJiHBocTH b pHcyHKe; Bee 3fleCb H3Me- 
peHo, B3B6meHO, 3apHcoBaHo; peajiH3M H6ceHa b stom othoihchhh MoaceT 
nocnopHTb c peajiH3MOM 3ojih; nepea hsmh hhcto peajiHCTHHecKaa flpaMa; 
sto, c oahoh ctopohm; c apyrofi ctopohw, hchbo 3apHCOBaHHbie 4>Hrypbi 

CpeflH 06bI^eHH0H 06cTaH0BKH 5KH3HH HaHHHaiOT TOBOpHTb hto-to TaKoe, 

hto BOBce He cooTBeTCTByeT OKpyacaiomen hx aeiicTBHTejibHOCTH; Macrep- 
peajiHCT nocjie H3yMHTejibHoro 3HaHHH jkh3hh Bapyr 6pocaeT Hac KaK 6w 
b cyMacuie^iuHH aom; repoH, TOJibKO hto ceflnac roBopHBiiiHH c hsmh no- 

HHTHO, TOHHO HaHHHaeT 3arOBapHBaTbCH! OH nepeKHAbiBaeTCH OT TeMbI K 

TeMe; ho He cjie^yeT OTHaHBaTbcn; BHHTbiBaacb b CMymaiomne Hac penjiH- 

KH, Mbl BHflHM, HTO TyMaHHOCTb, He02CHflaHH0 BpblBaiOmaHCH B HHCTO pe- 

ajibHoe AeflcTBHe, TaK ace HeoacH^aHHO pa3peuiaeTCH; aeficTByiomHe Jinija, 

eme TOJibKO HTO rOBOpHBIHHe npHMO, nOHHTHO, HaHHHaiOT o6l>HCHHTbCH 

HaMeKaMH; MHorne HiijyT 3flecb chmbojih3m; ho chmbojih3m TaKoro po,zja - 
KaacymnficH; oh - TOJibKO yTOHneHHe anajiora: H6ceH BecbMa skohomch Ha 
o6*bHCHeHHH; BCKOJib3b 6pomeHHoe 3aMenaHHe, noBTopeHHoe, 6biTb MoaceT, 
TOJibKO nepe3 HecKOJibKO HBJieHHH, jiynuie xapaKTepH3yeT ayiiiy repon, He- 
acejin npocTpaHHoe o6i>HCHeHHe; BCKOJib3b 6pomeHHbiMH cjioBenKaMH re- 
poH H6ceHa 6wcTpo h mctko xapaKTepH3yioT apyr apyra; flBa, TpH cjiOBa - 
h HOBan hhcto peajibHan CKJia^Ka b o6jihkc; eme asa, Tpn cjiOBa - h HOBan 
CKJia^Ka; AeHCTByiomHe Jinua Bee 6ojiee h 6ojiee o6pHCOBbiBaiOTCH; Hy^CHa 
6ojibinafl naMHTb, hto6w cbccth k e/jHHCTBy see sth MejiKHe nepTOHKH; b 
cyMMe ohh ^aiOT »chboh nopTpeT; b AeiicTBHTejibHOCTH H3o6pa»ceHHe ne- 

JIOBeKa COCTOHT H3 CTOJIb MeJIKHX HepTOHeK, HTO HepTOHKH 3TH CKpaAbl- 

BaiOTcn; Ha nojiOTHe nojiynaiOTCH TOJibKO jihhhh; neM TOHbiue, 6ncepHeH 



154 



pncyHOK, TeM apne nopipeT; ho jihhhh, CKjia^bmaiomHecH b pncyHOK, y 
H6ceHa coctoht H3 cjiob; h6c6hobckhh flnajior b cbocm peajiH3Me tohb- 
me, HeacejiH mm o6biKHOBeHHO npHBMKJiH BH^eTb Ha cueHe; y Hero HeT hh 
o^Horo jiHiimero cjiOBa; h eara mm acajiyeMca Ha ajihhhotm h6cchobckhx 
OTajioroB, 3HaHHT, mw He noHHMaeM hx uejin: M6ceH He 3acraBHT cbohx re- 
poeB pa3iviarojibCTBOBaTbCH nonpocTy; h ecjiH ohh roBopaT o HHnero He ro- 
Bopaiimx nycTHKax, 3to 3HanHT, hto hmchho b nycTHKax sthx CKa3biBaioT- 
ch xapaKTepHeHinHe nepTM hx hch3hh, noaroTOBjiHiomHe pa3BH3Ky; HyacHa 
KpaHHHH cocpe^OToneHHOCTb, hto6m yBH^eTb Bee, hto bh^ht H6ceH B CBO- 
HX repoHx; b npnpofle nacTo mw He 3aMenaeM BOBce MajienuiHx HioaHCOB 
b H3MeHeHHH uBeTa He6a, o6;iaKOB; h mm nacTo 6biBaeM yflHBjieHM, Kor^a 
jnoflH, 3HaiomHe npnpofly, HanHHaiOT npe,acKa3MBaTb HaM nepeMeHy noro- 
flbi, B3r;iHHyB Ha HCHoe He6o; to ace y H6ceHa: co6mthh noaroTOBjiaioTCH 
y Hero nojiyTOHaMHj oh HaKJia^MBaeT nojiyTOH Ha nojiyTOH, noaroTOBJiHH 
to hjih HHoe co6birae, Ty hjih HHyio penjiHKy; a mm, HeBHHMaTejibHo BCJiy- 
uiHBaacb b cjiOBa ero aeiicTByioinHX jihu,, 6biBaeM y^MBJieHM 6yflTO 6m 6ec- 
npHHHHHMM .zjymeBHMM flBHaceHHeM ero repoeB; bchkhh pa3, Kor^a sto c 
HaMH cjiynaeTCH, mm aojijkhm eme h eme pa3 BepHyTbCH k npoHHTaHHOMy, 
hto6m noHMaTb ycKOJib3HyBiiiyio HHTb pa3roBopa; bot OTnero h6cchob- 
CKHe apaMM TaK npoHrpbiBaiOT Ha cueHe; nacTo aKTepbi He b coctohhhh 
yjiOBHTb bck) cyMMy nepT, noflroTOBJiaiomHx co6birae; jxjvk SToro HyacHO 
6biTb cjihuikom 6ojibuiHM ncHxojioroM; cjihuikom Macro apaMaTHHecKHe 
nncaTejiH H3 KpaiiHHx peajineroB 3acTaBJiHK)T cbohx repoeB flBHraTbca h 
roBopHTb yTpHpoBaHHo; H6ceHOBCKan HeecTecTBeHHOCTb cjihuikom nacTo 
3aBHCHT ot HeyMeHHH npoHHKHyTb b tohkocth H6ceHOBCKoro peajiH3Ma; 
KaK h HexoB, oh ctpoht anajior Ha nojiyTOHax; b stom OTHomeHHH oh 60- 
jiee peajiHCT, neM 3ojih. KaK nacTo mm nporjiaflbiBaeM MHoroe b H6ceHe; 
MHe, HanpHMep, npnxoflHJiocb BCTpenaTb jihu,, KOTopbie He pa3 h He asa 
HHTajiH «Cmpoumej\M Cojibnecar, hm Ka3ajiocb, hto ohh Bee TaM noHHJin; h, 
o^HaKO, H3 pa3roBopa npHxoflHJiocb MHe y6eae,fl[aTbCH, hto ohh nporjiaaejiH 
oflHy cymecTBeHHyio nepTy, xapaKTepH3yiomyio OTHomeHHe CojibHeca k 
CBoeH 6yxrajiTepuie, Kafte Oocjih; ohh He 3aMerajiH BOBce, hto CojibHec 
ee THnHOTH3HpyeT una cbohx uejieft; y CojibHeca 6ojibiuaa ranHOTHHecKan 
cnjia; H6ceH pncyeT CojibHeca KaK rHnHOTH3epa crojib tohko h crojib pe- 
ajibHO, hto mm BOBce He 3aMenaeM b CojibHece 3Toro xapaKTepH3yiomero 
ero CBoiicTBa, KaK naero He 3aMenaeM mm HBJieHHH ranH03a, nponcxoflH- 
iuhx nepea HaMH b fleiicTBHTejibHOCTH; bchkhh apyroft apaMaTypr, MeHee 
yTOHHeHHMH b peajiH3Me, CTapajiCH 6m noanepKHyTb 3JieMeHT ranH03a 
KaKHM-jin6o 6ojiee rpy6biM h hbhmm o6pa30M; H6ceH nojib3yeTca stoh 
cnoco6HOCTbio CojibHeca ajih toto, hto6m cjienca peTymnpoBaTb ero, Ka- 
3ajiocb 6m, h 6e3 toto peajibHbiii nopTpeT. TaKHx npHMepoB, Kor^a mm He 
bh^hm mhothx nepT b ^paMax H6ceHa, cKOJibKO yro^Ho; HeKOTopbie toh- 
HaiiiiiHe iiitphxh, co3HaTe;ibHO npoBe^eHHbie H6ceHOM h He3aMeneHHMe 



155 



HaMH, BOBce He jiniiiaiOT Hac HacjiaagjeHHH; mm tojibko CMyTHO nyBCTBy- 
eM rjiy6HHy 4>0Ha apaMbi, ckojib3h co3HaHHeM no ee noBepxHOCTH; Kor^a 
ace HeyjioBjieHHbix uitphxob HaKonjineTCH cjihuikom mhoto, mbi HanHHaeM 
no^nac h BOBce He noHHMaTb flnajiora: Tor^a-TO mbi o6t>hchhcm HenoHHTbie 
MecTa hx chmbojih3mom; hjih b coBepiueHHo peajiHCTHnecKOM Meere ApaMbi 
HanHHaeM ctpohtb HeHyacHyio ajiJieropnio; jihhhh HenpepBiBHoro pa3BHTHH 
co6bithh o6pBiBaeTcn; h HaM KaaceTCH, hto H6ceH aonycKaeT npoH3BOJiBHBie 
cKanKH TaM, rfle oh Haioia^BiBaeT jihuib tchh, hjih npnneT mothb b CKjia#- 
kh 3toh tchh; nocjie BToporo, TpeTBero htchhh pacnpaBjiniOTCH CKJia#KH; 
TaM, rae, no-HanieMy, o6pbiBaeTCH peajiH3M, OKa3biBaeTcn HenpepbiBHOCTb. 
IlepBoe, npoTHB nero Haao npeaocTepenb HaHBHbix 3pHTejieii, sto npoTHB 
CTpeMjieHHH noHHMaTB anjieropHHecKH jno6oe HencHoe MecTO apaMbi; apa- 
mw H6ceHa noaTOMy cjieayeT coBeTOBaTb HHTaTb, a He rcumerb. HeKOTopwe 
impHXH 6HorpacJ)HH H6ceHa 3acTaBJiHK)T Hac nojiaraTB, hto oh nncaji cboh 
^paMbi cTOJibKO ace RJin HHTaTejieii, CKOJibKO .zyin 3pHTejieii; k nocTaHOBKe 
cbohx npoH3Be^eHHH Ha cueHe c TeneHHeM BpeMeHH oh oxjia^eBaji; TepMaH 
BaHr npHBOOTT cjie^yiomne xaparcrepHbie cjioBa H6ceHa: «%nuuiy ceou me- 
cbi, KdKxmy, a 3ameM npedocmaejvuo apmucmoM uzpamb ux, KOKMOzym». 3to 
jih He npe^eji paBHoayiiiHH k cueHe? «IIo-6uduMOMy, oh c zodaMu u nuccui, 
iiMea e eudy zjiaenbtM o6pa30M uumamejieu, a ne spumejieu, - 3aMenaeT aic- 
Tep IlayjiBceH, - ezo nocjieduue mecbi npxHio kok 6ydmo ujunocmpupoeanu 

peMapKOMU»\ C 3THM 3aMCHaHHeM HCJIB3H He COTJiaCHTbCH; KTO BHHMaTejIbHO 

nponeji peMapKH k «Cmpoumejno Cojibnecy» hjih k «JJjtcoHy Ta6pu3mo Eop- 
KMauy*, Toro He y/jOBJieTBopnT aKTepbi: Bee 6yzjeT Ka3aTbcn, hto nponymeHO 
hto-to Han6ojiee xapaKTepHoe, Han6ojiee acHBoe b CojibHece hjih BopKMaHe. 

Cjie^yeT no MHory pa3 B03BpamaTbCH k oahoh h toh ace apaMe, hto6h 
oxBaTHTb xoth 6bi HacTb H3 Tex uiHpoKHX ropH30HTOB, KOTopwe pHcyeT HaM 
H6ceH; onbiT oflHoro htchhh 6e3pe3yjibTaTeH; oaho HTeHHe nacTO jiHHib 
03a,ziaHHBaeT; o^hh oco3HaioT CBoe H3yMjieHHe nepea H6ceHOM KaK boc- 
Topr, apyrne - KaK Henw>BaHHe; Te h apyrne eme He noHHMaioT H6ceHa; 

BnOCJie^CTBHH, B03BpamaHCb K npOHHTaHHOH ^paMe, 6bIBIHHe nOKJIOHHHKH 

H6ceHa ot Hero OTKa3biBaiOTCH; xyjiHTejiH - CTaHOBHTCH noKJiOHHHKaMH; 
Meacay TeM 6ojibniHHCTBo - ocTaeTCH H3yMjieHHbiM; H3yMjieHHe conpoBO- 
acflajio TBopnecTBO H6ceHa Ha npoTnaceHHH aecHTKOB jieT; mhoto 6wjio pa3- 
roBopoB, onnpaiomnxcH Ha H3yMJieHHe; mym umo-mo ne max, mym umo-mo 
ecmb»> - cjibiniajiH mw ot ozjhhx; «epyHda», - roBopnjiH apyrne. Meacay 
TeM h Te h apyrne eme He 3HajiH H6ceHa no^JiHHHoro; h nponeji 6ojiee 
nnra pa3 Kaac^oe H3 KpynHbix npoH3Be^eHHH HopBeaccKoro apaMaTypra, 
KaK-To: «Cojibueca», «EopKMaHa», «BpaHda», «9uojib(pa», ^MeHWjimy c 
Mopa», «Boumejieu e rejibzojiande*, «Kozda mu, Mepmeue, npoSyjtcdaeM- 
ch»\ onbiT nHToro htchhh npHHOCHJi HOBbie nepTbi, KOTopwe ycKOJib3ajiH 
ot neTBepToro htchhh; TaK jih y Hac HHTaioT H6ceHa? H ottoto-to y Hac 
H6ceHa He 3HaiOT bobcc 



156 



Bee 3th cjioBa KacaioTcn jihuib noBepxHocra h6cchobckhx jipau; n ro- 
Bopio TyT eme nona 06 H6ceHe-peajiHcre; h bot Kor/ja, HaKOHeu, cyMeeM 
mh HafiTH hhcto peajibHbie nepTbi b tom, hto Bnepa HaM eme Ka3ajiocb Ty- 
MaHHbiM, mh HaTajiKHBaeMcn Ha HeKOTopbie o6pa3bi h BbipaaceHHH, HecBO- 
^HMbie k peajiH3My. Ecjih cjioBa cTapHKa b «JJukou ymne*: «nec Mcmum 3a 
ce6n» eme o6T>HCHHMbi ajuieropHnecKH, to nocTynoK Py6eKa, y6eraiomero 
c HpeHoii k BepuiHHaM, hto6m npeo6pa3HTbca, rpy6o jiOMaeT TOHHaHinyio 
TKaHb peajiH3Ma, KOTopon o6bhji cbohx repoeB M6ceH b apyrax cijeHax 
3toh H3yMHTejibHOH /jpaMbi; 3/jecb ajuieropHH BjiacTByeT yace Hafl nocryn- 

KaMH JHO^efi; H3 pHTOpHHeCKOH (|)OpMbI BbipaaceHHfl aJIJieropHH CTaHOBHTCH 

peajibHOCTbio, onpeaejifliomeH nocTynoK: cjiobo TyT y H6ceHa CTaHOBHTCH 
njioTbio; b caMOM /jejie: h Mory b »ch3Hh BbipaacaTbcn HHOCKa3aTejibHo; »ch- 
BaH penb necTpHT y3aKOHeHHWMH b H3biKe CHMBOJiaMH-MeTacJ)opaMH; 60- 
jiee Toro: h Mory Bcer^a C03flaTb MeTacJ)opy, He BCTpenaiomyiocH b o6nxofle 
penn; h Kor/ja H6ceHOBCKHe repon co3,zjaK)T cboh HH/jHBH/jyajibHbie MeTa- 
4>opbi, y Hac HeT eme ocHOBaHHH yjinnaTb H6ceHa b H3MeHe peajiH3My; ho 
Kor^a Te ace repon HanHHaioT npo/jojiacaTb cboh MeTa4)opw b acecTax hjih 
nocTynKax, HanpHMep Koraa, cpaBHHB no^eM h npo6y*cfleHHe jihhhocth 
c no,m>eMOM Ha ropHbie BepuiHHbi, ohh h peajibHO H,ayT Ha BepuiHHbi, hto6 
npo6yaHTbCH, mh cmcjio MoaceM CKa3aTb: «B MU3HU smozo ue 6ueaem». TyT 
naHernpHCTbi H6ceHa ot peajiH3Ma o6wKHOBeHHO CTaHOBHTCH b TynHK; hm 
HeT jia3eiiKH: ohh /jojiacHbi o6i>HBHTb H6ceHa cyMacmefliiiHM hjih CTapaTb- 
ch o6i>5icHHTb nocTynKH H6ceHOBCKHx repoeB hx HeHopMajibHOCTbio; TaK h 
nocTynajiH eme Bnepa c H6ceHOM Bee KpHTHKH-peajiHCTbi: ohh o6t>hbhjih 
H6ceHa aeKaaeHTOM - cnepBa; noTOM ohh cTapajincb onpaB^aTb H6ceHa, 
CTpeMHCb onpe^ejiHTb ero nncaTejibCKyio aenTejibHocTb, KaK CBO/jamyiocfl 
Ha H3o6pa»ceHHe ncnxonaTOB; ho cjihhikom hcho, hto Tanoe o6i>flCHeHHe - 
yBepTKa; cjihhikom hcho, hto BpaHfl, CojibHec, Py6eK, BopKMaH ajih H6- 
ceHa He ncnxonaTw BOBce; fla h KpOMe toto: crpaHHO 6wjio 6w ot H6ceHa 
acaaTb H3o6pa»ceHHH o/jhhx TOJibKO ^yiueBHo6ojibHbix; H6ceH, stot toh- 
HaiiinHH peajiHCT, H3o6paacaji OKpyacaiomyio aeiicTBHTejibHocTb; a ecjiH 
b OKpyacaiomeH /jeHCTBHTejibHocra ero BHHMaHHe ocTaHaBJiHBajiH jiHiiib 
ny^aKH, no^o6Hbie Py6eKy, sto 3HanHT, hto b OKpyacaromeft aeHCTBHTejib- 
hocth oh ycMaTpHBaji uiTpnxH, poflHHiijHe ee c cyMacHie,aiHHM /jomom; ho 
Tor^a h mh, cy^Hmne H6ceHa, h bch n6ceHOBCKafl KpHTHKa ecTb KpnraKa 
cyMacHie^inero /jOMa; ho h Tor^a nofljiHHHaa Haiua ^eficTBHTejibHOCTb ajih 
Hero He /jeiicTBHTejibHOCTb bobcc 

TaK npH6jiH3HTejibHO h cMOTpeji H6ceH, yKa3biBaa Ha KpH3HC co3Ha- 

HHH, KPH3HC MOpaJIbHblX, COIJHaJIbHblX H SCTCTHHeCKHX B033peHHH HailierO 

BpeMeHH; HeaapoM oahh kphthk oxapaKTepH30Baji H6ceHa KaK npopoKa c 
npoTHHyTbiMH pyKaMH k jiynineMy 6yaymeMy; oh 3Baji k HaM sto 6yzjymee; 
oh 3Baji Hac nepecTynHTb 3a nepTy coBpeMeHHOcra; ho 3to 6wjio TOJib- 

KO nOTOMy, HTO XaOC nOHHTHH, B KOTOpOM Mbl 5KHBCM, He B nepeHOCHOM, 



157 



a b 6yKBajibH0M CMbicjie ecTb TiopbMa hjih cyMacmefliiiHH aom; (J)yTJiHp, 
KOTopbifi pa36HBaji Ha Hac H6ceH, sto Te ijenn, KOTopbie npHKOBbreaioT Hac 
k Haineii TiopbMe. 

PaccMaTpHBan rajiepeio ^eiicTByiomHx jihij H6ceHa, Tan cica3aTb, b nep- 
bom njiaHe mm 3aMenaeM, TaKHM o6pa30M, y Hero HenpHMHpHMbiii ayajiH3M 
Meacay hhcto peajiHCTHHecKHM H3o6pa^C6HHeM co6biTHH h KaKHMH-TO c pea- 

JIHCTHHeCKOH TOHKH 3peHHH HeflOnyCTHMMMH CHMBOJIHH6CKHMH OTCTynJie- 

hhhmh; ecjiH mm aorMaTHKH-peajiHCTM, mm aojiacHM npH3HaTb p*m naaeHHH 
H6ceHOBCKoro TBopnecTBa KaK pa3 b MecTax HaH6ojibinero no,zn>eMa; h sto 
TeM Harjw^Hee, hto b MecTax HaHMeHbinero no,zn>eMa peajiHCTHnecKan TKaHb 
ApaMM coBepineHHa; ecjiH mm florMaraKH-CHMBOJiHCTM, mm .zjojdkhm npn- 
3HaTb, hto bo BceM TBopnecrBe H6ceHa ecTb Bcero HecKOJibKo MecT, 3acjiy- 
acHBaiomHx BHHMaHHa; Bee ace npocTpaHCTBO ero jxpau 3aHHTo Majio ^jih Hac 
HHTepecHMM H3o6paxceHHeM 6bua; npoB03rjiauiaH CMepTb 6bny, mm aoji>k- 
hm npoB03r;iacHTb CMepTb h6cchobckoh apaMe, BbmejiHB H3 pa3Hbix ppaM 
HecKOJibKo ueHHbix CTpaHHneK; bot noneMy h no cio nopy orpaHHneHHbie 
AoraaTHKH KaK cHMBOJiH3Ma, TaK h peajiH3Ma, b cymHoc™, npoxo,ziHT MHMO 
H6ceHa, oT^aBan eMy flaHb ocJmijHajibHoro iioht6hhhj ajih nepBbix 3aHHMa- 
TejibHee MajiOKpoBHbiii Mopnc MeTepjiHHK; nepBbie yace aaBHo npeodojienu 
H6ceHa b cTopoHy BjioKa; BTopbie npeodojiejiu H6ceHa b cTopoHy BeaeKHH- 
fla, hjih b CTopoHy pa330JiOHeHHoii 6ypacya3HOH rpH3H, KOTopyio TaK meapo 
hm pacTonaeT HMHe uiHKapHMH peanncT HMnpeccnoHHCTHHecKoro orreH- 
Ka, TeHpHx MaHH: onncaHHe cBepKaiomero onepeHHH ^uaHU-Munepebi- 
Benepu* ajw hhx HHTepecHee cepo-TyMaHHbix KpacoK «}KeHtu,uHu c Mopn». 
Ho Br^H^MBaHCb npncTajibHee b peajiH3M h6cchobckhx apaM, mm 

BCKpMBaeM B HHX MOmHyK) HfleOJIOrHHeCKyK) CTpyK); #eTepMHHH3M 3THX 

ApaM npeaonpeflejieH HfleojiorHeii caMoro H6ceHa; ijemp stoh H^eojio- 
thh - KpH3Hc co3HaHHHj ho caMa H^eojiorHH H6ceHa pa3BepTMBaeTCH ne- 
pea HaMH He np^MO, a aoBeaeHHeM jxo a6cypaa MHpoco3epijaHHH, rocnoa- 
CTBOBaBuiHx eme TaK He^aBHO cpe^H Hac; Hac HanHHaeT nopaacaTb BjiacTb 
H^eii b apaMax H6ceHa; repon ero oaepacHMM TeM hjih hhmm MHpoco3epua- 

HHeMJ OHH CTpeMHTCH npaKTHHeCKH BOnJIOTHTb MHpOC03epuaHHe B 3KH3Hb; 
OHH CTpeMHTCH CaMyK) CBOK) )KH3Hb BMBeCTH H3 MHpOC03epijaHHH; OHH 

npeBpamaiOTCH b xoflHHHe o6pa3M h no,ao6HH HcnoBezjyeMbix aoktphh; Ha 
stoh noHBe nacTO no^roTOBJineTCH koh(J)jihkt MHpoco3epuaHHH c aeH3HbK>; 
ohh na^aioT aeepTBaMH 3Toro KOH(J)jiHKTa; b «Cmojinax o6iu,ecmea^ h ^ox- 
mope UlmoKMcme* aoBO^HTCH jxo a6cypaa npaB^a ajih MHornx, b ^Tedde 
Ta6jiep» - npaBfla ajih o^hoh; kojijickthbhsm, KaK h HHflHBHAyajiH3M, K aK 
OTBjieHeHHbie npHHijHnbi, BonjiomeHHbie b acH3Hb, - cyTb jioacb; ho h kom- 
npoMHec MeyKRy oflHHM h MHorHMH, no H6ceHy, HeB03MOHceH. B «Bpande» 
H3o6paaceHa Tpare^HH OTBjieneHHOH MopajiH jiio6bh; Ka3ajiocb 6m, bmboa: 
Mopajib - ecTb jno6oBb; ho KaKaa? JIio6oBb ko BceM? Ho OHa - HeB03MO»c- 
Ha; 6ecKopbicraaH jno6oBb k «eewflM»l Ho Tpareann BopKMaHa nocTpoe- 



158 



Ha Ha 3toh jiio6bh; jno6oBb k 6jih3khhm? Ho 6jih^chhc - 6ojibniHHCTBo: 
6;iH»CHHe KJieiiMHTCH b «JJoicmope UlmoKMane*. JIio6oBb HyBCTBeHHaa? Ho 
Tpare^HH «9uojib<p» nocrpoeHa Ha 3tom; jno6oBb k co3flaHHio ajih ce6a? 
Ho b 3tom Tpare^HH «reddbi Ta6jiep»\ jxjik apyrax? Ho b stom Tpare^HH 
«CojibHeca» y co3H^aBiuero «doMa djui modeu*. Kyda nu Kimb, ee3de kruh\ 
BOHCTHHy, apaMa H6ceHa ecTb apaMa cymecTByiomnx MHpoco3epuaHHH. 
MHpoco3epuaHHe - peajibHeft hch3hh; bch 5KH3Hb ecTb cjie^cTBHe MHpo- 
co3epuaHHH; TyT, noa SMnnpHnecKHM aeTepMHHH3MOM, BCKpbiBaeTCH y 
H6ceHa raoceojiorHHecKHH H^eajiH3M. KpH3HC Haiuero MHpoco3epuaHHH 
TOJibKO b TBopnecTBe H6ceHa oTo6pa3HJicn; TOJibKo H6ceH cpe^H Bcex co- 
BpeMeHHwx apaMaTyproB co3Haji no KOHua CTeneHb peajibHOCTH 3Toro Kpn- 
3Hca, ero Morynyio BJiacTb Ha peajibHyio 5KH3Hb jnoaeft; c 3toh tohkh 3pe- 

HHH BCfl peaJIHCTHHeCKaH KapTHHa 5KH3HH, BbirpaBHpOBaHHaH TBOpHeCTBOM 

H6ceHa, ecTb 3M6jieMa: 1) aHTHHOMHH Haniero no3HaHHH, 2) aHTHHOMHH 
Meaczjy no3HaHHeM h 6biraeM; bot noneMy Be3fle cmwcji apaMbi abohtch; 
jno6aH peajiHCTHHecKan cueHa, H3o6paacaiomaH 6HTBy hch3hh, ecTb BMecTe 
c TeM HarjiH^HaH 3M6;ieMa bcjihkoh 6htbw Memjxy pa3flBoeHHeM Haniero co- 
3HaHHH, a TaKace npoTHBopenHe pa3^BoeHHH Meacay co3HaHHeM h 6brraeM; 
npomueopeuue Meoicdy 6umueM u meopuecmeoM: npHMep - CojibHec: CTpon 
^OMa jxjik JHoaeft, oh acejiaeT CTpOHTb flOMa Bora; h ot 3Toro ni6HeT; 
npomueopeuue Meoicdy «n» - u «mu»; npHMep - Teaaa Ta6jiep: yTBepaczjaH 
no KpaHHocTH CBoe Tenj& paztfi ry6HT «mw> (JIeB6opra), koto- 
poro, o^HaKo ace, jik>6ht; KaK cKopo ajih Hcne3aeT «mu» (JIeB6opr 3a- 
CTpejiHBaeTcn), ra6HeT Te^a; bmboa - *x> h «mu» aojDKHbi coe^HHHTbCH 
b neM-TO, hto hh hh «mw»; npomueopeuue Meoicdy o/cemnueM u 3omom: 
npHMep - 3juiHfla BaHrejib (ee apaiua Meacay aojiroM no oraonieHHio k 
Myacy h HcejiaHHeM yftra c He3HaKO\meM); npomueopeuue Meoicdy Miuiocep- 
dueM u npaecmeeuHbiM sqkohom'. npHMep - BpaHfl. H t. 

Bee apaMbi H6ceHa nocTpoeHbi Ha nporaBopeHHHx; npoTHBopenHH 3th 
npeflonpeaejieHbi pa3^BoeHHeM Meacay co3HaHHeM h 5KH3Hbio; 6ecco3Ha- 
TejibHan »H3Hb ecTb coctohhhc »CHBOTHoe; npoBe^eHHe co3HaHHH no ero 
bo3mo5Khhx rpaHHu ecTb noOTHHeHHe caMOH 2CH3HH co3HaHHK>; TparHne- 

CKHH BblBOfl! MepTBaH >KH3Hb: Me^CZiy MepTBOH 5KH3HbK> H 3KH3HbK> 5KHBOT- 

hoh oco6eHHo apKo b «Kozda mu, Mepmeue y npo6yo/cdaeMca». Py6eK - co- 
3HaTe;ieH: ho oh - MepTB; OKpyacaiouiHe ero »chbw, ho 6ecco3HaTe;ibHbi; 
Kor^a oh H3BaHBaeT hx, ohh BbirjinflflT 3BepHMH; Py6eK co3HaeT, hto h 
5KH3Hb, h co3HaHHe b TBopnecTBe; TBopnecTBa »ch3hh He XBaTaeT Py6eKy; 

OH TOJibKO C03HaHHeM ^OXO^HT flO TBOpneCTBai npeo6pa3HTb CBOK) »CH3Hb 

oh He MoaceT; h oh - ni6HeT. 

Tjnr HamynwBaeM mw coKpoBeHHbiii HepB caMoro H6ceHOBCKoro TBop- 
necTBa; HaM oTKpwBaeTCH KaK 6bi Tperaft 3Ta»c ero xyao^cecTBeHHOH no- 
ctpohkh; Tpare^HH repoeB H6ceHa b tom, hto ohh to 6ecco3HaTe;ibHO 

CTpeMHTCH K TBOpHeCTBy »CH3HH, KaK BopKMaH, HHCTHHKTHBHO CTpeMHCb 



159 



Bbl6pOCHTb H3 36MJIH 3eMJIHHbie 6oraTCTBa H HMH npeo6pa3HTb >KH3Hb; 

3eMJix nory6Hjia BopKMaHa; to repon 3th xotht H3 co3HaHHH coTBOpHTb 
Ajih ce6n acHByio »CH3Hb; h, coBepineHHbie MepTBeijbi, ohh ni6HyT, KaK 

TOJIbKO IIOflHHMaiOTCH K CTHXHH aCHBOTO C03HaHHH - B03flyxy BepHIHH! CO- 

BepineHHeHuiHH MepTBeu Py6eK ni6HeT, noflHHMancb k BbicoiaM cBoero 
ojie^eHejioro co3HaHHH, Kor^a co3HaHHe 3to yKa3WBaeT Ha ce6n KaK Ha 
npoayKT TBopnecTBa; co3HaHHe aojira 6e3 *chbo omymaeMoii jiio6bh ry6nT 
h BpaH^a; coTpaceHHeM B03ayxa cpbiBaeTca jiaBHHa; o6ohx nory6Hjia eo3- 
dyuiHOA cmuxun; TaK ace ry6HT cthxhh cjiaaocTpacran, BO^a, MajieHbKoro 
3uojib(pa. Ozoub denmejibHocmu 6e3 3HaHHH 3eMJiu h 6e3 MyapocTH eo3dyxa 
npeBpamaeT IIlTOKMaHa bo Bpe^Horo nyaaKa; H6ceHOBCKHe repon He 3HaioT 
COeZlHHeHHH CTHXHH B rapMOHHHeCKOM e^HHCTBe; ohh rn6HyT h ot B03,zjyxa 
BepiiiHH, h ot 3eMJiH, h ot Bo^bi, h ot oitch. B BpaH^e eCTb OZOHb H eosdyx, 
ho HeT 3eMJiu h eodu; b BopKMaHe ecTb h 3eMjin, h oroHb; HeT bo^m h bo3- 
ayxa; b CojibHece ecTb h 3cmjih, h Bo^a, h oroHb; B03flyxa HeT. CTpeMjieHHe 
k TBopnecTBy hoboh 3KH3hh Be^eT k rH6e;iH y H6ceHa, noTOMy hto ^jih 

TBOpHeCTBa 5KH3HH Hy2CH0 CTaTb OOTOBpeMeHHO H BblUie 5KH3HH, H Bbiuie 
C03HaHHH, COeOTHHTb C03HaHHe C 5KH3HbK), npeTBOpHTb CJIOBO B njIOTbJ CO- 

neTaTb h «mw» b «ow»; CTpeMjieHHe h aojir - b cBo6oae. 3th BbiBOflbi 
npKO h cacaTO HaMeneHbi y H6ceHa b «HMnepamope u rajiwiexHUHe». 

TaKOBo Tpexi>HpycHoe nocTpoeHHe H6ceHOBCKHx apaM; b nepBOM npy- 
ce Hac BCTpenaeT H3yMHTe;ibHoe H3o6paaceHHe hhcto peajibHoii ctopohw 

5KH3HH; 3TO - flpaMbl 6bITHH! 6bITOBbie flpaMbi; B 3TOM njiaHe nOHHMaHHH 

hx rocno^CTByeT aeTepMHHH3M: 6eccjiOBecHan acH3Hb, HenpeKocjioBHan 
njiOTb: HejioBenecTBO H3o6paaceHO KaK HeMaa noKopHan TBapb, y6HBaeMan 
Pokom; Bee 3th 6biTOBbie jihkh, MejibKaiomHe nepea hsmh, hmciot «3ee- 
punue Mopdbi*; 3^ecb H6ceH HBjineTCH Py6eKOM, H3BaHBaiomHM hhcto 
^HBOTHbie o6pa3bi: oTcio^a jno6oBb H6ceHa k hhcto HH^HBH^yajibHbiM 
ncHxo4)H3HOjiorHHecKHM nepTaM h acecTaM cbohx repoeB; to, o neM He- 
npeKOCJiOBHo MOJinaT repon, Kacaacb BcDkhmx co6wthh BCKOJib3b, KaK 6m 
o6hhhkom, hjih to, o neM ohh 6e3yMH0 peByT, npoBajiHBancb b 6e3flHy, 
ecTb Tpare^HH Meacay no3HaHHeM h acH3Hbio, npeaonpeflejiHBiiiafl hx th- 
6e;ib, TpareAHH, o KOTopon ohh h He no,zjo3peBaiOT; «HenpeKocjio8HOR» hjih 
^MunawfLR* TBapb ecTb oTpaaceHHe jiHija 6ecnjio,zjHbix aHrejibCKHx H^efi, 

Be^ymHX Hafl aCH3HbK) (B C03HaHHH) CBOH CTpaiHHMH noe^HHOK; TyT OT- 
KpblBaeTCH H6ceHOBCKHH MHp 6eCnJIOflHbIX CJIOB; 3TOT MHp C03HaHHH, o 

kotopom ero repon MOJinaT, hcbh^hmo npoHHuaeT ctchh hx aomob; He- 
BeaoMan hm caMHM Tpare^HH Tpe6yeT cbohx acepTB; Tpare^HH co3HaHHH 
oKa3bmaeTCH peajibHee caMoii acH3HH; Kor^a stot HeBH^HMbift MHp H^efi 
BTopraeTCH b o6bmeHHyio acH3Hb repoeB, repon HanHHaiOT roBOpHTb 3M- 
6;ieMaMH, noTOMy hto h caMH ohh - xo^HHHe 3M6jieMbi: 06a cMbicjia, pea- 
jiHCTHHecKHH h 3M6jieMaTHHecKHH, coBMemaioTCH napajuiejibHO b apaMe 
H6ceHa; c o^hoh ctopohm, repon H6ceHa - 3Bepn, c n^oTbio, ho 6e3 cjioBa; 



160 



c apyroH cTopoHbi, ohh - aHrejiw: cjiOBa 6e3 njioTH; hh TaM, hh 3Aecb: HeT 
eme nejioBeica: ecTb hto-to AOHejioBenecKoe, ojiHijeTBopeHHoe b 6e3yMHOM 
jieneTe OcBajib^a: «CojiHiie, cojmu l e»\ c Apyrofi ctopohw - CBepxnejiOBe- 
necKoe b 6ecnjioAHOM KpHKe BpaH^a: «Bce tuiu nunezo* (ho Taic KaK «ne 
8ce», to oaho «Humno»y RBe jdkh, ABa yaeaca, ABa MHpa, jibs. uapcTBa: uap- 

CTBO OTpeHeHHH OT JIHHHOCTH BO HMH pOAa, H IjapCTBO OTpeHeHHH OT pOAa 

bo hmh jihhhocth: uapcTBO oTua, h uapcTBO cbma; oaho - 6eccjioBecHan 
6ecco3HaTejibH£La 3eMJiH, yHHHTO^caeMan pokom; Apyroe - co3HaTejibHoe 
6ecnjio^Hoe cjiobo, ra6Hymee ot npHKOCHOBeHHH k )kh3hh; ra6ejib h TyT, 
H TaMJ eAHHCTBeHHblH BWXOA H3 rafSejiH - Bocxo^caeHHe k toh CTeneHH co- 
BepuieHCTBa, r^e napajuiejibHbie uapcTBa conpHKacaiOTCH (TpeTbe uapcTBO, 
uapcTBO /lyxa, coeAHHHiomee He6o h 3eMJiio, aHrejia h aenBOTHoro b Hejio- 
eeKe)\ «mw eme He jiioah - mw poacAeHHwe 3BepH, HepoaczjeHHbie AyuiHi ho 
mw He yMpeM, b 3eMJiio HaineH njioTH coit^eT k HaM Aynia, h mw 6yaeM, 6y- 
AeM, 6yaeM jiioAbMH: mw npeo6pa3HMcn, BocKpecHeM » - bot hcmoh Bonjib 
H6ceHa, h TyT cxoahtch oh c Hnmiie, KaK cxoahtch oh c IlHcaHHeM. 
Hac - HeT, ho mw - 6y#eM. 

TaK peajiH3M h HAeajiH3M H6ceHa coe^HHHiOTCH b TpeTbeM npyce ero 
TBopnecTBa - b chmbojih3mc. AjuieropHH cjiob h peajibHOCTb AeficTBHH 
coe^HHHioTCH y H6ceHa b ajuieropHnecKHH acecr; TaM, r^e y H6ceHa yaee 
HeT cjiOBa, hto6w Bwpa3HTb omymaeMoe hm 6yAymee, nje y Hero HeT no- 
CTynKa, hto6w Bwpa3HTb HyacHoe AeficTBHe, TaM cboaht H6ceH ajuieropnio 
Ha 3eMJiio, o6;ieKaeT cjiobo b acecr, acecr - b cjiobo. Mw 3HaeM, hto Ta- 
Koe o6jieneHHe (J)opMajibHo: «Munyc» no3HaHHH Ha «Munyc» 6wthh AaeT 
«rui?oc» H6ceHOBCKoro cHMBOjia; «njnoc» H6ceHa b chmbojihsmc; «Munyc» 
ero b HaHBHOM peajiH3Me h HfleajiH3Me. AnoKajinncHc AaeT BAOXHOBeHHwe 
BH^eHHH 6yaymero: 3Aecb HeT HCKyccTBa; 3^ecb hjih 6e3yMHe, hjih npo- 
ponecTBo; Ha BepuiHHax CBoero TBopnecTBa Hnijine pncyeT npoponecKHe 
o6pa3w rpnAymero HejioBeKa: TBopnecTBO H6ceHa noABOAHT ApaMy k toh 
TOHKe, 3a KOTopoit ApaMa nepecTaeT yaee 6wTb HCKyccTBOM; ho peajibHoro 
npoponecTBa HeT y H6ceHa; OAHaKo coBepmeHHO peajieH KpH3HC coBpeMeH- 
hwx MHpoco3epuaHHH, hm npeAHyBCTByeMwit; ho 3thm peajibHWM o6pa3aM 
h 3M6jieMaTHHecKH BbipaaceHHWM hachm, KaK no HeKoeH Be^ymeH k He6y 
jiecTHHue, ot npoTHBHoro, noAxoAHM mw k TOMy, ot nero OTnpaBjineTCH 
Hnmne - b CHMBOJiax HHAHBHAyajibHwx, anocTOJi HoaHH - b CHMBOJiax 

HaAblHAHBHAyaJIbHWX. 

Tpn 3Tana HaAJieacnT npoiiTH coBpeMeHHOMy HHAHBHAyajiH3My: ot 
EoflJiapa - k H6ceHy, ot H6ceHa - k HHijiiie, ot Hnmiie - k AnoKajinn- 
CHcy. flyTb ot BoAJiapa k H6ceHy ecTb nyTb ot CHMBOJiH3Ma, KaK jimepa- 
TypHoit uiKOJiw k CHMBOJiH3My, KaK MHpoco3epuaHHio; nyTb ot H6ceHa k 

HHIIUie eCTb nyTb OT CHMBOJIH3Ma, KaK MHpOC03epuaHHH K CHMBOJIH3My, 

KaK MHpoomymeHHio; sto MHpoomymeHHe Be^eT k peajibHofi chmbojihkc; 
HaKOHeu, nyTb ot HHijiiie ao eBaHrejiHCTa HoaHHa ecTb nyTb ot hhahbh- 



161 



flyaJIbHOH CHMBOJIHKH K CHMBOJIHKe KOJIJieKTHBHOH, TO eCTb K OKOHHa- 

TejibHOH npeo6paaeaiomeH pejinrHH, ciiMeojiwca ctshobhtch eomowpnueM, 
chmbojih3m - meypzueu. 

Hnmiie 6e3 H6ceHa - rojiOBa 6e3 TyjiOBHma, H6ceH 6e3 Hnijme - Ty- 
jiOBHme 6e3 rojioBbi: 06a BMecTe - xoth h »chboh, ho eme 6e3rjia3biH opra- 

HH3M, ^OJiaceHCTByiOmHH CTaTb 3pHHHMJ npHKOCHOBCHHe K peJIHrHH, H - 
OTKpblJIHCb BdUHe 3eHHUbI, 

KaK y HcnyraHHOH opjiHijbi... 

A noKa: HHijuie - xchbo roBopnmHH, ho 6ecnjiOTHbiH npopon; H6ceH 
ace - npopoK rjiyxoHeMoft, njioTHHoii. H6ceH - rjibi6a 3e\uiH, cKOBbiBaio- 
man nozi3eMHbiH 6ypHbiii noTOK; Hnijiiie - onieHHaji mojihhh, npa3flH0 
6opo3,zuimaH He6ocKjiOH. H6ceH - ihom; Hnijiiie - apicafl, B03jyuiHaH ca- 
jiaMaropa; 06a - CTHXHHHbie ziyxH; npno6ma5icb k TBopnecTBy H6ceHa, mm 
nojiynaeM cnjiy; ho CHJia eme 6e3 ^bhjkchhhj xojio^ho OHa OKasieHeBaeT b 
Hac: HaM KaaceTca, 6yflTO cepaija KacaeTca jieflHHan pyKa: ho 3to- ojieaeHe- 
HHe Hauiero cepaua; npno6maHCb k TBopnecTBy Hnijuie, 6eccHjibH0 HanHHa- 
eM mw HocHTbCH b B03ziyiiiHbix npocrpaHCTBax; Hnmiie 30BeT Hac ocTaBaTb- 
ch BepHbiMH 3eMjie, a caM npoaojiacaeT HOCHTbcn b B03,ziyxe; H6ceH thhctch 
b ropw, ho He MoaceT noflHHTbca: o^hh 30BeT apyroro; o^HOMy Hejib3H acHTb 
6e3 apyroro: 06a Beayr k 6e3yMHio, pa3pbiBaa ziyiiiH HauiH nonoxaM. 

KTO-TO TpeTHH flOJI5KeH COeflHHHTb. Kto ace TpeTHH? 

1910 

MCKYCCTBO 

- ilCKyCCTBO eCTb HCKyCCTBO )KHTb. 

TaK h onpeaejiHio HCKyccTBO. MMeio jih h npaBO iaK onpe^e- 

JIHTb HCKyCCTBO? 

Onpe^ejieHHe Moe - onpeaejieHHe jih? 
Hto 3HanHT onpe^ejiHTb? 

Onpe^ejiHTb BbicKa3aHHoe cyacfleHHe - 3HanHT yna3aTb Ha oTHouie- 
HHe Meacay noHHraeM npeziMeTa h noHHraeM npe^HKaTa. B aaHKOM cjiynae 
noHHTHe «HCKyccrBO» ecTb orpaHHneHHe 6o;iee o6mero hohsthh; 6o;iee 
o6mee noHHTHe ecTb noHarae 06 yMeHHH aeHTb. 

51 aojiaceH onpe^ejiHTb HCKyccTBO yMenueM otcumb. 

YMernb wumb, roBopio h h noHHMaio cmmcji sthx ziByx cjob. YMemb 
jfcumb, HHTaeTe bw moh cjiOBa h noHHMaeTe hx. ConeTaHHe cjiob, coeziHHe- 

HHe HX nOHHTHO. Ho CaMH CJIOBa, nOHHTHbl JIH OHH? 

Hto ecTb yMenue? Hto ecTb otcusnbl 

H bot yaee OTneTjiHBOCTb noHHMaHHH npona^aeT. «X + Y» - noHHT- 
ho, HarjiH^Ho; nopo3Hb B3HTbie, tjih^ht Ha Hac KaK 3araaoHHbie 

C(J)HHKCbI. 



162 



TaK Bcer^a: coneTaHHe cjiob npH6jiH»caeT kohkpcthmh, HeBbipa3HMbift 
b TepMHHax, nepe^cHBaeMbift cmmcji cjioBa; pa3T>eflHHeHHe cjiob ecTb pa3- 
jioaceHHe HeKoeit uejibHOc™, pa3JioaceHHe nepeacHBaHHH, CBH3aHHoro c 
onpe^ejieHHoft rpynnoft cjiob; onpeaejieHHe cjiob rpynnbi ecTb yace pa3- 
jioaceHHe rpynnbi, pa3JioaceHHe nepeacHBaeMoro CMbicjia, npeBpameHHe 
npe^cTaBjieHHH b noHHrae. 3aecb ijejib nepeHocHTCH Ha cjiobo, cjiobo da- 
hobhtch uejibio onpeAejieHHa; npeac^e oho 6mjio cpeacTBOM BbipaaceHHH 
nepe^CHBaeMoft uejibHOCTH. 

IlepeacHBaeMafl iiejibHOCTb »ch3hh pa3JiaraeTCH no3HaHHeM. IIo3HaHHe 
pa3JiaraeTCH aawHbio. 

Onpe^ejieHHe yMenun mu3hu onpeaejieHHeM noHHTHft 3/cu3hu, yMe- 
huh ecTb HeyMeHHe acHTb, yMepmBjieHHe »ch3hh, noTOMy hto ajih tohhoh) 
onpe^ejieHHH sthx noHHTHft h aojiaceH oT^aTb cboio 5KH3Hb peineHHK) toh- 
HaftuiHx MeTO^HnecKHx npo6jieM 3HaHHH 6e3 Haaeacflbi peuiHTb hx. 

51 ROJiymen nponycTHTb cjioBa CKB03b npH3Mbi pa3Hoo6pa3Hbix Hayn- 

HblX H (|)HJIOCO(J)CKHX flHCIJHnjIHH. 

)Ku3Hb - 3to 4)H3HKO-xHMHHecKHit npoijecc, t. e. npoijecc o6pa30Ba- 
hhh h o6\ieHa 6ejiKOBbix BemecTB. Ho npoijecc o6pa30BaHHH 6ejiKOBbix 
BemecTB He onpeaejiHJia xhmhh. 

)Ku3Hb - 3to coBOKynHOCTb HopM noBeaeHHH, npe^onpe^ejiHiomHx 
TeopeTHnecKHe Bonpocbi pa3yMa. Ho coBOKynHOCTb HopM h caMoe npe^o- 
npe^ejieHHe hmh TeopeTHHecKHx 4>opM 3HaHHH Bee eme sraHecKaa npo- 
6jieMa. 

7KU3Hb eCTb CBH3b nepe^CHBaHHH, HO 3aKOHbI CBH3H HeH3BeCTHbI. 

)Kii3Hb ecTb BHyTpeHHe oco3HaHHa*i npHHHHHocTb, 0fcti3Hb - peajibHaa 
uejiecoo6pa3HOCTb h t. a. h t. a. 

TaK onpeaejiHM mm »CH3Hb - MeTOflOJiorn, TeoperaKH; Bee TyT - onpe- 
aejieHHe HeH3BecrHoft bcjihhhhm rpynnoft HeH3BecTHbix bcjihhhh. 

TaK ace onpe^ejiHM mm «yMeHue»\ h TaK ace onpeaejieHHe sto - skbh- 

JIH6pHCTHKa HeH3BeCTHbIMH BeJIHHHHaMH. 

rioTOM mm cooTHeceM o6e rpynnbi HeH3BecTHbix bcjihhhh, h 3to bo3- 
Be^eHHe HeH3BecTHoro b KBaapaT co3flaeT hjijik)3hk), 6y^TO mm hto-to 
onpczjejiHjiH. 

MHoroTOMHbift TpaKTaT aacT OTneT HauieMy co3HaHHio o CTeneHH Ha- 
uiero He3HaHHH. H sto 3HaHHe o He3HaHHH Ha3MBaeM mm no3HaHHeM. 

HaM Bee Ka^ceTCH, hto, ecjiH mm otkpobchho npH3HaeMCH b HeB03Moac- 
hocth hto-jih6o noHHTb b TepMHHax HayKH, mm 3apeKOMeH^yeM ce6n KaK 

flHKapH. ECJIH TKe MM H3JIOECHM JIK)6oft BOnpOC TaK, HTo6bI BC6M CTaJIO HCHO, 

hto o^hh nyTb HCCJieaoBaHHH TaK-To He oTBenaeT Ha Bonpoc, a apyroft He 
OTBenaeT Ha stot Bonpoc HHane, to sto yace 3HaHHe. 

TaK iiejib no3HaHHH, ero coaepacaHHe npeBpamaeTca b MeTOfl. Hto 
ecTb »H3Hb? MeToa cyaczjeHHH. Hto ecTb HCTHHa? MeToa TpaKTOBaTb 

MeTOflbl. 



1 1 Aimpett Bejibift 



163 



3Ta oco6eHHO th^kksh 4>opMa xpoHH^ecKoro He3HaHHH, He3HaHHH no 
nyHKTaM, ecTb npe^MeT ropaocra hcckojibkhx TeoperaKO-no3HaBaTejibHbix 
uikoji. 

HeM OTJIHHaeTCH npOCTO He3HaHHe OT TeOpHH He3HaHHH... BHHOBaT - 
OT TeOpHH 3HaHHH? 

TeM, hto npocTO He3HaHHe ckpomho, a He3HaHHe, 3a6poHHpoBaHHoe 
HOpMaMH, BbirjiH^HT pbmapCKHMH .zjocnexaMH; aocnexH sth o6pa3yiOT 
KOHTyp pbnjapn... 6e3 pbiijapn. 

Cero^HH 3to - crpaac, oxpaHHiomHH xpaM no3HaHHH ot 6a3apa Bce- 
3HaHHH, 3aBTpa 3to - nyrajio, npoaaBaeMoe Ha tom ace 6a3ape no AeineBbiM 
ueHaM. 

Ho BepHeMCH k npe^MeTy. 

«HadoyMembJtcumb», - yTBepacaaiOH. «HadoyMemboicumb», - yTBepac- 
^aeTe bh. 

Hto ecTb acH3Hb? 

«)Ku3Hb - dtno coeoKynnocmb nopM npaKmuHecKozopa3yMa»> - yTBepac- 
aaio h. 

«)Kii3Hb ecrrtb (pmuKO-xuMunecKuu npou,ecc o6pa3oeanuH u odMeua 6eji- 
Koebix eewpcme*, - yTBepacaaeTe bw. 

Mw yace He noHHMaeM apyr apyra: Hame corjiacne OKa3ajiocb (J)hkthb- 
hmm; hjih corjiacne KopeHHjiocb He b cxoflCTBe MeTOflHHecKHX onpeaejie- 

HHH, a B HeM-TO HHOM. 

Bo bchkom cjiynae, mh aojiacHbi apyr flpyra noHHTb, mm aojiacHbi 

B3aHMHO yCBOHTb TepMHHbl HJIH BOBCe OT6pOCHTb Onpe^eJieHHe 3KH3HH. 

B nepBOM cjiynae npoijecc noHHMaHHH KopeHHTCH b npoijecce oco3HaHHH 
nepe>KHBaHHH. Bo btopom cjiynae noHHMaHHe KopeHHTCH b tcmhoh hohh 

C03HaHHH. 

B nepBOM cjiynae h aojiaceH peKOMeH^OBaTb HHTaTejno cnnconeK khht 
no TeopeTHHecKoii (J)hjioco4)hh ajih Toro, hto6h hohhthh «coeoKynHocmb», 

«H0pMCL», OnpeflCTIHIOmHe >KH3Hb, 6bIJIH nOHHTHbl B TOHHeHHieM CMblCJie 

sthx cjiob; aajiee: h HacTOHTejibHO noTpe6yio ot HHTaTejin 3HaHHH o6enx 
«KpumuK» KaHTa .zjjih noHHMaHHH Toro: 1) hto ecTb pa3yM? 2) hto ecTb 
npaKTHHecKHH pa3yM? IIpe,ztfio»ceHHbiH cnncoHeK KHHr Bbi30BeT hob we 
cnncKH. HnTaTejib .zjojiaceH 3acecTb 3a uejiyio 6H6jiHOTeKy; HHTaTejno He 
H36e»caTb «CommentarzuKant». 

IlycTb HHTaTejib He cep^HTcn; Be^b h ero onpe^ejieHHe »ch3hh KaK 
4)H3HKO-XHMHHecKoro npoijecca noroHHT mchh b ay^HTopHH h jia6opaTO- 
pHH, r^e noHTeHHbie Myacn no3HaKOMHT mchh c TeoperaHecKOH xhmhch h 
4)H3hkoh; h aajiee: xhmhh opraHHHecKan ot mchh He y6e»CHT, tohho TaK 

5Ke, KaK H (J)H3HOJIOrHH. 

Hauie onpe^ejieHHe >kh3hh otcpohhtch Ha HecKOJibKO JieT; HaKOHeij 

Mbl BCTpeTHMCHI H - BO BCeopy»CHH TOHHOIX) 3HaHHH, Bbl - BO BCeopyJKHH 

TeopHH 3HaHHH. B3aHMHoe noHHMaHHe o6ecneneHO, corjiacHH - eme HeT. 



164 



OraoineHHe tohhotc) 3HaHHH k TeopHH 3hshhh BWflBHHeT Bonpoc O B3aH- 

MOOTHOIIieHHH H KpHTHKe MeTOflOB. 

H bot cnop Hani oTKJiaawBaeTca eme Ha HecicojibKO jieT. 

«9mo luapjtc, - HeroayeTe bw, - yTBepac^eHHe h o6ocHOBaHHe cyac- 
^eHHH ro^aMH hcbo3m05Kho. Bejib Tor^a miTHMHHyTHaH pe^b, jiorHne- 
ckh o6ocHOBaHHaH, Tpe6yeT uejioft »ch3hh rjik o6ocHOBaHHH». - «,Ha, - 
yTBepacaaio h, - ecjiH o6ocHOBWBaTb, TaK o6ocHOBbiBaTb; BCHKoe ace HHoe 
o6ocHOBaHHe ecTb CMeineHHe BHyTpeHHero nyBCTBa c o6iuhmh, HenpoBe- 
peHHbiMH MeeraMH, t. e. pnfl bckobwx xoahhhx 3a6jiy5KfleHHH, yTBepacflae- 

MblX HCTHHaMH flypHWM BKyCOM». 

Vljm 3HaTb, hjih BOBce He npeTeH^OBaTb Ha 3HaHHe: He CMeniHBaTb. 
JlK)6oe acHTeficKoe cyacaeHHe, kotopwm o6MeHHBaeMCH mw apyr c apyroM 
b o6MaHHHBOM npeanojioaceHHH, 6yflTO mw noHHMaeM cyacaeHHe, BjieneT 
Hac k aHajiH3y, t. e. k He3HaHHK>. Bch Hania acH3Hb - aecHTOK o6MaHHwx 
cyacaeHHii, njio^nmnx XHMepbi. ripoBepica ace 3thx cyacaeHHH 3aHHJia 6w 

BCK) HCH3Hb - H He XBaTHJIO 6bl 5KH3Hh! 

IIpoBepKa cy^K^eHHH o »ch3hh BMecTO »ch3hh - bot yzjeji no3Haiomero. 
H h yTBep^c^aio 5KH3Hb, t. e. h OTpHijaio no3HaHHe KaK uejib. 

A nocTynan TaK, a yTBepacaaio He3HaHHe. 

Bchkhh nocTynaeT KaK h, ho He bchkhh co3HaeTCH b stom. 

TyT mw Bee B03BpamaeMCH k no3HaHHio nepeacHBaHHeM, MaxHyB py- 
koh Ha TOHHOCTb onpe^e^eHHH. Bee nocTynaiOT TaK, ho He Bee co3HaioTCH: 
.zjjih TaKoro npH3HaHHH Tpe6yeTCH jih6o rojiy6HHan npocTOTa b Bonpocax 
no3HaHHH, jih6o 3MeHHan MyapocTb MeToaojiora, He noTepHBinero ueH- 

HOCTb HCH3HH. 

H 3MeHHaH MyapocTb no^cTHjiaeT no^nac TeoperanecKHH aHajiH3, ho, 
k coacajieHHio, k aTOMy CBOHCTBy 3Men npncoeflHHHeTCH no^nac h KOBap- 
ctbo. 3mch eme - h HflOBHTan 3Men, OHa coxpaHneT acH3Hb RJin ce6n h ot- 
paBjraeT ee rjix apyrnx; OTpaBjiHTb »CH3Hb apyniM - b 3tom cjiaa ocTpacTHe 
nioceojiora. 

AjieKcaH^p BejiHKHH Heyn no cpaBHeHHio c KamoM; oflHaKo TBopne- 
ctbo ero bojih B03,ziBHrajio h coKpyniajio uapcTBa, Kor^a 6ypeft nponieji oh 

nO A3HH. 

Mw MoaceM corjianiaTbcn c «KpumuKOU» KaHTa, ho mw He MoaceM ot- 

pHUaTb, HTO KaHT B CBOeM Ka6HHeTe 6bIJI BOCbMWM KHH3KHWM UIKa4)OM 

cpeflH ceMH niKa(J)OB CBoeft 6h6jihotckh. H bot mw CTaBHM Bonpocw. Mo- 
aceT jih khh^chwh niKacJ) o6jia#aTb jihhhwm TBopnecTBOM? 

UapcTBo AjieKcaH^pa pyxHyjio bcjico; 3a hhm. KaHT OTpaBJineT CHHHJib- 
hoh khcjiotoh HHTejuiHni6ejibHyio BcejieHHyio bot yace cto JieT. 

Kto 6ojiee pa3pyniHTejieH? 

3HaHHe o He3HaHHH onacHee He3HaHHH. 

BblJIO JIH JIHHHOe TBOpHeCTBO 3KH3HH B KaHTe? BblTb MoaceT. Ho H 

4>aKHp, aecHTHJieTHH KOCTeHeiomnii Ha KaMHe, tbopht ajih ce6n b 3KH3- 

165 

11* 



HH 5KH3HB. CmHCJI 5KH3HH He B o6l>eKTe ee, a B 06T>eKTHBHpyeM0H JIHH- 
HOCTH. 

MoaceT 6biTb, AjieiccaHflp omymaji b ce6e TBopnecKyio nycroTy. 

TBopnecTBo »ch3hh ecTb TaHHa jihhhocth: o6i>eKTHBHbie uejiH hch3hh 
(co3H,aaHHe HayKH, HCKyccTBa, o6mecTBa) - BHeniHHe 3M6jieMbi TBopne- 
ckhx TaftH, nepe»CHBaeMbix jihhho. YMenue Mumb ecTb HH^HBHayajibHoe 
TBopnecTBo, a o6meo6H3aTejibHbie npaBHJia »ch3hh - MacKH, 3a kotopwmh 
npHneTCH jiHHHocTb. >KH3Hb, oco3HaHHaH b 3aKOHax, ecTb Becejibift MacKa- 
paa , rae cmcpoBeHHoe npH3HaHHe tcmhotw »ch3hh ecTb ao6pan MacKa, a 
yTBep^eHHe HopM ecTb Macna 3Jian. 

)Ku3Hb ecmb Jiunnoe meopuecmeo. 

YMeHHe acHTb ecTb HenpepbiBHoe TBopnecTBo: 3to MrHOBeHHe, pac- 
THHyBiueecH b BeHHOCTb: ycjioBHH BHeniHeft Heo6xoflHMOcTH pa3pwBaiOT 
TBopnecKHH pna h MrHOBeHHe. BeHHOCTb pacnaaaeTCH Ha Boaonaa mhtob, 
o6pa3 »ch3hh pacna^aeTCH Ha twchhh o6pa30B, 4>opMa 5KH3HH - Ha twchhh 
4>opM. 

3th (J)opMbi Toraa - (j)opMw HCKyccTBa, t. e. o6jiomkh e^HHOH (j)opMw; 
e^HHan (J)opMa - TBopnecKH npoacHTan HCH3Hb. 

TBopnecKH npoacHTan 5KH3Hb ecTb 5KH3Hb, b KOTopoft pacnjiaBJieHa, KaK 

B CB060fle, Heo6xOflHMOCTb, HJIH 3TO eCTb 5KH3Hb, H3 KOTOpOH Heo6xOflH- 
MOCTb H3T>flTa BOBCC Bo BTOpOM CJiyHae H OKHMaiOCb, y6eraK) OT yCJIOBHH 

Heo6xoflHMocra b 6ecKOHeHHbiH noKoft, b oueneHeHHe: TaKOB (J)aKHp, ocra- 
HaBJiHBaiomHH awxaHHe; TaKOB KaHT, nHinymHii iKpumwcu*, 3aicocTeHeB- 
uihh b Kpecjie: xopouio 6wjio eiuy npeflnncwBaTb hopmh MopajiH, Koraa oh 
y6e»caji ot bchkoh MopajiH, npeBpaTHB jihhhio CBoero TBopnecTBa, jihhhio 

JIHHHOH 5KH3HH, B TOHKy Ka6HHeTHOrO CH^eHHH. OH nHCaJI flJIH (J)aKHpOB - 

He jxjw. JiioaeH; oh He Hyacflajica b MopajiH, h6o oh 6wji BHe aeftcTBHH; Meac- 
ny TeM njx ero cjiob npocrapajiCH Ha aeftcTBHe. OaKHpw Te MOJinajiH; ohh 
6wjih OTKpoBeHHo hcmw; KaHT - roBopHJi: oh - HeMOTa b MacKe H3 cjiob: 
3Jian Macna. 

Ecjih h xony pacnjiaBHTb aeftcTBHe 3aKOHa b aeftcTBHe cbo6o,zjw TaK, 
hto6w cBo6o^a h 3aKOH coe^HHH^HCb b o^ho, h BCTynaio b 6opb6y c koc- 
hwm o6pa30M 5KH3HH; 3Ta 6opb6a - Tpare^HH. 

TBopnecTBO Moe - 6o\i6a, KOTopyio h 6pocaio; 5KH3Hb, BHe mchh jie- 
acaman, - 6oM6a, 6poineHHaH b mchh; yaap 6om6h o 6o\i6y - 6pw3rn 
ockojikob, jibs. pn,zja nepeceneHHwx nocjieflOBaTejibHocTeii; ockojikh Moero 
TBopnecTBa - (J)opMw HCKyccTBa; ockojikh bhotmocth - o6pa3bi Heo6xo- 

flHMOCTH, pa3pbIBaK)mHe JIHHHyK) MOK) 5KH3Hb. 

Pa3Hoo6pa3He 4>opM (t. e. h, pa3opBaHHWH bobhc, h mhp, pa3opBaH- 

HblH BO MHe) - 3TO CTOJIKHOBeHHe (J)OpM 5KH3HH C (J)OpMaMH TBOpneCTBa, 

t. e. npnpofla b 3aKOHax h cBo6o^a b 4>opMax; CBo6o^a b 4>opMax - bot 
nepBHHHoe onpeaejieHHe (J)opM HCKyccTBa. To, hto orbeflHHHeT aejibHOCTb 
Moero «a» ot uejibHOCTH Moero me a» t ecTb HS^ejiHe; OTHomeHHe «#» 



166 



k He ecTb Bxo^caeHHe b me h o6paTHo: ctshobhtch «ne a» 
KaK TBopnecKoe H3^ejiHe; «ne h» oflyineBjraeTCH b KaK H3flejiHe ace. 

OopMa HCKyccTBa - sto apeHa 6opb6w, iyje «h» 3amHmaeT cboio cbo- 
6oay; Tpare^HH - bot ycjiOBHe screTHHecKoro TBopnecTBa. 

HcKyccTBO acHTb ecTb scTeTHnecKoe TBopnecTBO bo BHeuiHeM onpeae- 
ji6hhh ero. BHeuiHOCTb hch3hh ecTb MaTepnaji TBopnecTBa npH BHyTpeH- 
HeM onpeaejieHHH ee. 

HCKyCCTBO }KHTb eCTb HCKyCCTBO npOflJIHTb TBOpHeCKHH MOMeHT XCH3- 
HH B 6eCKOHeHHOCTH BpeMeH, B 6eCKOH6HHOCTH IipOCTpaHCTBJ 3fleCb HCKyC- 
CTBO ecTb yace co3HflaHHe jihhhoto 6eccMepTHH, t. e. pejinrHH. 

BTOp^CeHHH JIHHHOrO TBOpHeCTBa B yCJIOBHH Heo6xOAHMOCTH - BOT 

hto ecTb (J)opMa; omrrb-TaKH aonycTHMoe onpeaejieHHe HCKyccTBa; ycjio- 
BHe 3Toro BTop»ceHHH (npeo^ojieHHe conpoTHBjieHHH, 6opb6a) - Tpare- 
Ahh; CTyneHH npeoflOJieHHH Tpare^HH - CTyneHH pejiHrH03Horo pa3BHTHH. 
H o6paTHo: pejiHran b npouecce 3aBoeBaHHH MHpa ecTb TpareflHa; Tpare- 

flHH B npOUeCCe B03HHKHOBeHHH eCTb MH(|)HHeCKaH neCHH (T. e. n033HH H 

My3biKa); necHH - (J)opMa HCKyccTBa. 

HcKyccTBO Bcer^a TparanHo; Tpare^HH - pejiHrao3Ha: TaKOBO yrjiy- 
6jieHHe HCKyccTBa H3BHe BOBHyTpb. PejiHrHH Bceraa TparHHHa; Tpare^HH 
Bceiyja ecTb 4>opMa HCKyccTBa: bot xoa TBopnecTBa H3HyTpH bobhc 

>KH3Hb - paBHOAeiicTByiomaH 3thx AByx HanpaBJieHHH, b Hen 6opb6a 
Ksyx cTpeMjieHHH! H3BaHTb nojieT b KaMHe h o6paTHo: 3acTaBHTb KaMeHb 
jieTeTb. IIocjieAHHH bhboa nepBoro crpeMjieHHH: acH3Hb - 3to MepTBoe H3- 
^ejine, r^e ^ejiaTejib OTcyTCTByeT; bwboa H3 apyroro CTpeMjieHHH: »cH3Hb - 
sto ^ejiaTejib b pa3Hoo6pa3HH npoHBJieHHH. )KH3HeHHbiH BbiBOA H3 nepBO- 
ro CTpeMjieHHH: jiHHHaa CMepTb. H3 BToporo: B03HeceHHe KaMHeii 3cmjih h 
Bcero, hto cTajio 3eMjieH, to ecTb BoccTaHHe H3 MepTBbix. 

7Ku3Ub - 6opb6a yaee MepTBeua c yaee BocKpecuiHM. PejiHrH03HWH 
chmboji 3Toii 6opb6bi: 6opb6a nejiOBeKa, CTaBiuero BoroM, c o6pa30M MepT- 
boh, HCKonaeMoii (J)opMbi. 3Ta HCKonaeMaa 4>opMa ecTb KaK 6h najieoH- 

TOJIOrHHeCKHH nTepO^aKTHJIb*, BOCC03flaHHbIH JIHHHbIM TBOpHeCTBOM, KaK 

dpaKOH. 

Bor, KaK uhou hcjiobck; nepT, KaK apaKOH, t. e. HCKonaeMbiH npeflOK: 
nTepo^aKTHJib. 

TKumh - 3Hmum yMemb, 3Hamb, MOHb (Konnen). 

yjuemb: t. e. yMeTb 6opoTbcn c TbicHHejieTHHMH npouijioro. 

3Harrtb\ t. e. BH#eTb o6pa3 mohx CTpeMjieHHH, 6yaymee; TaKoe 3Ha- 
HHe He ecTb 3HaHHe o He3HaHHH (MeTO^HKa), ho acejiaHHe jiHHHoro 6ec- 

CMepTHH. 

MoHb\ t. e. aep3aTb BCTynHTb b 6oii c o6HHMaiomHM mchh mohm npo- 

UIJIblM (npHpOflOH, H3 KOTOpOH B MOeM npeaCTaBJieHHH H B03HHK); MOHb - 



* IlTepoflaKTHJib - HCKonaeMan KpbuiaTaa amepnija. 

167 



3T0 3H21HHT BOCXHIItaTb o6pa3 MOHX CTpeMJieHHH, 6bITb BOCXHmeHHbIM, 

BocxHmaTbCH, t. e. paaoBaTbCfl aep3HOBeHHio: MOHb - 3to 6biTb repoeM. 

51, BH^HMO, pa3JiaraK)Cb B MeTO^aX pa3JIO»CeHHH BHflHMOCTH. CjIOHCHTb 

ce6n caMoro H3 6ecKOHenHbix pazjoB He3HaHHH - bot moh 3a^ana; Moub - 
3Hmum Moub eocKpecuymb: bot nejib ech3hh. 

H OTToro-TO yxMTb - 3nauum yMemb, 3namb y Moub, dumb ucxycHbiM; u 
ommozo-mo yMenue mu3hu ecmb Kopem ecmecmzo uacyccmea. 3to yMe- 

HHe H eCTb ^KH3H6HHbIH pHTM. 

3nanue mu3hu ecmb yMenue coxpanumb ecnnyio otcu3Hb (mow, nyoKyio, 
podoeyw): bot r^e coc^hhhctch c >KH3Hbio KopeHb HCKyccTBa. HcKyccTBO 
nosTOMy rjiy6oKO >KH3HeHHo; pojib ero - i*ejie6Haa pojib. HcKyccTBO ecTb 
Hanajio, co3Hflaiomee jiHHHocrb; co3H^aHHe jihhhocth b ee (J)opMe, b ee ne- 
pe»cHBaHHH; b Tejie, KaK h b ayxe. 

H OTToro-TO cpe^H MHoroo6pa3Hbix 4>opM HCKyccTBa CKyjibnTypa ecTb 
(})opMa, H3o6pa^caiomaa phtm Tejia, a My3MKa - phtm ayxa. 

Ho CKyjibnTypa h My3biKa B03HHKaioT b no3flHeHineH CTa^HH hch3hh, 
b snoxy oT^ejieHHH HCKyccTBa ot KopeHHbix h npHMbix ijejien hch3hh, b 
snoxy pa3Jio»ceHHH 4>opM; 3Ta snoxa ecTb Bceraa noKa3aTejib pa3Jio»eeHHH 

nepB06bITH0H JIHHHOCTH. ECTb B HCTOpHH HejIOBCHCCTBa ^Be snoxH, Kor^a 

4>opMa HCKyccTBa eme He cymecTByeT KaK hchto caMO b ce6e 3aMKHyToe, h 
Kor^a nop, HCKyccTBOM mm noHHMaeM HeKOTopyio (J)opMy, cymecTByiomyio 

OTfleJIbHO OT 3KH3HH. 

Bepy npHMep: ecTecTBeHHan HMnpoBH3HpyeMan necHb - bot (J>opMa, 
KOTopan Henocpe^CTBeHHO cjiHBaeTCH c >KH3HbK>, BbiTeKaeT H3 hch3hh; to- 
nop, yKpauieHHbiH pe3b6ofi, - apyroft bha ecTecTBeHHOH 4>opMbi HCKyc- 

CTBa. Ho JIHpHHeCKHH flH(|)HpaM6, nO^HHHeHHblH npaBHJiaM MeTpHKH, HO 

6apejibe4>, yKpauiaiomHii nopTHK xpaMa, - Bee sto HCKyccTBeHHbie 4>op- 
mh, t. e. (J)opMbi HCKyccTBa b HanieM cmmcjic 

rioneMy ace HCKyccTBeHHbie (})opMbi cmchhjih npeaeHHe 4>opMbi TBop- 
necTBa? 

IIoTOMy hto >KH3Hb b npeaoieM CMbicjie nepecTajia 6brn> >KH3Hbio. 
^Cn3Hb, BocnpHHHMaeMan hsmh, ecTb acH3Hb pa3flpo6jieHHaa: acH3Hb b 
MHoroo6pa3HH (J)opM, r^e hh oflHa 4>opMa He aaeT nojiHOTbi, uejibHOCTH, 
e^HHCTBa. 

H noTOMy-TO ijejibHOCTb hch3hh, c^hhctbo ee, ecTb bmboa Hamero co- 
3HaHHH; uejibHOCTb )kh3hh ecTb Bcer^a OTBjieneHHe ot (})opM. U,ejibHOCTb 

3KH3HH ^aeTCH HaM B nOHHTHH, HO He B nepOKHBaHHH. 

51 nepeacHBaio o6pwBKH ijejibHOCTH. Jlniiib BOcnoMHHaHHe Moe CBH3W- 
BaeT nepe^cHToe. H (J)opMa cbh3h yM03aKjnoHeHHH, h cyMMa yM03aKJiioHe- 

HHH - )KH3HeHHbIH OnbIT, H eflHHCTBO onwTa - TeopHH. 

B TeopHH 5i nocTHraio ijejibHOCTb »ch3hh, CBH3Hoen> ee; Ha npaKTHKe h 
Bcer^a b 6cccbh3Hocth 6wthh, b xaoce Mbicjieft, nyBCTB, nocTynKOB, pa3- 
6HTHH Ha 6eCKOHeHHOCTb 4>opM, nOTepHHHMH b (J)opMax. 



168 



He to 6wjio b snoxy flOHCTopHHecicyio. 

He cymecTBOBajio Toraa MHoroo6pa3HH h coijHajibHbix, no3HaBaTe;ib- 
hmx, acTeTHnecKHX (J)opM. HejiOBeK b Jiecy, nejiOBeic h npnpoaa - bot 
e^HHCTBeHHan (J)opMa 5kh3hh; nejiOBeic 6opojicn, bmccto Toro, hto6m no- 
3HaBaTb; 6opb6a 3a cymecTBOBaHHe - bot e^HHCTBeHHoe ycjiOBHe »ch3hh; 
no6e^a h&a cMepTbio b Kaacflbiii aaHHbiH momcht 5kh3hh - bot e^HHCTBeH- 
Hoe ycjiOBHe no3HaHHa; TparHnecKHH cmwcji stoh 6opb6w - bot acTeTHHe- 
CKan 4>opMa nepeacHBaHHH. 

Cou[HajibHa5i, 3CTeTHHecKan h no3HaBaTejibHan (J)opMbi »ch3hh coe^H- 
HflJIHCb B TBopnecTBe. 

>KH3Hb 6bIJia TBOpHeCTBOM. }KH3Hb 6bIJia BblCOKHM HCKyCCTBOM JIHH- 

hocth (TpareflHeft), acH3Hb 6wjia BMecTe c TeM h no3HaHHeM. 

H noTOMy-TO ijejibHocrb 3KH3HH nepeacHBajiacb b KaacflOM MrHOBeHHH; 
3Ta uejibHOCTb HMKor^a He oco3HaBajiacb. 

/loHCTopHHecKan anoxa co3Hflajia jiHHHOCTb. B OTBJieneHHOM co3HaHHe 
^OHCTopHHecKoro nejiOBeKa imaBajio b xaoce; b co3HaHHH 5KH3HH aohcto- 
pHnecKHH nejiOBeK 6wji ijejiocTeH, rapMOHHHeH, phtmhhch; oh HHKor^a He 
6mji pa36HT MHoroo6pa3HeM (J)opM 5kh3hh; oh 6wji caM cBoefl co6cTBeHHOH 

(J)OpMOH. C03HaHHe 5KH3HH Onpe/jeJIHJIOCb TBOp^eCTBOM. 

r^e Tenepb ijejibHocrb 5KH3HH? B neM OHa? 

1908 



CMMBOJ1M3M KAK MMPOnOHMMAHME 

I 

Eme He^aBHO flyMajiH - mhp H3yneH. BcflKaa rjiy6HHa Hcne3Jia 
c ropH30HTa. ripocrapajiacb BejiHKan njiocKOCTb. He crajio bchhmx ijeH- 
HOCTefl, OTKpbiBaBiiiHx nepcneKTHBbi. Bee o6ecijeHHJiocb. Ho He Hcne3Jio 
CTpeMJieHHe k aajibHeMy b cepaijax. 3axoTejiocb nepcneKTHBbi. OnaTb 3a- 
npocHJio cepOTe bchhmx ijeHHOCTeft. 

B Ty nopy 3HHiomHH npoBaji pa3Bep3ca Meacay nyBCTBOM h pa3yMOM. 
TparHHecKHH yacac pa3jia#a H3 rjiy6nH 6ecco3HaTejibHbix aopoc ro no- 

BepXHOCTH C03HaHHH. BecnpHHIJHnHblH CKenTHIXH3M HBHJICH CJieflCTBHeM 
HeyMeHHH COXpaHHTb BeHHbie IjeHHOCTH npH HeB03M05KHOCTH 06x0^HTbCH 

6e3 hhx. Ohjioco(|)hh IIIoneHrayapa HOCHjia nepTbi oTpnijaHHfl. Mhoihx 
OHa npHBJieKJia Toiyja. Ilo Mepe Toro KaK o6Hapy5KHBajicfl neccHMH3M, Bee 
6ojibuiee o6jierneHHe omymajiocb b otrpobchhom npH3HaHHH Bcex yaca- 
cob 6wthh. OKa3ajiocb 6bi™e npH3paHHWM. DiflHyjia cKB03b Hero nepHan 
TbMa. JlHxopaaoHHyio HanpaaceHHOCTb cmchhjio co3epijaTejibHoe 6e3^eii- 

CTBHC PyCJIO ECH3HH OTXJIblHyjIO B CTOpOHy. C peBOM H rpOXOTOM Mnajiacb 

no HeM KOJiecHHEta nouuiocTH. 



169 



Bwjia CBoeo6pa3Haa ijeHHOCTb b stom co3epijaHHH. F[eccHMH3M, bo3- 
Be^eHHbiH b npHHijHn, npHTynjiHJi acajio pa3onapoBaHHH. HejiOBeK, otxo- 
Ahbuihh ot »ch3hh, rpycrao 3a/jyMbiBajiCH, onapoBaHHbiH BejiHHHeM co6- 
CTBeHHoro TparH3Ma. B 6e3fleHTejibHOCTH co6HpajiHCb noTpaneHHbie chjih. 
IloaaBjieHHaH jiHHHOCTb HanHHajia pacnpaBjiHTb cboh KpHjibn. B He3aMeT- 

HOH 3BOJIIOIJHH OT naCCHBHOCTH K aKTHBHOCTH, OT IieCCHMH3Ma K TparH3My 

3Bynaji HaM nepBbift TpeneT, 3Bynajio nepBoe 6h6hhc sthx Kpwji. 

Koiyja y6aioKaHHbiH bh^chhhmh 3acwnaeT, sto - BH^HMocTb cMepra. 
3to - no^KpenjiHiomHH chjih coh. TaKHM cohhhm 3a6biTbeM, npeBaTbiM 
nocjieacTBHHMH, 6hjio yBjieneHHe eBponencKoro o6mecTBa (J)hjiococJ)ckhm 
neccHMH3MOM. H bot Kor^a MpaK 3aKpwji hm r;ia3a - sthm yBjieneHHHM, - 
KTO-TO H3 HHX BblKpHKHyjI CTpaHHO npo3ByHaBiuHe CJIOBa: «BpeMH coKpa- 
THHecKoro nejiOBeKa nponuio: yBeHHairre njnomoM nejio Baine, B03bMHTe 
b pyKH THpcbi h He flHBHTecb, ecjiH rarp h naHTepa, jiacTHCb, jinryT y Ba- 

IHHX HOr, H6o Bbl flOJIECHH CTaTb CBo6oflHHMH. Bbl flOJIECHH COnpOB05K#aTb 

OTOHHCHaHCKoe TopacecTBeHHoe uiecTBHe ot Hhto ao TpeijHH. BoopyacH- 
Tecb Ha acecTOKyio 6opb6y, ho BepbTe b nyzjeca Baiuero Bora» («F[poHC- 
xo5K^eHHe Tpare^HH»). Heo6binaHHO pa3^ajiHCb sth cjiOBa. Kto noHHJi hx? 
H, b B03Ayxe 6biTb MoaceT, c 3Toro MOMeHTa CTajiH HOCHTbcn npeAnyB- 
ctbhh 6y^ymHx otkpobchhh. CTaji BeTepoK o6^yBaTb cnnmnx. TpoHyjiHCb 
Heno^BH»cHo-MaHHmHe, coHHO-cjia^KHe rpe3bi. 3apn 3aacrjiacb. 

IIeccHMH3M 0Ka3ajiCH ropHHJioM, cacnraiomHM nouijiocTb. IIIoneH- 
raysp pa3JiHHHeM 4>opM no3HaHHH HanraflHoro, co3epijaTejibHoro, hh- 
TyHTHBHoro ot no3HaHHH Mbicjinmero, OTBjieHeHHoro h npeanoHTeHHeM, 
OWHHbIM nepBOH (J)OpMe, He TOJIbKO o6ocHOBaji b npoTHBOBec MeTO^y 
JIOrHHeCKOMy MeTOfl CHMBOJIHHeCKHH, HO H npeflOCTaBHJI B03MO»CHOCTb B 

6yzjymeM npn^aTb Bee 3HaneHHe 3TOMy MeToay. Ecjih 4>hjioco(})hh Bceijejio 
no^HHHeHa oTBjieneHHOMy no3HaHHio, UIoneHraysp - nocjie/jHHH cJ)hjio- 
co(J). B LQoneHrayspe Hanajio KOHija cJ)hjiococJ)hh. Bhji bckpht hctohhhk 
CBepKaiomnx cymHOCTeft - h no6jie^HejiH B03flyuiHbie 3aMKH mhcjih. 

CBe^eHHe Ha HeT BonpocoB cJ)hjiococJ)ckhx He yKa3biBaeT eme Ha no6e- 
jxy HayHHoro no3HTHBH3Ma. Uepejx HaMH He 3^aHHe, yBeHHaHHoe KynojiOM, 
a TOJibKo MHorosTaacHbie ctchh 6e3 kphiiih, o6e3o6paaceHHbie jiecaMH. 

Ctojicthh BepHjiH b B03MO»CHOCTb HayHHO-(J)Hjioco4)CKoro peuieHHH 

BOnpOCOB 6bITHH. CKOJIbKO THTaHOB B03£BHraJIO TBepflHHK), HTo6bI B30" 

6paTbCH Ha Hee. Hjih BpeMeHa 6opb6bi Meacay 6oraMH h THTaHaMH omiTb 
noBTopHjiHCb? Hjih onnTb ohh HH3Bep»ceHH b TapTap? T^e oho - Haiiie 
npouijioe? IloHeMy 3cmjih 3aKOJie6ajiacb no/j HaMH? OTKyzja 3th HeBOJib- 
Hbie cjie3bi? Roporue HMeHa, aoporne 3a6jiy»cfleHHH! Tohho CH/tfiiiib b 
yiOTHoft xH»HHe pbi6aKa nepea OTnpaBjieHHeM b nyTb. Mope myMHT. Be- 
Tep h jiHBeHb rjia3a cjienHT. B nocjie^HHH pa3 nepea CTapbiM pw6aKOM, b 
nocjie^HHH noacHMaeuib M030JiHCTyio pyKy. yft^euib h He BepHenibcn 06- 
paTHo. B nyTb nopa. 



170 



IIIoneHrayap - BepuiHHa, Ha KOTopyio bocxo^ht BCTaiomHe Haa coh- 
hoctbk) 5KH3HH. Oh - ocTpne, nepe3 KOTopoe nepeKpenuiBaiOTCH ^Ba Ha- 
npaBjieHHH, oraeBeiomHe bchhoh 5KH3HeHHOCTbio. CKpemHBaiOTCH, HTo6bi 
ceftnac ace pa30HTHCb onHTb. 3to - (J)hjioco(|)ckhh paijHOHajiH3M, nepexo- 
AnmHH b pejiHrH03HO OTBJieHeHHbiii naHTeH3M h 3MiiHpH3M, npeo6paaceH- 
Hbiii b HH^HBHayajiH3M MHCTHHecKH-npoponecKoro oTTeHKa. TaKOBbi 06a 
HanpaBJieHHH no Ty CTopoHy KpHTHijH3Ma, Ha rpaHHije c chmbojih3mom. 

Hnmne h TapTMaH npomjiH ckbo3b IIIoneHrayapa. B HeM conpHKOCHy- 

JIHCb. H pa30UIJIHCb 6e3B03BpaTHO. 

HccjieAyn Hanajio bhahmocth (npeacTaBJieHHe), Hnijuie eMy npora- 
BonojiaraeT opraacTHHecKoe Hanajio, pa3pyinaiomee hjijik>3hio (bojiio). 
CjiHHHHe 3thx Hanaji b TparH3Me yHHHToacaeT uioneHrayapoBCKyio aHTH- 
homhk) Meacfly BOJieii h npeacraBJieHHeM b jihhhom Hanajie nejioBeica. Bec- 
co3HaiejibHoe, no TapTMaHy, jiokht niy6oKO b npnpoae nejiOBeKa. Oho 
HHKoraa He ouiH6aeTCH. B HeM B. CojioBbeB bh^ht y3eji Meacay BoroM h 
nejioBeKOM. B 6ecco3HaiejibHOM mm Toace HMeeM cjihhhhc MeTacj)H3HHe- 
ckoh bojih c mhpom hbjichhh. HcTopHHecKHH npoijecc, no TapTMaHy, He 
6ecijejieH. Ero uejib - o6HapyHceHHe Bcee^HHoro ayxa. Hniune BbmBHraeT 
ijejibio HCTopHHecKOH 3BOJHOUHH npoHBjieHHe eceedunou Jimuocmu, ceepx- 
uejioeeKa. Bonpoc otce o npomjienuu e Jimuocmu eceedunozo dyxa yK03uea- 
em ucmopuu nymb k dozouejioeeuecmey. Bjia^HMHp CojioBbeB, onpeaejinn 
ijepKOBb KaK 6oroHe;iOBeHecKyio opraHH3aijHio, crpeMHTCH k npHMHpeHHio 
Meacay HayKofi, (J)Hjioco4)HeH h pejiHraeH. IIpH6jiH3HTejibH0 noao6Hbi ace 
3a#aHH TeococJ)HH, c oTAejibHbiMH nojioaceHHHMH kotopoh MoacHO cnopHTb. 
C o6mHM pycjiOM ee npHxo^HTCH CHHTaTbcn KaK c Bnojme ycraHOBHBuiHM- 

CH HanpaBJieHHeM, He^aBHO B03pOaCfleHHbIM H nyCTHBUIHM KOpHH. 

Ilo3HaHHe 4>opMajibHO-jiorHHecKoe, onncaB Kpyr, b cbocm pa3BHTHH 
jXdJio CBo6oAy CHMB0JiH3My. Ilo3HaHHe, coBepniaiomeecH b npoijecce chm- 
Bo;iH3aijHH, ecTb no3HaHHe reHHajibHoe, no IUoneHrayapy. BaneA 3a Kpn- 

3HC0M MblCJIH HCKyCCTBO HeH36eaCHO flOJiaCHO 6bIJIO BblCTynHTb Ha CMeHy 
(j)HJIOCO(|)HH, KaK pyKOBOAHmHH MaHK HejioBenecTBa. 

Hflen - CTyneHb o6i>eKTHBH3aijHH bojih. Bojih - rjiy6oHaHinee Ha- 
najio 6wthh. Ecjih sto to, hto, OTKpbiBancb b rjiy6HHax ayxa, BjieneT k 
3Be3AHOMy, pacKpbiBaeT nepHbie nponacra Ayxa, 03apneT npoBajiw Jiy- 
ne3apHbiM, - ecjiH 3T0 to, - onpeAejieHHe rjiy6oHaHinero Hanajia 6mthh, 
KaK bojih, Hey^aHHO. 3to hchto otjihhhoc ot Hauien bojih, Mepijaiomee b 
Heft no BpeMeHaM. 3to b BOJie bojih. CMenieHHeM jihhhoh bojih c BOJieii 
MHpa llIoneHrayap, HecoMHeHHO, rnnepTpo(j)HpoBaji JiHHHyio bojiio. To, 
hto b BOJie npnxoAHT h yxo^HT, 03apneT h racHT, - to cymHOCTb. To ace, 
hto, ocTaBancb Heo3apeHHbiM H3BHe, yraeTaeT craxHHHOCTbio xaoca, - He 
ecTb cymHOCTb. 3to - rpaHHi^a bh^hmocth, OTpnuaTejibHoe onpe^ejieHHe 
cymHOCTH - jiHHHan bojih. CBepxjiHHHoe po^OBoe Hanajio o6ycjiOBjiHBa- 
eT jiHHHOCTb. 3to MHpoBoe Hanajio jxojm.no 6biTb 6e3ycjiOBHbiM HanajioM. 



171 



KaK TaKoe, oho o6i>eMJieT 4>opMbi no3HaHHH. Ecjih o6ma# 4>opMa no3Ha- 
hhh - pacna^eHHe Ha cy6i>eKT h o6i>eKT, Ha npe/jeraBJieHHe h bojiio, to 
6e3ycjiOBHoe noKpbiBaeT h bojiio, h npeacraBJieHHe. TaKOBO ero (j>opMajib- 
Hoe onpe^ejieHHe. TaKOBO 6ecco3HaTejibHoe TapTMaHa. 

H^ea - He noHHTHe. KaK BbicrynjieHHe 6ecco3HaTe;ibHoro b bh^h- 
MocTb, 0Ha ynpa3,aHHeT ycjiOBHoe aejieHHe Ha o6i>eM h coaepacaHHe. C yBe- 
jiHneHHeM o6i>eMa hohhthh yMeHbiiiajiocb ero (J)opMajibHoe co/jepacaHHe. 
B H^ee 3Toro HeT. OnpeflejraeMaa ot npoTHBHoro, Hflen H3MeHneT o6paT- 
Hoe OTHouieHHe Meamy o6i>eMOM h coaepacaHHeM b npHMoe. H^en - orpa- 
HHneHHe 6e3ycjiOBHoro. Ecjih 6e3ycjioBHoe hocht xapaKTep e^HHCTBa, to 
BbiCTynjieHHe ero b BH/jHMOCTb orpaHHneHO MHoaeecTBeHHOCTbio cryne- 

Heft. OTCIOfla MHO»CeCTBeHHOCTb Hfleft. B03M05KHO rOBOpHTb O pOflOBblX H 
BHflOBblX HfleHX. Po/JOBbie H^eH HHTeHCHBHee BHflOBblX. C ycTpaHeHHeM 

npoTHBonojioacHOCTH Meac/jy o6i>eMOM h co^epacaHHeM po^OBbie H^eH pa3- 

JIHHHMbl OT BHflOBblX CTeneHbK) HHTCHCHBHOCTH. HHTCHCHBHOCTb 3Ta Bbl- 

paacaeTCH CTeneHbK) bjihhhhh hx Ha Hac. 

J\jm no3HaHHH Hfleft Heo6xo,zjHMO npeacTaBJieHHe. Ecjih BpeMH ecn> 
4>opMa, CHCTeMara3HpyiomaH npe^cTaBjieHHH o BHyTpeHHHx nyBCTBax, to 
co3epuaHHe BpeMeHHbix H^eft HHTeHCHBHefi bjihhct Ha Hauiy flyuiy. Mojk- 
ho noaTOMy ycjiOBHO roBOpHTb o 6ojibiHeii hhtchchbhocth BpeMeHHbix 
H,aeH. BpeMeHHwe H^en noaTOMy cyTb po^OBbie oTHOCHTejibHo npocrpaH- 
CTBeHHbix. CoaepacaHHe HCKyccTBa - no3HaHHe H/jen. BpeMeHHwe <J)opMbi 
HCKyccTB aaiOT cymecTBeHHeiiiHee no3HaHHe. Bot noneMy My3biKajibHbie 
H/jen - cymecTBeHHbie chmbojiw. 

3th - H^eH po/jOBbie cpaBHHTejibHO c h^chmh nponnx HCKyccTB. Bot 
noneMy mohcho roBopHTb o My3biicajibHOCTH o6pa30B, a He o6parao. 06- 
pa3Han My3biKa HHnero He npn6aBHT k BbipaacaeMbiM o6pa3aM. Bot noneMy 

M05KHO rOBOpHTb O My3bIKaJIbHOM KOpHe BCeX HCKyCCTB. MOHCHO TOBOpHTb 

o ayxe My3biKH b CKyjibmype, a He o6paTHO. B My3biKe HaH6ojibinee npH- 
6jiH»ceHHe rjiy6nH ayxa k noBepxHocTHM co3HaHHH. 

He co6wthhmh 3axBaneHO Bee cymecTBO nejioBeica, a cumqojiqmu uhozo. 
My3biKa H,aeajibHO BbipaacaeT chmboji. Chmboji noaTOMy Bcer^a My3biKa- 
jieH. IlepeBaji ot KpHTHijH3Ma k CHMBOJiH3My HeMHHyeMO conpoBo^cziaeTCH 
npo6y^aeHHeM flyxa My3biKH. Ryx My3biKH - noica3aTejib nepeBajia C03Ha- 
hhh. He k apaMe, ko Been KyjibType o6pameH B03rjiac Hniuiie: «yBeHMaftTe 
njiiomoM nejio Bauie, B03bMHTe b pyKH rapcw h He flHBHTecb, ecjiH rarpw h 
naHTepw, jiacTHCb, jinryT y Baiiinx hot... Bw flOJDKHbi conpoBoacaaTb ,zi;ho- 
HHCHaHCKoe Top^cecTBeHHoe inecTBHe ot HH,zja»... CoBpeMeHHoe nejiOBe- 
necTBo B3BOJiHOBaHO npn6jiH»ceHHeM BHyTpeHHeft My3biKH k noBepxHOcra 
C03HaHHH. Oho 3axBaneHO He co6wTHeM, a cumbojiom uhozo. IloKa unoe He 

BOn JIOTHTCH , He npOHCHHTCfl BOJIHyiOmHe HaC CHMBOJIW COBpeMeHHOTO 

TBopnecTBa. TojibKO 6jiH3opyKHe b Bonpocax /jyxa HmyT hchocth b chmbo- 
jiax. /lynia He 3ByHHT hx - He y3HaioT ohh HHHero. 



172 



K TOMy, hto 6mjio npeac^e BpeMeH, k TOMy, hto 6yfleT, o6pameH chm- 
boji. H3 CHMBOJia 6pbi3sceT My3biKa. OHa MHHyeT co3HaHHe. Kto He My3bi- 
KajieH, tot HHnero He nofiMeT. 

Chmboji npo6y»cflaeT My3biicy Jiyuiu. Kor^a MHp npnaeT b Hauiy aymy, 
Bcer^a OHa 3a3BynHT. Koraa aynia CTaHeT mhpom, OHa 6yaeT BHe MHpa. 

ECJIH B03MOECHO BJIHHHHe Ha paCCTOHHHH, eCJIH B03M05KHa MarHH, Mbl 3Ha- 

eM, hto Be^eT k Heft. ycHJiHBHieecn no HenoMepHoro My3WKajibHoe 3Byna- 
HHe ayuiH - bot Maraa. HapyeT ayuia, My3biKajibHO HacrpoeHHafl. B My- 

3bIKe Hapbl. My3bIKa - OKHO, H3 KOTOpOTO JIblOTCH b Hac onapoBaTejibHbie 

noTOKH BenHocTH h 6pbi»OKeT MarHfl. 

HcKyccTBO ecTb reHHajibHoe no3HaHHe. TeHHajibHoe no3HaHHe pacuiH- 
pneT ero 4>opivibi. B CHMBOJiH3Me, KaK MeTo^e, coe^HHHiomeM eeunoe c ero 
npocTpaHCTBeHHbiMH h BpeMeHHbiMH npoHBjieHHHMH, BCTpenaeMCH c no- 

3HaHHeM IljiaTOHOBblX H^efi. HcKyCCTBO flOJDKHO Bwpa^caTb H^eH. BcHKoe 

HCKyccTBO no cymecTBy chmbojihhho. BcHKoe CHMBOJiHHecKoe no3HaHHe 
H^eiiHO. 3a#aHa HCKyccTBa, KaK oco6oro po^a no3HaHHH, HeH3MeHHa bo 
Bee BpeMeHa. Mchhiotch cnoco6bi Bbipa^ceHHH. Pa3BHrae 4>hjioco4)cko- 

TO n03HaHHH flOKa3aTeJIbCTBOM OT npOTHBHOrO CTaBHT erO B 3aBHCHMOCTb 
OT n03HaHHH OTKpOBeHHeM, n03HaHHH CHMBOJIHHeCKOrO. C H3MeHeHHeM 

TeopHH no3HaHHH MeHneTCH OTHomeHHe k HCKyccTBy. Oho ysc 6ojibine 
He caMo^OBjieiomaH 4>opMa; oho h He MoaceT 6biTb npH3BaHO Ha noflMory 
yTHJiHTapH3My. Oho CTaHOBHTCH nyTeM k HaH6ojiee cymecTBeHHOMy no- 
3HaHHio - no3HaHHio pejiHrH03HOMy. PejiHrnfl ecTb cucmeMa nocjiedoea- 
mejibuo pa3eepmueaeMhix ciiMeojioe. TaKOBO ee nepBOHanajibHoe BHeumee 
onpe^ejieHHe. CoBepuiaiomeMycH nepeBajiy b co3HaHHH cooTBeTCTByeT 
H3MeHeHHe cnoco6a BbipaaceHHH chmbojiob HCKyccTBa. Baaoio 6pocHTb 
BZYJisijx Ha xapaKTep 3Toro H3MeHeHHH. 

XapaKTepHofi nepTOH KJiaccHHecKoro HCKyccTBa hbjihctch rapMOHHH 
4>opMbi. 3Ta rapMOHHH HaKJia^biBaeT nenaTb cflepacaHHOcra b BbipaaceHHH 
npo3peHHH. TeTe h Hnuuie nacTO 06 o^hom. I^e nepBbifi KaK 6w cjiynaHHO 
npHnoflMMaeT yrojiwuieK 3aBecw, o6Hapy»CHB rjiy6HHy, BTopofi CTapaeT- 
ch Bbi6pocHTb rjiy6HHy Ha noBepxHOCTb, ycHJieHHO noflHepKHBaa ee 4>e- 
HOMeHajibHoe o6HapyHceHHe. TeHHajibHbie KJiaccHHecKHe npoH3Be^eHHH 
HMeiOT nse ctopohw: jiHueByio, b kotopoh ^aeTCH ero flocrynHan 4>opMa, 
h BHyTpeHHioK); o nocjie^HeH cymecTByioT jiHHib HaMeKH, noHHTHbie H3- 
6paHHbiM. Tojina, aoBOJibHaa hohhthwm ajih Hee (J>eHOMeHajiH3MOM co- 
6wthh, phcobkh, ncHxojiorHH, He noao3peBaeT BHyTpeHHHX nepT, KOTopwe 
cnyscaT (J)ohom onHCWBaeMbix hbjichhh; sth nepTbi aocTynHbi HeMHorHM. 
TaKOB apncTOKpaTH3M jiyMHiHx o6pa3ii;oB KJiaccHHecKoro HCKyccTBa, cna- 
caiomerocH noa jihhhhoh o6bmeHHOCTH ot btop^kchhh TOJinbi b ero co- 
KpoBeHHbie rjiy6HHbi. TaKHe o6pa3m>i cyTb hctohhhkh h rjiy6HHbi, h njio- 
ckocth o^HOBpeMeHHO. 3^ecb y^oBJieTBopneTCH h Macca, h H36paHHbie. 

TaKaH flBOHCTBeHHOCTb HeH36e»CHO BblTeKaeT H3 CaMOH flBOHCTBeHHOCTH 



173 



KpHTHUH3Ma; OHa o6pa3yeTCH TaKace ot HeacejiaHHH reHHeB, hto6w hx chm- 
Bo/ibi cjiy^CHJiH npe^MeTOM aorMaTHnecKHx kphbotojikob paijHOHajiH3Ma, 
yTHjiHTapH3Ma h t. a. 3flecb h npe3peHHe k «MOJibiM chm», h apncTOKpa- 

THHeCKaH HpOHHH Hatf CJienblMH, KOTOpbie XOTH H He BHflJIT, HO XBaJIHT, H 

KOKeTCTBo nepea H36paHHHKaMH ayxa. «OaycT» itohhtch bccm. Bee ejia- 
HorjiacHo Ha3HBaK)T «OaycTa» reHHajibHbiM npoH3Be^eHHeM HCKyccTBa; 
Meacay TeM Teoco4)CKHe 6e3flHbi «Oaycia» nacTO cKpwTbi ot coBpeMeHHbix 

JIK)6HTeJieH BCeB03M05KHbIX 6e3flH - nOKJIOHHHKOB HOBOrO HCKyCCTBa. 

H, o^HaKO, 3th noKJiOHHHKH noHHMaiOT BTopaceHHe 6e3flH b 3apaTycTpe, 
jiOMaiomee BHeniHHe onepTaHHH o6pa30B h OTneTjiHBOCTb mmcjih. B stom 

OTHOUieHHH HOBOe HCKyCCTBO, HBJIHHCb nOCpeflHHKOM MeTKJXy IViy6HHHbIM 

noHHMaHHeM HeMHorax h njiocKHM noHHMaHHeM TOJinw, CKopee jieMO- 
KpaTHHHO. 3aflana HOBoro HCKyccTBa - He b rapMOHHH 4>opM, a b HaniHfl- 
hom yncHeHHH rjiy6HH ayxa, BCJieflCTBHe nero oho kphhht, 3aHBjineT, 
npHrjiainaeT 3aayMaTbCH TaM, r^e KJiaccHHecKoe HCKyccTBO noBepTWBa- 
jio cnHHy «MOJibiM cum». TaKoe H3MeHeHHe cnoco6a BbipaaceHHH ctoht 

B CBA3H C H3MeHeHHeM TeopHH II03HaHHH, COTJiaCHO KOTOpOMy n03HdHUe 

eo epeMeHHOM eennozo nepecmaem Ka3ambcn H6603MOOtcHbiM. Ecjih sto 
Tan, HCKyccTBO jxojm.no yHHTb BH^eTb BenHoe; copBaHa, pa36HTa 6e3yKO- 
pH3HeHHaH oKaMeHejian Macna KjiaccHHecKoro HCKyccTBa. IIo jihhhhm 
pa3JioMa Bbinoji3aiOT OTOBCiofly rjiy6HHHbie co3epijaHHH, HacwmaioT 06- 

pa3bl, JIOMaiOT HX, TaK KaK C03HaHa OTHOCHTCJIbHOCTb o6pa30B. 06pa3bi 

npeBpamaioTCH b mcto^ no3HaHHH, a He b hchto caMOflOBjieiomee. Ha- 
3HaneHHe hx - He Bbi3BaTb nyBCTBO KpacoTbi, a pa3BHTb cnoco6HOCTb ca- 
MOMy BH^eTb b HBJieHHHx »ch3hh hx npeo6pa30BaTejibHbiH cmwcji. Kor^a 
uejib AocTHrHyTa, sth o6pa3bi yace He hmciot HHKaKoro 3HaneHHH; oTcio^a 
noHHTeH ^eMOKpaTHHecKHH cmwcji HOBoro HCKyccTBa, KOTopoMy, Heco- 
MHeHHO, npHHa^jieacHT 6;iH3Koe 6y,aymee. Ho Koraa sto 6yaymee cTaHeT 
HacTonmHM, HCKyccTBO, npHroTOBHB HejiOBenecTBO k TOMy, hto 3a hhm, 
Aojiecho Hcne3HyTb. HoBoe HCKyccTBO MeHee HCKyccTBO. Oho - 3HaMeHHe, 
npeflTena. 

H3MeHeHHe cnoco6a BbipaaceHHH HCKyccTBa coBepuiaeTcn nocreneH- 
ho. CoBpeMeHHoe HCKyccTBO npn TaKOM H3MeHeHHH nacTO uijio omynbio. 
MHorae cnoTbiKajiHCb Ha stom nyra. ApTe3HaHCKHe bo^w, npo6HBancb 
Hapyacy, 6bK)T rpH3bK>. TojibKO noTOM cojiHije 3aacnraeT HHCTOTy booto- 
ro xpycTajiH MHjijiHOHaMH py6HHOB. He cjieayeT 6biTb eccctokhm no ot- 
HOineHHK) k TeM, kto ineji BnepeflH. Beflb no hx H3paHeHHbiM TejiaM mm 
HfleM. Bjiaro^apeHHe h acajiocrb! J\a. 3aMOJiHHT BCHKan xyjial Be^b Hnmue 
Meacay hhmh. A to KaK 6w Hauia pyKa, 3aHeceHHaa Ha# crpaaajibueM, He 
onycTHJiacb ManiHHajibHO, Kor^a MepTBeHHO-6jieflHafl, TepHHeM yBeHHaH- 
Han rojiOBa, c HaBHcniHMH ycaMH, c rpo30H b nejie, bch 03apeHHaa, B^pyr 
3aKHBaeT yKopH3HeHHO-ropbKO - KaK 6m 3Ta rojiOBa He oTKpwjia rjiy6oKHe 
ohh, hto6w npoH3HTb hchwm B3opoM o6e3yMeBUiyio ayuiy. KaK 6w He co- 



rn 



acnia Hac 6arpnHHija «Ruonuca pacnHmozo» y KaK 6w He pacTep3ajiH jiacTH- 
ujHecfl k HeMy naHTepw. 

Cjie^yeT flOBepnHBO B3iviflHyTb Ha noKOHHHKa, hto6w naHTepw npe- 
BparajiHCb b kpotkhx KouieK. A o6pa3 ero TaK 3a^yMHHBO-rpycTHO B3HpaeT 
Ha Hac H3 6eccMepTHbix flajieii. O actckom cnacTHH roBopHT HaM ero jxei- 

CKHH B30p - O 6eJIOM OCTpOBe fleTeft, OMblTOM jia3ypbio. 

THine! 3to - cBHHjeHHaH MorHJia. 



II 

BpHJIJIHaHTOBbie y30pbl C03Be3^HH HenO^BH^CHbl B HepHOM, 

mhpobom 6peay, vjxe Bee HeceTCH h r^e HeT HHnero, hto ecTb. 3eMjiH Kpy- 
hchtch BOKpyr CojiHua, Mnamerocn k co3Be3flHio TepKyjieca! A icyaa mhht- 
ch co3Be3OTe TepKyjieca? - CyMacnieflinaH njincKa 6e3flOHHoro MHpa. 

Kyaa mw jieTHM? KaKHe npocTpaHCTBa nepeceneM, yjieTaa? JleTH, yjie- 
thm jih? Kto nojieTHT HaM HaBCTpeny? 

H to TyT, to TaM, no^TBep^c^aH CTpaHHbie mwcjih, 30jiOTbie tohkh 3a- 
)KHraK)TCH b He6ecax; 3a»cHraK)TCH, cropaioT b 3(J)HpHO-B03flyiHHwx CKJiaa- 
Kax 3eMHoii (|)aTbi. 3a»eHraK)TCfl, TyxHyT - h jictht, h jictht nponb ot 3eM- 
jih cKB03b 6e3flOHHbie cTpaHbi He6biTHH, hto6w cHOBa nepe3 MHJIJIHOHbl JieT 
3aropeTbCH. XOHCTCH KpHKHyTb MHHyTHbIM 3HaKOMbIM! «3^paBCTByiiTe!.. 

Kyaa jieTHTe?.. IIoKJioHHTecb BeHHocra!..» Bee sto coBepmaeTCH b He^o- 
cHraeMbix bwchx. CKOJib3HyBinaH b He6e HCKpa He o6opBeT hhth pa3roBo- 
pa. HeBOJibHbiii B3^ox, MoaceT 6biTb, BbipBaBiiiHiicH H3 rpy^H, - oh ozjhh 
o6Hapy»CHT, hto ayuia He 3a6wjia, bo hto norpyaceHbi KapTOHHbie njiocKo- 

CTH 6bITHH. 

Ho Kor^a mojihhh CBepKHeT Ha 6e3o6jianHOM He6e h Ha# tojioboh 
yMcacHyBHiHxcH noBHCHeT npKan nyHuoBan 3Be3fla, 03apHB orHeHHbiM 6pe- 
^om no6jieflHeBHiHx, h noTOM thxo CKOJib3HeT b cTopoHy, pacewnaa 6pw3- 
ra hckp, o6iijhh KpHK! «MeTeopI.. TaK hh3ko!..» - o6opBeT Bee hhth pa3- 
roBopa. Bee nyBCTByioT, hto cjihuikom 6jih3KO coBepuinjiocb BTopaceHHe 
BenHOCTH, cjihuikom hhhtomchw nepea Heio HaniH ycTOH, cnoco6Hbie Jinuib 
ro BpeMeHH yKpbiTb rjiy6nHy... Pa3roBop bo3o6hobhtch, ho Bee CTaHyT 3a- 
ayMHHBeii. 

Hnijuie 6wji TaKHM MeTeopoM. Oh npHHec rjiy6HHy H3 6eccMepTHbix 
aajien. H xoth flpyacHafl 6paHb He yMOJimia Ha# yuie^iHHM b BenHocTb, mw 
Bee nocjie Hero KaK-To cepbe3Hee. HeT b Hac npeacHeH 6jiH3opyKOH HaHB- 
hocth. Be^b ecjiH cero^HH TaK 6jih3ko ot Hac npoMnajica 3apafl BeHHoro 
orHH, hhhto He npe^oxpaHHT Hac ot bchhwx onacHOCTeii. KaKan-TO HeH3- 
rjia^HMa^ HOBan nepTa ocTajiacb y jnofleii nocjie Myaporo Hniune. 

MyapocTb - jia3eHKa H3 «zojiy6ou rmopbMU* Tpex H3MepeHHii. HejiOBeK 
BwpacTaeT jxo MHpa h yace CTynHTcn k 6e3MHpHOMy. 3^ecb OTKpwBaeTca, 



175 



hto Mbicjib, HarpoMo^eHHaH 3apnaoM ^OKa3aTejibCTB h BbicKa3aHHan 
ro KOHixa, HanoMHHaeT TOJiCTyio aca6y. My^peija noBjieneT 3a hhwmh 
mwcjihmh - npo3peBaK>mHMH. IIopxaiomHx jiacToneK oh npeOTOHTeT 
yMHbiM aca6aM. Oh 3HaeT, hto ecjiH jiacTOHKH h yTOHyT b Jia3ypn, to 
aca6w npHBe^yT ero b 6ojioto. Jlynuie oh 3aMenTaeTCH o rojiy6oM, He- 
acejin o 6ojiothom. My^peu - 3to caMwii tohkhh 6e3yMeu, cHacTjiHBwS 
BecejibnaK, cepbe3Hbiii h BaacHwfi rjib. Tex, kto He b coctohhhh cobmc- 
CTHTb My^pOCTb C JieTKOMWCJIHeM. Bot oh 3acTbiBaeT b repHaTHHecKofi 
no3e. Myapeij pacceaH, ho He ot mwcjih. Oh mwcjiht cbo6o,zjho. Ero 
Mbicjib nopxaeT. 3to - My3biKa. Jlnuib rjix H36paHHbix cna^aeT c Myape- 
ija mejiKOBan 3aBeca paBHoayuiHa. BwpaaceHHe acrynero MorymecTBa h 
CBepxHejiOBenecKoii hokhocth, KaK 3apHHua, TpenemeT Ha 3acHHBineM 
jiHue. H noTOM BHOBb 3to jihijo oKaMeHeBaeT. HejioBeK, He jihihchhwh 
ayxa My3biKH, - bchho 6biomHH (J)OHTaH, b 6pw3rax KOToporo OTpaaca- 
iotch cojiHue h jiyHa. JIhihchhwh BHyTpeHHeii My3biKH - Heno/jBHacHaii 
rHHJian jiyaca, b KOTopoS 3aBejiHCb nepBH h yac HHnero He OTpaacaeTca. 

OTHOHieHHe K COflepHCaHHK) BWCKa3WBaeMWX B033peHHH, 3TOT aKKOMna- 

HeMeHT ayuiH k cjiOBaM, bot hto BaacHee Bcero b Myapeije. CymecTBeH- 
Hoe pa3JiHHHe Meacay hhm h flypaKOM 3aKJHOHaeTCH b tom, hto h aypaic 
roBopHT yMHbie BemH, ho npn stom KaaceTCH rjiynwM. Myapeij, roBopn 
rjiynocTH, hhkoto He npoBe^eT, pa3Be aypaKOB. 

Hniuiie yace He 4>hjioco(J) b npeacHeM CMbicjie, a Myapeij. IIojioaceHHH 
ero - nacTO chmbojiw. Bor BecTb icyzja npoHHKaenib 3a hhm, CKOJibKO rpa- 
hhthwx CTeH TaeT nepea ero actckhmh onaMH. CaMa aeHCTBHTejibHOCTb 

HaHHHaeT Ka3aTbCH CTeKJIHHHOH. 3T0 (})yTJIHp UHOZO. IIpOMaXH HHE[IHe 

TOJibKO TaM, r^e HanHHaeiub npeKbXBJixTb k HeMy Tpe6oBaHHa pejiHra- 

03HOrO OTKpOBeHHH. PeJIHrH03HOe OTKpOBeHHe eCTb CHCTeMa npaBHJIbHO 

pa3BepTbiBaeMbix chmbojiob. TaKOBo ee BHeniHee onpeaejieHHe. Ecjih chm- 
boji - okho b BenHOCTb, to CHCTeMa chmbojiob He MoaceT Ka3aTbCH Henpe- 

pblBHOH, KaK CHCTeMbI #OrMaTH3Ma H KpHTHIJH3Ma, Tfle BCe CBH3aHO JIOTH- 

HecKoii 4>opMOH. 3mo pad npepueubix o6pa3oe, pacKpbreaiomHx pa3Hwe 
ctopohm e^HHoro. y Hnmne chmbojiw He npHBeaeHW b cHcreMy. OflHa- 
ko 4>opMajibHO-jiorHHecKHe CHCTeMbi He Moiyr yzjOBjieTBopHTb ero. Hhu- 
iue ineji ot KpHTHijH3Ma k CHMBOJiH3My. Bot noneMy y Hero cnyTaHHOCTb 

MeTO^OB n03HaHHH. HaCTO OH TOBOpHT 06 OflHOM H TOM 5Ke, HO pa3HbIMH 

H3biKaMH. 3to ycyry6jweT Kaacymnecn npoTHBopeHHH ero mwcjih, npo- 
jiHBaeT HeKOTopwii cbct Ha cy^b6y ero. Be3yMHe HHijme He hbjihctch jih 

pe3yjIbTaTOM HeyMeHHH pa3TpaHHHHTb CHMBOJIH3M C KpHTHIJH3MOM? Kpn- 

thuh3m TepaeT cTporyio oTHeTjiHBOcTb c BTop^ceHHeM ocjienHTejibHwx 06- 
pa30B, BJieKymnx Mwcjib Tyaa h cio^a, bmccto toto hto6w cocpe^oTOHHTb 
ee. 06paTHo: MyapocTb po^HT ijchhocth. Kphthijh3m HHHero po^HTb He b 
coctohhhh. He noTOMy jih apKHe, KaK cajiaMaH^pa, KpacKH noanac OTpaB- 
jieHw y Hmxme. Beflb h jieKapcTBa 6wBaiOT h^obhtw. 



176 



OopMa, KOTopofi npeHMymecTBeHHO nojib30BajiCH Hnmiie, - a(J>o- 

pH3M. A4)OpH3M n03BOJIHeT MrHOBeHHO OKHHyTb KaKOH yrO^HO TOPH30HT, 

co6jiiofla5i OTHOineHHe Meacay hscthmh. A(J)opH3M - HaH6ojiee TecHaa 4>op- 
Ma o6meHHH aBTopa c HHTaTejiHMH, npn ycjiOBHH, hto aBTop yMejio bw- 
paacaeTCH, a nmaTejib - cxBaTbiBaeT. A(J)opH3M - oTKpbiTan flBepb k caMo- 
CTOHTejibHOMy nyTH TaM, rne aBTop jinuib paccTaBJiaeT Bexn. H3 oflHoro 
xopouiero a(])opH3Ma moscho BbiTammb 6ojibiue aceMHyacHH, neM H3 xopo- 
iueft TH^cejioft KHHra. MopcKaa rjia^b TaHT b cbohx He^pax He oaho ny^o- 
BHme. A(J)opH3M - TOHKa OTnpaBjieHHH, rjie nyrb yace upejxBvmeu. HaHBHbi 
Te, KOTopbie He bh^ht b ac|)opH3Me HaHJiynuiero cpe^CTBa jiOBHTb b cboh 
ceTH, npn Bceii BHeumeH ero Hey6e^HTejibHOCTH. Hto xopouiero b KannaHe, 
KOTopwft BH^eH 3a mhotc) BepcT. A(|)opH3M hjih Bbime, hjih HHace CTpororo 
MbiuiJieHHH. Bonpoc b aBTope a(J>opH3Ma. He noTOMy jih a(|)opHCTHHecKHH 

06pa3 MblCJIH HMeeT CTOJIbKO BparOB, HTO 6oJIbUIHHCTBO H3T>HCHHK)mHX- 
CH a(J)OpHCTHHeCKH TepnflT 4)HaCKO. HpOCTHO o6pyuiHBaHCb Ha a4>opH3M, 
ohh, flOJiacHo 6wTb, HMeioT nepefl rjia3aMH o6pa3HHKH co6cTBeHHoro H3- 
aejiHH. Chmboji, H3BHe onpeaejineMbiH, ecTb HanpaaceHHbiH jio KpaiiHo- 

CTH a(J)OpH3M. A4>OpH3M n03TOMy - MOCT K CHMBOJiy. 3thm moctom iueji 

Hniuue ot KpHTHUH3Ma k CHMBOJiH3My. B HeKOTopwx a(])opH3Max Hnmue 

3epHO - CHMBOJIHHHO, a BHeiUHOCTb - pa3yMHa. 3T0 He AOJI5KHO Ka3aTbCH 

CTpaHHWM. Be^b reHHajibHO-6e3yMHoe no3HaHHe OTjinnaeTCH ot pa3yMHO- 
ro TOJibKO pacuiHpeHHeM 4>opM. Chmboji - H^eaji a(J>opH3Ma. A4>opH3Mbi 
Hnmue nacTO flajieico He H^eajibHw. HHijiue He Be3Ae chmbojihct. Ycjiobho 

M03KHO TOBOpHTb O B033peHHHX HHIJIUe, KaK O HCM-TO CHCTCMaTHHeCKOM. 
3Ta CHCTeMaTHHHOCTb - HBJieHHe BHeiHHee. H3HyTpH - 3TO CHMBOJIbl. 

H3BHe - B033peHHH. HacTO ohh npn aHajiH3e maTKH h eme HcaocTaTOH- 
ho y6eAHTejibHbi, hto6h He B036y»cflaTb zioKa3aTejibCTB. Kacaacb TaKHx 
B033peHHH, nepe6pacbiBaeuibCH ot CHMBOJiH3Ma k 4>hjioco(J)hh h o6paTHO. 
HHiiuieaHCTBO, KaK BCHKoe yneHHe c Bbixo^aMH b chmbojih3m, HMeeT He- 
cKOJibKO 30H noHHMaHHH. B HeM yace ecTb BHyTpeHHHH nyrb. Mbi cjierKa 
KOCHeMCH xoth 6bi flByx cTa^HH noHHMaHHH HHmneaHCTBa: KaK TparH3Ma 
h KaK TeyprH3Ma. 

IIponacTb pa3Bep3aeTCH y Hauinx Hor, Kor^a mm cpbiBaeM c hbjichhh 
MacKy. Mw yacacaeMCH 6e3,aHOH, pa3flejiHiomeH Hac ot cnnmnx. Mbi yaca- 
caeMCH pa3HHueii Meaczjy bh^chkhmh h 6wTHeM. ye^HHeHHO y^ajineMCH 

3a MHJUIHOHbl BepCT. He OCHJIHTb nponaCTH. 06MaHHHBbIH noKpoB HB- 

jieHHH h paccyaczjeHHH o cymHocra ot npoTHBHoro jiniuaioT 6oapocTH 
flyxa npn BCTpene c rjiy6HHOH. TaK BKpaAHHBo noflcrynaeT r;iy6HHa k 
TpenemymeMy cepwy - h bot mw OKa3biBaeMCH ctohiuhmh BBepx ho- 
raMH npn B3rjiH^e myda. To, hto OTKpbiJiocb, cTOJib Heo6biHHO, hto y»ca- 
caeT. riojiynaeTCH BnenaTJieHHe no6y»caeHHH KaKHX-TO .aocejie cnaBuinx 
nyflOBHm jxyxdi. Tjia^KaH noBepxHOCTb Mopn TaHT He oziho Hy^OBHme. 
Xaoc HanHHaeT B3biBaTb. CHanajia 3to - BKpa^HHBoe MnyKaHbe kouikh. 



177 



IlOTOM - peB CTHXHH. XaOC CO CBHCTOM BpblBaeTCH B HaiHy 5KH3Hb H3 

HaMH ace o6HapyaceHHbix OTBepcraft. Hto6w czjepacaTb Hanop BCTaiomeft 

CymHOCTH, KOTOpaH C HenpHBblHKH KaXeTCH XaOCOM, MM HCKyCCTBeHHO 

3aHaBeuiHBaeM oKHa b r;iy6HHy. C HcnyroM B3HpaeM, KaK HaayBaiOTCH 
noKpbmajia ot CBHCTnmeft 6ypH rjiy6HHbi. OTcio^a Hania apaMa. Ho KaK 
6w Mbi hh 3aBeuiHBajiH xaoc, mh BenHO ocTaeMCH Ha rpaHHije Meacay hhm 

H 5KH3HbK). 3T0 COBMemeHHe CymHOCTH (^yxa /iHOHHCa) C BHflHMOCTbK) 

(c ayxoM AnojuiOHa) - Ham TparH3M, flBHaceHHe pyKH k nia3aM, Kor^a 
ocjienHTejibHbifl cbct jiHinaeT 3peHHH h b r;ia3ax KaKHe-TO Kpyra - nyjxo- 
BHma, npHHHMaeMbie HaMH 3a peajibHoe BbipaaceHHe cymHOCTH. /JojiacHa 
HacTaTb nopa, Kor^a mm othhmcm pyKH ot rjia3 hjih btophhho yBepyeM 
b Ha^eTyio MacKy, t. e. BepHeMcn k bhchihocth. Ho 3a6biTb pa3 BH^eHHoe 
He;ib3H. Moecho oTBepTWBaTbCH. nocjie^Hee - yacac djm nac, a nepBoe, 
t. e. Haine yxoacaeHHe b rjiy6nHy, - yacac djix OKpyotcaiomux. 06a yacaca 
CTeperyT Hac Ha rpaHHije Meacay neccHMH3MOM h TparH3MOM, Meacay Kpn- 

THIJH3MOM H CHMBOJIH3MOM. 

Bot nepBan cra^na noHHMaHHH HHumeaHCTBa. 

IJ,BeTa paayrn, nepejiHBaiomHecH b «3apaTycrpe», - ijBeTa, flpoacamne 
Ha MyTHbix BOJiHax xaoca. Bot pa3opBeTca necTpaa nayTHHa Ha Tbicnny 
UBeTHbix jiocKyTKOB. OcKajiHTCH BeHHOCTb. 3a3HHK)T ee nacTH, rpo3HmHe 
nporjioraTb. OcjienHTejibHoe 3ojioto HHumeaHCTBa, uiaraHHe no BepuiH- 
HaM - hto-to OTKoe, apeBHee, npH3biBaiomee THTaHOB H3 TapTapa. Bee 
HHiinieaHCTBo HBJineTCH KaKHM-TO CMaKOBaHHeM «Tuxozo uaca» 3apaTy- 
CTpbi, Kor^a hh oh, hh OHa, a KaKoe-TO yacacHoe oho HauienTbiBaeT CTpa- 
xh. «Co mhoh 3aroBopHJiH 6e3niacHo: «tw 3to 3Haeuib, 3apaTycTpa?» H h 
BCKpHKHyji ot CTpaxa... Tor^a co mhoh CHOBa 3aroBopHJiH 6e3r;iacHo: «Tbi 
3to 3Haeun>, 3apaTycTpa, ho tw aToro He roBopHuib»... /la, h 3Haio, ho He 
xony 06 3tom roBopHTb... Toraa onHTb 6e3r;iacHO 3aroBopHjiH co mhoh: 
«Tw He xoneuib, 3apaTycrpa? /la npaB^a jih 3to? He CKpbiBaftcn b cbocm 
ynpHMCTBe»... CaM Hrnxuie ynoao6jifleTCH nejiOBeKy b o^hhokoh KBap- 
THpe. B flBepn jiomhtch. HeH3BecTHbie BbiJiaMbiBaioT flBepb. IIojiaraH, 
hto 3to npo,aejiKH ,apy3eft, b nocjieflHeft Haaeacae ocaacaeHHbift HanHHa- 

eT BCKpHKHBaTbl «5I 3HaK) BaC, HiyTHHKHl» CHJIHTCH yJIbl6HyTbCH. 3^ecb 

Hnmue KaK 6m anoKajiHncHHecKaa 3Be3^a, o KOTopoft cKa3aHo: «IlHTbift 
AHreji BOCTpy6nji, h h yBH^eji 3Be3,ay, naflinyio c He6a Ha 3eMjno, h jxslh 
eft 6wji kjiioh ot KJia^e3H 6e3flHbi: OHa OTBopnjia KJia^e3b 6e3flHbi» (OTKp. 
IX, 1, 2). H BMecTe c TeM Hnmne - BocxnmeHHe; (J)OHTaH ocTpoyMHH, nrpa 
Mbicjieft - 6biomHX CTpyft - sto npwacKH BejiHKaHa c BepiiiHHbi Ha BepuiH- 
Hy. Xoneuib HcnHTb ot HCTOHHHKa, HaKJiOHHeuib k Bjiare ccoxinnecH ycTa - 
h bot TOJibKo 6bK)mancH neHa. Ee He;ib3H hh nHTb, hh 3axBaTHTb b cocy^bi: 
c uinneHHeM OHa BbiJieTaeT. 

Ho ecjiH He onycTHTb rjia3a nepea Hnmue h BbiaepacaTb nepBOHa- 
HajibHyio HcyTKOCTb ero o6pa30B, HeoHCH/jaHHbift, ocBeacaiomnft BeTepoK - 



178 



jiacK0B0-6apxaTHbift, rpycTHO-MnncHH - o6BeBaeT po6koh HaaeacaoH. PeB 
xaoca cjiaraeTCH b 6apxaT BKpaflHHBoft necHH. To, hto yaeacajio, rpo3Hjio 
cacenb oraeM, 3aKHflaTb o6jiOMKaMH, 3aTonHTb jiaBoft, 0Ka3biBaeTca TOJibKo 
cropoHOK) npoincauieft rpo3oft. O^hh 6e3niacHbie 3apHHijbi, 

KaK .aeMOHH rjiyxoHeMwe, 
BeayT 6ece,zjy Meac co6oh. 

Tpn linen rocnoflCTByioT Haa (J)Hjioco(J)HeH HHume. 3to H^en 06 
ycjiOBHOdH HpaBCTBeHHoro 3aKOHa, o CBepxHejiOBeice h o bchhom B03Bpa- 
meHHH. 

Bo bchkoh pejiHrHH HpaBCTBeHHbift 3aKOH HBjineTCH He uejibio CaMOH 
no ce6e, a nyTeM aocth^kchhh BenHbix ijeHHOCTeii. Cnoco6cTBOBaTb b ce6e 
h b oKpyaeaiomnx pacHHmeHHK) nyTeft (t. e. HpaBCTBeHHocTH), Beaymnx k 

UejIH (o6o5KeCTBJieHHe JIHHHOCTH), - 3HaHHT HCnOJIHHTb HpaBCTBeHHblH 3a- 

koh. 3aKOH BeHnaeTCH 6jiaroflaTbK>. BjiaroaaTb, BKJiioHaH nojiHOTy 3aKOHa, 
BHOCHT HeHTO, TaK CKa3aTb, CBepx3aKOHHoe. 3aecb jihhhh KacaHHH BCHKOH 
HpaBCTBeHHocTH, c pejiHrH03HOH chmbojihkoh, KOTopaa ynpaBJineT HpaB- 

CTBeHHOCTbK). HpaBCTBeHHOCTH HCT! CymeCTByiOT HpaBCTBeHHOCTH, nOfl- 

HHHeHHbie BbicuiHM npHHijHnaM. B xpucmuaucmee npaecmeennocmb 6e3 
Xpucma - Huumo. Xphctoc BomiomaeT HpaBCTBeHHOCTb. «3aKOH, - roBo- 
pHT anocTOji IlaBeji, - HMea jeub 6yaymHx 6;iar, a He caMbiH o6pa3 Bemeft, 

OflHHMH H TeMH »Ce 5KepTBaMH, Ka>KflbIH TOR nOCTOHHHO npHHOCHMWMH, HH- 

Kor^a He MoaeeT caejiaTb coBepmeHHbiMH npHxoflnmHx c humu*. «Ho Koraa 
npHiujia nojiHOTa BpeMeHH, Bor nocjiaji Cbma CBoero». «,flo npHiiiecTBHH 
Bepw mw 3aKJiK)HeHbi 6buiH nojx cTpaaceio 3aKOHa... HiaK, 3aKOH 6biji una 
Hac ^eTOBOflHTe^eM ko XpncTy... IIo npHiuecTBHH ace Bepbi, mw yaee He noa 
pyKOBOflCTBOM ^eTOBO^HTejiH » (K TajiaTaM). «Mbi Tenepb aera Boechh, - 
roBopHT anocTOJi HoaHH, - ho eme He OTKpbuiocb, hto 6yaeM. 3HaeM TOJib- 
ko, hto, Kor^a OTKpoeTCH, 6yaeM noao6Hbi EMy, noTOMy hto yBH^HM Ero, 
KaK Oh ecTb. H bchkhh, HMeromnft chio Haaeaefly Ha Hero, onnmaeT ce6a, 
TaK KaK Oh hhct» (IlepBoe nocjiaHHe). «IIo6eaeflaiomeMy, - roBopHT To- 
cnoflb, - aaM cecTb co Mhok> Ha npecTOJie MoeM, KaK h 51 no6eflHji h ceji 
c Otuom Mohm Ha npecrojie Ero» (OTKpoBeHHe). Ilpn hchom co3HaHHH 
AByeflHHCTBa npHpoflbi nejiOBeKa BCHKan Mopajib (J>eHOMeHajibHa. OHa He 
npocTHpaeTCH ao KOHija Hamero nyTH k Bory, r%e XpHCTOBa CBo6oaa a6- 

COJIK)THa. B XpHCTHaHCTBe HCTOHHHK HpaBCTBeHHOCTH - XpHCTOC, H HM 

Bee onpe^ejiHeTCH. B HHijuieaHCTBe - cBepxnejioBeK. Xphctoc 6mji: cjie- 
^OBaTejibHo, y Hac ecTb MepHjio HpaBCTBeHHOCTH. CBepxnejioBeK - 6y- 
aeT; cjie^OBaTejibHO, HpaBCTBeHHO to, hto cnoco6cTByeT ero noHBJieHHio. 

BOT HCTOHHHK paCXOECfleHHH HHIJIHe C XpHCTHaHCTBOM. HpaBCTBeHHOCTb 

Hnmue - oco6an HpaBCTBeHHOCTb, ho 3to - HpaBCTBeHHOCTb, h6o OHa 
npe^nojiaraeT caMHM (J>aKTOM nepeoueHKH ueHHOCTeii cymecTBOBaHHe 



12 AHApeH Bejiuft 



179 



hx. OHa - nyTb k hhm. 06e HpaBCTBeHHOcra (xpHcraaHCKafl h HHijiiieaH- 

CKaH) OflHHaKOBO npOTHBOnOCTaBJieHbl TeopHHM HpaBCTBeHHOCTH BO HMH 

HpaBCTBeHHocTH, 6e3 Bora, 6e3 nyTH. 

KpHTHKa HHunieaHCKofl MopajiH nepeHocHT Bonpoc o HpaBCTBeHHO- 
cthx k cpaBHeHHio JlHKa XpHCTa h JlHKa CBepxnejiOBeKa. 3tot Bonpoc 
noBepraeT Hac b 6e3flHy ncHxojiorHnecKHx, mhcthhcckhx, aorMaraHe- 
ckhx TOHKOCTeii. Tym HmuHaemcn coKpoeennocmh bchkoio MUcmui^ti3Ma f 
npednojiazaiomcvi useecmnyio nodiomoejiemiocmb u mo6oeb k MucmuKo- 
ncuxojiozuHecKUM MemodaM uccjiedoeaum. 



Ecjih oT6pocHTb b BeKax npoxoaamyio Mbicjib o noBTopHOM cymecTBO- 
BaHHH h coBepiueHHO oco6eHHoe HacTpoeHHe, KOTopoe oxBaTbiBaeT npH 
co3epuaHHH HeKOTopbix HBjieHHH, Kor^a 3th HBjieHHH Kaacyrcn yaee coBep- 
uihbuihmhch Kor^a-TO, apryMeHTbi B nOJIb3y HfleH BeHHoro B03BpameHHH 
HHHTO^cHbi. Hx Her. flpyroe aejio, ecjiH H^en o bchhom B03BpameHHH h 
6e3B03BpaTHOM npoxoacfleHHH mhmo paccMaipHBaTb KaK nse CTOpOHbl Ha- 
niero 6hthh, ppe H^en Hauiero cymecTBOBaHHH, HMeiomHe o^HHaKOBbie 
npaBa Ha Hamy ncnxHKy. 

XapaKTepHO - ecjiH npnMan cHMBOJiH3HpyeT 6e3B03BpaTHoe npo- 
xoMC^eHHe mhmo, to Kpyr - BenHoe B03BpameHHe, ^KOJibi^o 803epama». 
06e jihhhh cBH3aHbi apyr c apyroM sjuinncHCOM. ,flajiee: nyTb tohkh 
no npHMoft h no Kpyry oflHHaKOBo 6ecKOHeneH, oco6eHHO ecjiH paanyc 
Moero Kpyra paBeH 6ecKOHenHocTH. IlpHMan - sto OKpyacHOCTb Kpyra c 
paanycoM, paBHbiM 6ecKOHeHHocra. B cnnpajiH coBMemeHHe npaMofi h 
Kpyra. CHMBOJiH3HpyeMoe npHMofl ecTb, 6biTb MoaceT, CHMBOJiH3HpyeMoe 
cnnpajibK). Pa3Jiaraa flBHaeeHHe no cnnpajiH Bbicniero nopazjKa, mm no- 
jiynaeM flBHaeeHHe KpyroBoe h no npHMofl. Ho ecjiH 3Ta npnMan - cnn- 
pajib HH3inero nopaflKa, to OHa, b cboio onepe^b, pa3JioaeHMa Ha npaMyio 
h Kpyr. IIpoflOJiacaH TaK ao 6cckoh6hhocth, mw nojiyHHM rpa(|)HHecKoe 
H3o6pa»ceHHe npHMofl h paa KOJieu, HaHH3aHHbix apyr Ha apyra. He 3a- 
KjnonaeTCH jih b 3toh anarpaMMe to, hto Henocpe^cTBeHHo BbipBajio 
kphk y Hnijine: «0, KaK ace MHe He acaac^aTb Bchhocth h 6panHoro Kojib- 
ua, KOHeu - KOJibua B03BpaTa!» 

IIIecTOB npeKpacHO noanepKHBaeT HeaoroBopeHHOCTb y Hnmne bo 
BceM, hto KacaeTCH H^en BeHHoro B03BpameHHH. 3to H^eajibHbiH chmboji, 
k KOTopoMy, KaK k 4>OKycy, cxo^htch jiyHH HHmneaHCTBa. BcHKoe o6t>hc- 
HeHHe ero - TOjibKO moct k Henocpe^CTBeHHOMy onapoBaHHio stoh H^eH. 
IIIecTOB yKa3biBaeT, hto cjieayeT aejiaTb yaapeHHe Ha noHHran bchhocth, 
a He Ha hohhthh B03BpaTa. BenHoe B03BpameHHe b TaKOM ocBemeHHH - 
B03BpameHHe Bchhocth - Tex 3nox, o KOTopwx MeTepjiHHK tobopht: 
«B y^ajieHHyio snoxy hctophh Hh^hh aynia no BceM aaHHbiM npn6jiH- 
acajiacb k noBepxHOCTH jkh3hh... MoaeeT 6biTb, npn^eT BpeMH, Kor^a 



180 



ayiiiH HauiH yBHAHT apyr apyra 6e3 nocpeflCTBa nyBCTB». B cnnpajib- 
hom nyieuiecTBHH ayuiH ckbo3b BpeMH 3aMenaK)TCH nepHOflw npn- 
6jiH»ceHHH k noBepxHOCTH - nepHO^HnecKoe B03BpameHHe Bchhocth. 
3to - «deub eenuKOZO nojiydna*, o kotopom anocTOJi FlaBeji roBopHT! 
«Ho Kor^a npninjia nojiHOTa BpeMeH, Bor nocjiaji Cbma CBoero» 
(K TajiaTaM). 

Bee TpH H^en - CHMBo/ibi HHijuie - 6ecco3HaTe;ibHO KacaiOTCH 

peJIHrH03HO-MHCTHHeCKHX BOnpOCOB. CnyTaHHOCTb MeTOAOB n03HaHHH y 

Hnmiie noMeiuajia eMy BH^eTb, k neMy oh nepeKHflbiBaeT moct ot kphth- 
UH3Ma. Hnmue ocrajicfl Ha cepe^HHe MOCTa, paBHo y^ajieHHbiH h ot kphth- 

UH3Ma, H OT CMyTHblX OHepTaHHH 6eperOB o6eTOBaHHOH 3CMJIH - OCTpOBa 

aeTeH cpe^H jia3ypH. 

Ha pejiHrH03Hyio HCTHHy HHiuue CMOTpeji cKB03b npH3My aajiH. Rajib 
cnoco6Ha 3aMeHHTb HCTHHy h co3^aTb 4>aHTacMaropHio. HHiuue Boccra- 
Baji npoTHB (J)aHTacMaropHH. IIpHHHMaji pejiHnno 3a to, hto ee 3acjiOHH- 
eT. Oh meji ot bchhhx ueHHOCTeft k tcm ace BenHbiM uchhocthm. OnHcaB 
Kpyr, no^xoOTJi k hhm c apyroH ctopohw. Ero nyTb o6paTeH TeococJ)- 
CKOMy. OTKa3aBiuHCb ot BenHoro, rojiy6oro xpaMa, oh npnineji k ra/iy- 
6o\iy xpaMy Bchhocth. Becco3HaTejibHO no^BO^HJi no,n; Hero HaH6ojiee 
KpenKHH (J)yHflaMeHT. OTBeprayB CTapwe ^omara, CTaji TBopmb hobmc 
H b ero HeoKOHneHHOM TBopnecTBe 3opKHH rjia3 HanHHaeT BHfleTb Bee Te 
ace onepTaHHH. B r;iy6HHe CTapwx .ziorMaTOB 3aKJiiOHeHa 6ecKOHeHHocTb 

HOBblX HepT, OTKpblBaiOmHXCH «MCUlblM CUM» 3BOJIIOIIHOHHO. «Ck, m80pK) 

ece Hoeoe», - cKa3aHO b Otkpobchhh. «IIo6e5KflaiomeMy aau BKyinaTb 
coKpoBeHHyio MaHHy, h aaM eMy 6ejibiH KaMeHb h Ha KaMHe HanncaHHoe 
HOBoe hmh, KOToporo hhkto He 3HaeT, KpoMe Toro, kto nojiynaeT» (Oncpo- 
BeHHe). Hnmiie xoTeji BKycHTb coKpoBeHHyio MaHHy, Ha3BaTb HOBoe hmh. 
^jih 3Toro oh OT^ejiHjicH. IIocTOJibKy, nocKOJibKy oh OTflejiHJiCH ot nouuio- 
cth, oh co3Hflaji. Ho 3a cjioeM nbuin oh He paccMOTpeji bchhoh hcthhm. 
IIpHHHMaH ee, mw npH6jiH»caeMCH k coKpoBeHHOMy hmchh. CoKpoBeHHoro 
HMeHH He Ha3Baji Hhuuic 

Pe;iHrH03Hbie aorMaTbi (JmiccHpyioT, Meacay npoHHM, nepeacHBaHHH 
6orooTKpoBeHHoro xapaKTepa. B xpHcraaHCTBe co6paHO Bee, hto ecTb 
HaH6ojiee 3HanHTejibHoro b sthx nepe^cHBaHHHx. XpHCTHaHCTBO - cyme- 
CTBeHHbift, a He 4>opMajibHbiH cHHTe3. EBponeiicKaH KyjibTypa npHHHjia 
stot aparoixeHHMH njioa h nacTO He Morjia noHHTb Bceft 6e3MepH0CTH ero 
chmbojiob. HyacHO 6bi;io OTKa3aTbCH ot XpncTa hjih H3BpaTHTb pejiHrH- 
03Hoe noHHMaHHe. OTKa3biBancb ot co6cTBeHHoro HenoHHMaHHH, mho- 
rne OTKa3ajiHCb ot hcthhm. Bot r^e ouiH6Ka. Bot b neM CHJia. 

B HaUieM OTHOHieHHH K BOnpOCaM peJIHrH03HMM flOJI5KHa npOH30HTH 

cymecTBeHHan nepeMeHa. IIjioflOTBopHoe pa3BHTHe eBponeflcKOH icyjib- 
Typw Hanajiocb c MOMema B03BpameHHfl k H3binecTBy, c snoxn Bo3poac- 
aeHHH. H, OAHaKo, 3Ta ace KyjibTypa, cxo^h Ha HeT, o6pamaeT B3opw Ha 

181 



12* 



Boctok. OcTaeTCH HeaoyMeHHe: hjih aaace pejiHrna Hecnoco6Ha yaoBjieT- 
BOpHTb HejiOBenecTBO h o6pameHHe k pejinrHH - noKa3aTejib OTHaaHHH. 
Hjih b noHHMaHHe pejiHrH03Hbix hcthh BKpajiHCb ouih6kh. 



Coe^HHeHHe BepniHH CHMBOJiH3Ma KaK HCKyccTBa c mhcthkoh Bjia- 
OTMHp CojiOBbeB onpeaejiHJi oco6biM TepMHHOM. TepMHH 3tot - TeyprHH. 
«Bcejnocb b hhx h 6yay xo^HTb b hhx, h 6yay hx BoroM», - tobopht To- 
cno^b. Teypran - bot hto B03flBHraeT npopoKOB, BKJia^biBaeT b ycra hx 
cjiobo, apo6nmee cKajibi. 

MyapocTb Hniune Ha 6ojiee yrjiy6jieHHoft, cpaBrorrejibHO c Tparra- 
mom, da^HH noHHMaHHH moecho onpeaejiHTb KaK dpeMjieHHe k TeyprHH. 
H OT^ejibHbie Meda 3toh MyapocTH hbho ckbo3ht TeyprH3MOM. Ecjih b 
CHMBo;iH3Me mw HMeeM nepByio nonbiTKy noKa3aTb bo BpeMeHHOM BeHHoe, 
b TeyprHH - Hanajio KOHua CHMBOJiH3Ma. 3flecb yace HfleT penb o Bonjiome- 

HHH BeHHOCTH nyTCM npeo6pa»CeHHH BOCKpeCUieH JIHHHOCTH. JlHHHOCTb - 

xpaM Eoxchh, b KOTopbift BcejifleTCH Tocnoflb: «Bcejnocb b hhx h 6yay xo- 

OTTb B HHX» (JleBHT, XXVI, 12). 

/lorMaTHKa xpHcraaHCTBa oTBeprHyTa LUoneHrayspoM. >KHTeHCKafl 
TexHHKa - Hnmne. yTBepacflaa JlHHHOCTb, KaK cocya, BMemaiomHH Bo- 
acecTBO, a florMaT, KaK BHeniHe OHepneHHbiH Kpyr, 3aMbiKaiomHH nyTb, 
6ecKOHeHHO npoflOJDKeHHbift, He pa3pbiBaa cbh3h c BepniHHaMH HHiune- 
aHCTBa, ho cTapancb H3HyTpH npeoaojieTb hx, KaK Hnmne npeoaojieji 
IHoneHrayspa, - xpHcraaHe-TeyprH HaaeioTCH Ha 6jiH30CTb noeou 6jia- 
roft BecTH, yKa3aHHe Ha KOTopyio BCTpenaeTca b IlHcaHHH. Pa3peineHHe 
BeKOBbix 3ara^OK 6mthh nepeHocHTca no Ty dopoHy HHijnieaHCTBa. II oa 
MHHy no^BO^HTCH KOHTpMHHa. Ho h yacac 3^ecb. Jlyx 3axBaTbiBaeT. Beflb 
3a Hnmne o6pwB. Beflb sto TaK. H bot, co3HaBan 6e3HaaeacHOCTb ctohhhh 

Ha^ 06pbIB0M H HeB03M03KHOCTb B03BpaTa B HH3HHM MblCJIH, HafleiOTCH Ha 

nyzjo nojieTa. Kor^a jieTaTejibHbie MauiHHbi eme He ycoBepmeHCTBOBaHbi, 
nojieTbi BOo6me onacHaa Bemb. HeaaBHO norH6 JlnjineHTajib - B03flyxo- 
njiaBaTejib. HeaaBHO mw bhacjih HeyaanHbiH, b rjia3ax mhoi-hx, nojieT h 
rn6ejib apyroro B03flyxonjiaBaTejia - Hniune, JlnjineHTajifl Bceft Kyjib- 
Typw. IIoHHMaHHe xpncraaHCTBa TeypraMH HeBOJibHO ocTaHaBjiHBaeT 
BHHMaHHe. Hjih sto nocjie^HHH TpycocTb, rpaHHnamaa c 6eccTpauiHeM, - 
CKanoK (noTOMy hto Beflb TOJibKO KaMeHHbie ko3jiw Ha pora 6pocaiOTCH 
b 6e3flHy), hjih sto npoponecKan cMejiocTb hco(J)htob, Bepyiomnx, hto 
b MOMeHT na^eHHH BbipacTyT cnacHTejibHbie KpwjibH h noHecyT nejiOBe- 
necTBO Haa HCTopneii. 3aaana TeyproB cjioaeHa. Ohh aojiacHH hath TaM, 
rae ocTaHOBHjicH Hnmne, - hath no B03ayxy. BMecTe c TeM ohh aojiacHbi 

CHHTaTbCH C TeOCO(t)CKHM OCBeiljeHHeM BOnpOCOB 6bITHH H He H^TH Bpa3- 

pe3 c HCTopHHecKoft uepKOBbio. Toraa, 6biTb Mo^ceT, npH6jiH3HTCH ropn- 

30HTM HHUUieBCKHX BHfleHHH, KOTOpblX CaM OH He MOf flOCTHrHyTb. Oh 



182 



cjihuikom Bbmec nepeA sthm. Cjihuikom fljiHHeH 6mji ero nyTb. Oh Mor 
TOJibKO ycTajibiS npHHTH k 6epery Mopn h co3epijaTb b 6jiaaceHHOM one- 
neHeHHH, KaK 3apeBbie OTCBeTbi ryn HecyTcn b BenepHeM noTOKe Jiyne3ap- 
hwx CMapar^OB. Oh Mor jiniub Me^TaTb Ha 3aKaTe, mo sto - jia^bH oraeH- 
Horo 30JiOTa, Ha KOTopwx cjieayeT ynjibiTb: «0, ayuia moh, H3o6HJibHa h 
TH^cejia CTOHiub Tbi Tenepb, BHHorpa^Hoe AepeBO c TeMHO-30jioracTbiMH 
rpo3AbHMH, npHflaBJieHHaa cbohm cnacTbeM. Cmotph, h caM yjibi6aiocb, - 
noKa no muxuM mocKyjou^uM MopsiM ne nonecemcH uejinoK, 30Jiomoe uydo» 
(«3apaTycTpa»). 

YnjibiJi jih Hmjuie b rojiy6oM Mope? HeT ero Ha HauieM ropH30HTe. 
Hauia CBH3b c hhm o6opBaHa. Ho h mm Ha 6epery, a 30JiOTaa jiaAbfl eme 
njiemeTCH y Hor. Mbi aojihchh cedb b Hee h ynjibiTb. Mbi aojihchm njibiTb 
H TOHyTb b jia3ypH. 

Oahh H3 Hac o6pameHbi k npouiJiOMy, vm cTapHHHoe 30jioto cacHra- 
eTCH bo hmh cojiHe^Hbix noTOKOB. B hx onax y6eraiomee cojmije, h o co- 
aoKeHHOM 30JioTe, 6wTb mohcct, ohh njianyT. 

3ojioTen, 3(})Hp npocBeTHTCH 
H b BocTopre cropHT. 
A HaA MopeM ca^HTCH 

yCKO^b3aK)mHH COJIHCHHblH mHT. 

H Ha Mope ot cojiHija 

3ojiOTwe apoacaT h3wkh. 

Bcioay ot6jicck nepBOHua 

CpeflH BcnjiecKOB tockh. 

BcTajiH rpy^H yrecoB 

CpeAb TpenemymeH cojihchhoh TKaHH. 

CojiHqe cejio. PbiAaHHH 

IIojioh kphk ajib6aTpocoB: 

/tern cojiHua! BHOBb xojioa 6eccTpacTbn: 

3aKaTHJiocb oho - 

3ojiOToe, CTapHHHoe cnacTbe, 

3ojiOToe pyHO. 

BecKOHeHHo Bepn b nyAO nojieTa, Apyrne Moiyr oTBeTHTb hm: 

3oByT aproHaBTW 
Ha cojiHeHHWH nnp, 
Tpy6a b 30JioTeiomHH MHp. 
BHHMaftTe, BHHMaHTe: 

ZlOBOJIbHO CTpaAaHHH. 

BpoHio HaAeBaftTe 

H3 COJIHCHHOH TKaHH! 



183 



Bee He6o b py6HHax. 
lllap cojimja noHHji. 
Bee He6o b py6HHax 
Haa HaMH. 

Ha ropHbix BepuiHHax 
Ham Apro, 
Ham Apro, 

ToTOBHCb JieTeTb, 3O7I0TbIMH KpblJiaMH 

3a6Hji. 



JlMTEPATYPHblM 
flHEBHHK 



HA nEPEBA/lE 



I. CWUIB0JM3M 

KoHeu XIX CTOJieTHH nociaBHji Ha onepe^b pna hobwx Bonpo- 
cob. Oco6eHHO pa^HKajibHa nocTaHOBKa BonpocoB, cBH3aHHwx c HCKyc- 
ctbom, MopajibK), pejiHraefi. 

Ha noBepxHOCTH jiHTepaTypHoft hch3hh nepeoijeHKa ueHHOCTeii He- 
aaBHero npoinjioro Bbipa3Hjiacb b 6yHTe npoTHB y3Koro MaTepHajiH3Ma 
h HaTypajiH3Ma; BepHee, OHa Bbipa3HJiacb b 6yHTe npoTHB orpaHHHeHHoii 

AOrMaTHKH HaTypaJIHCTHHeCKHX ihkoji. Ho BOBCe He K paiJHOHaJIH3My, HH 

aaace k H^eajiH3My npH3biBajia HOBaa jiHTepaTypHan uiKOJia. Bwjih b Heft, 
npaBfla, HfleajiHcranecKHe BcnwiiiKH; 6wjio b HeKOTopwx Bonpocax co- 
rjiacHe c KJiaccHKaMH; eme 6o;iee b hoboh uiKOJie HCKyccTBa npoHecjiocb 
AbixaHHe poMaHTH3Ma. TeM He MeHee HeKOTopbie npH3HaKH, 3anenaTjieB- 
uiHecH h b 4>opMe, h b o6pa3ax TBopnecTBa, o^HHaKOBO He noaxoflHJiH hh k 

TpaOTUHHM pOMaHTHHeCKHX, HH K TpaflHIJHHM HaTypaJIHCTHHeCKHX IUKOJI. 

HoBoe TeneHHe b HCKyccTBe, b otjihhhc ot npeacHHx TeneHHH, onpeaejuuiH 

KaK CHMBOJIH3M. 

BblJIH nonblTKH BblBeCTH CHMBOJIH3M H3 KJiaCCHKOBJ Hao6opOT: 6bIJIH 

nonbiTKH oracKaTb chmbojih3m b poMaHTH3Me; HOBoe HCKyccTBO onpeae- 
jihjih to KaK HeoK^accHUH3M, to KaK HeopoMaHTH3M, to KaK HeopeajiH3M. 
FIpaBfla, Hepra peajiH3Ma, KJiaccHUH3Ma h po\iaHTH3Ma mw BCTpenaeM y 
hhwx npeacTaBHTejiefl CHMBOJiH3Ma; npaB^a h to, hto jiynuiHe npoH3Be- 
^eHHH coBpeMeHHbix xy^o»cHHKOB BepHbi jiyniHHM Tpa^HUHHM CTaporo 
ao6poro BpeMeHH. Ho ecjiH 6w mm 3to npH3HajiH, mw CTepjiH 6h rpaHb, 
OT^e^HiomyK) coBpeMeHHoe HCKyccTBO ot npoinjioro; 6yayHH npeeM- 
cTBeHHO Bee TeM ace HCKyccTBOM, oho oayuieBJieHO co3HaHHeM KaKoro-To 
HenepecTynaeMoro py6eaca Meacziy hsmh h He^aBHefl anoxofl; oho - chm- 
boji KpH3Hca MHpoco3epuaHHii; stot kph3hc rjiy6oK; h mw CMyTHO npea- 
nyBCTByeM, hto ctohm Ha rpaHHije flByx 6ojibiiiHx nepnoflOB pa3BHTHH 
HejiOBenecTBa. 

CoBpeMeHHoe HCKyccTBO o6pameHO k 6yaymeMy, ho sto 6yaymee b 
Hac TaHTCH; mw noacjiyiiiHBaeM b ce6e TpeneT hoboto nejiOBeKa; h mw noa- 
cjiyuiHBaeM b ce6e CMepTb h pa3JioaceHHe; mw - MepTBeuw, pa3JiaraiomHe 

186 



dapyio »CH3Hb, ho mh ace - eme He poacaeHHbie k hoboh hch3hh; Haiuaayiiia 
npeBaTa 6y,aymHM: BbipoagneHHe h B03poacaeHHe b Heft 6opiOTCH. 

ToJIbKO B TOT MOMeHT, KOTfla Mbl BblflBHHeM BOnpOC O 5KH3HH H CMepTH 

HejioBenecTBa bo Bceft ero HeyMOJiHMoft eccctokocth, Kor^a nocTaBHM ero b 
ueHTp HaniHx 5KH3HeHHbix ycTpeMJieHHft, Koraa CKaaceM TBepaoe «da» B03- 

MO^CHOH 5KH3HH HJIH CMepTH, - TOJIbKO B 3TOT MOMeHT Mbl npn6jIH3HMCfl K 

TOMy, hto ^BH^ceT hobhm HCKyccTBOM! coaepacaHHe chmbojiob ero - HJIH 
OKOHHaTejibHan no6eaa Haa CMepTbio B03po5KfleHHoro nejiOBenecTBa, hjih 
6ecnpocBeTHaH TbMa, pa3Jio»ceHHe, cMepTb. 

H JiynniHe npeacTaBHTejiH coBpeMeHHoro HCKyccTBa - peuiHTejibHbie 

npe,5B03BeCTHHKH TO 5KH3HH, TO CMepTH, OflHH H3 HHX MOiyT 6opOTbCH C 

>KH3Hbio, apyrne co CMepTbio. Ho h Te, h apyrne HeHaBHA^T 6jiaronojiyH- 
Hyio cepeflHHy 

B 3tom nyHKTe ohh pe3KO otacjihiotch ot npeAiuecTByiomeft ano- 
xh. BcHKoe «meM ne Menee* hjih «xomn - odnaico*, h 6ojiee Bcero «c 
odnou cmopoHU - c dpyzou cmopoHU* ohh oTpnijaioT. Haa hhmh 3ByHHT 
KamezopuHecKuu UMnepamue o HeMHHyeMoft CMepTH hjih *CH3HeHHoro 
TBopnecTBa. 

Mbi acHBeM b MHpe cyMepeK, hh cbct, hh TbMa - cepbift nojiyMpan; 
6eccojiHenHbift neub hjih He BOBce HepHaa HOHb. 06pa3 no6e,zjHoft 5KH3HH, 
KaK h o6pa3 rH6ejiH, oflHHaKOBO He coaepacHTCH b coaepacaHHH Haiuero 

C03HaHHH. 

Bocco3flaBaa nojiHOTy »ch3hh hjih nojiHOTy cMepra, coBpeMeHHbift xy- 
AOEChhk co3flaeT chmboji; to, hto 3acTaBjraeT crymaTb KpacKH, co3flaBaTb 
He6biBajiwe }KH3HeHHbie KOM6nHauHH, h ecTb KamezopmecKuu UMnepamue 
6opb6w 3a 6yaymee (CMepTb hjih 5KH3Hb). JIkwim cepe/jHHHbix nepeacHBa- 
HHft TaKoe OTHomeHHe k aeftcTBHTejibHOCTH KaaceTca HepeajibHbiM; ohh He 
omymaioT, hto Bonpoc o tom, «6umb wiu ne 6umb uejioeeuecmey*, peaJieH. 
BHyTpeHHHft peajiH3M b OTHomeHHH k »ch3hh y hhx OTcy TCTBy eT ; He cno- 
co6hw ohh b aynie cBoeft noacjiyuiaTb rojioca 6yaymero. Ohh - hjijik)3ho- 
hhctw. 

3tot BHyTpeHHHft HJIJH03HOHH3M ecTecTBeHHO y hhx yacHBaeTca c ce- 
peAHHHbiM TeneHHeM OKpyaeaiomeft hx hch3hh, r^e eme He 3BynHT nejiOBe- 
necTBy hh peuiHTejibHoe «da», hh peuiHTejibHoe «wem», He noHHMaioT ohh, 
hto npHHHHbi, cjiaraiomne noBepxHOCTb hch3hh, BHe 3Toft noBepxHOCTH: 
post factum npHHHMaiOT ohh 3a prius. 

Bot noneMy He cnoco6Hbi no^nac ohh oco3HaTb hjijik)3hohh3m cBoero 
npeacTaBJieHHH o peajibHOcra. Bot noneMy ohh ynpeicaioT chmbojihctob b 

OTOpBaHHOCTH OT 2KH3HH! nOfl 5KH3HbK) OHH pa3yMCK)T He MpaK, He CBCT, a 

TycKJibie cyMepKH. 

Bot noneMy chmbojih3m He npoTHBopeMHT noflJiHHHOMy peajiH3My: h 
BMecTe c TeM peajiH3M OKpyacaiomeft bh^hmocth chmbojihctw paccMaTpn- 
BaiOT KaK OTpaaceHHe HeKoeft B03MoaeHoft nojiHOTw. OKpyxcaioman acH3Hb 



187 



ecTb 6jieflHoe oTpaaceHHe 6opb6w 5KH3HeHHbix chji HejiOBenecKHx c pokom. 
Chmbojih3m yrjiy6jineT jih6o MpaK, jih6o cbct: bo3mo5khocth npeBpamaeT 
oh b no^jiHHHOCTH: HaAejiaeT hx 6biTHeM. BMecTe c TeM b chmbojih3mc xy- 
AOHchhk npeBpamaeTCH b onpe^eJieHHoro 6opua (3a ech3hb jih6o CMepTb). 
Bo3MO»cHocTb nojiHora He peajibHa TOJibKO ot npHHHH, npoTHBo6opcTBy- 
lomnx ee BonjiomeHHio. XyAoacHHK BonjiomaeT b o6pa3e nojmoTy hch3hh 

HJIH CMepTHJ XyAOECHHK He MOECeT He BH,ZJOH3MeHHTb CaMblH o6pa3 BHAH- 
MOCTH; Be^b B 06pa3e TOM 5KH3Hb H CMepTb COeAHHeHblJ BHAOH3MeHeHHbIH 

o6pa3 edb chmboji. 

Ho nOJIHOTa ECH3HH H CMepTH M05KCT OTKpblBaTbCH flBOHKO: OHa M05KCT 

3BynaTb b nepeacHBaHHH caMoro xyAoacHHKa; o6paTHo: o6pa3 bhahmocth 
MoaceT npo6y5KAaTb b xyAoacHHKe crpeMjieHHe k nojiHOTe; b tom h ApyroM 
cjiynae xy,ao»CHHK-CHMBOJiHCT, HacwmaH o6pa3 nepeacHBaHHeM, npeTBO- 
p«eT ero b cbocm TBopnecTBe; TaKofl npeTBopeHHbiH o6pa3 ecTb chmboji; 
ho nyTH BonjiomeHHH cHMBOJia pa3JiHHHbi: b nepBOM cjiynae nepeacHBaHHe 
Bbi3biBaeT o6pa3; bo btopom: o6pa3 Bbi3MBaeT nepeacHBaHne; b nepBOM cjiy- 
nae bhahmoctb o6pa3a norjiomeHa nepeacHBaHHeM; caMbiii o6pa3 bhahmo- 
cth ecTb jiHuib npeAJior ero nepeaaTb; h noTOMy (J)opMa o6pa3a cbo6oaho 
H3MeH«eTCH, caMbie o6pa3w cbo6oaho KOM6HHHpyioTCH (4>aHTa3HH): Ta- 

KOBa pOMaHTHKa CHMBOJIH3Ma; TaKOBbI OCHOBaHHH Ha3bIBaTb CHMBOJIH3M 

HeopoMaHTH3MOM. Bo BTopoM cjiynae nepe»CHBaHHe CBjmHO o6pa30M bh- 
ahmocth; caMoe nepeacHBaHHe ecTb jihiiib npeAJior BHAOH3MeHHTb o6pa3; 
ajieMeHTbi ero 4>opMbi - 3M6jieMbi, yKasyiomne Ha chmbojihhcckhh xapaK- 
Tep o6pa3a. H nocKOjibKy 4>opMa BonjiomeHHH o6pa3a (TexHHKa HCKyccTB) 
KacaeTCH caMoro o6pa3a, cocTaBJiaa KaK 6w ero njiOTb, nocTOJibKy tcxhh- 
necKHe Bonpocbi (J)opMbi HanHHaiOT nrpaTb nepBeHCTByiomee 3HaneHHe; 

OTCIOAa CBH3b MeTKRy CHMBOJIH3MOM H KJiaCCHHeCKHM HCKyCCTBOM TpeUHH 
H PHMa. OTCIOAa TKe HHTepeC CHMBOJIHCTOB K naMHTHHKaM aHTHHHOH Kyjib- 

Typbi, BocKpenieHHe jiaraHCKHX h rpenecKHx noaTOB, H3yneHHe pHTMa, 

CTHJIfl H CJIOBeCHOH HHCTpyMCHTOBKH MHpOBblX reHHCB JIHTepaTypbl. BOT 

noneMy chmbojih3m He 6e3 ocHOBaHHH Ha3biBaiOT HeoKjiaccHijH3MOM. 

MoMeHT peajiH3Ma Bcer^a npncyTCTByeT b chmbojihsmc; poMaHTHKa h 
KyjibT 4>opMbi BcerAa npHcyTCTByioT b hcm. H oTToro-TO chmbojih3m ot- 
nenaTjiejiCH b jiHTepaType TpeMH cymecTBeHHbiMH ji03yHraMH: 1) chmboji 
BcerAa OTpaacaeT AeiicTBHTejibHOCTb; 2) chmboji ecTb o6pa3, BHAOH3MeHeH- 
hhh nepe»CHBaHHeM; 3) 4>opMa xyAoacecTBeHHoro o6pa3a HeoTAejiHMa ot 
co Aep^caHHH . 

H nocKOjibKy AeficTBHTejibHocTb ajih xyAOHCHHKa-CHMBOJiHCTa He co- 
BnaAaeT c ocjmeMOH BHAHMOCTbio hbjichhh, bxoah, KaK HacTb, b bhah- 
MOCTb, nocTOJibKy nponoBeAb chmbojih3M3. BcerAa HanHHajiacb c npoTecTa 

npOTHB OT5KHBHIHX H y3KHX AOrMaTOB HaHBHOrO peaJIH3Ma B HCKyCCTBC 

HaHBHoro peajiH3Ma yace HeT b HayKe; 6ojiee Toro: TeopeTHnecKaa (J)H3H- 
Ka AaBHO yHHHTO^cHjia MaTepnio KaK cy6cTaHUHio hbjichhh; Bee o6pa30- 



188 



BaHHbie yneHbie 3to 3HaioT; ho b HCKyccTBe npoaojiacaiOT npeo6jiaaaTb 
ockojikh Koraa-TO pa36HTbix HayHHbix AorMaTOB. H TeoperaKH HCKyccTBa, 
h xyzjoacecTBeHHbie kphthkh nacTO ctoht He Ha ypoBHe HayHHoro MHpo- 
C03epu[aHHH; OTToro-TO ohh, Boopyacancb npoTHB CHMBOJiH3Ma, 3anacTyio 
HacHjiyioT 3,zjopoBbiH TBopnecKHH hhcthhkt; h OTToro-TO xapaKTepHoft 
nepTOH HOBoro HCKyccTBa hbjihctch npoTecT npoTHB mohohojihh «KaoKy- 
wpzocn pecuibHbiM* peajiH3Ma b HCKyccTBe. Henero roBopHTb, hto pecuiu3- 

Md CHMBOJIHCTbl He OTpHIjaiOT. 

A nocKOJibKy chmboji edb o6pa3, npeTBopeHHbift nepeacHBaHHeM, 
nocTOjibKy CHMBOJiHCTbi yKa3HBaioT Ha TpoiicTBeHHoe Hanajio chmbo- 
jia; bchkhh chmboji ecTb Tpna^a «abc», r^e «a» - HeaejiHMoe TBopnecicoe 
e^HHCTBo, h kotopom coneTaiOTCfl flBa cjiaraeMbie («b» o6pa3 npnpoflbi, bo- 
njiomeHHbiii b 3ByKe, Kpacice, cjiOBe, h «c» nepeacHBaHHe, cbo6o/jho pacno- 
jiaraiomee MaTepnaji 3ByKOB, KpacoK h cjiob, hto6w stot MaTepnaji Bceije- 
jio Bbipa3Hji nepe»CHBaHHe); 3^ecb cBo6o,zja - He npoH3BOJi, a noflHHHeHHe 

JIHIHb TOH HOpMe TBOpHeCTBa, KOTOpaH, He dyjiym flaHHOH H3BHe HHKaKH- 

mh 3aKOHaMH, ocymecTBjineT cboh ijejin; TBopnecTBy npeflnncbiBaiOT hho- 
r.zja 6wTb H^eftHbiM, Bwpa^caTb Te hjih HHbie TeHfleHijHH, hjih o6paTHo: He 
BbipaacaTb hhkhkhx TeH^eHijHH. TeH^eHijHH ^uacyccmeo dan ucKyccmea*, 
K3K h TeHfleHijHH «ucKyccmeo f kqx cpedcmeo napmuunou 6opb6u»> paBHO 

CTeCHHTejIbHbl flJIfl XyflOaCHHKa-CHMBOJIHCTa. H nOTOMy-TO npeflCTaBHTeJIH 

napTHHHoro HCKyccTBa TaK ace, KaK npe^cTaBHTejiH «ucKyccmea dm uacyc- 
cmea», paBHO Bpaacae6H0 BcrperajiH nponoBe^b cHMBOJiH3Ma. 

HaKOHeu, Te3Hc «<popMa xydodtcecmeennozo meopuecmea neomdemma 
om codepwanuH* - 03HanaeT cjieayiomee: nocKOJibKy TBopnecKHH o6pa3 
ecTb chmboji, nocTOjibKy b (J)opMe ero yace OTpaacaeTcn coaepacaHHe: co- 
aep^caHHeM cjiyacHT nepeacHBaeMaa nojiHOTa yHHHToaceHHH hjih hch3hh; 
npe^nocbijiKa bchkotc) xyaoacHHica-CHMBOJiHCTa ecTb nepeacHBaeMoe co- 
3HaHHe, hto HejiOBenecTBO ctoht Ha pokobom py6e»ce, hto pa3flBoeHHOCTb 
Meacay >KH3Hbio h cjiobom, co3HaTejibHMM h 6ecco3HaTejibHWM aoBeaeHa 
AO KOHija; Bbixofl H3 pa3ABoeHHH: hjih CMepTb, hjih BHyTpeHHee npHMHpe- 
HHe nporaBopeHHH b hobwx (})opMax *ch3hh: cthxhh HCKyccTBa nojmeH, 
He3aBHCHMee oTpaacaeT h TnacecTb npoTHBopeHHH, h npeaomymeHHe hc- 
komoh rapMOHHH! HCKyccTBO nosTOMy ecTb Hbme Ba^CHbift (J>aKTop cnace- 
hhh HejiOBenecTBa; xyzjoECHHK - nponoBe^HHK 6yaymero; ero nponoBeflb 
He b pai^HOHajiHCTHHecKHx AorMaTax, a b BbipaaeeHHH cBoero BHjrrpeHHero 
«h»; sto «h» - ecTb CTpeMJieHHe h nyTb k 6yaymeMy; oh caM - poKOBoft 
chmboji Toro, hto Hac acaeT BnepeflH. 

HcxoflH H3 sthx nepeacHBaHHH, oh cTpeMHTCH 3anenaTjieTb hx b (})opMe; 
4>opMOH hbjihctch MaTepnaji 3ByKOB, KpacoK, cjiob; caMbin xyaoacecTBeH- 
HbiH o6pa3, H3BaHHHbift b cjiOBe, ecTb moct Meaeziy mhpom MepTBoro MaTe- 
pnajia h KpacHopenHBO OTpa3HBiueHCH nojiHOToft; MaTepnaji, nojiyHHBiHHH 
4>opMy, ecTb o6pa3. PacnojioaceHHe MaTepnajia, crajib, phtm, cpeacTBa 



189 



H3o6pa3HTejibHOCTH He cjiynaHHo noao6paHbi xyaoacHHKOM; b coeflHHeHHH 
3thx ajieMeHTOB oTpa3Hjiacb cymHOCTb TBopnecKoro npouecca; coaepaca- 
hh6 aaHO b hhx, a He noMHMo hx. H3ynaH HHflHBHflyajibHocTb xyaoacHHica 
(J)opMbi, mw H3ynaeM HecKa3aHHyio rjiy6HHy TBopnmeH flyuiH. 

H nOTOMy-TO XyflOHCHHKH-CHMBOJIHCTbl BblABHHyjIH BOnpOCbl (J)OpMbI 

Ha nepBbiii njiaH; TyT cKa3ajicn He MepTBWH aicafleMH3M, a cTpeMJieHHe k 
eme 6ojiee rjiy6oKOMy BonjiomeHHio coaepacaHHH o6pa3a b caMbifl MaTepn- 
aji, H3 KOToporo oh nocTpoeH. 

TaKOBbI TpH OCHOBaHHH (})OpMyjIbI CHMBOJIH3Ma: CHMBOJIH3M COBpe- 

MeHHoro HCKyccTBa He OTpnuaeT peajiH3Ma, KaK He OTpnuaeT oh hh po- 
MaHTH3Ma, hh KJiaccnitfWMa. Oh TOJibKO noflHepKHBaeT, hto peajiH3M, po- 
MaHTH3M h KJiaccHUH3M - TpoiicTBeHHoe npoHBjieHHe eflHHoro npHHimna 
TBopnecTBa. B 3tom cMbicjie BCHKoe npoH3Be^eHHe HCKyccTBa chmbojihh- 
ho. Tenepb 3to npH3HaeT aaace... JlyHanapcKHH. 

Ho He cjie^yeT 3a6wBaTb, hto stot jio3yHr HCKyccTBa no-HOBOMy bm* 
ABHHyjia jiHTepaTypHan niKOJia chmbojihctob. KaK ace othochtch uiKOJia 

HOBeHIHHX CHMBOJIHCTOB K CHMBOJIH3My BCHHeCKOrO HCKyCCTBa? 

Ha npoHBjieHHH b hctophh JiHTepaTypw XIX ctojicthh Bcex Tpex cy- 

meCTBeHHWX CTOpOH CHMBOJIH3MH (peaJIH3Ma, pOMaHTH3Ma H KJiaCCHUH3- 

Ma) Henero ocTaHaBjiHBaTbcn: 06 3tom aocTaTOHHO cicaaceT jno6aa hctophh 
JiHTepaTypw; OHa Ha30BeT IeTe - KJiaccHKOM, BanpoHa - poMaHTHKOM h 
3ojw - peajiHCTOM. 3bojiioijhh Bcex Tpex ctopoh CHMBOJinnecKoro ncicyc- 
cTBa HaM aaHa b sbojhoijhh jiHTepaTypHbix ihkoji peajiH3Ma, poMaHTH3Ma h 
KJiaccHUH3Ma. H hto ace? KjiaccHK TeTe BeHHaeT CBoe TBopnecTBO rjiy6o- 
ko CHMBOJiHHecKoii BTopofl HacTbio «Oaycra»; ho chmbojih3m «Oaycra» 
rjiy6oKo co3epuaTejieH; oh tobopht BOo6me o chmbojih3mc HejiOBenecKoro 

pa3BHTHH. POMaHTHK EafipOH H3M CBOerO TJiy6oKO CHMBOJIHHeCKOTO 

«MaH4)pe,aa»; a peajiHCT 3ojih b nocjieflHHH nepnofl TBopnecTBa aaeT chm- 
BOJiHHecKyio TpHJiornio «JIypA - Phm - IlapHHc»; ho chmbojiw ero, tobo- 
pnmne o 6yaymeM HejiOBenecTBa, cjihihkom OTBjieHeHHw. 

Bee TpH HIKOJIbI B BblCOHaHIHHX CBOHX TOHKaX pa3BHTHH BeflyT K CHM- 

BOjiH3My; cy^b6a nejiOBeica h HejioBenecTBa aaHa 3flecb b o6pa3ax. 

JlHTepaTypHan uiKOJia CHMBOJiH3Ma OTKpwBaeTcn c Bo^jispa, Hniuiie 
h H6ceHa. 06a nocjie^HHe y»ce He npHxoanT k CHMB0JiH3My, a orapaBjifl- 
iotch ot Hero; EoflJisp no npneMaM CBoero nncbMa He pa3pwBaeT c nap- 
HacuaMH; H6ceH He pa3pbiBaeT c peajiH3MOM; h poMaHTHKOM bck> »cH3Hb 
ocTaeTCH Hhiuhc 

O^HaKo Bcex Tpex coeflHHneT hchto; h, oflHaico, Bcex Tpex OTBepraeT 
0(J)HUHajibHaH KpHTHKa CBoero BpeMeHH; h, oflHaico, Bee Tpn - OTBepaceHijw 
o6mecTBa. 

Bee Tpn yica3biBaiOT Ha rjiy6oHaHiiiHH KpH3HC nejioBenecTBa; Bee Tpn 
Bparn KOMnpoMHcca. Tjiy6HHy pa3#BoeHHH jihhhocth pncyeT Eo/yisp h 
o6pa3aMH cbohmh HanepTWBaeT KapraHy CMepTH h pa3pyineHHH crapon 



190 



5KH3HH. K 6yaymeMy 30ByT Hnmne h H6ceH. Hnmue npeanyBCTByeT ho- 
Boro nejiOBeKa; 6o;iee Toro: oh KaK 6bi bh^ht caMbift auk 3toto nenoBeKa; 
tceepxnejioeeK* - co3flaHHafl hm uKona; Ha Hee mojihtch Hhuhic «Tpembe 
i^apcmeo Ryxa* npoB03rjiauiaeT H6ceH: oh nponoBeayeT, hto yace rpnfleT 
3TO ixapcTBo. 

Bee TpH npeBpamaioT chmbojih3m co3epuaHHH b chmbojih3m aeft- 
ctbhh. OTHbme Haa hobwm HCKyccTBOM 6ecco3HaTejibHo pa3JiHT jxyx npo- 
noBeflH; nponoBeayiOT caMbie o6pa3bi; ohh KpacHopenHBo pncyiOT CMepTb 
CTapoft hch3hh (fleMOHH3M ee) hjih pncyiOT npe^omymaeMbie KapTHHw 
B03po»AeHHoro HejiOBenecTBa; jiecraHija bo3mo5khhx npeBpameHHH ne- 
jioBenecKoro ayxa HanepTaHa b o6pa3ax reHHeB XIX Bena; cHMBOJinnecKoe 
TeneHHe nocjie^Hero BpeMeHH o6pa3aMH cbohmh yKa3WBaeT Ha to, hto yace 
mh npeBpamaeMCH, BbipoacaaeMCH ot CTaporo k HOBOMy; oahh tobopht, 
hto mw BbipoamaeMCH k cmcpth; apyrne oTBenaiOT: «Hem, eo3pooicdaeMCR 

Kmi3HU». 

06pa3a\iH HCKyccTBa 6opioTCH Hbme nepeaoBbie (J>ajiaHrH nejiOBene- 

CTBa C 06cTynHBUIHMH HX XHMepaMH CMepTH. 

CHMBOJiHHecKoe TeneHHe coBpeMeHHOcra euje OTjinnaeTCH ot chmbo- 
jiH3Ma BCHKoro HCKyccTBa TeM, hto oho aeftcTByeT Ha rpaHHue flByx anox: 
ero MepTBHT BenepHHH 3apn aHa/iHTHHecKoro nepnoaa, ero hchbotbopht 
sapa hoboto ahh. 

1909 

II. UJAPJIb 60/U13P 

1 

JXbsl naTpnapxa «CHMBOJiHHecKoro TeneHHH» Bceft cBoeft 5KH3- 

HbK) H TBOpHeCTBOM BbirpaBHpOBaJIH JI03yHTH HOBOTO HCKyCCTBa b jiHTepaTy- 

pe BTopoft nojiOBHHbi XIX CTOJieTHn; 3th naTpnapxH - Bozuiap h Hnmue. 
Hniuue - 3aKOHOflaTejib cHMBOJiH3Ma repMaHCKoft pacw. Bofljisp - 3a- 

KOHO^aTejIb CHMBOJIH3Ma paCbl pOMaHCKOH. 

BbiTb mohcct, pacoBoe pa3JiHHHe hx o6ycjiOBHjio tot (J>aKT, hto, 6yjxym 
o6a TBopuaMH hoboto othouichhh k AeficTBHTejibHOCTH, ohh no-pa3HOMy 
HCTOJiKOBajiH cboh TBOpHecKHe nopbiBbi; pa3HOCTb HCTOJiKOBaHHH nocra- 
BHjia hx bo rjiaBe flByx (J)paKUHH e^HHoro no cymecTBy «CHMBOJiHHecKoro 
OTH^ceHHH b EBpone». 

OflHH npoB03rjianiaeT HenpHMHpHMbiH ayajiH3M HejiOBenecKoro cy- 
mecTBa. .Ztpyroft npoB03iviauiaeT mohh3m HejiOBenecKoro TBopnecTBa. 06a 
yrjiy6;iHK)T h o6octphk>t cboh ^03yHrn TaK, KaK hhkto, HHKor^a: o6a npo- 

BOflflT B 5KH3Hb CBOH npHHIJHnbl TaK, HTO CTaHOBHTCH HCHBblMH CHMBOJiaMH 
C06cTBeHHbIX MHpOC03epi|aHHH. y 060HX CJIOBO yHeHHH CTaHOBHTCH njio- 
TbK) 5KH3HH. 



191 



06a noaTOMy He tojibko floica3biBaK)T cBoe, ho h noKa3WBaK)T ce6a, h 
06a OTTajiKHBaiOTCH ot npouuioro. 

OflHH ycTaHaBjiHBaeT npHMaT ayajiH3Ma co3epijaHHH; apyroft - npn- 
MaT e^HHoro TBopnecTBa. O^hh yica3biBaeT Ha to, hto »ch3hl BeTxoro nejio- 
BeKa ecTb CMepTb: b o6ocTpeHHH HejiOBenecKHx npoTHBopenHH nosTOMy - 
BOdopr TBopnecTBa; ho TBopnecTBO y6HBaeT BeTxoro nejioBeica. .flpyroft 
yKa3WBaeT Ha to, hto CMepTb BeTxoro nejiOBeica ecTb poacaeHHe HOBoro 
nejioBenecTBa: BOCTopr TBopnecTBa nosTOMy, y6HBan BeTxoro nejioBeica, 
co3H^aeT 6yaymee; ho bctxhh nejiOBeic y6HBaeT TBopnecTBO. 

06a cnacaioTCH ot HacToamero: o^hh - b npouuioe, KOTopoe oacHBa- 
eT b uapcTBe MenTw; apyroii - b 6yaymee, KOTopoe npo6y>KAaeT Hac ot 
CMepTHoro CHa k )Kh3hh. y oflHoro coh CTaHOBHTcn )KH3HbK>; y apyroro 
CMepTb ecTb TOJibKO Coh. 

y o^Horo Haa 3eMHbiMH o6;ioMKaMH 5KH3HH 30JioTaH B3JieTaeT paayra 
poMaHTH3Ma. y apyroro b paayacHOM OKeaHe poMaHTH3Ma o6pa3yeTca 6;ia- 

HCeHHblH OCTpOB HOBOH 3CMJIH. 

Ooth nponoBeayeT CBoe MHponoHHMaHHe b 3aKOHHeHHOM, KJiaccHHe- 

CKH nOCTpoeHHOM CTHXe, reHeTHHeCKH CBH3aHHOM C JiyMIHHMH Tpa^HUHH- 

mh npouiJioro; no^nac b KJiaccHHecKHx (J)opMax HcnoBeayeT hhoh h hobwh 
cboh poMaHTH3M. IIponoBeflb apyroro BbicKa3biBaeTCH b roranecKOM cth- 

Jie pOMaHTHKH! OH pOMaHTHHeCKH BOCKpeUiaeT npe^ H&MH KJiaCCHHeCKHH 

MHp ApeBHeii TpeuHH. 

06a COeOTHHIOT B cbohx JIHHHOCTflX peaJIH3M H HfleaJIH3M, pOMaHTH3M 

h KJiaccHUH3M; h 3to HOBoe coeflHHeHHe MHponoHHMaHHH pacHHmaeT ce6e 
aopory nofl aeBH30M cuMeojiusMa. 

Chmbojih3m Bofljispa, ocTaBancb MHpoco3epuaHHeM, nopoacaaeT ho- 

ByK) JIHTepaTypHyK) IHKOJiy, UeHTp pa3BHTHH KOTOpOH - OpaHUHH. 

Chmbojih3m Hnmue, 3anenaTjieBaHCb h b hctophh h KaK jiHTepaTyp- 
Han uiKOJia, nopoacaaeT nponoBeflb o hobwx (J)opMax HejiOBenecKHx otho- 

IIieHHH. 

PoMaHCKan paca co3^aeT HOByio JIHTepaTypHyK) uiKOJiy. TepMaHCKan 
paca co3flaeT HOBoe oTHomeHHe k fleftcTBHTejibHoc™. 

HoBan (J)opMa BCTpenaeTCH c hobwm HejiOBenecTBOM: ohh o6jieicaiOT 
TyMaHOM HeaaBHo HCHbie KOHTypw 6wthh. 

Ho Haa 3thm TyMaHOM B03BbiiuaiOTCH flBe KOJioccajibHbie repoHHecKHe 
(J)Hrypw: Eo^jisp h HHijuie. 

2 

O^Ha uiKOJia ncHxojiorHH ycTaHaBjiHBaeT cootbctctbhc, a ne 
3aeucuMocmb, Meacay ABHaceHHeM h co3HaHHeM, BHyTpeHHe nepeacHBae- 
moh acH3Hbio h opraHaMH BHeumero BbipaaceHHH ee flBHaceHHft: mm otkpw- 



192 



BaeMCH ce6e h H3BHe, h H3HyTpH; chmbojihhcckh mw o6pa3yeM flBe napaji- 

JieJIbHbie JIHHHH 6bITHH. 

Ho ycjioBHeM cootbctctbhh hbjihctch HeKoe nocTyjinpyeMoe eflHH- 

CTBO. 

IlcHxo(J)H3HHecKHH napajuiejiH3M ycTaHaBJiHBaeT cooTBercTBHe Me^eay 

aKTaMH C03HaHHH H aKTaMH flBH5KeHHfl H3 HeB03M05KHOCTH o6l>flCHHTb Ue~ 

^ocTHOCTb Hauiero «h» cyMMoii MexaHHHecKHx cjiaraeMbix; ncHXHHecKHH 
pna ecTb b cymHOCTH He pna, a nocTyjiaT (j)H3HHecKoro pnaa. IIchxo(J)h- 

3HO^OrHHeCKaH npHHHHHOCTb eCTb JIHIHb 3M6jieMa nCHXHHeCKOH npHHHH- 

hocth: ^HajieKTHnecKH napajiJiejiH3M pa3BHBaeTcn b mohh3m; rpa(J)HHecKH 

3TO pa3BHTH6 H3o6pa3HMO TaKI 

c c 



Puc. 1 

(iyje «aa» - ncHXHHecKHH paa, 

«bb» - (J)H3HHeCKHH, a JIHHHH 

«cabd» cyrb rpaHHUbi bo3mohcho- 
ro npoBefleHHH phtjob). 



a 



Puc. 2 

(me «aa» - ncHXHHecKHH paa, 
«bb» (J)H3HHecKHH, «cd» - rpaHH- 
ua npoBeaeHHH paflOB, a «e» eflHH- 
ctbo hx 3a npe^ejiOM co3hhhhh). 




e 



Ho ecjiH BHyTpeHHHH pHfl OKa3WBaeTCH jiHinb nocTyjiaTOM BHeuiHero, 
ecjiH SMnnpHHecKaH ncHxojiorHH He ycTaHaBJiHBaeT Bcex nap cooTBeT- 
ctbhh (ab, ap v a 2 b 2 , a 3 b y h t. a.), to Becb ncHXHHecKHH pw «0» OKa3biBa- 
eTCH 3a rpaHHueii B03MO)KHoro npoBeaeHHH ph^ob; napajiJiejiH3M CTaHO- 

BHTCH nCHXHHeCKHM MOHH3MOM, a (J)H3HHeCKHH pflfl «6» CHMBOJIOM pflfla 

«a». Onrypa I nocpeflCTBOM II nepexo/jjrr b (J)Hiypy III. 



193 



a 



Puc.3 

(rae «bb» ecn> chmboji «a», Haxoan- 
meroca 3a rpaHHueft paaa). 



Ouzypa I: 3M6jieMaTHHecKH H3o6paacaeT chmbojih3m Bo^jiapa c ero 
yneHHeM o «cooTBeTCTBHHX». Chmboji ajih EoAJiapa ecTb napajuiejib Meae- 
Ay BH6IUHHM h BHyTpeHHHMj o6pa3 ecTb MOAejib nepejKHBaHHH: KaamoMy 
ajieMeHTy cooTBeTCTByeT ajieMeHT 

Ouzypa III: 3M6jieMaTH t iecKH H3o6paacaeT chmbojih3m Hnmne c ero 
yneHHeM o MOHH3Me TBopnecTBa. Chmboji ajih Hnuiiie ecTb eflHHbift, ho- 
Bbiii, rpHAymHH nejiOBeK (a), OTKpwBaiomHHCH b rjiy6HHe ayiiiH, h6o 
ayuia - TOJibKO dpeMJieHHe k aajibHeMy, a BHflHMocTb (b) cymecTByeT no- 
CTOJibKy, nocKOJibKy OHa OTpaacaeT Bo Bcex (b v b r b y b A , h t. r.): 
OTpaaeaeTCH eAHHoe «a». 

Ouzypa II: 3M6jieMaTHHecKH H3o6paacaeT o6meapHHCKHii KopeHb 

CHMBOJIH3Ma EoflJISpa H HHIUIie; 3fleCb (<J)H3HHeCKHH HeJIOBeK), KaK 

h «a» (ayuieBHhiii) o^HHaKOBo cyTb jiHinb npoHBjieHHH HeKoero t. e. 
Ztyxa. 



3 

TaKOBO oTHOineHHe EoAJiapa k Hnmiie. Mm He CTaHeM ocra- 
HaBJiHBaTbCH Ha yneHHH Bo^jiapa, nocKOJibKy oho OTKpbiBaeTCH b «Oeuvres 
posthumes*, b ^neeuuKe*, b «Petits poemes en prose* h b CTHxax; EoAJiap 
BbirpaBHpoBaji CBoe yneHHe b (J)opMe, ero npoH3BeaeHHH hbjdhot HaM H^e- 
a/ibHoe BonjiomeHHe ero yneHHH o coomeemcmeunx: (J)opMa h coaepaeaHHe 
nepeKJiHKaioTCH b hhx. 

Ilo3TOMy oco6eHHO HHTepecHo npocjie^HTb, KaK cjiarajiacb y Eofljiapa 

(J)OpMa ero CTHXOTBOpeHHH. 

B <J)opMe Bofljiapa 3aneHaTJiejiocb cjioaoioe B3aHMoaeHCTBHe caMbix 

pa3H006pa3HbIX BJIHHHHH; 3fleCb BHflHO BJIHHHHe H JiaTHHCKHX nOSTOB 

(KaK H3Bec™o, Eofljiap 6mji jiaraHHCT), h 4>paHijy3CKHX KjiaccHKOB, h nap- 
HacijeB, h poMaHTHKa BHKTopa Tioro, h HMnpeccHOHHCTa 3arapa IIo; ho 



194 



B3rjiHflbi BoflJiapa Ha 3a#aHH 4>opMbi cjioxchjihcb, rjiaBHWM o6pa30M, noa 
BJiHHHHeM CeHT-BeBa h TeopeTHKa Teoaopa ae BaHBHJin; sto bjihhhhc 
CKa3MBaeTCH npH aHajiH3e pH(J)MW, pHTMa h cjiobcchoh hhctpymchtobkh 

6oflJI3pOBCKOrO CTHXa. 

B snoxy, Kor^a CKJia^biBanacb no33HH Bozuispa, 3CTeTHMecKHe BKycw 
xopoinero TOHa Tpe6oBajiH ot craxa npeac^e Bcero 6oraTbix pH(J)M. Taicoro 
MHeHHH npHAepxcHBajiCH CeHT-BeB, - hk HeMy npHcoeflHHHJicH ae BaH- 
BHJib, nojiaraBiiiHH, 6y,zjTO b pH(J)Me 3aKJiK)HeHa, rjiaBHWM o6pa30M, Mara* 
cTHxa («Petit traite de poesie frangaise*)', npH6jiH3HTejibHO to ace pa3BHBaji 
h W. Tenint; JIaHfle h apyrae cocTaBjiHJiH oco6we cjioBapn pH(|)M; 6oraTCTBO 

H H3bICKaHHOCTb pH(J)M, TpyflHOCTb HX HaXOHCfleHHfl, pa3BHBaJIH m6KOCTb 

b no6eae Haa orpaHHMeHHbiM cjiOBapeM pH(J)M; pe^KHe pH(J)Mbi bjickjih k 

HeO^CH^aHHblM n03THHeCKHM aCCOIZHaUHHM, K He05KHflaHHOMy CTOJIKHOBe- 

hhk) o6pa30B h Hfleft; TaK, aHajiH3Hpyn pu$My Bo^jispa, Albert Cassagne 
b CBoeM ^Versification et metrique de Ch. Baudelaire* yica3biBaeT Ha to, mto 
k pH(J)Me ane moecho noao6paTb jxo 160 nojiHbix pH(J)M, a k pH(|)Me vane 
mohcho noao6paTb TOJibKO 7 nojiHbix ph(J)m; Meacay TeM, KaK k avane cyme- 
cTByeT TOJibKO TpH no/mbie pH(J)Mbi (caravane, savane, pavane). Bofljisp c 

MyHHTeJIbHOH Tpy^HOCTbK) nOfl^HpaJI peflKHe pH(|)MbI, HTO BJIHflJIO, nO MH6- 

hhk) Cassagn'a, Ha o6hjihc KOHTpacTOB, HeoacHflaHHbix conocTaBjieHHH b 
no33HH Bofljispa; Tan: Eofljisp ynoTpe6jineT cjiOBa, rae HecKOJibKO cjioroB 
nojiHOCTbio pH(J)MyK)TCH apyr c apyroM (clavicules, ridicules), nojib3yeTCH 
3ByKOBbiM 6oraTCTBOM cjiOBa (archer, marcher), pH(J)MyeT nous avons c nous 
savons h aaace pH(J)MyeT cjiOBa, oKaHHHBaiomHecH pa3HMMH corjiacHWMH, 
hto BOBce 3anpemajiocb mhothmh TeopeTHKaMH (d'oms'endort). BbiTb mo- 
aceT, TeopHH 6ozamhix pu(pM, Bbi3BaBinan b Bo^Jispe yMeHHe conocraBJiHTb 
HeconocTaBHMoe, HBHJiacb jiHiiib cpeacTBOM 3aneMaTjieTb b (J>opMe ero me- 
opwo coomeemcmeuu. 

Phtm Bozyispa coeAHHneT ochobhwc nepTbi KJiaccHMecKoft phtmhkh c 
pa3Hoo6pa3HeM phtmhhcckhx MoayjinuHH, TaK pe3KO Bbipa3HBinHxcH Bno- 
cjieacTBHH b «cbo6oahom CTHxe». Cassagne yKa3biBaeT Ha to, mto H3 167 
cTHXOTBopeHHH Bo^jispa 112 HanHcaHbi ajieKcaHapHHCKHM cthxom; TaKoe 
npe^noHTeHHe, OKa3biBaeMoe Bo^JiapoM ajieKcaH^pHHCKOMy CTHxy, onHTb- 

TaKH nOHHTHO, eCJIH npHHHTb BO BHHMaHHe BCJIHHaBOCTb H CTpOTOCTb 6ofl- 

jispoBCKoft My3bi (3,zjecb onHTb BCTpenaeT Hac CTporoe cootbctctbhc co- 
aepacaHH* c 4>opmoh). BMecTe c TeM ajieKcaH^pHHCKHH cthx y Bo,zyi3pa 
npHHHMaeT no^nac TpHMeTpHnecKHH phtm BnKTopa Hero; ho, BonpeKH 
Mopncy TpaMMOHy, 6o,zj.7I3PObckhh TpHMeTp H3o6paacaeT BejinnaBbie abh- 
^ceHHH ayniH (BMecTO aBH^ceHHH cTpeMHTejibHbix, no TpaMMOHy); Bofljisp 
nacTO nojib3yeTCH nepeHocoM npeflJioaceHHH H3 ctpokh b CTpoKy (enjam- 
bement): «le soleil - (nepeHoc) - rougit». 3aecb BoflJisp naeT BonpeKH 
JIa-rapny BMecTe c TeopeTHKOM BeK ae OyKbepoM. Cassagne yKa3biBaeT 
Ha to, hto jho6hmmh phtmhhcckhh xofl Bo^Jispa ecTb KOM6HHauHH «en- 

195 

1 3 Ati/ipeft Be^hift 



jambement» c TpHMeTpOM hjih c KanpH3HOH Hrpoio ue3yp; Bee sth nepTbi 
yace OTjinnaiOT 6o#Ji3poBCKHH cthx ot KJiaccHKOB; ABOHCTBeHHOCTb cthjih 
bhaht b HeM h Teo(J)HJib IoTbe; c apyroft ctopohw, 3aaBjieHHe CTe(J>aHa 
MajuiapM3 o tom, hto MOJio^bie no3Tbi nbuaiOTCH co3AaTb jiHiiib 66;ibuiyio 
rH6KocTb CTHxa b npeaejiax ochobhwx npaBHji KJiaccHnecKOH mctphkh, 
TecHO c6;iH3KaiOT BoflJispa c nocjieayiomeH snoxoft (J)paHuy3CKoro chmbo- 
jiH3Ma. K HHCJiy oco6eHHocTeii 6oaji3pobckoh phtmhkh othochtch o6h- 
jine MHorocjioacHbix cjiob, KOTopwe, no MHeHHio Cassagne h BpayHuiBeiira, 
cnoco6cTByioT 3aMeflJieHHK> TeMna. 

Ho 6ojiee Bcero napajuiejiHCTHnecKHH xapaicrep 6o£ji3poBCKoro chm- 
BOJiH3Ma BonjiomeH b (J)opMe cooTBeTCTBHH Meacay coaepacaHHeM o6pa3a h 
ero cjioBecHoft HHCTpyMeHTOBKoft; bo 4>paHijy3CKOH no33HH HeT paBHoro 
BoflJispy HHCTpyMeHTajiHCTa; nopa3HTejibHO o6hjihc (h KaK 6w npe3Mep- 
HOCTb) ajuiHTepauHH h accoHaHcoB b no33HH Bofljispa. 

BoflJI3p C03HaTeJIbHO HCKaJI aJIJIHTepaUHH, BepOflTHO, IlOfl BJIHflHHeM 

C.-BeBa h eme 6ojiee noa bjihhhhcm CBoero BejiHKoro ynHTejin h TaHH- 
CTB6HHoro ^BOHHHKa, 3arapa IIo*. 

ECTb HeH3M6HHOe COOTBeTCTBHe MOKAy 3ByK0M H CMblCJIOMJ IIpHCyTCTBHe 

3ByKOBOH rapMOHHH b 3HaHHTejibHOH Mepe ocjia6jineT aoMHHHpyiomyio 
pojib pH(|)Mbi; npH^aBan rH6icocTb h CBoeo6pa3HocTb CTHxy (J)paHuy3CKHX 
KJiaccHKOB, nrpaa ue3ypoft, Hacbimaa cthx accoHaHcoM h ajuiHTepauHeii, 
Bo/yi3p HBjweTCH OTflajieHHbiM npe^TeHeii CBo6oflHoro CTHxa, kotopmh 
T. KaH o6ocHOBbiBaeT hmchho Ha nrpe ajuiHTepauHH h accoHaHcoB. TpaM- 
moh pa3BHBaeT opHrHHajibHyio TeopHio o MoayjiHUHH rjiacHbix; pa3BHBaa 

3Ty TeopHIO, M03KHO 6bl CBH3aTb pa3JIHqHbie MOflyjIHIJHOHHbie XOflbl C My3bl- 

KajibHbiMH xo^aMH (Ha ceicyHfly, TepijHio, KBapTy h t. a.), hto aajio 6w B03- 
MO»CHocTb OTO^cecTBHTb raMMy H3 flByniacHbix h rjiacHbix c xpoMaTHnecKoii 
hjih flHaTOHHnecKOH My3biKajibHOH raMMoft; b nocjieflHeM cjiynae moecho 
6mjio 6w cpaBHHBaTb Mejioduu rjiacHbix y pa3JiHHHbix no3TOB. 

Cpe^H H3Jiio6jieHHbix (f)opM Bo^Jispa mm BCTpenaeM cohct (no 
Cassagn'io Ha 167 cthxotbopchhh 75 cohctob). CeHT-BeB CHHTaeT eflHH- 
cTBeHHO npaBHJibHWM tot BHfl coHeTa, KOTopwM nojib30BajicH Malherbe 
(cxeMa ero pH(|)M TaKOBa: abbaabbaccdede); 3toh cohcthoh cxeMe cjieayioT 
CeHT-BeB, BaHBHJib h JIckoht %e Jlnjib; Meacay TeM Bo^jisp 6ecKOHenHo 
BHflOH3MeH5ieT 3Ty cxeMy. 

KpoMe Toro: EoflJisp o6njibHO nojib3yeTCH pe(J)peHaMH, noBTopeHHHMH 
cjiob, napajuiejiH3MaMH. 

Cjio^CHOCTb CTpyKTypw coneTaeTCH Bciofly y Hero c npocTOTOH, Bep- 

HOCTb TpaAHUHHM KJiaCCHKOB C HOBaTOpCTBOM. CTpaHHblH H flBOHCTBeHHMH 
CTHJIb BoflJISpa HBJIHeTCH 5KHBMM BOnJIOIIieHHeM CTpaHHOH H flBOHCTBeH- 



* CymecTByeTe coHHHeHHe Ben %e OyKbepa «Traite general de versification 
francaise*, rfle yace aaBHO OTMeneHa pojib accoHaHcoB h ajuiHTepauHH. 



196 



hoh ero )KM3HM; a 3Ta acH3Hb ecrb BonjiomeHHoe yneHHe o cootbctctbhhx; 
chmboji Bo^jiapa ecTb cooTBeTCTBHe h TOJibKo cooTBeTCTBHe o6pa3a nepe- 

ECHBaHHK); B OCHOBe 3TOTC) COOTBeTCTBHH - HeyMOJIHMafl flBOHCTBCHHOCTb B 

oco3HaHHH ce6n h MHpa. 

Bojiee neM o kom-jih6o moscho CKa3aTb, hto (J)opMa jihphkh Bofljispa 
ecTb caM Bcwrep. H noTOMy-TO HeB03MO»ceH nepeBoa Bofljispa, hjih oh 
B03Mo»ceH eme b caMOM aajieKOM 6yaymeM. 

1909 

III. OE MTOrAX PA3BMTMfl 

HOBoro pyccKoro mckycctba 

HOBOe HCKyCCTBO B POCCHH HMeeT HCTOpHK) CBOerO B03HHK- 

HOBeHHH. Eme He^aBHO onpeaejinjiH 3to HCKyccTBO, KaK npo^yKT pa3- 
jio^ceHHH yTOHneHHoro cjioh 6yp»cya3Horo o6mecTBa, He 6ojiee. Meacay 
TeM npe^CTaBHTejiH HCKyccTBa BTopofi nojiOBHHbi XIX BeKa c He6biBajiOH 

OCTpOTOH H peUIHMOCTbK) BblflBHHyjIH pHfl npHHIJHnHaJIbHblX BOnpOCOB, 

KacaiomnxcH npo6jieMbi TBopnecTBa h 5kh3hh. Ohh yrjiy6HJiH h o6octphjih 
nporaBopeHHe Meacay 6biTHeM h xyzjoacecTBeHHbiM TBopnecTBOM, c o^hoh 
CTopoHbi, Mexyxy TBopnecTBOM h no3HaHHeM - c flpyroii. B rjiy6oKo npo- 
HyBCTBOBaHHbix o6pa3ax BbiflBHHyjiH ohh npoTHBopenne Meymjxy jihhho- 
CTbio h o6mecTBOM, cbo6oaoh h Heo6xoflHMOCTbio, KpacoToii, KaK HanajioM 
He3bi6;ieMbiM, CTaTHHecKHM, h KpacoToii, KaK HanajioM co3HziaTejibHbiM, 
ABHraTejibHbiM, flHHaMHnecKHM; npoTHBopenne Meacay H^eefi, KaK jiorHne- 
ckoh HopMoii, no^HHHHiomeH ce6e TBopnecTBO, h Hfleen, KaK chmbojiom. 

3T0 npOTHBOpeMHe HeKOTOpblMH H3 XyflOHCHHKOB peinaJIOCb B TOM CMblC- 

jie, hto Hflefl ecTb chmbojihhcckhh o6pa3, npeayraabiBaiomHH b npeaejiax 

HCKyCCTBa HOBbie (J)OpMbI »CH3HeHHbIX OTHOUieHHH. HaKOHeij, nOHHMaHHe 

Hflen aojira, KaK 4>opMajibHoro BMeHeHHH, h Hflen aojira, KaK npH3HBa k 
co3HaHHio ueHHOCTefi, BMeHHeMbix b (J)opMax HMnepaTHBa, - 3th noHHMa- 

HHH HfleH CO BCeft peUIHTejIbHOCTbK) CTOJIKHyjIHCb B JIHpHHeCKHX H3JIH5IHH- 

hx HHijme, bo MHoroM onpaB^aHHbix BnocjieflCTBHH aaHHbiMH HaH6o;iee 
CTpornx TeopeTHKO-no3HaBaTe;ibHbix H3biCKaHHH. B cbohx BbiBoaax b 06- 
jiacTH MopajiH, 3CTeTHKH, ncnxojiorHH HOBoe HCKyccTBO He pa3 onepeaca- 
jio MeflJieHHbift nyTb HayHHO-(J)HJioco(J)CKoro MbiimieHHH; h TaM, r^e HayKa 
h (J)h^oco(J)hh eme He zjaBajiH OTBeTa, stot otbct aaBajiCH xyaoacHHKOM. 
MeTOflOJiorHHecKan cxeMa b toh hjih hhoh o6jiacrH 3HaHHH He pa3 onpaB- 

ZlblBaJia BnOCJieflCTBHH TBOpHeCKHe BblBOflbl XyflOHCHHKOB H n03T0B KaK B 

o6jiacra (J)opM HCKyccTBa, TaK h 3a npe^ejiaMH 3thx (J)opM. TaM, r^e eme 
HeaaBHo BH^ejiH mm «6e3yMue» f mm HaraHaeM ijeHHTb rjiy6oKyio HCKpeH- 
HOCTb, MyapocTb, HHor^a h ropbKyio npaB^y. 

M ecjiH HOBoe HCKyccTBO ecTb HBJieHHe BbipoacfleHHH, to Bbipo^eHHe 
oxBaTbiBaeT bo bchkom cjiynae He oT^ejibHbie KpyacKH OTpeuieHHbix Men- 

197 



13* 



TaTejieft: oho ecrb noKa3aTejib Hanajia BbipoacaeHHH Been KyjibTypw. 3th 
aep3KHe MenTaTejiH TOJibKO noTOMy yna^OHHHKH, aeKaaeHTbi, hto ohh nep- 
Bbie, Tan cKa3aTb, npHHajiHjiH k cKajiHCTOMy 6epery hoboh hch3hh - npn- 
najiHjiH h He Moiyr b30hth Ha jrrecw, 6bK)TCfl, pa36HBaiOTCfl, rn6HyT: Bee 
6ypacya3Hoe o6mecTBO npHHHMaeT, xoth h OTBjieneHHO, o6mne ji03yHra 
coBpeMeHHoft KyjibTypw; c 6ojibiiieH peajibHOCTbio BonjiorajiH hx xyaoac- 
hhkh «aeKa^eHTbi». A CKajiHCTwft 6eper, He aaiomHH bo3mo»chocth naio- 

IIJHM HOBblX (J)OpM 5KH3HH C03flaTb BOnJIOmeHHH 3THX (J)OpM, - CyTb yCJIO- 

bhh counajibHoro HepaBeHCTBa; o hhx-to h pa36HBaiOTCH Bee HOBaiopcKHe 
nonbiTKH. 

IlycTb Tan Ha3biBaeMoe zieKa^eHTCTBO b HCKyccTBe ecTb noKa3aTejib 
Bbipo^czieHHH Bcero coBpeMeHHoro 6yp»cya3Horo yKJiaaa »ch3hh. CoBpe- 
MeHHbie HCKaTejiH b o6;iacTH HCKyccTBa b TaKOM cjiynae BwpaacaioT KpH3HC 
coBpeMeHHOH 5kh3hh; ecjiH sto h xyaoHCHHKH, to cKopee He BwpoacaeHHH, 
a nepepojK^eHHH. 

Beflb (J)OpMbI B03M05KHOrO, 5KH3HeHHOrO B03pOHCfleHHfl HeOTfleJIHMO 

CBH3aHbi c pa3JiaraiomHMHCH (J)opMaMH: ohh TOJibKO hbjihiot co6oh HHyK) 
neperpynnnpoBKy ochobhwx sjicmchtob, Ha KOTopbie BOo6me pa3JioacHMa 
»H3Hb. H noTOMy-TO r;iy6oKHe npoTHBope^HH, BbiflBHHyTwe eBponeftcKHM 

HCKyCCTBOM, KpHK OTHaflHHH, TOCKH, HHOITja 6e3yMHOH HaaOKflW - TOJibKO 
MyKH pOHCfleHHH HOBblX TBOpHeCKHX (J)OpM. ,/Ja, 3apH HOBOH 5KH3HH CBepKa- 

jia b npojieTax rpo30Bwx Tyn, kotopwmh Hnmue, H6ceH, MepeacKOBCKHH 

3aKpbIBaJIH TOpH30HT HaiUHX HaHHHH. H eCJIH Mbl CKJIOHHbl BHHHTb «HOBOe 

HCKyccTBo» 3a 6o;ie3HeHHbie rpHMacw, KOTopwe, Haao npH3HaTbca, npn- 
cymH e\iy, mm aojiacHw 6wjih 6w o6BHHHTb h aceHiiuiHy, HcnbiTbiBaiomyio 

MyKH pO»AeHHH, 3a XOJIOflHWH nOT CMepTHOTO TOMJieHHH, BbiCTynaiomHii 

Ha nejie. H He 6yflb stoto, He 6wjio 6w h KpHKa: «Eoace moh, Boace moh, 
noHTO Tbi ocTaBHJi mchhI» - BocKpecHbift BocTopr Mar^ajiHHbi He 3aacer 
6w cepaua 6eflHwx pw6apeft rajiHJieftcKHx. «Hjih, hjih, jiaMMa caBaxBaHH», 
roBopHT HaM cTpa^aiomee cymecTBO Hnmiie, BepjieHa, Bo^jiapa, Bepxap- 
Ha. KpHK npeaocTeperaiomero OTnaHHHH CMymaeT 6jiaronojiyHHyio cohjih- 
BOCTb. O, KaK xoTejiH 6bi MHorne H3 Hac yMeHbiiiHTb 3tot KpHK, npeBpa- 
THTb ero b cMex. O, KaK 6wjio 6w cnoKOHHO mhothm H3 Hac OTflejiaTbca ot 
KpHKa jiHHib cjiOBaMH: «3to kphk cyMaciiiefliHHx; hx y6epyT, - Bee noiifleT 
no-npe»CHeMy». CKa3aTb h BnacTb b coh. 
Ho HeT, HeT h hct! 

Raxie b cepHH cTaTeft h He hmcji 6w bo3mo>khocth KOCHyTbca Bcex Tex 

BOnpOCOB, KOTOpbie nO^HHMaeT C060H HOBOe HCKyCCTBO. Il03T0My H OCTa- 

HOBjiHDCb TOJibKO Ha o^hoh nepTe, xapaKTepH3yiomeH jiyquine o6pa3uw 
SToro HCKyccTBa - Ha cuMeojiU3Me, noTOMy hto chmbojih3m - KopeHHaa 
nepTa coBpeMeHHoro TBopnecTBa. C apyroft ctopohw, TOJibKO b chmbojih- 

HeCKOH KpHTHKe, KaK CTpOTO OHepneHHOM MeTOfle OIjeHKH, JIOKHT fleHCTBH- 

TejibHoe onpaB^aHHe hoboto HCKyccTBa. 



198 



XapaicrepHOH nepTofi CHMBOJiH3Ma b HCKyccTBe hbjihctch CTpeMJieHHe 
BOcnojib30BaTbCH o6pa30M ^eHCTBHTejibHOCTH, KaK cpe^cTBOM nepe^anH 
nepe^HBaeMoro coaepacaHHH co3HaHHH. 3aBHCHMOCTb o6pa30B bhahmocth 
ot ycjiOBHH BOcnpHHHMaiomero co3HaHHH nepeHOCHT uernp THacec™ b hc- 
KyccTBe ot o6pa3a k cnoco6y ero bociiphhthh. TaK peajiH3M nepexo^HT b 
HMnpeccHOHH3M. Ho eme inar - h BHeuiHHH onwT o6i>eflHHHeTCH c onwTOM 

BHyTpeHHHM B nOHHTHe CO^ep»CaHHH C03HaHHH. C0flep»CaHHe C03HaHHH, 

nocKOJibKy oho Bbipa3HMo npH noMomn o6pa3Hbix Moaejiefi, nojib3yeTCH 

(})OpMaMH BHflHMOCTH H HX CBH3bK> flJIH yHCH6HHH nepOKHBaHHH, nOflo6HO 

TOMy, KaK OTBJieneHHaH Mbicjib b HayKe nojib3yeTCH ajih KpaTKOCTH rpa- 

(|)HHeCKH MeTOflOM H3o6pa2CeHHH JIOrHHeCKHX 3BeHbeB. 06pa3, KaK MOfleJIb 

nepe^HBaeMoro coaepacaHHH co3HaHHH, ecTb chmboji. MeTOfl cHMBOJiH3a- 
Uhh nepeacHBaHHH o6pa3aMH h ecTb chmbojih3m. 

CHMBOJIHHeCKaH IIIKOJia HCKyCCTBa TaK OTHOCHTCH K HHbIM B03MOHC- 
HblM UIKOJiaM, KaK KpHTHHeCKafl (J)HJIOCO(J)HH KaHTa OTHOCHTCH K flOTMa- 
TH3My ^OKaHTOBCKOH (J)HJIOCO(J)HH. H CyiljeCTByiOmHe IUKOJIbl HCKyCCTBa 
(peaJIH3M, pOMaHTH3M, KJiaCCHUH3M) CHMBOJIH3M paCCMaTpHBaeT He C TOH- 
KH 3p6HHH npaBa HX CymeCTBOBaHHH: OH CTpeMHTCH nOHHTb CnOCo6, KaKHM 

nepe^CHBaHHeM coaepacaHHe co3HaHHH BonjiomaeTCH b chctcmc o6pa30B 
b toh hjih hhoh uiKOJie HCKyccTBa. B npoTecTe npoTHB caMO^OBjieiomero 
,aorMaTH3Ma, a He b crpeMjieHHH k pa3pyineHHio toh hjih hhoh iiikojim - 
ocBo6o>KAaK)maH cnjia HOBoro HCKyccTBa. 

CymecTByiomHe iukojih chmbojih3m y3aKOHneT: oh npeflBapaeT pa3- 
MbiuijieHHH o 3a#anax HCKyccTBa b npe^ejiax cymecTByiomnx 4>opM bo- 
npocoM o tom, KaKHM o6pa30M TBopnecKan aenTejibHOCTb 3anenaTJiejiacb 
b MeToaax toh hjih hhoh uikojiw. 

TaK, ecjiH nepe^CHBaHHe HajiaraeTCH Ha o6pa3, b3hthh H3 bh^hmocth, 
to mw HMeeM aejio c peajiHCTHnecKoii ihkojioh. Ho h 3#ecb bch cnjia b ne- 
pe^HBaeMOM coaepacaHHH co3HaHHH, a He b o6pa3e bh^hmocth. H chm- 
bojih3m ^aeT BenHbie npaBa peajiHCTHnecKOH uiKOJie b HCKyccTBe; ho KaK 
CKopo aorMaTHKH peajiH3Ma orpaHHHHBaiOT TBopnecTBO npeaejiaMH 3Mnn- 
pHHecKoii ^eiicTBHTejibHOCTH, chmbojih3m BoccTaeT npoTHB stoto aorMa- 
TH3Ma, Bbi^BHran o6pa3bi BbiMbicjia Ha nepBbiH njiaH. KpoMe Toro, He3a- 
bhchmo ot Bonpoca, onepHpyeT hjih He onepnpyeT xyaoacHHK o6pa3aMH 
(})aHTa3HH, CHMBOJiHCTHHecKaa uiKOJia o6pamaeT BHHMaHHe Ha nyTb TBop- 
necTBa. Ecjih mctoa CHMBOJiH3Ma ecTb ycTaHOBJieHHe napajuiejiH Meacay 
nepeacHBaHHeM h o6pa30M, to B03MOHceH abohkhh nyTb HaxoacaeHHH stoh 
napajuiejiH: Bo-nepBbix, o6pa3 Bbi3biBaeT rpynny coaepacaHHH co3HaHHH; 
bo-btopwx, rpynna coaepacaHHH co3HaHHH BbipaacaeT o6pa3. 

nepBbiii nyTb TBopnecTBa ecTb mctoa TaK Ha3biBaeMoro KJiaccHHecKoro 

HCKyCCTBa. BTOpOH - pOMaHTHHeCKOrO. C TOHKH 3peHHH CHMBOJIHHeCKOH 

niKOJiw MoaceT cymecTBOBaTb npoTHBonojioaceHHe Meacay chmbojihctom- 
poMaHTHKOM (BepjieHOM) h cHMBOJiHCTOM-KJiaccHKOM (MopeacoM), HO He 



199 



MoaceT cymecTBOBaTb npoTHBonojioaceHHfl Meae/jy KJiaccHKOM h chmbo- 
jihctom. H peajiH3M, h 4)aHTacTHKa paBHo 3aKOHHbi b HCKyccTBe. IlpeH- 
MymecTBeHHoe 3HaneHHe toh hjih hhoh (J)opMbi - OTpnijaeT chmbojih3m. 
H noHBHCb cero^HH scTeraKa, OTflaioman npeHMymecTBO xy/joacecTBeHHOH 
4>aHTacTHKe, chmbojih3m o6n3aH BoccTaTb Ha 3amHTy peajiH3Ma. 

H CHMBOJiHCTHHecKan TeopHH BOBce He 6bma 6bi /jorMaTHKofi HCKyc- 
CTBa, a TOJibKO njiaHOMepHbiM nepenHeM cnoco6oB onepHpoBaTb c o6pa30M. 

Chmbojih3m Ha^eeTCH b sctcthkc TeopeTHHecKH 060CH0BaTb cboh Me- 

TOfl, n0^06H0 TOMy, KaK KaHTHaHCTBO HJIH 3KOHOMHHeCKHH MaTepHaJIH3M 

TeopeTHHecKH npHHHMaeMbi, KaK MeTO/jbi OTHouieHHH (jih6o K n03HaHHK>, 
JIH60 K HCTOpHHeCKOH CBH3H (J)aKTOB), a He HCTHHbl B (J)opMe .qorMaTOB. 

H noTOMy-TO nepBbie chmbojihcth OTnpaBjiHJiHCb He CTOJibKO ot Toro 
hjih HHoro cxojiacTHnecKoro B3rjiH^a Ha HCKyccTBO, CKOJibKO ot npoTecTa 
npoTHB MOHonojiHH Toro hjih hhoto cnoco6a TBopnecTBa b ymepd hhmm. 
TaM, r^e npouBeTaji KyjibT (J)opMbi (HanpHMep, bo OpaHUHH), npoB03- 
rjiauiajiCH KyjibT HacTpoeHHH («De la musique avans toute chose»). I^e 
rocno^CTBOBajia TeH/jeHUHH (Pocchh), - npoB03rjiauiajiH KyjibT cjioBa h 

(J)OpMbI. 

Chmbojihcth, b npoTHBOBec AorMaTHKaM TBopnecTBa, npoTHBonocTa- 
bhjih caMyio 3HeprHio TBopnecTBa 6e30THOCHTejibHO k cnoco6aM Bbipaace- 
hhh 3toh 3HeprHH. H b nacTO napa/joKcajibHbix yTBepac^eHHHx nepBbix 
chmbojihctob mh ycMaTpHBaeM pna eme He BnojiHe pacKpbiTbix MHpoco- 
3epuaHHH, Tpe6yiomHx /jjih HCKyccTBa MaKCHMyMa cbo6o^m. 

Bee Xyfl05KHHKH, nOCKOJIbKy OHH 6bIJIH Xy/JOECHHKH, OCTaBaJIHCb CTH- 

xhhho BepHbi 3TOMy 3aBeTy. He Bcer/ja, oflHaKO, ohh yMejiH co3HaTb CBoe 
npaBo. IlpaBHjibHO yTBepac/jaeT KaHT, hto reHHH - 3aKOHO^aTejib BKyca: 
Be^b Bee 3CTeTHHecKHe aorMaraKH - TOJibKO pe3yjibTaT no3AHeHuiero aHa- 
jiH3a Tex hjih hhmx o6pa30B xy^o»cecTBeHHoro 3aKOHO,zjaTejibCTBa. H no- 

nblTKH CKOBaTb HOBOe TBOpHeCTBO CTapblMH AOTMaMH HIJIH BonpeKH KaHTy. 

Xy^o»CHHKH-CHMBOJiHCTbi BnepBbie HanncajiH Ha 3HaMeHH CBoeii uikojih 
npaBo xyzjoacHHKa 6biTb 3aKOHoaaTejieM BKyca. JIhhhhc bstjihah OT^ejib- 
hhx xyAOJKHHKOB, KaK Privat-Sache, npeBparajiH ohh b naparpacj) xyzjoace- 
ctbchhoh njiaT(J)opMbi hoboto HCKyccTBa. 

Han6ojiee crporne uikojih coBpeMeHHoro HeoKaHTHaHCTBa pa^OM 
noHTH HeonpoBep^CHMbix TeopeTHKO-no3HaBaTejibHbix H3bicKaHHH npn- 
xoflHT k y6e3KAeHHio, hto TBopnecKHH xapaKTep ecTb npHHunn k caMOMy 

n03HaHHK). B CBeTe 3TOH CHCTeMbl OTHOHieHHH K UeHHOCTHM HaM nOHHTHbl 

o6pa3Hbie 3aHBjieHHH Hninue, Yanjib^a, H6ceHa o tom, hto mh hochm b 
ce6e (J)opMH 6yzjymeH jkh3hh. 

CHMBOJIH3M nO/JBOflHT HCKyCCTBO K TOH pOKOBOH HepTe, 3a KOTOpOH 
OHO nepeCTaeT 6bITb TOJibKO HCKyCCTBOM; OHO CTaHOBHTCH HOBOH 5KH3HbK) 

h pejiuzueu CBo6oflHoro nejiOBenecTBa. Byaymee hoboto HCKyccTBa BOBce 
He b tom, hto oho - «ucKyccmeo djiH ucKyccmea* hjih «ucKyccmeo djix MU3- 



200 



uu»: 3to - HHnero ho roBopHmHe AonsiaTbi. BaacHO to, hto oho crpeMHTCH 
CTaTb HopMOH 6yzrymeH rapMOHHH, otkpwto h pe3KO npoTecTya npoTHB 
(J)opM coBpeMeHHoii acH3HH, pa3JiaraiomeH o^hhx h oTHHMaiomeH y apyrnx 
njioflbi Bwcineft KyjibTypw. 

M npopOKH HOBOH HCH3HH - HHIjme, H6ceH, nOflo6HO peJIHrH03HbIM 

nponoBe^HHKaM npoiujioro, o6paTHjiHCb k xyfloacecTBeHHoii chmbojimkc 
3to rjiy6oKO C03Haji eme Yaftjib^, noHHBmHii XpHCTa h KaK xy/joacHHKa- 
CHMBOJiHCTa; TyT chmbojih3m eme cipoace ocBemaeT HaM cymecTByiomHe 
uiKOJiw; He ynpa3^HHH, no^Bo^HT no/j hhx 6ojiee rjiy6oKHii (J)yHflaMeHT. 

Bot noneMy /tbohko CKa3ajiocb bjihhhhc 3ana,a;Horo CHMBOJiH3Ma Ha 
MOJio^oe pyccKoe HCKyccTBO. Oho nopo/jHJio Te^eHHe, npeanHcwBaiomee 
HCKyccTBy co3,qaTb HOBbie 4>opMbi pejiHrHH 5kh3hh; oho totobo 6wjio na- 

CTO paCCMaTpHBaTb HCKyCCTBO, KaK HeC03HaHHbie (J)OpMbI peJIHrH03HbIX 

HCKaHHH. TaK B03HHKJia pejiHrH03HO-3CTera*iecKafl TeopHH R. Mepeac- 

KOBCKOrO, MeHTbl O Co6opHOM TBOpHeCTBe B. HBaHOBa, Heo6oCHOBaHHWH 
MHCTHHeCKHH aHapXH3M T. HyjIKOBa, KaK nonblTKa pa3T>HCHHTb CHMBOJI 

MHCTHnecKOH no33HH Bjia/jHMHpa CojioBbeBa h AjieKcaHflpa BjioKa. 

TaK B03HHKaK)T rpe3bl O HOBOM, HapOflHOM TBOpHeCTBe H O c6jIH5KeHHH 
HOBOrO pyCCKOrO HCKyCCTBa C HCKyCCTBOM Hapo^HbiM (TopoAeixKHH H 
PeMH30B). 

B apyroM HanpaBJieHHH uijia pa6oTa rpynnw 3amHTHHKOB chmbojih3- 
Ma, h pa3yMeK), mockobckoh. OHa He peuiajia Bonpoca o npo/jojiaceHHH 

HH^HBHflyaJIbHOrO CHMBOJIH3Ma B CHMBOJIH3M KOJUieKTHBHWH B OTpHIja- 

TejibHOM CMbicjie, ho Bcei^ejio cocpe^oTOHHBajiacb Ha H3yneHHH npneMOB 
TBopnecTBa, b npe^ejiax cymecTByiomHx (J>opM. IIpe^cTaBHTejiH 3toh 
rpynnw npH3HaBajiH, hto cymecTByiomHe (J)opMbi HCKyccTBa TaKHe, a He 
HHbie b 3aBHCHM0CTH ot iiejioro p*ma npHHHH, He yCTpaHHMblX b TeKymHH 
nepnoa pa3BHTHH HejiOBenecTBa. 3ia uiKOjia CTajia aHajiH3HpoBaTb Me- 
to^w TBopnecTBa, no^HepKHBan Heo6xo^HMOcTb cbo6oaw TBopnecTBa, b 
npe/jejiax cymecTByiomHx (J)opM. Tpynna kphthkob h no3TOB noaouiJia k 

HCTOpHH pyCCKOH CJIOBeCHOCTH C npHeMaMH 3CTeTHHeCKOH KpHTHKH. Eh 

y^ajiocb no-HOBOMy ocBeTHTb xopouio H3BecTHbie (})aKTbi OTenecTBeHHOH 
jiHTepaTypw. BHflHeftinHH npe^cTaBHTejib stoh rpynnw, BajiepHH BpiocoB, 
mn HaM o6pa3i|w h apaMw, h cthxob, Morymne conepHHHaTb c jiynuiHMH 
o6pa3iiaMH 3ana^Horo CHMBOJiH3Ma. 

B HacTonmee BpeMH mw npHcyrcTByeM npn flH(j)(j)epeHi|Hai|HH nepBO- 
HanajibHO He6o;ibuioro KpyacKa nHcaTejieii-CHMBOJiHCTOB: o,zjho TeneHHe 

CTpeMHTCH BWHTH H3 C(})epbl HCKyCCTBa, o6jieKaH CBOH o6pa3W B HOBbie 

(J)opMw }KH3HH. /Ipyroe ace TeneHHe c 6ojibuieH ocropoacHOCTbio othocht- 
ch k uiHpoKHM Ji03yHraM, yrjiy6jiHHCb b H3yneHHe KOHKpeTHwx npneMOB 
TBopnecTBa. IIpeflCTaBHTejiH 3Toro TeneHHH HanHHaioT no/j03pHTejibHO ot- 
HOCHTbCH K UIHpOKHM JI03yHraM chmbojihctob, ycMaTpHBan 3flecb He3aMeT- 
Hwe yKJioHeHHH b CTopoHy ot5Khbuihx (J)opM yTonHnecKoro /jorMaTH3Ma. 



201 



Hao6opoT: h HeoflorMaraKH bh^ht 3flecb noBopoT. 06a TeneHHH ho- 
Beiiinero pyccicoro HCKyccTBa othochtch apyr k apyry, KaK (j)paicijHfl 
couHaji-^eMOKpaTOB MeHbineBHKOB k 6ojibineBHKaM. 

BoJIbUieBHKH H MeHbUieBHKH. CHMBOJIHCTbI-6oJIbUieBHKH yKOpHIOT 

MOCKOBCKyio rpynny chmbojihctob b peBH3HOHH3Me. A 3Ta rpynna 6ohtch, 

HTO CHMBOJIH3My HOBeHUiefi (J)OMaiJHH rp03HT yKJIOH K yionH3My. 

Bojiee Tpe3Baa rpynna chmbojihctob npe^noHHTaeT, BO-nepBbix, aep- 

»aTbCH (J)OpM COBpeMeHHOrO HCKyCCTBa H C OCTOp05KHOCTbK) OTHOCHTbCH K 
nOnblTKaM OCymeCTBHTb 4>OpMbI KOJUieKTHBHOTC) TBopnecTBa flO KOpeHHO- 

ro H3MeHeHHH ycjiOBHH coijHajibHoro HepaBeHCTBa. Bo-BTopwx, 0Ha 3amH- 
maeT nojiHyio CBo6ofly TBopnecTBa cymecTByiomHX (J)opM (cKyjibmypbi, 
apxHTeKTypbi, HCHBonncH, no33HH, My3biKH). B-TpeTbnx, 3Ta uncojia chm- 
BOJiH3Ma cpe^H 3aAan, B03Jio»ceHHbix Ha ee aeHTejieft, noflHepKHBaeT He- 
o6xo^HMOCTb aaTb aHajiH3 bosmohchmx uikoji HCKyccTBa, t. e. flaTb xeopHio 

CHMBOJIH3Ma. B-HeTBepTbIX, npH3HaeT Heo6xO^HMbIM OCBeTHTb HCTOpHK) 
HCKyCCTB B CBeTe CHMBOJIHHeCKOH IHKOJIbl. 

B pa3pa6oTKe sthx BonpocoB - rapaHTHH 5kh3hchhocth h aoctohh- 
CTBa pyccKoro CHMBOjiH3Ma. Mw TBep^o BepHM, hto eMy npHHa^jieacHT 
6yaymee. 3Ta Bepa - He Bepa b aorMaT: 3to Bepa b bcjihkhh cmwcji ocbo6o- 
^HTejibHoii chjih TBopnecTBa: TBopnecTBO npeBpamaeT 6arpHHHiry CTpa^a- 

HHH B HpKHH UieJIK B3BHXpeHHOrO OrHfl, a HCKyCCTBO - nOKa e^HHCTBeHHaH 

jiaMnaaa, b kotopoh TenjiHTcn oroHb ayxa. 

1907 

IV. flETCKAfl CBMCTYJIbKA 

Et vous, vallons mouilles de moelleuses rivieres... 

Iwan Gilkin 

CHMBOJIH3MOM B UIHpOKOM CMblCJie He eCTb IHKOJia b HCKyc- 
CTBC CHMBOJIH3M - 3TO H eCTb HCKyCCTBO. POMaHTHHeCKaH, KJiaCCHHe- 

CKan, peajiHCTHHecKaji h caMa CHMBOJiHHecKaa uiKOJia - TOJibKo cno- 
co6 cHMB0JiH3aiiHH o6pa3aMH nepe^cHBaeMoro coaepacaHHH co3HaHHH. 
H noTOMy-TO CMeuiHbi npoTHBonojioaceHHH peajiH3Ma CHMBOJiH3My, t. e. 
MeTOfla TOMy, hto 3tot MeTOfl o4)opMjiHBaeT. Bee cjiOBa o CMeHe chmbo- 
jiH3Ma peajiH3M0M HanoMHHaiOT ^eTCKyio CBHcryjibKy, b KOTopyio ayiOT 
MajibHHKH, BOo6pa>KaiomHe ce6a MyapeijaMH. Bee 3th bwxoakh HOBoro 
cthjih npoTHB CHMBOJiH3Ma noKa3biBaiOT nojiHoe HeBe^cecTBo ceucmynoe 
b Bonpocax ncHXOJiorHH, ncHxo4>H3HOJior/HH h TeopHH no3HaHHH. Ilpe- 
acae Hana^ajiH Ha chmbojih3m TOJibKo cnpaBa: 3to 6hjih Hana/ucH ^o6po- 
^yuiHbix jiio^eH, nacTO HHHero o6mero c HCKyccTBOM He hmcbiiihx. 3th 
Ao6pbie jiioot npHKpbiBajiH CBoe 3eBaiomee 6jiaro,ziiyiHHe HMeHaMH bcjih- 
khx xyaoacHHKOB npouuioro; ho mm Bcer,zja noMHHjiH cjiOBa yaiuibfla o 



202 



tom, hto reHHH nponijioro b pyicax o6biBaiejiH - tojibko cpe^CTBO rjiy- 

IIIHTb TBOpHeCTBO. 

Tenepb Hana^aiOT Ha chmbojih3m cjieBa annroHbi CHMBOJiH3Ma, caMH 
o6n3aHHbie eMy pa3BHTHeM CBoero TBopnecTBa. 3thx cuMeojiucmoe na uac t 
Bbime/uiiHx Ha 3ob Hnuine, H6ceHa, MepeaocoBCKoro H3 cbohx AyuiHbix 

K6JIHH, TOJIbKO H XBaTHJIO Ha TO, HTo6bI nOXBaJIHTb HX 30BymyK) 3apK)J HO 

hath ePi HaBCTpeny - sto yace noABHr! H bot ohh 3aicynopHJiHCb cHOBa b 
cbohx acajiKHx xaTax h Tenepb roBopaT, hto 3apa yracjia. 

Ohh roBopHT, hto ijhkji pa3BHTHH CHMBOJIH3M3. okohhch, h eMy-Ae 
H^eT Ha CMeHy HeopeajiH3M. Kor^a Henero cKa3aTb, o6biKHOBeHHO 6epyT 
nepBbiH nonaBuiHiicH TepMHH h npHcraBjinioT k HeMy npecjiOByToe ««eo». 
Rjix SToro He HyacHO TBopnecTBa mwcjih. HeKorAa chmbojihctob xapaK- 

TepH30BaJIH, KaK «H60»-pOMaHTHKOB. Ho Cpe^H HHX OKa3aJIHCb H KJiaCCH- 

kh; Tor^a npHAyMajiH «weo»-KJiaccHijH3M. Tenepb Hajinuo OKa3HBaeTCH 
««eo»-peajiH3M. Ho bot hto mw bhahm: kophh «weo»-ABHaceHHH b Ao6poM 

CTapOM CHMBOJIH3Me. BMeCTO TOTO HTo6bI OnpeACJIHTb 3BOJHOIJHK) CHMBO- 

jiH3Ma, pacKpbiTb MexaHH3M 3Toii 3bojik)uhh, noKa3aTb CTpyKTypy o6pa30- 

BaHHH CHMBOJIHHeCKHX nOHHTHH, A<*Tb KJiaCCH(|)HKaiJHK) (^OpM CHMBOJIH- 

3auHH, - HaKJieHBaioT, KaK nonajio, ««eo»-H3BecTHbie hpjiwhkh h Ha stoh 
«weo»-niynocTH ctpoht niKOJiy. Mw He BOCCTaBajiH 6w npoTHB TaKoro 3a- 

HHTHfl C KJieeM (CHAHT HeJIOBeK - CBHCTHT B CBHCTyjIbKy, KJieHT HpjIblHKH), 

ecjiH 6w 3^ecb He nyBCTBOBajicH anjiOM6 HeBeacecTBa, TeopeTHnecKH BceM 
o6H3aHHoro ApyrHM h najieu; o najieu; He yaapHBmero, hto6m yncHHTb ce6e 
xoth b o6iijhx nepTax deucmeumejihHue npo6jieMbi CHMBOJiH3Ma. 

MHe B03pa3HT, hto HanaAKH Ha chmbojih3m co CTopoHbi annroHOB 
CHMBOJiH3Ma HanpaBjieHbi Ha oco6bift bha CHMBOJiH3Ma, poAOHanajibHHKa- 
mh KOToporo moecho CHHTaTb Hniune, H6ceHa, BoAJispa, YaiuibAa (y Hac 
Mepe^KOBCKoro, BpiocoBa h ap). Ha3BaHHbie xyAoacHHKH hhhcm He ot- 

JIHHaiOTCH OT KpynHblX XyAO^CHHKOB BCeX BpeMeH. OHH TOJIbKO OC03HaJIH 
CHMBOJIH3M BCflKOTO TBOpHeCTBa H C AOCTaTOHHOH peUIHMOCTbK) CKa3aJIH 

06 3tom BCJiyx. MHe HeoAHOKpaTHO npHxoAHjiocb BbicKa3MBaTbCH o Ae- 

MOKpaTH3aU.HH CHMBOJIOB B TaK Ha3bIBaeM0M HOBOM HCKyCCTBC HHIJine H 

IeTe CBH3aHbi cy6cTaHUHeft TBopnecTBa. TojibKo IeTe nacTO Ha6pacwBaji 

Ha CBOH CHMBOJIbI nOKpOB o6bIAeHHOCTH (apHCTOKpaTH3Ma paAH), KaK, Ha- 

npHMep, b «K)HOiuecKiix zodax BmibzejibMa Meucmepa*, b «H36upamejib- 
hom cpodcmee* h t. a. Ho H3MeHeHHe b TexHHKe npneMOB He KacaeTca cy6- 
CTaHUHH TBopnecTBa. 

Chmbojih3m b HCKyccTBe He KacaeTCH tcxhhkh nHCbMa. H noTOMy-To 
6opb6a xyAO^cecTBeHHbix uikoji BOBce He KacaeTCH npo6jieM CHMBo;iH3Ma. 
KorAa mw yeAHHHMCH b THuiHHy h 6yAeM pa3MbiniJiHTb o npo6;ieMax hc- 
KyccTBa, 6yAeM aHajiH3HpoBaTb (J>opMbi TBopnecTBa (BHe 6a3apHbix Kpn- 
kob MOAepH-KOMHCCHOHepoB no nocTaBKe TOJine hobhhok), KorAa mw 
ocBeTHM nocTaBjieHHbie npo6;ieMbi b CBeTe ncHxojiorHH h TeopHH no3Ha- 



203 



HHfl, - TOJIbKO TOrfla Mbl IIOHMeM, HTO TaKOe npo6jieMM CHMBOJIH3Ma. Ho Ha 

3thx BepuiHHax mmcjih cjibiuieH cbhct xojioflHoro yparaHa, KOToporo TaK 
6ohtch MHTpo(J)aHyiiiKH MO^epHa, HeacHo HacBHCTbiBaiomHe noxopoHHbiH 

MapiU CHMBOJIH3My. 

Bo BTopoft nojiOBHHe XIX CTOJieTHH HaH6ojiee KpynHbie xyaoacHHKH 
oco3HajiH chmbojih3m BCHKoro TBopnecTBa Boo6me. Oc03HaTb o6l>eKTbI 
TBopnecTBa, chmbojim, 3HaHHT - B03HecTH 3th o6T>6KTbi nan raMOM 6a3ap- 

HOH KpHTHKH. BeJIHKHe CHMBOJIHCTbl BTOpOH nOJIOBHHbl XIX CTOJI6THH 

yKa3ajiH HaM c floeraTOHHOH HCHOCTbio, hto 6e3 pa3peineHHH npo6jieMbi 
TBopnecTBa mm He pa3peuiHM hh coijHajibHOH, hh pejiHrH03HOH npo6;ieM 
no3HaHHH. H TexHHKOH nncbMa, h nocTaBJieHHbiMH 3a^anaMH ohh no- 
Ka3ajiH HaM, hto HCKyccTBO - rjiy6»ce h He3aBHCHMee, HeacejiH nojiaranH 
xyzjoHCHHKH (b cbohx 3a«BjieHHHx o CBo6o,zje), h TOJina (b ee 3aflBjieHHH 
o noflHHHeHHH TBopnecTBa HHTepecaM anoxn). IlepBbie chmbojihctm 

(B y3KOM CMblCJie 3TOrO CJIOBa) 6bIJIH H XyflOECHHKaMH-CHMBOJIHCTaMH 
(KaK BCe XyflOECHHKH), H 6opuaMH 3a npaBO CHMBOJIH3Ma. 3TOT OTTeHOK 

nponoBeflH, 6biTb MoaceT, 6ojiee Bcero bjihhji Ha TexHHKy hx nncbMa, Ha 

3KCn03HIJHK) TeM TBOpHeCTBa. 

H corjiaceH: nepBbie 6opijbi h TeopeTHKH pa3 oco3HaHHoro chmbojih3- 
Ma TBopnecTBa yBJieicajiHCb, 6biTb MoaceT, 6opb6oii h c 6a3apHbiMH uiyTa- 
mh noBce^HeBHOH kphthkh, h c 03aflaneHHbiMH 6yp»cya, nOKOH KOTOpblX 
CMyTHjio HCKyccTBO Toro BpeMeHH. BMecTO Toro, hto6m BcecTopoHHe 06- 
cy^HTb Bonpocbi TBopnecTBa b CBeTe HayKH, ncHxojiorHH, (J)hjioco(})hh, pe- 

JIHrHH, MHCTHKH H COIJHaJIbHblX OTHOHieHHH, 6opiJbI 3a HHflHBHflyaJIH3M H 
CHMBOJIH3M HaCTO (J)OpMyjIHpOBaJIH CBOe «Credo» B KpaTKHX, a(J)OpHCTHHe- 

ckhx nojioaceHHHx; 3th nojio^ceHHH hmcjih bh,zj Henocpe^CTBeHHOH y6e,zjH- 
TejibHOCTH, a He CTporoii flOKa3aHHocTH. Ho Bejxh BejiHKHe nponoBe^HHKH 

CHMBOJIH3Ma BTOpOH nOJIOBHHbl XIX CTOJieTHfl 6bIJIH JIHIHb nepBMMH nHO" 

HepaMH nponoBe^H CHMBOJiH3Ma. Ohh BbicKa3ajiH BepHyio Mbicjib o tom, 
hto TBopnecTBO, 6yflynH (j)OKycoM HejiOBenecKoii /jenTejibHOCTH Boo6me, 
b HCKyccTBe noKa npoflBjraeTCH c oco6eHHOH npKOCTbio, h hto HCKyccTBO 
noaTOMy He ecTb mojibKO ucicyccmeo, a o6ojiOHKa, H3 KOTopon BbijieTHT (J>e- 

HHKC HOBOH 3CH3HH. IlepBbie npOnOBeflHHKH Ha6pOCaJIH JIHIHb KpaTKHH 

KOHcneKT nporpaMMbi: peajiH30BaTb 3Ty nporpaMMy - 3aaana He TOJibKO 
Hauieii snoxn, ho h Bcero 6y^ymero. 

Ilepefl HaMH jieacm 3aaana pa3pa6oTKH BonpocoB HCKyccTBa b CBe- 
Te coBpeMeHHoii (J>hjioco(J)hh. Bmctpmmh uiaraMH Han6ojiee cepbe3Hbie 
(h, no-BHflHMOMy, HaH6ojiee flajieKHe ot HCKyccTBa) HCCJieaoBaTejiH bo- 

npOCOB n03HaHHH nOflXOflflT K peiHeHHK) 3a^aH, 3aTpOHyTbIX He3aBHCHMO 

ot hhx TeopeTHKaMH CHMBOJiH3Ma, HaBOOT, TaK cKa3aTb, HH^ceHepHbie MO- 
ctw TaM, iyje bh^cjih jiHiiib paayacHbie apKH H3 chmbojiob h a(J>opH3MOB. 
^aeTCH B03MO»cHocTb o6jienb nponoBe^b CHMBOJiH3Ma 6poHeio HecoKpy- 
uiHMbix MeTO^OB. Ho pa3Be nofl03peBaiOT Bee 3to coBpeMeHHbie annroHbi 



204 



CHMB0JIH3Ma, 3aHHTbie nOCTaBKOH Ha pblHOK HeopeaJIHCTHHeCKHX CBHCTy- 

jieK? Pa3Be HHTepecHO hm 3HaTb, hto «Kpacueue» a4>opH3Mbi Hmjuie (ko- 
Topbie ohh no o6n3aHHocmu, c 3cbkom, ^HTajin) He TOJibico xpacueu, a h bo 

MHOrHX OTHOHieHHHX y6HHCTBeHHO BepHbl! HTO H BOnpOC O t^eHHOCTJlHX B 

CBeTe uiKOJiw PHKKepTa h Jlacna craHOBHTCH ijeHTpajibHbiM BonpocoM h 

CHMBOJIH3Ma, H TeopeTHKO-n03HaBaTeJIbHbIX BblBOflOB? 

riepe^ HaMH 3aflana - o6ocHOBaTb He3aBHCHMyio acTeraKy, Kaic toh- 
Hyio HayKy. HaKOHeij, 32m3.Hn jihhhocth h o6mecrBa TOJibKO b CBeTe chm- 
BOJiHHecKoro MHpoco3epuaHHH nojiynaiOT yaoBJieTBopniomee Hac peuie- 

HHC OlOBOM - BOnpOCbl CHMBOJIH3Ma OTHOCHTCH K BOnpOCaM 3CTCTHKH H 
MHCTHKH, KaK TeopHfl n03HaHHH K #pyrHM (J)HJIOCO(J)CKHM flHCIJHnjIHHaM. 
H eCJIH BblBOflbl H3 TeOpHH n03HaHHH KacaiOTCH HaH60Jiee COKpOBeHHblX 

BonpocoB MopajiH, to h BbiBOflbi CHMBOJiH3Ma npeflonpeaejinioT e^HH- 
CTBeHHO BepHbift nyTb HCKyccTBy h pejiHrHH. 

TojibKo b cHMBOJiH3Me xyaoacHHK o6peTaeT npaBO CBoe 6biTb cbo6oa- 
hwm HccjieaoBaTejieM bo Bcex c(J)epax nejioBenecKOH aeflTejibHocra: H3 
y3KHX, noA3eMHbix Heap CBoero «Hympa», H3-noa thckob othchbuihx h 
y3KHx AorMaTOB (KaK-To: aorMara TeojiorHH, H^eajiH3Ma, peajiH3Ma, no3H- 

THBH3Ma H T. fl.) OH BblXOflHT K IHHpOKOMy MOpK) HCH3HH, H eMy npeflOCTaB- 

jineTCH npaBO - KaK OTBepTbiBaTbcn ot ocTaBjieHHbix aorMaTOB, TaK h ocBe- 
maTb hx fleftcTBHTejibHbiM cBeTOM. 3^ecb xyzjoaeHHK He MoaceT, ne CMeem 
HacHJibHo OTBopaHHBaTbCH ot Toro, K neMy HeMHHyeMO npHBOflHT ero pa3- 
MbiinjieHHe Ha^ aoporHMH eMy npe^MeTaMH. 3^ecb nojiynaeT oh He mhh- 
Mbie, a aeHCTBHTejibHbie npaBa Ha CBo6oay. 3^ecb nojiynaeT oh bo3mohc- 
HOCTb H3ynaTb o6pa30BaHHe b co3HaHHH cHMBOJiHnecKHx npeflCTaBJieHHii 

pa3H006pa3HbIX MeTOflOJIOTHH, MexaHH3M CJIOECeHHH H KJiaCCH(})HKaiJHH 

chmbojiob; a OTbicKaHHe HopMbi, npeaonpeaejifliomeH pa3BHTHe chmbo- 
jiHHecKHx npe^cTaB jieHHH , BeaeT k peineHHio KopeHHoro Bonpoca TBopne- 
CTBa: KaK bosmohchm CHMBOJiHnecKHe npe^CTaBjieHHH. A 3to h ecTb Bonpoc 
o tom, KaK eo3MOMHa pemizun. 3aaaHH pejiHrHH H3HyTpH conpHKacaioTcn c 
3aaanaMH CHMBOJiH3Ma, KaK TeopHH CHMBOJiH3Ma H3BHe npeAonpeaejiHeT- 
ch TeopHeii ncHxojiorHH h TeopneH 3HaHHH. Bnepe^H - rpoMaflHaa Kyjib- 
TypHan 3aaana, Tpe6yK)ma*i MHorax noKOJieHHH, hto6w peajiH30BaTb npo- 
rpaMMy, HaMeneHHyio CHMBOJiHCTaMH XIX CTOjieraa. 

H BOT SnHTOHbl CHMBOJIH3Ma ECaJIKHMH «HeO»-B3flOpHbIMH CBHCTyjIb- 

KaMH acejiaioT noxopoHHTb 3Ty 3a^any, OTKa3aTbcn ot BejiHKoro Hacjiefl- 

CTBa... Ho yenOKOHMCH! Beflb rOBOpHT B HHX TOJibKO 6e3rpaMOTHOCTbI Kto 

3th anHroHbi? Ecjih 3to He inapjiaTaHbi, CTpeMnmnecH H3 npjibiMKa C03- 
jxxrh ce6e hmh npoB03rjiauieHHeM KaKoii yro^HO (Jmkthbhoh ihkojiw b hc- 
KyccTBe, to nacTO sto npocTO «neemie nmuUtU» y HacBHCTbiBaiomHe nranbH 
neceHKH h OTCTOHmne 3a TpH^eBHTb 3e\iejib ot khkhx 6m to hh 6buio Teo- 
peTHnecKHx 3a^an. - Ho ecjiH th - ^neeuoH nmuufii^y ecjiH Te6e aopoace 
Bcero TBoe 6eccjiOBecHoe «Hympo», - th h noft cboh neceHKH: mm Te6e 



205 



6jiaro,aapHbi 3a 3to. TojibKO He hot th k HaM c yica3aHHHMH h noyneHHHMH 
«cojioebUHOU mpejibio», tw He 3acjiOHHiHb HaM crpaaajibnecKoe pacnHTHe 
yaftjib^a, HHUine, Bo^Jiapa; «demcKou ceucmyjibKOU* He 3arjiyuiHHib ypa- 
raHbi no3HaHHH, peBymero HaM b yuiH H3 6yaymero. 

Moecho 6biTb chmbojihctom no TBopnecTBy, KaK Bee xy^o^cHHKH, He3a- 
BHCHMO OT TeXHHKH nHCbMa. MCOKHO 6bITb TeopeTHKOM 3aa an TBopnecTBa. 
HaKOHeU, M05KHO 6bITb XyflOECHHKOM H OBJiafleTb CJIOECHOCTbK) HHTepecoB 

no3HaHHH: coneTaTb b cjioechom B3aHMO,aeHCTBHH pa3Hoo6pa3He MeTOflOB h 
Bee hx Hcno jib30BaTb, KaK cpeacTBa B03fleficTBHH. 06pa3 TaKoro xyaoacHHKa- 
Myapeua HaMerajiH chmbojihctw, KaK H^eaji. H BejiHKHe xyaoacHHKH Bcex 
BpeMeH cTpeMHjiHCb npH6;iH3HTbCH no Mepe chji k TaKOMy H^eajiy xyaoac- 
HHKa. BcnoMHHM JleoHap^o (xy/K»KHHK-ecTecTBOHcnbrraTejib-HH5KeHep), 

.flaHTe (n03T-TeOJIOr-MHCTHK), IeTe (HaTypaJIHCT-n03T-(|)HJIOCO(j)-MHCTHK), 

lllHJiJiep (nosT-KaHTHaHeu-yMeHbiii), IlyuiKHH (iiost-kphthk-hctophk), 

HHmue (n03T-4)HJIOJIOr-4)HJIOC04)-MHCTHK). XyflO^CHHKH-CHMBOJIHCTbl co- 

3HajiH npaBo xyaoacHHKa 6biTb pyKOBO^HTejieM h ycTpoHTejieM »ch3hh. Ho 
3to Bbiciuee npaBO HyacHO npHo6pecTH pa^oM CHCTeMaraHecKHx 3aBoeBa- 
hhh h b meopuecmee, h b 3hcihuu. Chmbojih3m, 3to - 3HaMH, BOKpyr koto- 
poro jiojiysmhi OTHbme rpynnnpoBaTbCH Bee chjih, 6opiomHecH 3a BbicoTy 
HCKyccTBa, 3a Te, BceM HyacHbie, TaftHbi MyapocTH, KOTopwe 3aKJiioHeHbi b 

TBOpHeCTBC ChMBOJIH3M - KyjIbMHHaiJHOHHafl TOHKa pocTa HCKyCCTBai OT- 

KJioHeHHH BnpaBO h BJieBo b HacTonmee BpeMH BeayT k npo4)aHauHH TBOp- 
necTBa. H He «neeutiM nmuuflM*, He npoBOKaTopaM CHMBOJiH3Ma, Bpoae 
rr. HyjiKOBbix, KOJie6aTb aoctohhctbo pyccKoro CHMBOJiH3Ma. IlycTb ce6e 

XOpOHHT ^eTCKHMH CBHCTyjIbKaMH flOCTOHHCTBO pyCCKOrO CHMBOJIH3Ma. 

Ohh xopohht, npeac^e Bcero, ce6n, CBoe aoctohhctbo, o6Ha»caH Henoaro- 
TOBJieHHOCTb 3aHHMaTb to MecTO, KOTopoe He npHHa^JieacHT hm no npaBy. 

IleBHafl nraija, KanaiiCH ce6e Ha BeTOHKe, ho, Bora pa^H, He noflpaacaft 
cbhctom 4>yre Baxa, KOTopyio th Morjia ycjiwinaTb H3 OKHal Hto6w 6biTb 
My3biKaHTOM mwcjih, Majio eme jiyTb: «dymb - ue 3Hmum uzpamb na (pjieu- 
me; djin uzpu nyoicHO deuzamb najibi^aMU^ (TeTe). 

1907 



V. TEOPIifl WW CTAPAfl EAEA 

HcKyccTBO ecTb CHMBOJiH3auHH ueHHocTefi b o6pa3ax fleft- 

CTBHTejIbHOCTH. CnOCo6 CHMBOJIH3aiZHH H XapaKTep OTHOUieHHH K CHMBO- 

jiH3HpyeMbiM i^eHHOCTHM onpeaejiaeT pa3Hoo6pa3He 4>opM cHMBOJiH3Ma. 
PaccMaTpHBan chmbojih3m c stoh o6meft tohkh 3peHHH, mm He MoaceM eme 
npe^peniHTb Bee (J)opMbi CHMBOJiH3aijHH ueHHOCTefl. H noTOMy-To o6mHe 

npHHUHnbl CHMBOJIH3Ma HBJIHIOTCH o6T>e^HHHK)meH OCHOBOH BCHHeCKOTO 

TBopnecTBa hobwx 4>opM HH^HBH^yajibHoro h KOJiJieKTHBHoro b o6jiac™ 



206 



HCKyccTBa. Bot noneMy screTHnecKHe, xyfloacecTBeHHbie, pe;iHrH03Hbie 
H MHCTHHeCKHe TeopHH, eCJIH OHH He XOTHT pacnjibiTbcn B 6ecnoHBeHHOM 
xaoTH3Me, hjih 3anyraTbCH b MepTBOM ,zjorMaTH3Me, hjih, HaKOHeij, cohth 

Ha HeT B COJIHnCH3Me H CKenTHIJH3Me, flOJiaCHbl BblHCHHTb CBOe OTHOUieHHe 
K OCHOBe TBOpHeCTBa, HX nopO^HBUieH, K CHMBOJIH3My. 

TeopHH CHMBOJiH3Ma CMyTHO npeayra^aHa bccmh BbiflaiomHMHCH xy- 
aoMCHHKaMH; ho hmh OHa He onpe^ejieHa b (J)hjioco(J)ckhx TepMHHax. Becb 

XOfl pa3BHTHH (J)HJIOCO(j)CKOH MblCJIH XIX CTOJieTHH B o6jiaCTH 3THKH H 

TeopHH 3HaHHH npeflonpeaejineT HHTepec k nocipoeHHio chmbojihhcckhx 

TeopHH. TOHHO TaK 5KCHB o6jiaCTH nOCTpoeHHH 3CTeTHHeCKHX TeopHH. 

C tohkh 3peHH« TeopHH 3HaHHH cymHOCTb rpynnnpoBKH Tex HJIH HHblX 
CBH3eft 3aBHCHT Bceijejio ot (})opMbi rpynnnpoBKH. BcHnecicoe coaepacaHHe 

.ZXeHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH B TeopeTHMeCKOM paCCMOTpeHHH nOOTHHHeTCH MeTO^y. 

YneHHe o MeTo^ax nocrpoeHHH TeopHH 3aKOHOMepHo BbiTecHHeT yneHHe 
o xapaKTepe aeHCTBHTejibHocra. CHMBOJiHHecicaH TeopHH hbjihctch Heo6- 
xo^hmoh npe^nocbijiKOH TeopHH 3HaHHH. IlpejioMjiHHCb b HopMax TeopHH 
3HaHHH, chmbojih3m ^ajiee npejiOMJineTCH h b MeTO^ax: mohcho roBopHTb 

O CHMBOJIH3Me CaMHX MeTOflOB H O CHMBOJIH3MC B npe^eJiaX TOH HJIH HHOH 
MeTO^OJIOrHHeCKOH IUKOJIbl 3HaHHH. TeopeTHHeCKOe MeCTO CHMBOJIH3Ma 3a 

npe^ejiaMH TeopHH 3HaHHn; ho npeacfle, HeacejiH onpe^ejiHTb 3to mccto, cjie- 
jiyeT TOHHee BbmejiHTb ycjioBHoe npe^CTaBJieHHe o chmbojikmcckoh TeopHH 
b npe^ejiax chctcmw 3HaHHH h TeopHH no3HaHHH. KjiaccH(J)HKauHH 4>opM 
CHMBOJiHnecKHx nocrpoeHHH b MeTo^ax ecTb TeopeTHKO-no3HaBaTejibHaH 
3a#ana o6ocHOBaHHH CHMBOJiH3Ma. ycTaHOBjieHHe coaepacaHHH noHHTHii 
«cum80ji», «chm60jiu3m» b npe^ejiax Toro hjih hhoto MeTo^a - 3aflana Me- 
TO^ojiorHHecKoro o6ocHOBaHHH CHMBOJiH3Ma. MeTO^ojiorHH h rHoceojio- 
thh CHMBOjiH3Ma Heo6xo^HMO npeflinecTByiOT nocTpoeHHio TeopHH CHM- 
BOJIH3Ma. TeopHH CHMBOJIH3Ma - 3TO HCXOflHaH TOHKa Bcex TeopeTHHecKHx 

nocTpoeHHH: TeopHH no3HaHHH, pejinrHH, sctcthkh h HayKH cyTb nacrabie 
3aaaHH TeopHH cHMBOJiH3Ma, (J)opMyjiHpoBaHHOH b o6meM BH^e. H eCJIH 
HHTepec k TeopeTHHecKOMy MbiinjieHHio He aTpocJ)HpyeTCH OKOHnaTejibHO 
b HejioBenecTBe, TeopHH CHMBOJiH3Ma b 6yaymeM 3aHMeT noneTHoe MecTO 
TeopHH no3HaHHH. Mojkho ocnapHBaTb nepBeHCTByiomee 3HaneHHe Teope- 
THnecKoro MbimjieHHH Boo6me, ho 6wjio 6bi 6e3yMHeM ocnapHBaTb Boo6me 

HHTepec K TeOpeTHMeCKHM HCCJie,ZXOBaHHHM. 

A eCJIH C 3THM HHTepeCOM npHXOflHTCH CHHTaTbCH, TO HMeeT MeCTO H 

HHTepec k TeopeTHnecKHM pa3MbinuieHHHM b o6jiacTH HCKyccTBa: Be^b 
BCHKan apxHCBo6oflHan KpHTHKa b o6jiacra HCKyccTBa 3H5K^eTCH Ha Teope- 
THMecKHx npe^nocwjiKax CBo6oflbi TBopnecTBa, ijchhocth stoh CBo6o^bi; 
npn Heo6xo^HMOCTH 3amnmaTb sth npe^nocbiJiKH mm noaxoflHM k TeopHH 
xy^o^cecTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa; ho TeopHH xyaoacecTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa 
ecTb TeopHH 3CTeTHnecKoro CHMBOJiH3Ma; 3CTeTHHecKHH chmbojih3m nep- 
naeT cboio cnjiy TOJibKO b TeopHH CHMBOJiH3Ma. Ecjih mm 6yaeM ocnapn- 



207 



BaTb HHTepeC K TeopeTHHeCKHM HCCJie/JOBaHHflM B o6jiaCTH CHMBOJIH3Ma, 

mw BbipBCM y ce6n noHBy H3-noA Hor; ocraBaacb nocjieaoBaTejibHWMH, 
mw jiHiiiaeM ce6n npaBa nncaTb KpHTHKy, 3aHHMaTbcn H3yneHHeM cthjih- 
CTHHecKHx KpacoT, noTOMy hto ueHHOCTb 3thx KpacoT ocTaHeTCH cnop- 
hoh. Pa3Be, CManyn b cTaTbe cjiOBopacnojioaceHHe h H3bicKaHHOCTb pH(J)M 
y Cie(J)aHa Teopre, h 6jiHace k aejiy, neM h3T)Hchhh CBoeMy MwiiuieHHio 
HopMw CBo6o^Horo TBopnecTBa? TaK nacTO nojiaraiOT screTw, CTpeMrjiaB 
y6eraiomHe ot BCHKoro TeopeTHnecicoro BWHCHeHHfl o6mHx ochob Toro, 
nacTHOcra nero ohh 3amHmaK>T b nenaTH. HeT: hjih BOo6me HHHero aejib- 

3fl nHCaTb 06 HCKyCCTBe, HJIH MeCTO TeopeTHHeCKHX H3bICKaHHH b o6jiacTH 

acTeTHKH ^ojiacHo 6biTb pa3 HaBcer^a 3amnmeHO ot BCHKoro copTa Meacey- 
mok. E[ycTb jiioah, HecicjioHHbie k TeopeTHHecKOH pa3pa6oTKe H 3aujHTe 
npaB HaM jno6e3Horo tchchhh, yzjajiniOTCfl ot 3thx BonpocoB, ho nycTb ace 
ohh He ctpoht rpHMac TaM, rjxe 3th Bonpocbi no/jHHMaiOTCfl. Hjih ohh He 

nOHHMaiOT, HTO OHH py6nT BeTKy, Ha KOTOpOH CHflflT? 

HHAHBHflyaJIH3M XIX CTOJieTHH C OCo6eHHOH CHJIOH npHCHTHyji 3a- 

BeTaM BejiHKHx xyzjoacHHKOB b hx 3amHTe xyzjoacecTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa; 
xyfloacHHKH-HH^HBH^yajiHCTbi He TOJibKO oco3HajiH npeaycTaHOBjieH- 

HOCTb CHMBOJIH3aiZHH BCHKOTO TBOpHeCTBa BOo6me. IloCKOJIbKy OHH OCTa- 

BajiHCb xyao»CHHKaMH, ohh He 3amnmajiH CBoe npaBO, a floica3WBajiH ero 

C06cTBeHHbIM TBOpHeCTBOM; nOCKOJIbKy OHH OC03HaJIH CBOe TBOpHeCTBO, 

ohh aajiH njiaT(J)opMy, c KOTopofi moecho corjiamaTbcn hjih HeT, ho c koto- 
poS mw Bee CHHTaeMCH. 3Ta njiaT(J)opMa 6biJia BbicKa3aHa hmh b KpaTKHx, 
a(J)opHCTHHecKHX TepMHHax. TBopnecTBo, conpoBoae/jaeMoe njiaT^opMoft, 

BWfleJIHJIO CHMBOJIHHeCKyK) IUKOJiy. BO MHOTOM Mbl - npHMbie HaCJICZlHHKH 

stoh iiikojiw. Hauia o6n3aHHOCTb - pa3o6paTbcn, b neM mw hbjihcmch npe- 
eMHHKaMH nepBbix chmbojihctob h b neM npoaojiacaTejiflMH. H, npeacae 
Bcero, aojdkhw mh othctjihbo pa3^ejiHTb o6jiacTb TBopnecTBa ot o6jiacTeft 
3amHTbi hjih kphthkh 3Toro TBopnecTBa. B nocjieflHeM cjiynae Mbl aojdk- 
hw pa3pa6oTaTb uinpoKHe ji03yHrn CHMBOJiH3Ma: aojiacHw npeBpaTHTb 
njiaT(J)opMy b Teopnio; to, hto mw HHTaeM y Hnuiiie, Yaftjib^a, H6ceHa, 
MeTepjiHHKa h aajiee: y Illiope, PeMH jie TypMOHa h TaHKpe/ja ae Bn3aHa, 
hto y3HaeM npo Teopnio MajuiapM3, - eme He ecTb 3amHTa CHMBOJiH3Ma h 
Bcero HOBoro HCKyccTBa Boo6me, a 6oeBa*i njiaT(J>opMa; ecjin mw /jopoaeHM 
cepbe3H0CTbK> stoh njiaT(J)opMw, mw aojiacHw yrjiy6nTb no^HHTwe Bonpo- 
cw, hjih npoumu mumo: b nocjie^HeM cjiynae Hauie npoxoj/cdenue mumo ecTb 
OTpnijaHHe hcxo/jhwx ToneK HOBoro HCKyccTBa. J\jia toto hto6w OTpnuaTb, 
mw flOJDKHw 3Hamb, hto pa3yMejiH HauiH npe^TeHH b tom hjih HHOM BWCKa- 
3WBaeMOM nojio^ceHHH. TojibKO OTcyTCTBHe 3HanuH y KyjibTypw, aa h boo6- 
me HHTepeca k BonpocaM TBopnecTBa MoaceT npeBpaTHTb bcjihkhh npH3WB 

K CHMBOJIH3My B 60TipOC MOJlbl. OTHOUieHHe K npo6jieMaM CHMBOJIH3Ma, 

KaK k npexoflflmeft Moae, Ha6jno,zjaeTCfl y Hac Tenepb b Tex npoMeacyTon- 
hwx Kpyrax, KOTopwe mhht ce6n ctohiuhmh Bwme uinpoKofi ny6jiHKH, 06- 



208 



paTHBineHCH k npeflTenaM Hauiero ^bh^cchhh. Taicoe oTHOiueHHe, iiomhmo 
Bcero nponero, ecTb noKa3aiejib rpy6oii 6e3rpaMOTHOCTH. Ohh cmotpht Ha 
chmbojih3m, KaK Ha uiKOJiy; Kaaczioe flecHTHjierae npHHOCHT HOByio uiKOJiy; 
h bot yace HmyT ohh hoboh uiKOJiw; He yMea HHnero npocTO opnrHHajibHO- 
ro npn^yMaTb, njioflHT niKOJibi nepecTaHOBKOH h coneTaHHeM cjiob. TaKHe 
aHajiHTHKH CHMBOJiH3Ma noHTH Bcer^a HMeiOT 3a co6ofl TeMHoe nponijioe: 
3to - 6biBHiHe Bparn CHMBOJiH3Ma, KaK jiHTepaTypHoii uikojim, h BHepaui- 
HHe npnxBocTHH; ceroAHH ohh npoBounpyioT. HnKoraa ohh He 3HajiH chm- 
bojihctob; eme MeHee 3HajiH ohh ji03yHrn chmbojihctob (co6paHHe cohhhc- 
hhh Hnunie, KaK HHKaK, a 3aKjiK)HaeT b ce6e 16 tomob). 

Meacay TeM npo6;ieMbi, HaHBHO 4>opMyjiHpoBaHHbie y nepBbix chmbo- 
jihctob, cyTb KopeHHbie npo6;ieMbi 06 OTHonieHHH TeopHH 3HaHH# k Teo- 
pHH TBopnecTBa. 

B MOMeHT, Kor^a caMH TeopeTHKO-no3HaBaTejibHbie nccjieflOBaHHH 

CKJIOHfllOTCH K 3aBHCHMOCTH n03HaHHH OT TBOpHeCTBa, 3aHHTHe TeopHeH 

no3HaHHH CTaHOBHTCH coBepuieHHO Heo6xo,aHMbiM Rjin BCHKoro TeopeTH- 
Ka HCKyccTBa, KaK CTaHOBHTCH Heo6xoflHMbiM 3HaHHe ^H^x^epeHUHajib- 

HOrO HCHHCJieHHH flJIfl Cepbe3HOrO XHMHKa. CjIOBaMH o cBo6oae HJIH He- 

CBo6oae TBopnecTBa, BbiKpHKaMH o co6opHOM TBopnecTBe hjih TBopnecTBe 
HH^HBH^yajibHOM He OTBepTHuibCH ot npo6jieMbi: hto 3HaHHT TpecKynan 
peBOJibBepHan najib6a TaM, r^e BbicTaBJieHbi flajibHo6oHHbie opy^HH? 

H BOT Mbl CnpaUIHBaeM rOCnOfl TeopeTHKOB-KpHTHKOB, HMnpeCCHOHHCTOB 
H aHapXHCTOB MMCJIHI HyaCHa JIH KpHTHKa? ECJIH OHH HaM OTBeTHT, HTO He 

HyacHa, mm hx cnpocHM: «TaK, noneMy ace bm 3aHHMaeTecb 6ecuejibHbiM 
3aHHTHeM?» Ecjih ace ohh OTBeTHT, hto HyacHa, to 6y^b ohh npeacraBHTe- 

JIHMH apXHCy6l>eKTHBHOH KpHTHKH, OHH flOJiaCHM HjieHopa3flejibHO aoKa- 
3aTb CBoe npaBO. H stoto aocraTOHHO, hto6m npnrjiacHTb hx b Map6ypr 
k KoreHy, HaTopny, hjih bo Opefl6ypr, noTOMy hto mm xothm necTHbix 
,zjoKa3aTejibCTB, a He IlapoK 6a6bezo jienemama; sto jienemanbe npeKpac- 
ho b jinpHKe, h HaM jih ocnapHBaTb ero KpacoTy? Ho 6a6be Jienemanbe 
b Bonpocax, cBH3aHHbix c HauiHM xy^oacecTBeHHbiM «credo» (Bee paBHo: b 

06jiaCTH JIH TeopHH, KpHTHKH HJIH TaKTHKH), eCTb apXH-aXHHefl! TyT KpH- 

thk, TeoperaK hjih TaKTHK ecTb cmapasi 6a6a y He 6ojibiue. Mm caMH noA- 
nac rpeniHM coeflHHeHHeM TeopHH c H3o6pa3HTejibHOCTbio; ho mm He bm- 
^aeM Tor^a Hauinx npHTH, ajuieropHH h chmbojiob 3a Teopnio. Bonpocbi 
TeopeTHnecKHx nocTpoeHHH, TaKTHKH h kphthkh onpeaejieHHO BblHOCHM 

3a rpaHb HH#HBH ( ZiyaJIbHMX CyaCfleHHH. Mbl CTaHOBHMCH CHMBOJIHCTaMH, 

no3TaMH, MHCTHKaMH (hcm yroAHo), Kor^a BHHMaeM Tlapon Jienemanbw f 

a He TeopeTHKaMH, He KpHTHKaMH. 

CoBpeMeHHbie TeopeTHKH HCKyccTBa y Hac ace ynnjiHCb sthm npneMaM; 
h mm hm He OTKa3MBaeM b npaBe nncaTb KaK yroflHo: mm TOJibKO Tpe6yeM, 

HT06bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb TeOpeTHKa-KpHTHKa OHH C Ce6fl CHHJIH B 3TOT MO- 
MeHT. Ho, yTMKaBIHHCb naBJIHHbHMH nepbHMH KpaCHOpeHHH, OHH HMeHHO 



209 



B 3T0M 3aHHTHH yCMaTpHBaiOT CBOe 3HaHCHHe, KaK pyKOBO^HTeJieft MblCJIH. 

IIpH 3tom coBepniaioT ohh HBHyio 3KcnponpHauHK). TaK, Ka(J)eapa npono- 
Be^HHKOB cHMBOJiH3Ma npeBpamaeTCH b 6a3ap kphkjihbbix 6a6, a npo6jie- 
mw HCKyccTBa, cTOHmne Ha onepeAH, b apxH-axHHeio. 

CoBpeMeHHan HaM snoxa ecTb snoxa TBopnecTBa hobbix (J>opM HCKyc- 
CTBa: 3^ecb AonycKaeM mw BcnnecKoe ,aep3HOBeHHe; ho tcm CTpoace, TeM 
neziaHTHHHee mm b o6;iacTH TeopeTHHecKoft pa3pa6oTKH npaB 3Toro flep3- 
HOBeHHH. Edb (J)HHaHCOBoe, rpaacaaHCKoe, yrojiOBHoe, pHMCKoe npaBo: h 
ecTb (J)hjioco4)hh npaBa. EcTb chmbojih3m M6ceHa, Hniuiie, MepeaeKOBCKO- 
ro h ecTb TeopHH cHMBOJiH3Ma. Rjin H3yneHHH nepBoro o6paTHMca k aaH- 
HOMy HaM TBopnecTBy Ha3BaHHbix xyaoacHHKOB. Una pa3pa6oTKH BToporo 
He Meinajio 6bi name coBepuiaTb najioMHHHecTBO b Map6ypr. He 6y^b y Hac 

HBJieHHH, Mbl HHKOrfla He 3a^aJIHCb 6bl BOnpOCOM, KaK B03M03KHbI HBJieHHH. 

Ho pa3 3th HBJieHHH HajiHijo, Heo6xoflHMO b hhx pa3o6paTbCH. Hjih - aa 
nora6HyT KpHTHKa h 3CTeTHKa! Ho Kyaa b TaKOM cjiynae AeHyrcfl CTapbie 
6a6bi, HanojiHHiomHe CTpaHHuw acypHajioB screTHHecKOH 6ojiTOBHeH? 

1907 



VI. OTLlbl M flETH PYCCKOrO CMMBOJ1M3MA 

IlepeHHTblBaeiHb 3HaKOMbie CTpaHHIJbl o6l>eMHCTOH KHOTH 

BojibiHCKoro. HHTaenib h HeBOJibHO yjibi6aenibCH: Bee 3th xoth h yMHbie 
paccyaeaeHHH bciot TaKHM aajieKHM nponijibiM. BepHO, tohho, noaeajiyii, 
opHrHHajibHO, ho, Eoaee moh, ro nero npHMHTHBHa, H3Becraa, o6ma 3Ta 
opHrHHajibHOCTb. IIpHCTynaH k eme HenpoHHTaHHbiM CTpaHHixaM, Hcnw- 
TbiBaenib HeBOJibHbift HCKyc npeKpaTHTb HTeHHe. Bee, CKa3aHHoe aBTopoM, 
Mor 6w, noaeajiyft, h caM paccKa3aTb ce6e, npHHHB CTHJib BojibiHCKoro. 
CaMbiM onacHbiM yaapoM ^jm aBTopcKoro npecTHaca hbjihctch flep3KaH 
Mbicjib HHTaTejiH, 6yATO oh 3HaeT Bee, hto Mor 6bi cKa3aTb aBTop. 

IIOHHMaH CTHJib JIK)6orO nHCaTeJIH, M03KHO B pa3HOe BpeMH OTHOCHTb- 
CH H nOJIOHCHTeJIbHO, H OTpHIjaTeJIbHO K 3TOMy CTHJIK), B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT 

da^HH cBoero BHyTpeHHero pa3BHTHH. Cjihiukom xoponio H3BecTHa jiio- 

flHM HaUieil 3nOXH CTa^HH OTHOUieHHH K ^OCTOeBCKOMy, Ha KOTOpOM CTOHT 

Bojiwhckhh. Bot noneMy 3anac Ha6jno,aaTejibHocTH, ocTpoyMHe, KOTopw- 
mh 3JieraHTHO 6jiemeT Bojiwhckhh, npeBparajiHCb - ocTpoyMHe b xo^nnee 
ocTpoyMHe; Ha6jnoflaTejibHocTb - b o6mee MecTo. Xoponio HaM H3BecTeH 
6araac o6mnx MecT, Heo6xo^HMo Hac BCTpenaiomHH Ha H3BecTHoft CTa^HH 
noHHMaHHH .flocToeBCKoro. Cjihhikom H3BecTHbi npeAeJiw stoh craflHH, a 
noTOMy mohcho 6bi a priori BbiBecra, hto aBTop kochctch «6oiOHejioeeKa 
u HejioeeKo6oza», «pa3deoenusi co3nanuR^ y «mpazu3Ma cnadocmpacmusi* 
h t. jx. h t. a. Bcero 3Toro h KacaeTCH aBTop. Mbi yace He yKjxeu «zpoMoe» 
u «zjiacoe». Uyrb .flocToeBCKoro h ero uikojih HaM xoponio H3BecieH. 



210 



Bot noneMy aHajiH3 ero TBopnecTBa HMeeT ajih Hac jihuib hctophko- 
jiHTepaTypHbiS HHTepec. C stoh tohkh 3peHHH Tpya BojibiHCKoro hbjih- 
eTCH ueHHbiM BKJia^OM b jiHTepaTypy o /Joctocbckom. /Jajiee 6o;iee Toro: 
4>aKT cymecTBOBaHHH y Hac Hccjie^OBaHHH MepeacKOBCKoro, BojibiHCKoro 
h Po3aHOBa npHHTHO meKoneT HauHOHajibHoe caMOjiio6He. Uepejx jihuom 
3ana^Hoii EBponw mm MoaceM cKa3aTb, hto pyccKaa KpHTHKa oijeHHJia h 
noHHJia BejiHKoro oTenecTBeHHoro nncaTejiH. Ecjih 6w He cymecrBOBajio y 
Hac 3thx HccjieaoBaHHH, mw aojiacHbi 6biJiH 6bi KpacHeTb 3a pyccKyio Kpn- 
THKy. Tenepb mm cnoKOHHbi. 

Koraa Po3aHOB immeT o nojie, oh CBepKaeT. IbpnmHe chmbojim ero 
6e3BpeMeHHbi. BpeMeHa, HaijHOHajibHOCTH rpynnnpyioTCH BOKpyr sthx 
o6pa30B, KaK BOKpyr CBoero *mpa. Bo3Bpamancb k hctophh, oh HeBOJib- 
ho nepeMemaeT Hapo^HOCTH. /locToeBCKHH 0Ka3biBaeTca eninTflHHHOM. 
B Eranie BocKpecaiOT nepra, HaM 6jih3khc TyT Po3aHOB noflJiHHHO re- 
HHajieH. TyT hmh ero ocTaHeTCH b BeKax. 

Kor^a ace oh KCTara h HeKCTaTH npHTacKHBaeT KpbijiaTbie bh^chha 
He3eKHHjiH k coBpeMeHHMM TeMaM, ropnmne yrojibH ero TBopnecTBa no- 
KpbiBaiOTCH cepbiM HajieTOM (J)ejibeTOHHoro nenjia. «3mo nuccui ycmcuiuu 
Po3dH06», xoneTCH cKa3aTb, npo6eran 4>ejibeTOH «Hoeozo BpeMenu*. Po- 

3aHOB, 3TO - 30pKaH pblCb, npOHH3bIBaK>mafl MpaK JieCHblX Jia6HpHHTOB. 

Eme H3flajieKa y3Haeuib o ero npH6jiH5KeHHH, Kor^a b jiecHOM oflHHonecTBe 
3acBepKaiOT oroHbKH 3opKHx rjia3. Po3aHOB-(})ejibeTOHHCT, 3to - pwcb, no- 
caaceHHaa b KjieTKy. JlnxopaaoHHO MeneTCH 0Ha B3aa h Bnepea, B036y5K#aH 
3KajiocTb. M B^pyr ocicajiHTCfl. Tor^a CTaHeT acyTKO. 

Po3aHOB, xBaTancb 3a jno6yio HeHHTepecHyio TeMy, He3aMeTHO CBepTbi- 
BaeT b H3JHo6jieHHyio dopoHy. Tor^a oh 6epe»CHo npH6HpaeT cboio TeMy: 
Tyr BCTaBHT coBepuieHHO 6ecuBeTHoe nncbMo Kanoro-TO CBameHHHica, Ha- 
cTaBHT BocKJiHuaTejibHbix 3HaKOB, CHa6flHT CBepKaiomHM npHMenaHHeM, h 
B^pyr ot coBepmeHHO o6bmeHHbix cjiob npoTHHyTca Bcio^y yKa3aTejibHbie 
najibUbi b o^Hy TOHKy; TyT cnpnHeTCH caM h tohho HeacHOH aKBapejibio 
npofi^eTCH, H3o6pa3HB 6eceay 5khbmx jihij, HaTpaBHT hx apyr Ha apyra, 3a- 
nyTaeT; h noTOM B^pyr bmckohht H3 3aca#bi, noflMHraeT: «Bhottc, rocno- 
aa:flnpaBl»... 

«Okojio u,epK06Hbix emeu* - co6paHHe craTeS h 3aMeTOK, HanHcaHHbix 
He Ha rjiaBHbie TeMbi Po3aHOBa. 3^ecb HeT oran, onjiecHyBiuero Hac H3 
KHHrH «B Mupe neacnozo u nepeiueHHOZO*, hh KpacoTbi CTaTeii, HanenaTaH- 
hmx b «Mnpe HcKyccTBa», hh BHyniHTejibHOCTH «CeMeumzo eonpoca*. 
«yicTajibiH Po3aHOB Ha^ocyre 3aHHMaeTcn pyHHbiMH pa6oTaMH» - xohctch 
CKa3aTb, npoHHTaB ero HOByio KHHiy. To nepea HaMH h3hiu;ho BbiToneHHan, 
aepeBHHHan jiomaaica, to ajiaa 6apxaTHaa npouiHBKa no 30JiOTy. «Okojio 
u,epK06HbLX emeu* - My3en pyHHbix H3flejiHH. ^Oedoceeet^bi e Puze», «Hh- 
mepecuue khuzu, unmepecnoe epeMM», h ^Muccuonepcmeo u Muccuone- 
pu» - no^JiHHHbie nepjibi BbiniHBaHbH. TaK 6bi h nojio»CHTb b tocthhoh 

211 

14 Ajmpeft Bejiuii 



Ha ctoji. Tojibico r^e y Hac rocTHHbie, KOTopbie ctohjio 6m yicpamaTb TaKH- 

MH H3HHJHMMH H3,ZjeJIHHMH ? Beflb BCe 3TH H3,aeJIHH - B KaKOM-TO He6bIBaJIO 

pyccKOM CTHjie, noKa eme Henero c hhmh aejiarb. IIpoHHTaeiHb - CKaaceuib: 
rjiy6oKo, 3aHHMaTe;ibHO. H OTjioacHuib, npHHHMancb 3a Kpyr o6mhhmx aeji. 

H Bflpyr HcnyraeuibCH npn mmcjih, hto, 6biTb MoaceT, OTToro-TO h He- 
Hero .aejiaTb c sthmh 66CKOhchho-tohkhmh y3opaMH h pa3BO#aMH, hto ohh 

OTHOCHTCH He K TOMy, HTO 6yfleT, a K TOMy, HTO MOrJIO 6bl 6bITb, aa He CJiyHH- 

jiocb. HeyjKejiH b TaKOM cjiynae HHTepec k hhm - aHTHKBapHbift HHTepec. 
JXaik Bor, hto6m 3to He 6biJio Tan. 



HMeHa BojibiHCKoro, Po3aHOBa, MepeaocoBCKoro, MHHCKoro - flopo- 
rne HMeHa, He3a6BeHHbie. 3to HauiH yHHTejin. B hhx Haxo^HjiH mm otkjih- 

KH Ha BCe TO, HTO BOJIHOBaJIO HaC B flHH HaUieS HDHOCTH. 

Bmjih ahh, Koraa jxjin uejioro noicojieHHH cjieTejia c rjia3 nejieHa. O60- 
3HaHHjiocb HBCTBeHHefi oicpyacaiomee. Ho cnoco6bi o6o3HaneHHH H3MeHH- 
jiHCb. 3Ta pa3H0CTb b cnoco6ax o6o3HaneHHH oT^ejiHJia Tex, kto CHHTaji 
ce6n npocHyBuiHMCH, ot HHTejuiHreHTHoro 6ojibuiHHCTBa. 

H TOJibKO noTOM cTajiH noHHMaTb oT,aejieHHMe, hto yr;iy6jieHHe b J\o- 
CToeBCKoro HeMajio cnoco6cTBOBajio co3flaHHio hobmx ueHHOCTeii, a to, 
hto yrjiy6;iHJio ^ocToeBCKoro, - 3apn He6biBajioro pe;iHrH03Horo B03poac- 
aeHHH. 

IIoTpe6oBajiacb yrjiy6jieHHaH oueHica /{ocToeBCKoro, h bot hto-to 3a- 
TenjiHJiocb b CTaTbnx BojibiHCKoro, 6pHJiJiHaHTaMH hckp paccbinajiocb b 
TBopnecTBe Po3aHOBa, 3apeBOM npicHM h ammhmm Bcrajio y MepeacKOB- 
CKoro. Tan co3flaBajiacb pejiHrao3HO-3CTeTHHecKaH KpHTHKa. Mm b Hee 
yBepoBajiH. MHororo ac^ajiH ot Hee. /lyMajiH mm - 3aropHTCH noacap He- 
6biBajiMH. Ecjih h BjiarajiH CTOJibico Haaeaco; b npocTO KpHTHnecKHe CTaTbH, 
xoth 6m h reHHajibHbie, to TOJibKO noTOMy, hto mm acaajiH hobmx BpeMeH. 
HoBbie BpeMeHa He npHHecjiH hoboctch. 

Bojimhckhh He pa3BepHy;iCH. TaK h ocrajicH TenjibiM - TenjiniiniMCfl, 
xoth TenjioTa ero npojiHJiacb Ha HHTaTejieS o6T>eMHCTMMH TOMaMH. Me- 
pe^CKOBCKHH y^apHJi no HepBaM, CKa3aB B^pyr tojiocom itjomkhm Ha bchd 
Pocchio: «IloKaHTecb, npH6jiH3Hjiocb U,apcTBHe He6ecHoe. IIoKaHTecb h 
BecejiHTecb BecejiHeM BenHMM, h6o >KeHHx rpnfleT!» 

MepeacKOBCKHH yaapHji b Ha6aT, ho Kor^a 6pocHJiHCb k HeMy, Bflpyr 

3aKpbIJICH peJIHrH03HO-o6meCTBeHHMMH cxeMaMH. 

Mm npeicjiOHHJiHCb npea 6yaymHM. Ho Tenepb, Koraa 6yflymee 3ano- 
3flajio, mm Tpe6yeM rapaHrafi, bo hmh nero aojiechm mm oTpenbcn ot hhcto- 
ro HCKyccTBa, HayKH h TeopHH no3HaHHH? Bo hmh nero MHp npeKpacHbix 
(J)opM, mmcjih h 3HaHHH aojdkhm mm npeaaBaTb HCCTynJieHHOMy 6e3yMHK). 
KpoMe Toro: pejiHrH03Hbie mcto^m HauiHx yHHTejieft, npejiOMjieHHbie b 
ayuiax HauiHx, h 6m cica3aji, yTOHHHjincb. MHoroe mm bhahm 6o;iee anoac- 



212 



HbiM, HeacejiH HaniH yHHTejin. Ha Bonpocw, hmh nocraBJieHHwe, mw Tenepb 
CMOTpHM Tpe3BeH, h coMH6BaeMCH, hto6w nyTH, hmh yKa3aHHbie, 6bIJIH 

eAHHCTBeHHblMH IiyTflMH. 

Mw He CKenTHKH. Ho hct b Hac Ha30HJiHBoro acejiaHHH jiHHHyio ncn- 

XOJIOrHK) HaBH3bIBaTb MHOrOo6pa3HOH fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH. He OTKa3bIBa- 

HCb ot pejinrHH, mh npH3biBaeM c nyTH 6e3yMHH k xojioahoh hchocth hc- 
KyccTBa, k rncTOJiorHH HayKH, k cepbe3HOH, KaK My3biKa Baxa, CTporocTH 

TeopHH n03HaHHH. 

Mw onHTb b ropax. Ha nepeBajie k jiynnieMy 6yaymeMy Hac BCTpenaiOT 
TyMaHW. Mw oroiTb o^hh. 

TojiocaM HauiHX yHHTejiefl He paccenTb Tynn comhchhh, Hac ononcaB- 
ihhx. Mw npHHHMaeM sth comhchhh, He cnacancb b 6e3yMHe. Mw 6yaeM 
6opoTbCH xojioaom c xojioflOM. K TOMy o6fl3WBaeT Hac 6jiaropo,ziiCTBo. 

1905 

VII. MECTO AHAPXMHECKMX TEOPMM 

KHHroH3aaTejibCTBO «IIpocmop» BwnycTHJio coHHHeHHe 
npo(|). II. 3;ibij6axepa ^Cymnocmb anapxu3Ma». Pa3o6paHbi yTonnn Yojx- 
BHHa, IIpyAOHa, UlTHpHepa, BaKyHHHa, KponoTKHHa, TyKepa h Jl. Toji- 
CToro. B jiHue aBTopa pa36npaeMoro cohhhchhh mw He BcrpenaeM hh 
Bpara, hh 3amHTHHKa aHapxH3Ma. Be3^e oh nbrraeTcn CHCTeMaTH3HpoBaTb 
yneHHH aHapxH3Ma. IIoflHac eMy npHxoflHTCH BCTaBJMTb npoMeacyTOHHwe 
3BeHbH Meacay oT^ejibHWMH nojioaceHHHMH pa36npaeMwx aBTOpOB. Hnrae 
HeT HacHjiHH nan Mwcjibio TeopeTHKOB aHapxH3Ma. Tpya npo(|). 3;ibij6axe- 
pa ecTb CTporo KpHTHnecKoe H3wcKaHHe. 

C TeM 6ojibineH OHeBH^HOCTbio oTKpwBaeTCH nepea HaMH AxHjuiecoBa 
nHTa aHapxH3Ma. B aHapxHHecKHX Teopnnx HeT ycTOHHHBoro B3niHfla Ha 

npaBO H C06cTBeHH0CTb. E^HHCTBeHHaH CBH3b MeaCfly HHMH 3aKJIK)HaeTCH B 

ompuupnuu rocyaapcTBa. Bee nonwTKH nojioacHTejibHoro nocrpoeHHH Tep- 
nnT KpyineHHe, h6o nocrpoeHHH sth He hmciot 3a co6oh HHKaicoro HaynHo- 
ro 6a3Hca b npoTHBonojioacHOCTb counaji-fleMOKpaTHHecKOH nporpaMMe. 
AHapxH3M, BOCCTaBan npoTHB rocyaapcTBa, noHeBOJie aojiaceH BOccTaBaTb 
h npoTHB MaTepnajiHCTHHecKoro noHHMaHHH hctophh. TeopeTHKH aHap- 
XH3Ma, no^o6Ho KponoTKHHy, OKOHHaTejibHo o6e3opy5KHBaioT ce6n nepeA 
counaji-AeMOKpaTHeH, Koraa ohh nojib3yioTCH aaHHWMH aMnnpHnecKOH 
HayKH fljiH cbohx yTonnn. TeopHH aHapxH3Ma B03MoaeHa KaK pa3BepHyToe 
eAHHCTBO nocTyjiaTOB kphthhcckoh 4>hjioco(J)hh. Ho 3th nocTyjiaiw hbho 
pe;iHrH03Hw. AHapxHHecKaH CHCTeMa hjih ecTb contradictio in adjecto, hjih 
OHa - CHCTeMa pejiHrH03Han. Meacay aHapxH3MOM h comHaji-aeMOKpaTHeH 
He MoaceT 6wTb Tor^a TaKHx pe3KHx koh(J>jihktob, KaKHe mw BCTpenaeM 
Tenepb; o6jiacTH hx pa3Me»ceBaHW. AHapxH3M Tor^a - pejiHrH03HWH Ky- 

213 



14* 



noji couHajibHoro cTpon 6yaymero; coijHaji-aeMOKpaTHH npeflocTaBjineTCH 
B03Be,aeHHe (J)yHflaMeHTa h creH. HHoe oTHOineHHe k coijHaji-aeMOKpaTHH 
6pocaeT coBpeMeHHbix aHapxHCTOB b o6t>hthh 6ypacya3HH. Bee bmxoakh 
npoTHB rocy^apcTBa He flocraraiOT ijejiH. 

CoHHHeHHe II. A. KponoTKHHa «Peuu 6ynmo6WjUKa» ecTb o6pa3HHK co- 

HHHeHHH, B KOTOpOM BbICKa3bIBaK)TCH IIO 4>0pMe aHapXHHCCKHe B3rJIHflbI, 

no ayxy ace - MejiKo6yp»cya3Hbie. Iae 3flecb BecKOCTb apryMeHTOB? I^e 
nojioacHTejibHbie aaHHbie ajih onpaB^aHHH pa^HKajibHOH TpecKOTHH aBTO- 
pa. Meacay TeM KponoTKHH - bhahmh npe^CTaBHTejib aHapxH3Ma. 

AHapxHnecKHe TeopHH HecocTOHTejibHbi, noKa ohh nwTaioTCH iio3hthb- 
ho ce6n o6ocHOBaTb. Meacay TeM aHapxH3M - echboh npoTecT jihhhocth 
nporaB rocy^apcTBeHHoro raeTa. C apyroft ctopohw, acHBan CBH3b jiiofleH 

BO HMH EflHHOrO, OTpHIjaiOmafl BCHKHH npHHyflHTeJIbHblH npHHIJHn, MO- 

aceT ocymecTBHTbCH TOJibKO b nocjie^OBaTejibHO npoBeaeHHOM npHHijnne 
pejiHrH03H0M. CoBMecTHoe HCKaHHe e^HHoii ijejiH He MoaceT He 6biTb cbo- 
6oflHo. OpraHH3auHH cbo6o^w hckshmh, 6yayHH pejiHrH03Hofl, no 4>opMe 
ecTb i^epKOBb. EflHHan, cBo6oflHaa CBH3b Mexmy jnoflbMH He MoaceT Kope- 

HHTbCfl B OTfleJIbHOM TOJibKO HHflHBHflyyMe HJIH B CyMMe HH^HBHflyyMOB; 

OHa CTaHOBHTCH hmchcm Bora. 

PejinrHH, OTpnuaTejibHO onpeaejineMafl co ctopohw rocyaapcTBeHHbix 
TeopHH, Bcer^a - aHapxHn; aHapxHHecKan o6mHHa, c apyroft ctopohw, bo3- 
MO^CHa TOJibKO KaK UepKOBb. B njiee e^HHoii IJepKBH BcejieHCKoro e^H- 
HeHHH nepeKpemHBaiOTCH Hflen nocjieaoBaTejibHo pa3BHToro aHapxH3Ma c 

HfleflMH MHCTHKOB. TOJibKO C HMCHCM U,epKBH MOiyT 3amHTHTbCH flOCTOH- 

ho aHapxHCTbi ot npaBbix yaapoB coijHaji-aeMOKpaTHH. AHapxHHecKan 
CBo6oaa Bcer^a xapaKTepH3yeT UepKOBb, Koraa OHa ocBo6o5KfleHa ot ro- 
cy^apcTBeHHbix nyT. C apyroft ctopohw, H^en cbo6o^hoh cbh3h hh^hbh- 
^yajibHocTeft, o6ycjiOBjiHBaiomafl cymecTBOBaHHe aHapxHnecKHx o6mHH, 
eCTb TOJibKO 3aMacKHpoBaHHaH H^en UepKBH. 

AHapxH3M ecTb TOHKa nepeceneHHH flByx npHHijHnoB o6mecTBeHHoro 
pa3BHTHH! MexaHHnecKoro (rocy^apcTBeHHoro) h opraHHHecKoro (pejiH- 
rH03Horo). Tocy^apcTBO h UepKOBb crajiKHBaiOTCH. CBo6oflHaa jiHHHOCTb 
ecTb TOHKa SToro cTOJiKHOBeHHH. Bot noneMy HH^HBHziyajiHSM Bcer^a pa3- 
BHBaeTCH Ha nepeBajie co3HaHHH ot oflHoro CTpon k apyroMy. 3noxa B03- 
po»^eHHH 6wjia anoxoft HH/jHBHflyajiH3Ma: 3to 6wjia anoxa ocBo6oacae- 
hhh rocyaapcTBa ot oneKH jiohcho noHHToft UepKBH. AHapxHnecKHH 6yHT 
nporaB rocy^apcTBa b Haine BpeMH nopo^HJi pacijBeT HOBoro HCKyccTBa. 
AHapxHnecKHH 6yHT - hjih 3apn HOBoro pejiHrH03Horo B03p0^eHHH, 

(J)OpMa KOTOporO - B03HHKH0BeHHe BCeJieHCKOH uepKBH, HJIH - nJIHCKa jw- 

Kapn Haa o6jiOMKaMH rocyaapcTBeHHOCTH. 

CoBpeMeHHOMy HCKyccTBy npe^CTOHT pa3o6paTbcn b ijejioM pn^e bo- 
npocoB, npe,zn>flBjiHeMbix pejiHrH03HbiMH h couHajibHbiMH yneHHHMH, npn- 

3HaK)mHMH CBOK) CBH3b C HHflHBHflyaJIH3M0M. 



214 



BnepaiiiHHH HHflHBHflyajiH3M coBpeMeHHoro HCKyccTBa acajiKO Bbipo- 
.zjhjich. Meacay TeM oh aaji HaM pnflbi KpynHbix hmch. Tojinw acajiKHX noa- 
paacaTejiefi h (J)ajibCH(J)HKaTopoB hh3bcjih 3amHTy HCKyccTBa ao nonijiwx 
h rjiynwx Tenepb bmkphkob o tom, hto oho - cbo6oaho. HHflHBHflyajiH3M, 
HCCHKaiomHii b co6cTBeHHbix Hcroicax, aojdkho npeo^ojieTb. Ho KaK? Ro- 
cejie HHOTBH^yajiH3M npeoaojieBajicn kojuickthbhsmom h yHHBepcajiH3- 

MOM. Bee 3TO c6jIH5KaJIO 3BOJHOIJHK), npOHCXOflHmyK) B TJiy6HHaX HHflH- 

BH^yajiH3Ma, c pejinrHefi h o6mecTBeHHOCTbio. HanajiHCb BceB03M05KHbie 
CHHTe3bi HCKyccTBa c pejiHraefi hjih o6mecTBeHHOCTbio. KaacawH hobwh 
CHHTe3 poacaaji noTyra o6pa30BaHHH hoboh hikojih, npoB03rjiaiiiaBiiieH 
KOHHHHy HHAHBH^yajiH3Ma. Hacro 3th HOBbie hikojih nopaacajin necTpo- 

TOK) 3JieMeHTOB, KOTOpbie npH3HaBaJIHCb COCTaBHblMH HaCTHMH IIIKO- 
Jlbl. HaCTO CHHTe3bI 3TH OKa3bIBaJIHCb - 4>HKI|HHMH; HHflHBHflyaJIH3M He 

npeo^ojieBajiCH, a npHKHflbiBajicn 3flecb kojijickthbhsmom, TaM - hobwm 
pejiHrH03HbiM co3HaHHeM. TaM ace, iyje oh aeficTBHTejibHO ycTynaji Me- 
cto pejiHrHH hjih o6mecTBeHHOcra b HCKyccTBe h KpHTHKe, nepea HaMH 
B03HHKajiH He HOBbie npHHijHnbi Bceo6meii KpacoTbi, a 5KH3HbK> c^aHHbie 

B apXHB CXeMbI H yTOnHH, pa36HTbie KaK 3KOHOMHHeCKOH HayKoii, TaK H 
TOHHblMH H3bICKaHHHMH B o6jiaCTH HayKH, (JWJIOCO^HH, HCTOpHH peJIHTHH. 

B nepBOM cjiynae CHHTe3w 0Ka3biBajiHCb 4>hkijhhmh, bo btopom cjiynae 
ohh npHnaxHBajiH 3aTxjiocTbio h rHHJibio. TaK npe/jaBajiH HHflHBH,zjyajiH3M 
b nonbiTKax npeoaojieTb ero H3HjrcpH. 

Mw nepeacHBaeM snoxy pa3onapoBaHHH KaK b HHflHBH,zjyajiH3Me, TaK 

H B CaMOHOBeHHIHX KOJIJieKTHBHCTHHeCKHX, peJIHrH03HbIX H MHCTHKO - 

aHapxHHecKHx Teopnnx. Mw aojiacHbi noaTOMy paccMaTpHBaTb HOBbie hc- 
thhw h hikojih He KaK 3HaMeHa, 3a KOTopwMH cjieayeT hoth, a KaK o6t>- 

eKTbl HCCJie^OBaHHH. 

Mw BbicTpa^ajiH ce6e npaBO Ha ocTopoacHocTb h HeflOBepne: sejib Mbi 
ooth H3 nepBbix HHflHBHflyajiHCTOB crajiH co3HaBaTb y30CTb HH^HBHaya- 
jiH3Ma. Ho b to ace BpeMH ropbKHM onwTOM y6e^HjiHCb mw b nycTOTe h 
no^nac inapjiaTaHCTBe npeoaojieHHH Toro HCTHHHoro, hto nojiyHHJiH mw b 
HacjieacTBO ot KaHTa, IeTe, Hnmne, H6ceHa. Ho h He npniiiJiH k BbiBoay, 

HTO Ha£0 OCTaBaTbCH C HH^HBH^yaJIH3MOM. Mbi XOTHM TOJIbKO yKa3aTb, HTO 

HH^HBH^yajiH3M - BepHaa ijHTaaejib, KOTopyio He cjieayeT noKH^aTb npe- 
^eBpeMeHHO h 6e3 oco6oh ocTopoacHocra. 

Ho eme 6ojiee HaM npeTHT Tyno 6e3BKycHbie bwkphkh o cBo6oae hc- 
KyccTBa Bcex Tex, kto caM He nepeacnji hh KpH3nca no3HTHBH3Ma, hh Kpn- 
3Hca HH^HBH^yajiH3Ma. Cepaije hx He o6jiHBajiocb KpoBbio, h Bee Bonpocw 
npeBpaTHjiH ohh b aeKaaeHTCKoe 6njib6oK3. IIpe3peHHe JioMaKaM, ono30- 

PHBHIHM MeHTbl HHIJIIie h yaifoibfla! 

1906 



215 



VIII. TEHPMK H5CEH 



BenHan naMHTb. 

3aaoiceM CMOJiHHbie (})aKejibi. Ha pyKax noHeceM Tejio yracnie- 
ro repoa. 06oBbeM ero m,wr h Men cochobmmh BeTKaMH. TaM, Ha bmcokoh 
rope, ocTaBHM ero oflHoro. 

BejiorjiaBan Tyna, nponjiMBan, tohho KOJiecHHixa, 3arpoxoneT no hcho- 
My He6y. 3to iiomhhtch c naBiiiHM TpaypHbift KaTa(J)ajiK npHMO b Bajiraji- 
Jiy. 3to naji repoft, bcio acH3Hb BoeBaBinnft c nyaoBHmaMH, hto6m ocbo6o- 
AHTb cnnmyio KpacaBHixy - aymy - ot njieHa. 

HejiOBenecTBO BCTynmio Ha TepHHCTbift nyTb. Oho aojdkho BbipBaTbcn 
ot hh3hh k cojmijy. HeT B03BpaTa c SToro nyra, HeT Tyr KOMnpoMHCCOB: 
ecTb TOJibKO 6opb6a o6a3aHHOCTeft k caMOMy ce6e h k jho^hm. Rojit bo hmh 
CBo6oflbi BCTpenaeTCH c aojiroM bo hmh pa6cTBa. Pbujapn aojira o6Haaca- 
iot MeHH TyT, hto6m KpouiHTb apyr apyra bo hmh Toro, hto noBeprjio hx b 
ropbi. 

Ilofl HaniHMH HoraMH o6pbiB. Ha# rojiOBoii jie^HHofl Bepx, MHororpe- 
6eHHbifl. HeT HaM noKoio, HeT HaM cBepineHHH. Mm aojdkhm hath, Bee hath, 
ecjiH mw CTaBHM uejiH ce6e h HejiOBenecTBy. Mbi aojiechm BbmepacaTb 6oft 
c XHMepaMH ayxa. Ho nycTb mm 6yaeM npnroTOBJieHM k TOMy, hto Kor^a 
6oft okohhhtch, nepea HaMH 6yayT TOJibKO pa3BajiHHbi npeflCTonmeft npe^ 
HaMH KyjibTypbi c ee ynaaoHHMMH ynpeacfleHHHMH, aaBHiUHMH jiHHHOCTb. 

Bee Jiynuiee, hto oflyuieBJiHJio aeHTejieft HCKyccTBa 3a BTopyio nojiOBH- 
Hy XIX cTOJieTHH, ecTb 6opb6a 3a ocBo6oac,zjeHHe. Ha o6mecTBeHHoft aora- 
hh rocyaapcTB cjierKa OTpa3HJiacb, b peBOJiioijHOHHbix TeneHHHx nocjiea- 
Hero BpeMeHH jiencHM ayHOBeHHeM npoHecnacb Ta cTpyn MHTeaca, KOTopan 
3acTaBHJia H6ceHa BCTaTb Ha ropax c mchom, npico pa3nmHM, c Tpy6oft Tpe- 
boechoh, npnjioaceHHOH k ycTaM. H6ceH - o^hh H3 BejiHHaftuiHx aHapxn- 
ctob, Koraa-jiH6o cymecTBOBaBinnx Ha 3eMjie. TojibKO no HeMy mm noHH- 
jih, hto aHapxH3M - e^HHCTBeHHaH noHBa, Ha KOTopofl BbipacTaiOT repoH. 
A nejiOBenecTBy Tenepb HyacHM repon, noTOMy hto - kto hhoh o^ojieeT Tex 
apaicoHOB h BejiHKaHOB, KOTopbie HeH36e»CHO Hac BCTpeTHT cpe^H ropHbix 
ymejiHH? TojibKO repon o6opBeT TynH, hto6 c6pocHTb hx c rop b npoBajibi 
h OTKpbiTb HejioBenecTBy cBo6oflHbie, 30JioTbie noTOKH cojimja. 

XIX CTOJierae OKOHHHJiocb cpe^H pacuBeTa HCKyccTB h jiHTepaTypbi. 
MHoro mokho Ha3BaTb BejiHKHx HMeH, kotopmm mm o6H3aHM. Xyzjoace- 
CTBeHHan 4>opMa nojiynnjia pa3BHrae. Cthjihctm CTajiH Hbme nyTb jih He 
yneHMMH cneijHajiHCTaMH. B pe3yjibTaTe jimepaTypa o6oraTHJiacb mhoth- 
mh H3He»ceHHMMH npneMaMH peHH, eft ^ocejie HeBe^oMMMH. Ho He 6oraT- 
ctbom cthjih onpeaejiaiOTCH nocjie^HHe cyflb6bi JiHTepaTypbi, a ee otho- 
ineHHeM k pokobmm nyTHM, Ha KOTopbie Bcrynnjio HejiOBenecTBO. BTopan 
nojiOBHHa XIX ctojicthh aajia HaM HMeHa TaynTMaHa, MeTepjiHHKa, TaM- 
cyHa, yaftjib^a, /JocToeBCKoro, a'AHHyHijHo, CTecfmHa Teopre, To(})MaHCTa- 



216 



jih, BepxapHa, MepeaocoBCKoro h MHoro flpyrnx. Tojibko TpH hmchh apKH- 
mh 3Be3,ziiaMH 3aacrjiHCb Ha He6e XIX Beica: 3to 6mjih HMeHa Tex, KOTopwe 
nepBbiMH npo3pejiH nyTb HejiOBenecTBa, KOTopwe CKa3ajiH HaM o tom, hto 
Becw cy^b6bi onycTHJiHCb rjix Hac, hto HaM ocTaeTCH hjih norH6HyTb, hjih 
CTaTb repoHMH. M6ceH, Hnmiie h Baraep - bot HauiH xpa6pwe bhkhhth, 
e^HHCTBeHHwe. H H3 3thx repoeB TOJibKO oflHH H6ceH b Mepy chji cbohx 
6opojicn: noTOMy-TO oh h nodeacaaji ao nocjieaHero B3floxa XHMepw ayxa, 
hto 6o;iee apyrnx cbohx cnyraHKOB npe^HyBCTBOBaji TpyzjHOCTH, c koto- 
pbiMH npHfleTcn HMeTb jxejio. B to BpeMH KaK Baraep 3aacer ropH30HT moji- 

HHHMH CBOHX np03peHHH, H B 3TOM CBCTe Mbl yBHACJIH OHepTaHHH HyflOBHIUi 

h 6otob, cnycKaBiHHxcH Ha 3eMJiio, hto6w 6nTbcn c hrmh 6oeM KpoBaBbiM, 
b to BpeMH KaK oh, y6oHBiuHCb 6oh, b nocjieaHioK) MHHyTy OKpyacHJi ce6n 

CTapblMH MOJIHTBaMH, HmXUie C OTBarOH 6e3yMHH KHHyJICH Ha 6otob, HO 

ero ocjiennjia mojihhh. nocjie^HHe ro,zjbi oh 6bm ocjienjieHHbiH, cpaaceH- 
hhh. H6ceH He noflHHMajica Ha Te bmcotm, me HaxoflHJicn HHLuiie; oh KaK 
6w TOJibKO npeAHyBCTByeT MHoroTOHHyio nocTynb cTpauiHbix npoTHBHH- 

KOB, HO 3aTO KaK TOTOBHTCH OH K 3TOH BCTpeHC ErO flpaMbl - 3TO KOJIOC- 

cajibHan KpenocTb, nocTpoeHHan no BceM npaBHJiaM HayKH, 3amnmaiomaH 
Hac npoTHB BTop^ceHHH HenpHHTejiH, no,zj khkhm 6m bh^om oh hh hbhjich 
npea HaMH! b BH^e jih KaKoro-HH6y,ziib ,zi;o6poro CTaporo 6ora, b BH^e jih 
nocneniHoro HayHHoro o6o6meHHH, b BH/je jih MHororojiOBOH rnflpbi no- 
cpeacTBeHHOCTH, cepeAHHHOCTH h 3flpaBoro cMbicjia. H, o^HaKO, nofl 3toh 
HecoKpyiuHMoii 6poHeS - h mhtc^k HeyKpoTHMbift, h HeracHMoe HeroflOBa- 
HHe, h naHHHe BOCKpeceHHH cojiHeHHoroI By^yHH BparoM bchkhx nocneui- 
hwx CHHTe30B h rpe3bi o BcejieHCKOM e^HHeHKH HejiOBenecTBa, roBopn, hto 
TOJibKO oflHHonecTBO - y^eji CHJibHOMy, oh 6wji nepBbifi, kto npHBHJi Ha- 
iueMy BpeMeHH njiaMeHHbie naHHHH o TpeTbeM U,apcTBe, o BOCKpeceHHH 

MepTBblX. IIonyTHO OH 6pOCHJI CBeT B 06jiaCTb peJIHrH03HOH MblCJIH, H ho- 

Boe pejiHTH03Hoe co3HaHHe aojihcho HaBcerfla nyBCTBOBaTb cboio KpoBHyio 
CBH3b c H6ceHOM. 

/IpaMbi H6ceHa nocrpoeHbi coBepuieHHo: b hhx coBMemaeTcn 3apa3 
MHoaeecTBO cmhcjiob. Ohh, BO-nepBbix, hbjihiot HaM nopa3HTejibHO Bep- 
Hyio KapTHHy 6brra coBpeMeHHoro HaM HejiOBenecTBa. 3jiecb H6ceH - pea- 
jihct; ho 3a nepBbiM aaHHbiM cmhcjiom Hac nopaacaeT BTopoft, HfleHHbifi 
cmwcji: ^eiicTByiomHe Jinija hbjihiotch coBepuieHHbiMH ajuieropHHMH 
KaKoro-HH6y^b HaynHoro, (J)HJioco(J)CKoro hjih MopajibHoro nojioaeeHHfl 
H6ceHa; HaKOHeu, cKB03b ajuieropnio mh HanHHaeM BH^eTb hchto, He mo- 
rymee yjioacHTbca b Heft; TyT OTKpwBaeTCH HaM, hto ajuieropHH y H6ceHa - 
o6ojiOHKa cHMBOJia. /leiicTByiomHe Jinua hbjihiotch cHMBOJiaMH HecKa3aH- 
hwx naHHHH h onacHOCTeii, CTeperymnx Hac. 

Tenepb, Kor^a chmbojiw OKa3biBaiOTCfl peajibHOCTHMH, OTKpbiBaeTCH 
nocjie^HHH cmhcji ero apaM - o^HOBpeMeHHoe cocymecTBOBaHHe Bcex 
cmhcjiob o6pa3a b ^aHHOCTH ero. H6ceH - oflHOBpeMeHHo h peajiHCT, 



217 



h HfleajiHCT, h chmbojihct, h mhcthk. Ero MHpOB033peHHe He MoaceT ocy- 
mecTBHTbCH b coBpeMeHHOM yKJia^e Hauieii acH3HH; OTCioAa Hanajio n6ce- 
HOBCKoro THTaHH3Ma h aHapxH3Ma. 

C^enHTejibHoro bh^chhh He Bbmec Hnmne. H6ceHa hhhto He ocjie- 

njIHJIO. HO BCeft CBOeft aCH3HbK>, HO BCeM CBOHM TBOpHeCTBOM iiieji OH OT 

nepHoft hohh k Me^jieHHO 6peacacymeft 3ape. Bot noneMy 6ypacya3Hoe 06- 
mecTBO Ha30BeT ero neccHMHCTOM. Mw ace npHBeTCTByeM b hcm HCKaTejra 
6eperoB CTpaHbi o6eTOBaHHOH. Mbi aojiacHbi hath 3a hhm, ecjiH mw xothm 
3CH3HH, noTOMy hto noTon rpo3HT HauieMy CTapoMy MaTepHKy. Ho ecjiH 

XOTHM Mbi aCH3HH, Mbi AOJDKHbl ee Ao6HTbCfl ynopHbIM 6oeM. Mbi flOJDKHbl 

CTaTb repoHMH. 

H6ceH nepBbiii npH3Baji Hac Ha stot nym K HMeHaM IeTe, IllnjiJiepa, 
HanojieoHa, IIIoneHrayspa, KaHTa, BeTxoBeHa, Baraepa, HHume, - HMe- 
HaM, HpKO CBepKHyBIIIHM HaM B XIX CTOJieTHH, - Mbi 06fl3aHbI OTHbIHe 

npHCoe^HHHTb hmh TeHpHKa H6ceHa. 

06Ha«HM rojiOBbi h ckjiohhmch AOJiy, Koraa cojmeHHbie BajibKHpHH 
noHecyT Tejio repon Ha 6e;ibix B03,ayuiHbix kohhx b Bajirajuiy. 

1906 

IX. BEMHUHTEP O nOJIE 11 XAPAKTEPE 

B Otto BeimHHrepe ecTb HecoMHeHHbie nepTbi reHnajibHOCTH. 
B 3tom h y6e,aHJiCH, npoHHTaB KHHry, k coacajieHHio, He nepeBcaeHHyio Ha 
pyccKHH H3biK - «t)ber die letzte Dinge»\ 3flecb oco6eHHo npoK Otto Beft- 
HHHrep; 3^ecb cnopHT oh b CHJie h ocTpoyMHH c Op. Hniuiie. H CTpaHHoe 
aejio: 3^ecb nepeiuiHKaeTCH oh c jiynniHMH cTpaHHuaMH B. B. Po3aHOBa. 
Tot ace mctoa; Ta ace OTHeTjiHBOCTb b noHHMaHHH e^Ba yjiOBHMbix h 3any- 
TaHHbix ^BHaceHHH nojia. KpoMe Toro: 3Ta cepbe3Han KHHra, He (J)ejibeTOH: 
OHa cepbe3Ha xoth 6m noTOMy, hto cnjiouib ac^opncTHHHa b jiynineM 3Hane- 

HHH STOrO CJIOBai a(J)OpH3M TyT - (|)OpMa CHMBOJIH3ai{HH; a(J)OpHCTHHHOCTb 

KHHrn «IIoji u xapaxmep* cKopee npH3HaK jierKOBecHOCTH ee; He yrjiy6;ifl- 
eT 3^ecb acJ)opH3M. 

B pa36HpaeMoii KHHre CTOJiKHyjiHCb HecoeflHHHMbie MeTo^w oTHOine- 
hhh k no;iy; b Heii OTpa3HJiocb cTOJiKHOBeHHe mhothx MHpoco3epuaHHH, 
He CBcaeHHbix k eflHHCTBy: ho3hthbhct, HeoKaHraaHeij, HHijiiieaHeii; h mh- 
cthk cnopHT 3,aecb b BeHHHHrepe: MHororojiocan KHHra; h rojioca b Heii 
3BynaT HecTpoHHo; h OTToro-TO, hto6 H36aBHTbcn ot pa3AHpaiomHx npo- 
THBopenHH co3HaHHH, Otto BeHHHHrep aejiaeT Bbinaa k (J)ejibeTOHy; bch 
KHHra - orpoMHbift (J)e^beTOH, npHHopoBjieHHbift k cpeAHeMy, aajieKO He 
Tpe6oBaTejibHOMy HHTaTejiio. IIocTaHOBKa Bonpoca - He (j)e;ibeTOHHafl, ce- 
pbe3Han; MaTepnaji pa3pa6oTKH - aparoijeHHbiH. H 6y#b BeftHHHrep TOJib- 

KO HfleaJIHCT, TOJIbKO n03HTHBHCT, HJIH TOJIbKO CHMBOJIHCT OH CnpaBHJICH 



218 



6bi aocTOHHO co cBoeft 3aaaHeii, ho oh - to, apyroe h TpeTbe: to, apyroe 
h TpeTbe - oflHOBpeMeHHo. 06ocHOBHBaH cboh B3ivum Ha noji aaHHHMH 
ecTecTB03HaHHH, oh BapBapcKH pacnopnacaeTCH sthmh aaHHHMH; npe^aeT- 
ch Heo6y3,aaHHOMy pe30HepcTBy (aypHoii MeTacJ)H3HKe); He npeoaojieBaeT, 
a npowuSaem ecTecTB03HaHHe - h rjiaBHoe, neM npomH6aeT? Oh B3biBaeT 

K MeTa(J)H3HHeCKHM CymHOCTHM, o6paiIjaeTCH K BeHHO-»CeHCTBeHHOMy Ha- 

najiy. Haeeii BeHHO-5KeHCTBeHHoro h BeHHO-MyacecTBeHHoro He oxapaK- 
TepH3yeuib nojioBoii kjictkh; h noTOMy-TO o6pameHHe k Hccjie^OBaHHHM 
HerejiH h TepTBHra TOJibKo npefljior ^noMema4>U3Ui^upoeamb»; Tanoe cbo- 

6o,aHOe OTHOUieHHe K flaHHHM eCTCCTB03HaHHH Be^eT K HenpOH3BOJIbHOH 

MHCTH(J)HKaiiHH. IlycTb yBepneT Hac BeiiHHHrep, hto KoneHrareHCKHH 300- 
jior CTeHCTpyn yTBepac^aeT, 6y^T0 noji 3aKJiK>HaeTCH bo bccm Tejie; nycTb 
yBepneT oh, hto Bhuio^) h PioflHHrep ycTaHOBHjiH pa3JiHHHe nojioB otho- 
CHTejibHO M03ra; hto lOcryc h Tayjib HaniJiH pa3JiHHHH b jiencnx, neneHH, 

CeJie3eHKe: - TOJIbKO CaMOCTOHTeJIbHbie H3HCKaHHH B 06jiaCTH aHaTOMHH H 

(J)H3HOJiorHH aaioT npaBO onnpaTbcn Ha Te hjih HHwe ecTecTBeHHO-HaynHbie 
TeopHH. Mh, ecTecTBeHHHKH no o6pa30BaHHio, 3HaeM neuy tohhhm pe- 
3y;ibTaTaM HCCJieflOBaHHH; ho mm, ecrecTBeHHHKH, OTflejineM pe3yjibTa™ 
Hccjie,aoBaHHH ot MHoroo6pa3Hbix ranoTeTHHecKHx Teopnii; hmh h3o6h- 
jiyeT ecTecTB03HaHHe; hmh 3JioynoTpe6jiaeT BeiiHHHrep. EcTb ranoTe3bi, 
cnoco6Hbie cTaTb rnnoTesaMH pa6onHMH; h ecTb ranoTe3H ceroflHHiiiHero 
AHh: rnnoTe3bi moah. Kor^a-TO yBJieicajiHCb «Protobatibius'oM» TeKKejin; 
noTOM yBjieKajiHCb BeiicMaHOM: aejinjiH mieTOHKy Ha hah, H^aHTbi, aeTep- 
MHHaHTbi; ho CTpoHHyio b CBoe BpeMH Teopnio BeiicMaHa pa36njiH Bno- 

CJieACTBHH MHKpo6HOJIOrHHeCKHe HCCJieAOBaHHH. 

CHjibHbiii TeococJ)HHecKHH yM Pyaojibc^a IIlTeiiHepa BocKpemaeT 
onHTb 6HOJiorHHecKyio (J)aHTacTHKy BeiicMaHa; h HaM, ecTecTBeHHHKaM, 
3T0 HenoHHTHO bobcc B roan Moero CTy^eHHecTBa TaK yBjieKajiHCb mh 
ajibBeojinpHoii rHnoTe3oii Biohjih h HeoBHTajiH3MOM. TeopHH rpaHyjiap- 
Horo CTpoeHHH KJieTOHKH, H3Ji05KeHHaa AjibTMaHOM, HaxoflHJia ce6e no- 
kjiohhhkob cpeflH yBjieicaiomHxcfl ecTecTBOHcnbiTaTejieii. Kto Tenepb hh- 
TaeT AjibTMaHa? MHorne jih homhht ero Teopnio? 

Koraa noHBjiaeTCH 6HOJiorHHecicoe nccjieflOBaHHe, ocTpoyMHO rpyn- 
nnpyiomee (J>aKTH, aaace cneimajiHCTH-6HOJiorH Hecnoco6Hbi TOTnac ace 
onpeaejiHTb ero HayHHoii 3HanHMOCTH. H noTOMy-TO «KanmuaHU3upo- 
eannuu Huxqueaneut* BeiiHHHrep He HMeeT HHKaKoro npaBa ocHOBHBaTb- 
ch Ha ranoTeTHHecKHx aaHHbix 6HOJiorHH: Bbi6opoM 3thx jxsmnhix pyKO- 
boaht BKyc, a He KpHTHKa; MeTa(J)H3HMecKan TeopHH BeHHHHrepa MoaceT 
ce6e noA6npaTb b o6jiac™ ecTecTB03HaHHH, hto eft HpaBHTcn; mh aojiacHH 
noMHHTb, hto TaKoii ot6op - He o6ocHOBaHHe BOBce; TaKoii ot6op - hh- 
AHBHflyajibHaH npHKpaca TeopHH, h TOJibKo. H noTOMy-TO ^Beedenue* h 
rjiaBH «MyomuHbi u Menm^unu^y «Arrhenoplasma u thely plasma*, «3aKonu 
nojioeozo npumxotceHUH* - HHKaKoro HaynHoro 3HaneHHH He hmciot. 



219 



Meacay TeM quasi-HaynHbiH toh aaeT aBTopy jioacHoe npaBO CHHTaTb 

060CH0BaHHbIM CBOe HCCJie^OBaHHC 

B rjiaBax VI h VII aBTop CTapaeTCH aaTb (J)Hjioco(J)CKyK) 6a3y CBoeMy 
Tpy^y; 3to eMy He yzjaeTCH. Oh yKa3biBaeT Ha to, hto jiorHKa h aTHica He- 
3aBHCHMbi ot ncHXOJiorHH; oh o6i>HBJiHeT ce6n BparoM BpeHTaHo, Jlnnnca, 
IIlTyMn4)a, ABeHapHyca; oh npHCoe^HHHeTCH, Hao6opoT, k BHHflejib6aH- 
ay, KoreHy, HaTopny: Ka3ajiocb 6bi, TaKoe npncoeflHHeHHe cbjdkct aBTO- 
pa b BbiBo^ax oTHOCHTejibHO JKeHmHHbi, nojia, xapaKTepa; hjih HCCJieao- 
BaHHe ero He HMeeT ixejibio hto-jih6o £OKa3aTb; ho oh #OKa3biBaeT TeM, 
mto bhocht echboh ncHxojiorHHecKHH cmwcji b HaynHbie TeopHH, eme He 
ycTaHOBHBiHHecH, t. e. nocTynaeT KaK pa3 BonpeKH KoreHy, HaTopny h 
ero niKOJie. Hjih Hao6opoT: npH3HaB ce6n He3aBHCHMbiM ot ncHXOJiorHH b 
6nojiorHH, aBTop Mor 6h OT^aTbcn c npaBOM caMHM 6e3y^ep»CHbiM rpe3aM 
o nojie; Tor^a Tpya Otto BeHHHHrepa paccMaTpHBajiH 6h mm, KaK xyao- 
^cecTBeHHoe TBopnecTBO, KaK TBopnecTBo, nojiHoe reHHajibHbix aora/jOK; 
h fleftcTBHTejibHo: b KHHre BeHHHHrepa ecTb crpaHHixbi xyaoacecTBeHHO- 
ro npo3peHHH; ho b KHHre BeHHHHrepa npo3peHHH 3th o6ecixeHHBaiOTCH 
quasi-(J)HJioco4)CKHMH ynpa^cHeHHHMH aBTopa. Ha cTpaHHije 165-h aBTop 
yKa3bmaeT Ha to, hto ero KHHra «mozjici u donyma (?!) 6huia ocmaeanthcsi do 
cux nop khuzou ncuxojiozuuecKoUy ne 6ydyuu oKpaiueua nu e kclkou ncuxo- 

J10ZU3M*. C TOHKH 3peHHfl KoreHa, KOTOporO npH3bIBaeT B eflHHOMbllHJieH- 

hhkh BeHHHHrep, ero KHHra aojiacHa 6w 6biTb KHHroft MeTOflOJiorHHecKoii, 
t. e. 0Ha aojiJKHa 6buia 6w onpe^ejiHTb npneMbi Hccjie^OBaHHH b o6jiacTH 
nojia h xapaKTepa. Ho y BeHHHHrepa HeT onpe^ejieHHoro Bbipa6oTaHHoro 
npneMa; y Hero CMecb npneMOB. Ctoht TOJibKO BHHMaTejibHO npocjie^HTb, 
KaK aoKa3biBaeT oh OTcyTCTBHe naMHTH y aceHmHH, KaK nojieMH3HpyeT oh c 
3HMMejieM, hto6w yBH^eTb bmccto MeTOflHHecKoro aHajiH3a TajiaHTJiHByio 
OTce6nTHHy; ho 3aneM npHKpbiBaeT ee oh to KaHTOM, to HayKoft? TaK yMa- 
jineT oh ce6n, KaK xyaoacHHKa; TaK OTpnixaeT b ce6e MHCTHKa. /laHHbie 6ho- 
jiorHH HyjKHbi eMy - ^jih nero? 06MaHyTb HaHBHbix HHTaTejiefi, no^cyHyTb 
hm ropbKyio MeTa(J)H3HHecKyio nHjnojno b cjia^Koft o6epTKe H3 tcpmhhob 
6HOJiorHH? HmaiOT, h npHHHMaioT; rjioTaioT nHJiiojno; He^oyMeBaioT. TaK 
aeTen no^HyiOT KacTopKOH, co6jia3HHH BapeHbeM; TaK b cTapHHy npHHHMa- 

JIH XHHHH B BHHC 

B MyjKHHHe h aceHiijHHe aBTop bh^ht 06a Hanajia (MyaccKoe h aceH- 
CTBeHHoe) b cMeuiaHHOM BH^e; Hanajia 3th ajih Hero - MeTa(J)H3HHecKHe 
cymHocTH. A ecjiH TaK, to He aceHmHHa BOBce onpeaejineT aceHCTBeHHoe: 
Hao6opoT - aceHCTBeHHocTbio onpe^ejiHMa 0Ha caMa. Meac^y TeM «)K» 
(^ceHCTBeHHOCTb) y BeHHHHrepa - nocryjiaT; h TOJibKO nocTyjiaT. Ilojioace- 
HHe ero KpHTHnecKoe. Ecjih ero nocryjiaT - a6cTparHpoBaHHbie CBOHCTBa 
peajibHOH aceHiijHHbi, to BeiiHHHrep nonaaaeT b 3aBHCHMOCTb ot aHaTOMHH 

H (J)H3HOJIOrHH aceHIIJHHbi; HO COMHHTeJIbHbl aHaTOMHHeCKHe H (|)H3HOJIOrH- 

necKHe no3HaHHH BeHHHHrepa; h BbiBOflbi ero OTHOCHTejibHO 5KeHiitHH co- 



220 



MHHTeJIbHbl T05KC ECJIH «)K» - M6Tcl(|)H3HHeCKcW CymHOCTb, TO Tpe6yeTCH 

pacKpwTHe SToro «>K». TaKoe MeTa(j)H3HHecKoe pacKpwrae BCTpenaeM mw 
y llIejuiHHra (« Weltseele»), y CojiOBbeBa, y HOBonjiaTOHHKOB, y thocthkob, 
y MHorHx apyrax; 3jxecb BCKpwBaiOTCH mhcthhcckhc npeanocwjiKH caMOH 
MeTa(|)H3HKH. Tozdci eueodu Beunumepa 113 ceoucme MUcmuuecKu nencnozo 
dm nezo naucuia «>K» - He bwboaw bobcc 

Ho BefiHHHrep - hh (})H3HOJior jxo KOHua, hh, tcm 6ojiee, jxo KOHua mh- 

CTHK. EMy OCTaeTCH OflHO! 3a6bITb BCe TO, HTO rOBOpHT O HeCOe^HHHMOCTH 

aceHCTBeHHoro Hanajia c peajibHofi aceHmHHofi; aceHCTBeHHoe Hanajio, ot- 
KpwBaiomeecH b aceHiijHHe, OCTaeTCH eMy noflMeHHTb (})H3HOjiorHHecKOH 
aceHmHHofi; ho TaKaa aceHmHHa, no ero ace cjioBaM, He aceHmHHa TOJibKO. 
H BbiBo^bi ero, KacaiomnecH aceHmHHw TOJibKO, He TOJibKO ee KacaiOTcn; 
BepHee, ohh He KacaiOTcn ee. Ottoto-to bmboam 3th o6ecijeHHBaioTCH; 
ottoto-to 6ecueHeH ero oTpnijaTejibHWH B3rjiH,a; Ha aceHmHH; (})ejibeTOH- 
Hyio npaB ( 5ono,5o6HOCTb HMeeT stot BsrjiHfl - h TOJibKO. B jik)6om pa3roBO- 
pe mw MoaceM 3amHTHTb jno6yio Mwcjib; co(})hct noHHMaeT sto npeKpacHO, 
Kor^a HMeeT aejio co cpe^HHM co6eceflHHKOM. Ymcji ace O. yaiijibfl flo- 
Ka3biBaTb Bee HaBWBopoT. KpacoTa TaKHx flOKa3aTejibCTB - b opnrHHajib- 

HOCTH npOIjeCCa BWCKa3WBaHHfl HX, a He B o6*beKTHBHOH 3HaHHMOCTH. 

B tom, hto BeHHHHrep ocTpoyMeH h rjiy6oKO yMeH, mm He coMHeBaeM- 
ch; h noTOMy-TO aojdkhw mw BOCCTaTb npoTHB 3JioynoTpe6jieHHH yMOM. 
BeHHHHrep yBJieneH sctcthkoh cbohx flOKa3aTejibCTB; Meacay TeM, MHorne 
npHHHMaioT acTeTHKy 3Ty 3a HCTHHHocTb. BeHHHHrep npn6eraeT k 6ho- 
jiorHHecKHM ^aHHbiM, Meacfly TeM, oTHomeHHe ero k aceHiijHHe He onpaB- 
AMBaeTCH 6HOJiorHeii. 

BeHHHHrep Ha3WBaeT ce6n ctopohhhkom HeoKaHraaHCTBa; Meaczjy 
TeM, ero cnoco6 H3JiaraTb TeMy 0T3WBaeTCH aypHoft aoKaHTHaHCKofi Me- 

Ta(J)H3HKOH. 

MeTa(J)H3HHecKH TpaKTyn Bonpocw nojia, BeHHHHrep He HaxoflHT Me- 
TacJ)H3HHecKHX ocHOBaHHH ajih cBoero OTpnuaTejibHoro B3rjiHAa Ha aceH- 
mHH; npHMepw, npHBOflHMwe hm, Bee anejuinpyiOT k onbiTy. 

OcTaeTCH aonycTHTb b HeM coBepuieHHO HppauHOHajibHyio noflKJiaflKy 
HeHaBHCTH k aceHmHHe. Ho, cTaB Ha TOHKy 3peHHH MHCTHu;H3Ma, BeHHHH- 
rep H^eT BonpeKH B033peHHK> Bbi^aiomnxcH mhcthkob; Bw^aiomHecH MH- 
cthkh bhochjih sjieMeHT ^ceHCTBeHHocTH b caMoe Hanajio 6oacecTBa. 

Ho, ocTaBancb Ha tohkc 3peHHH caMoro BeftHHHrepa, mw mohih 6w 
npe,m>HBHTb eMy pna B03paaceHHH. 3jiecb ue MecTo pa3BHBaTb B03pa»ceHHH 
a™. CnaaceM TOJibKO, hto B3rjiHfl Ha aceHmHHy, KaK Ha cymecTBO, JIHHieH- 
Hoe TBopnecTBa, kphthkh He BwaepacHBaeT. JKeHmHHa tbopht MyacHHHy 
He TOJibKO aKTOM (J)H3HHecKoro poacaeHHH; ^ceHmHHa TBOpHT MyacHHHy H 
aKTOM poac^eHHH b HeM ayxoBHOCTH. JKeHiitfiHa onjioAOTBopneT TBopne- 
ctbo reHHH; ctoht TOJibKO npnnoMHHTb bjihhhhc ^ceHmHHw Ha xoa pa3- 
bhthh reHHH fere, BaiipoHa, Rame. 



221 



HeM 6mji 6bi /laHTe 6e3 BeaTpnne? IeTe 6e3 aceHmHHbi He Hanncaji 6w 
CBoero «Bepmepa». Baraep He ^aji 6w ^Tpucmana u H30Jibdu». C qzjhoh 
ctopohw, mm He BCTpenaeMCH iiohth c reHHajibHMMH aceHmHHaMH. C apy- 
roft CTopoHbi, 6e3 bjihhhhh aceHmHHbi Ha MyacHHHy HejiOBenecTBO He hmcjio 
6bi Tex reHHeB, kotopwmh oho cnpaBe^JiHBo ropAHTCH h cymecrBOBaHHe 
KOTopwx HaTajiKHBaeT BeftHHHrepa Ha Mbicjib o npeBocxoacTBe Myaccicoro 
Hanajia. 

BHOJiorHnecKan, rHOceojiorHHecicafl, MeTacJ)H3HHecKaH h MHCTHHecKan 
3HanHMOCTb pa36HpaeMoro cohhhchhh BeftHHHrepa HHHTOHCHa. 

«IIoji u xapaxmep* - aparoueHHbift ncHxojiorHnecKHft aoicyMeHT re- 
HHajibHoro iohoihh - He 6ojiee. H caMbift aoicyMeHT stot TOJibKO HaMeicaeT 
HaM Ha to, hto y BeftHHHrepa c dicenw^unou 6bijiH KaKHe-To jiHHHbie cneTbi. 

Mw c yBJieneHHeM HHTaeM reHHajibHbift (J)ejibeTOH; mm coacajieeM, hto 
CMepTb OTHHJia y Hac Otto BeftHHHrepa. Ho h TOJibKO... 

1909 



X. JIMTEPATYPHblM PACnAfl 

KHHra* HanpaBjieHa npoTHB chmbojihctob, Mo^epHHCTOB, hhahbh- 
ayajiHCTOB, CBepxHHOTBH^yajiHCTOB. Pa3Max 6ojibiuoft: aBTopw 6bK)T no 
Bceft pyccKoft coBpeMeHHoft JiHTepaType; aocTaeTCH MepeacicoBCKOMy, Ap- 
Ubi6aiueBy, Cojiory6y, Ky3MHHy, BpiocoBy, Eep/jHeBy, MHHCKOMy, Byji- 
raKOBy, BjioKy, Bopncy 3aftijeBy, A. BejiOMy; aocTaeTCH npecce-MoaepH; 
AOCTaeTCH HyKOBCKOMy; aocTaeTCH AH^peeBy. CnHH03a npnrjiauiaeTCH 
BflaBHTb «KJieftMO TpycjiHBoro pa6a bo ji6w rr. MepeaocoBCKHx h... caMO- 
ro MoziuibHOZo MOZwibuifUKa - AH,apeeBa» (cTp. 155); aocTaeTCH nonyrHO 
M. MeTepjiHHKy h bccm Boo6me 3ana,zjHbiM CHMBOJiHCTaM. JI. TojiCToft 
onpe^ejineTCH, KaK enacmumejib MejiKux, ynuoicennbix dyiu (cTp. 293). >Kaji- 
ko, hto aBTop, onpeaejifliomHft TaK TojicToro, He noTpyzjHJicfl BbicKa3aTbcn 
o Torojie, ^octocbckom, TypreHeBe, IlyiiiKHHe, TioTHeBe h nponnx nnca- 
Kax «W3 deopxH*, HeBpacTeHHKax, 6apax c xojioncKHMH aymaMH. Tor^a 
KapTHHa nojiyHHJiacb 6w BOHCTHHy BejiHHecTBeHHan. CoBpeMeHHbie nnca- 
TejiH, HanHHan c CepreeBa-UeHCKoro (noneMy 6bi h TopbKoro He bkjiio- 
HHTb b hx hhcjio?) h KOHHafl Ky3MHHbiM, o6T>eAHHHK)TCH b o,zjHy rpynny 
^ereHepaTOB. Ilo KpaftHeft Mepe, Be jiHHecTBeHHo ! 

Kpynnijy hcthhw kto-to H3 aBTopoB Hameji jiHiub b 3ojia h b 3. ae 
Amhhhcc K nepTy AH^peeBa, BpiocoBa, MepeaocoBCKoro h aajiee: Tojicto- 
ro, /locToeBCKoro, Torojinl J\di 3ApaBCTByeT 3. #e Amhhhc! 



* JIumepamypHbiu pacnad. KHHroH3AaTe;ibCTBO «3epHO». CT16., 1908. UeHa 
1 p. 50. (ABTopw: B. Ba3apoB, JI. Bohtojiobckhh, M. TopbKHH, Ct. HBaHOB, A. Jly- 
HanapcKHH, M. Mopo30B, K). Ctckjiob, H. TpomcHH h IT. IOuikcbhh.) 



222 



ynpa3flHfleTCfl jiHTepaTypa, 3a hckjuohchhcm IeTe, .flame, Illnjuiepa, 
3cxHJia h np., pa3pa6oTaBuiHx npocmue meMU, ux ucuepnaetuux (sto IeTe 
npocT?). 

BMecTe c sthm 3aflBJifleTCH! 1) «mm HHKaK He MoaceM aonycTHTb, hto- 
6w flyina Mo^epHHCTa 6biJia 6ojiee tohkoh... neM ayuia IIIejuiH, IlyniKHHa, 
TeTe» (crp. 33) (kto ace H3 Mo^epHHCTOB nocnraji Ha IeTe: He b jiarepe jih 
hx oKpen KyjibT IIIejuiH, IeTe, IlyinKHHa h ap.?); HTan: to IeTe npocT, a to 
yTOHHeHi neMy BepHTb? 2) IlyTb B. BpiocoBa o6T>HBJiHeTCH nyTeM «eejiu- 
uauiuezo U3 nosmoe coepeMeunocmu e Poccuu*. flereHepaT BpiocoB - Be- 

JIHHaHUIHH n03T COBpeMCHHOCTH ! EaJIbMOHT OKa3bIBaeTCH npeBOCXOZlHblM 

Bbipa3HTe;ieM ropo^a, b to BpeMH KaK 6biTonHcaTe;ib peBOJiioijHH CepreeB- 
UeHCKHH Ha3BaH noBanjieHHbiM rpo6oM b cmokhoh CTaTbe (BajibMOHT 
MOJKeT rop^HTbCH cbohm ycnexoM y cypoBbix 6o jibiueBHKOB ! ) . fleicafleHT 
P. fleMejib OKa3biBaeTCH BbicoKoaapoBHTbiM nosTOM (cTp. 157), Tor^a KaK 
JI. Tojictoh Ha CTp. 293 TaK-TaKH h ocTaeTCH BjiacTHTejieM mczikhx jxym. 
A. Bejibift nojiynaeT komiuimmcht b hckpchhocth h TajiaHTjiHBOCTH, ho b 
to ace BpeMH, b apyroft CTaTbe, 3anoao3peBaeTCH b 3a3biBaHHH HHTaTejieii 
b cbok) jiaBOHKy. B oflHoft h toh ace CTaTbe, to y B. 3aSijeBa OTHHMaeTcn 
npaBO CTOHTb b nepBbix pnaax coBpeMeHHbix Mo^epHHCTOB, yBaacaeMbix 
aBTopoM (co6paTbH no c6opHHKy bo3bo^ht hx Bcex B IIOflXaJIHMOBblx), - 
to tot ace B. 3anueB bo3boottch nyTb jih He b npHHijbi ot MO#epHH3Ma 
(cTp. 197)! flajiee H^eT naHernpHK Apubi6auieBy, KOTopbift b apyroM MecTe 
khhth npHHHCJieH k #eKa#eHTaM -peK jiaMHcraM . «Me;iKHH 6ec» O. Cojio- 
ry6a npH3HaeTCH npoH3Be,zjeHHeM, noflMMaiomHMCH no «eucomu zozonee- 
ckou emu u3o6paotceHun» (cTp. 278) (caMbift njiaMeHHbiH noKJioHHHK Co- 
jiory6a H3 ideKadewnoe* He Mor 6w cKa3aTb 6ojibinerol), a b apyroM MecTe 
caM Cojiory6 npH3HaeTCH nyTb jih He MaHbHKOM. HaKOHeij, M. TopbKHH 
Koro-TO o6pyrHBaeT acecTom «JIymue 6u nepodumbcn eaM uecmHbiMu*, - 
nnuieT oh; hjih: «zacnym cexmue zumhu noamoe npouuiozo... sazjiymeuHue 
zpoMKUM 6a3apHbiM tuyMOM oxpeupe «Hoeozo ucicyccmea*... (cip. 306). Kto 
3th acpeijbi: BpiocoB, Bjiok, AH^peeB h np.? H bot, nepe3 flBa Mecaija nocjie 

BblXOTO KHHrH, T. IopbKHH, B OflHOM HHTepBbK), 3aflBJIfleT, HTO OH JIK)6hT H 

ueHHT AH^peeBa, BpiocoBa, BjioKa h ap... BnjiOTb no AycjieH^epa. 

«JlHTepaTypHbiS pacna#» ecTb npeaczie Bcero pacna^ toh rpynnbi, koto- 
paa o6T>eaHHHJiacb rjw 6opb6w npOTHB MOflepHH3Ma bo hmh skohomotcckoh 
aoKrpHHbi h npojieTapnaTa. KaKoe yac Tyr KjiaccoBoe co3HaHHe, Kor^a r-#a 
IIozixajiHMOBbi nHinyr npoH3BeaeHHH, paBHbie Torojiio, hbjmiotch H3o6pa3H- 
TejwMH ropo^a, aaiOT H3 cbohx p*moB BejinnaHinHX nosTOB coBpeMeHHOcra, 

OKa3bIBaK)TCH OCTpblMH, eflKHMH, TOHKHMH, HyTKHMH Iiy6jIHUHCTaMH H T. JX.\ 

Atthjiw rpo3HbiM HauiecTBHeM ycTpeMJiHioTCH Ha jiHTepaTypy; bh 
ayMaeTe, hto ohh HflyT rpoMHTb KaKHx-HH6y^b IlozixajiHMOBbix? HeT; 
ohh H^yT «na iuapan», c apeKOjibHMH o6pyuiHBaiOTCH Ha flocToeBCKoro, 
JI. TojiCToro h B. CojiOBbeBa: «Bmccto JlaBpoBa, MnxaftjiOBCKoro, Ejih- 



223 



ceeBa... 3aKOHOflaTejiHMH yMCTBeHHoii mo^m caejiajincb ^octocbckhh, 
JI. Tojictoh h B. CojiOBbeB. Hcne3 bcjihkhh IlaTpoKji peBOJiioijHH, a BMe- 
cto Hero Ha TpoHe... ypo^JiHBbiH TepcHT» (cTp. 41). IlaTpoKji EjinceeB h 
TepcHTbi JI. Tojictoh, ^octocbckhh, B. CojiOBbeB. H bot pa3MaxHBaeT 
mHTOM r. Ctckjiob c HanepTaHHeM EjinceeBa - cobccm ArrHJia! H noTOM 
pacna^aeTCH Ha flo6poayiiiHbix AjiapnxoB, hto6h npHBHTb AjiapnxaM ot 
counaji-aeMOKpaTHH yace hhcto IleTpoHHeBCKHe acecrbi, KOTopwe BOBce He 
k JiHuy npHpo^HbiM ryHHaM, ho, noacajiyii, k JiHijy HauiHM 6e^HbiM hhtcji- 
jinreHTaM, Boo6paacaiomHM, hto ohh - Ha crpaace hhctotw npojieiapcKoro 
C03HaHHH, a b fleftcTBHTejibHOCTH pa3flpo6jraiomHM h 6e3 Toro HeoKpen- 
iuyio pa6onyio napraio Ha HOBbie h HOBbie (J)paKUHH. Mm totobm npH3HaTb 
repMaHCKyio coijHaji-aeMOKpaTHio; mm roTOBbi BHHMaTb MapKcy, Jlacca- 
jik), Be6ejiio, ho mh nepecraeM noHHMaTb coimaji-fleMOKpaTa c CHHflHKa- 

JIHCTCKHM OTTeHKOM, BpaaCflyiOmeiX) H C 60JIbUieBHK0M, H C MeHbllieBHKOM, 

eme MeHee roTOBbi mw noHHMaTb, Kor^a 6ojibiiieBHKH, 3a6biBa*i o cnopax 
c MeHbineBHKaMH, HaHHHaiOT BoeBaTb apyr c apyroM; kow, HanpHMep, 
JleHHH H^eT bohhoh Ha Bor^aHOBa h t. r. Pa3Be He BeeT ot sthx cnopoB 
Toii ace 6ecnoHBeHHOCTbio, KOTopan xapaKTepH30Bajia CTapoaaBHHe cnopbi 
rere;iHaHueB-3ana^HHK0B c rerejiHaHuaMH-cjiaBHHO(j)HJiaMH? T-^a, bw ro- 
BopHTe ot jiHija npojieTapnaTa, ot KOToporo Bac oraejiaeT 6e3flHa! He BaM, 
r;iy6oKO 6ypacya3HbiM, yicopnTb Koro 6w to hh 6mjio b 6ypacya3H0CTH, h He 
BaM, apo6HmHM e^HHCTBO napTHH Ha 6ecKOHenHbie (J)paKUHH, yzmBJurrb- 
ch, hto coBpeMeHHan pyccKaa jimepaTypa AH(J)(J)epeHi^HpyeTCH. ycjiOBHH 
KOJiJieKTHBHoro TBopnecTBa, ecjiH TaKOBoe bo3mo)kho, jieacaT 3a rpaHbio 
coizHajibHoro nepeBopoTa; 6biTb MoaceT, CTOJieran oTflejiaiOT Hac ot stoh 
rpaHH; h «HOBoe HCKyccTBO» ecTb njiOTb ot njio™ BeHHoro HCKyccTBa: 
Kajib^epoH, IIIeKcnHp, KopHejib npo^ojiacaiOTCfl b H6ceHe, a'AHHyHijHO, 
To(J)MaHCTajie. 

Ecjih 6bi cocTaBHTejiH «Pacnada» f pacnaBuiHecn b noHHMaHHH h oueHice 

COBpeMeHHOrO HCKyCCTBa, yCMOTpeJIH 3aBHCHMOCTb HHflHBHflyajiH3Ma hc- 

KyccTBa ot AH(j)(j)epeHijHauHH tcxhhkh b npe^ejiax toh hjih hhoh (J>opMbi, 
ohh noHHjiH 6bi npe^ycTaHOBjieHHOCTb coBpeMeHHoro HCKyccTBa h, cjie- 
^OBaTejibHo, ero 3aKOHOMepHocTb. Ohh noHHJiH 6bi h to, hto TexHHnecKoe 
coBepuieHCTBo b HCKyccTBe paBHO o6fl3aTe;ibHO h HHflHBHflyajibHo- 
6yp»cya3Horo, KanHTajiHCTHHecicoro HCKyccTBa, h rjix HCKyccTBa npojie- 
TapcKoro, noao6HO TOMy, KaK ^H(J)(J)epeHUHauHH h yTOHHeHHe b CTpyKType 
MaiiiHH HBjineTCH (J)aKTopoM nporpecca: Be^b npn nepexo^e k coijHajiHCTH- 
necKOMy CTpoio (b anoxy o6o6mecTBjieHHfl opy^HH npoH3BOflCTBa) 6biJio 
6w ^ocTaTOHHo 6ecuejibH0 pa3pyuiaTb (J>a6pHKH. OioacHbie Bonpocw o 
(J)opMe h cneuHajibHbie Bonpocw tcxhhkh, no^HHTbie coBpeMeHHbiMH chm- 
BOJiHCTaMH, paBHO o6fl3aTejibHbi rjvi xyfloacHHKa-6yp»cya hjih xyaoacHHica- 
npojieTapHH, pa3 My3biKa ocTaeTcn My3biKOH, nos3HH - no33Heii h t. r. 

A Beflb TOJIbKO B CaMOflOBJIdOmeH UeHHOCTH BCeX BOnpOCOB, CBH3aHHbIX c 



224 



TeXHHKOH, BeCb CMblCJI 3CTeTH3Ma, a BOBCe He b H^eojiorHH; TeopHH chmbo- 
jiH3Ma b npe^ejiax HCKyccTBa ecTb nepeHHCJieHHe npneMOB BonjiomeHHH 
TBopnecTBa, b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot TexHHHecKoro nyTH 3Toro BonjiomeHHH. 
Tpe3Bbie npoTHBHHKH poMaHTH3Ma b Bonpocax o6mecTBeHHbix, aBTopw 
«Pacna#a», ohh npeBpamaiOTcn b HaHBHbix poMaHTHKOB, Tpe6yn ot HCKyc- 
CTBa npeac^e Bcero coflepacaHHH h pa3yMen, KaK uoji «ucKyccmeoM», TaK h 
uojx «co ( aep»caHHeM» hchto Heonpe^ejieHHoe h Henpo^yMaHHoe. 

OTbiCKaTb pyKOBO^nmyio HHTb Bcero c6opHHKa, KpoMe Toro, hto co- 
BpeMeHHoe HCKyccTBO «6ypDtcya3HO» («6ypacya3HO» b CMbicjie aemeBbix 
CTaTeft, TpaKTyiomHx o 6ypacya3HH), HeT bosmodkhocth; ho «6ypacya3Ho» 
h BbidynjieHHe rr. nncaTejieH b pojiH caM03BaHHbix 3amHTHHKOB npojie- 
TapHaia ot rH6ejibHoro bjihhhhh coBpeMeHHoii jiHTepaTypbi: npojieTapnaT 
He HyacaaeTCfl b pyKOBOflHTejinx ot mcjikoh 6ypacya3HH. H TOJibKO b 6yay- 
meM cTpoe bo3moecho 6yaeT onpe^ejiHTb, b KaKOM CMbicjie 6bm 6ypacya3eH 
chmbojih3m Hanajia XX BeKa b Pocchh; bo bchkom cjiynae, b hcm MeHbine 
jiH6epajibHoii H^eojiorHH h ceHTHMeHTajibHoro yTonH3Ma, HeacejiH b jiio- 
6om c6opHHKe «3H(IHILH». 

Bee ace cjie^yeT oTMeTHTb oflHy noxBajibHyio CTopoHy b «JIumepamyp- 
hom pacnade». Abtoph ero (noHHMaiomHe h HenoHHMaiomHe HCKyccTBo) 

npOHJIH COBpeMeHHblX CHMBOJIHCTOB H nHHiyT Ha OCHOBaHHH 3HaK0MCTBa 

(xoth 6bi h BHeniHero) c pa36HpaeMbiMH aBTopaMH; KpoMe Toro, ohh necr- 
ho o6t>hbhjih ce6n HauiHMH jiHTepaTypHbiMH BparaMH; TyT HeT HHnero, hto 
Morjio 6bi nopo^HHTb hx c «o6o3hou ceojioub7o». Hh XjiecTaKOBa ot Mo^ep- 
HH3Ma, hh npcaaTejiH, hh CHMyjiHHTa He BCTpeTHuib b hx pnflax; a aToro He 
cKaaceuib npo tot Jiarepb, KOTopbiii o6T>eflHHHK)T HauiH Bparn b hohhthh 
«MO ( aepHH3Ma»; bot OT^ero co mhoiumh crpaHHijaMH «Jlumepamypuozo 
pacnada», oaymeBJieHHbiMH rHeBOM, mh corjiacHbi, He npHHunnHajibHO, a 

B TOM HJIH HHOM KOHKpeTHOM CJiy^ae. 

IlycTb necTHbie no6opHHKH npojieTapcKoro HCKyccTBa (npe^CTaBH- 
TejiH KpaHHeii npaBoii jiHTepaTypHoro napjiaMeHTa) Bbi6pocnT H3 cbohx 
Ph^ob npeflcraBHTejieii jio3yHra «h HauiHM, h BauiHM» b jimepaType, KaK 
Bbi6pacwBaeM mh H3 Hauinx ph^ob Bee cepe^HHHoe; Tor^a, 6biTb MoaceT, 
jiyx peKJiaMbi h uiapjiaTaHCTBa, o^ymeBJiHiomHH «o6o3Hyio CBOJiOHb», 060- 

3HaHHBUIHCb HpKO MOKfly 3CfleKCKHM MOJIOTOM H HaKOBaJIbHeH CHMBOJIH3- 

Ma, CKOMnpoMeTHpyeT 6e3B03BpaTHO jno6HTejieii «MyTHoii bo,zu>i». 

1908 



XI. CJIOBO nPABflbl 

«He Mbi - nomoHHUKU MaKcima TopbKozo». TaK eme He^aBHO 
npHxoaHJiocb OTBenaTb Ha HCTepHHecKHe B03rjiacw jHo^eii, paBHoayumbix 
k HCKyccTBy h Bee ace o6ypeBaeMbix acejiaHHeM, bo hto 6bi to hh cTajio, 



225 



caacaTb TopbKoro Ha jiHTepaTypHwft npecTOJi. Cjiwina KpyroM cjiOBa o tom, 
hto TopbKHH - reHHajieH, b to BpeMH KaK o^Ha 3a apyroft noHBjiHJiHCb ero 
cjia6we nbecbi, naMHTya o aeftcTBHTejibHwx reHHHx pyccKofi jiHTepaTy- 
pw (IlyiuKHH, Torojib, /Ioctocbckhh, Tojictoh, TypreHeB), mw He motjih 
oTHocHTbCH xjia^HOKpoBHo k CTOJib jiencoft nepeoijeHKe Bcero BejiHKoro 
npoinjioro OTenecTBeHHoft cjiobcchocth; a npH3HaHHe IopbKoro HapaBHe c 

^OCTOeBCKHM eCTb OTKa3 OT ^OCTOeBCKOrO. IIO Mepe B03paCTaHHH IIiyMH- 

xh cjiob BOKpyr HMeHH TopbKoro KaK 6yzu , o HCCHKaji ero KpynHbifi TajiaHT: 
aBTop «HejiKaiua» y «Tpoux» h t. a. 3acjiOHHJicn aBTopoM «Mewp,w». H mw 

nOHTH pa3yBepHJIHCb B TopbKOM. 

Ho mh 6bijiH b HHCJie nepBbix ueHHTejieft ero, Kor^a He cymecTBOBajio 
eme hh «3HaHHH», hh Bcefi cneijH(|)HHecKoft 3aKBacKH «nodMaKcuMoeinu- 
Hu» y BW3WBaromeft h no ero nopy HenpHHrayro ToniHOTy. 

Eme 6hjih h no6oHHbie npHHHHw, ncnxojiorHHecKH bjikhbhihc Ha Hac: 
mm nepeoi^eHHBajiH HajiHHHocrb jiHTepaTypHwx chji b toh rpynne nncaTe- 
jieft, KOTopan no ayxy Ka3ajiacb HaM 6jiH2ce; ot HeKOTopbix hmch ac^ajiH mw 
6ojibinero, Heacejin cnoco6Hbi aaTb sth HMeHa; H3 hhx cotbophjih mw Ky- 
MHpw; KyMHpw HaniH OKOHnaTejibHO 3ac;ioHHjiH ot Hac o6pa3 TopbKoro. 

Ho bot, - na^aeT cjiaBa TopbKoro. 06mecTBeHHoe MHeHHe HiijeT ce6e 
apyrnx 6oroB. BocTopaceHHwe ot3wbw o TopbKOM Bee name cmchhiotch 
npeHe6pe»CHTejibHOH 6paHbro. 06mecrBO KaK 6yzjTO HanHHaeT 3a6biBaTb, 
hto TopbKHH - aBTop «HejiKauia» . B 3tom 3a6BeHHH KpoeTCH HecnpaBe^- 

JIHBOCTb. 

Ho bot, - cpe^H jihij, cocpeflOTOHHBinHx b cBoeft ^eHTejibHOCTH Tpa- 
OTuhh BejiHKHx 3aBeTOB pyccKoft jiHTepaTypw hjih ^eftcTBHTejibHo npojia- 
raroujHx HOBwe nyra b HCKyccTBe, HanHHaeT TBopHTbcn hto-to Hejia^Hoe; 
HOBwe cjiOBa hx npeBpamaroTCH b aeineBwft MO#epHH3M; CTporocTb nyra 
hx CMeHHeTCH no^03pHTejibHoii inaTKOCTbro; npHHHMaH b cboh pww aBaH- 
TropHCTOB, ohh Bee 6ojiee h 6ojiee H3 bohhob flBHaceHHH nona^aroT b npo- 
BHaHTMeHCTepw: cHa6»caroT MOflepHHcranecKHM npoBHaHTOM noTpe6nTe- 
jih. H nenajibHaa, ho - yBw! - HeH36eHCHafl nepeoijeHKa hx .zjenTejibHocTH 

CTaHOBHTCH HenpeJI05KHWM (J)aKTOM. 

Ilepefl HaMH «Hcnoeedb» TopbKoro; b Heft npocwnaioTCH BHOBb jiyn- 
niHe CTopoHw aapoBaHHH IopbKoro: c paaocTbio y6eac,zjaeMCH mw, hto 
TopbKHft - 5khb, hto oh - xy/joacHHK; c rpycTbro y6eacflaeMCH mw, hto mho- 
rne H3 Hac - MepTBee IopbKoro. 

HeBOJibHan nepeoueHKa TopbKoro - HeH36e»CHwft (J)aKTj mw ue no- 
kjiohhuku ero; ho u^enumejiHMU MHororo b hcm mw aojiacHW ocTaTbcn. 

«Hcnoeedbio» CBoeft noKa3aji oh, hto yMeeT h no ero nopy eudemb pyc- 
CKyro ayniy. Kor^a HHTaeM b «Hcnoeedu» 06 HCKaHHHx ero repon, nepe/j 
HaMH npo6eraeT paa Jihij, npoxo/jHT h aepeBHH, h MOHacTwpb, h cxhmhhk, 
neft rojioc «nodo6eH mpenemy Kpbuibee yMupmom^eu nmut^bi^, BwnjiwBaeT 
bo TbMe ^aucuiou u uepnuu zpo6»: ceeT cxhmhhk OTTy/ja ^nomuxoubxy cjio- 



226 



ea ceou; ocuncnomcn ohu... nan nenen dcuibuezo nowapa...*; npoxoam h 06- 
pa3 MOHaxa-CKenraKa Ahtohhh: c jie^HHbiM jihuom «ctiokouho ruiemem* oh 
6ecKpoBHyio penb; npoxoOTT h KJiHpomaHKa, ^nepnaH, kok o6pueoK mynu 
e eempenuu denb», h npocHT: «pe6enoHKa xouy»; npoxo^HT h nejiOBeK c 
ITepMCKOH CTopoHM b HanoeHHOM CMOJiaMH B03,ayxe, b 6ejioM noapncHHKe, 
«3a cnuHOio panev i 113 menmbeu kooku u KomejioK»; npoc/iaBJineT Bora: «Be- 
jiuk Macmep Tocnodb...: Jieca y pem, zopu xopouco nojioj/aui^; npoxo^HT nep- 
Hopa6oHHe - h BejiHKan paBHHHa 3eMJiH pyccKoii BOCKpecaeT nepea HaMH: 
«Haa ropofi b chhcm He6e hctko bh^ho 3y6naTyio CTeHy jieca»; npoxo^HT 
BecHa, jieTO, oceHb, 3HMa: «TaeT 3eMJiH... h, HMOKan, npncacbiBaeT hohh», 
a b TyMaHe KanaiOTCH rojiwe .zjepeBbH, «njibiByT h npnnyTCH HaMonuibHbie 
KpecTbi»; 3hmok) «3a okhcimu ebwza decnpuTomnaH no nojiK) MenemcH, e erne- 
Hbi cmyuum, cmonem u eoem, 03x6iuax»; a to - «cunue dcuiu, euiuumuu 30- 
jiomoM ocennuu Jiec, iuiu 3umhuu xpaM cepe6pnnuu». IIpoxoflHT Pocchh, to 
xMypan, to 3o;iOTaH - oceHbio, to jiHKyiomaH b cepzme CTpaHHHKa. H, 3a- 
6biBan pacTHHyrocTb 4>a6y;ibi, HecoBepineHCTBo MHorax CTpamm, Bepnuib 
TopbKOMy, hto jik)6ht oh Pocchio, hto cjiyuiaeT oh «MaTb cwpy 3eMjno». 
W noeTCH b ayuie: «Pocchh, Pocchh, Pocchh moh»... H Bor BecTb, hto 
BKJia^biBaeuib b 3Ty necHio: TOCKy h pe;iHrH03Hbie HCKaHHH, ropbKHii njian 
h Bepy b Jiynuiee 6yaymee. 

CKB03b Bee 3to Be^eT TopbKHH cMHTeHHyio aymy CBoero CTpaHHHKa B 
«eocmopz hohu», Kor^a o^hh bo TbMe o6HHMaeT oh 3eMJiio CBoeii jno6oBbio 
h, o6hhb, mojihtch: «H6o Tm ecn ooth Bor, TBopnii nyaeca». 

«TaKO HcnoBcayio h Bepyio». 

«OcTaBafiTecb bcphmmh 3eMJie», - 30BeT Hac 3apaTycTpa; «3eMmo t^e- 
jiyu HeycmaHHO»> - yjiw6aeTCH CTapeu 3ocHMa y ,/JocToeBCKoro. Bot, r^e 
3anaa coeflHHneTCH c boctokom: b HCKaHHH Bora acHBoro. H TopbKHH, ao- 
cejie Bna^aBiHHH b ycjiOBHOCTH MepTBOH TeH^eHUHH, B^pyr KaK 6w HanH- 
HaeT BHHMaTb 3aBeTy ^oeroeBCKoro. 

«TaKO HcnoBeayio h Bepyio», cjiobho ero sto tojioc aojieTaeT k HaM. 
TyT - no^jiHHHaH npaB^a; TopbKHH bh^ht mo, nmo ecmb. Pe;iHrH03Hbie 
HCKaHHH repoH «Hcnoeedu», He noKa3biBaiOT jih ohh, hto b jxyuie TopbKoro 
npoHCxo^HT nepejiOM? 

«TaKo HcnoBcayio h Bepyio» - bo hto? B Hapoa, b Bora, b Mapnca? TyT 
ecTb He^oroBopeHHocTb, b KOTopoft nyBCTByeTCH CMeuieHHe, cmhtchhc 

Ho mw He aojiacHbi CMeuiHBaTb TaM, r^e CMeuiHBaeT caM ropbKHii: pe- 
jiHrH03Han npaB^a o 3eMJie, KaK 6w hh 6bijia OHa peBOJiiouHOHHa b cKpw- 
toh CBoeii cymHOCTH, - He HMeeT HHnero o6mero c toh pejiHrneH, KOTopyio 
nbiTaiOTCH C03,ziaTb H3 SKOHOMHHecKOH ^oKTpHHbi MapKca. B Hen HHTepe- 
cyeT Hac MeToa, t. e. TeopHH. TaM ace, rzje conpHKacaeMCH mw c echboh pe- 
jiHrHeii, He MoaceT cymecTBOBaTb HHKaKoii ^oktphhm (hh peBOJiiouHOH- 
hoh, hh peaKUHOHHon), BbwaBaeMOH 3a pejinrHK). K 6orocTpoHTe;ibCTBy 
30BeT ropbKHii; fljiH 3Toro oh npH3biBaeT k 3eMJie: nepe3 3eMjno k Bory, bot 



1 5 AHflpeft Be^uii 



227 



BHyTpeHHHH cmhcji «HcnoBe,zm»; h BOBce He TaK aojDKHbi mm noHHMaTb 
cjiOBa TopbRoro: nepe3 Bora k 3eMjie; BeAb Tor#a 3cmjih y Hero - KyMHp. 
KyMHpoB He Ha,zjo HaM. 

Bee ace HaM flyMaeTCH, MepTBbiS, 6e3»CH3HeHHbiH florMara3M conpH- 
KacaeTCH b HeM c TpeneTOM npaBflbi HapoflHOH, h npaeda b HeM HanHHaeT 
no6eac,zjaTb aorMaT. 

He noTOMy jih 3acoxuiHe, 6bijio, hhbw ero TBopnecTBa HaHHHaiOT onHTb 
3ejieHeTb 3^ecb h TaM: hcm-to acHBbiM h bo mhothx MecTax xyaoacecTBeH- 
hwm BeeT Ha Hac ot «Hcnoeedu»; h cipaHHo: cthjihcthhcckh b JiynuiHx Me- 
CTax «Hcnoeedu» npH6jiHacaeTCH oh k «Hepmo6y Jiyzy» A. M. PeMH30Ba: 
He poflCTBeHHOCTb jih nyTeft HanHHaeT cica3biBaTbCH b o6ohx nHcaTejinx? 
TojibKo tot nepejioM, KOTopbift aaBHO y^ce nepeacHji PeMH30B, nepeacHBaeT 
TopbKHH Tenepb. 

«Hcnoeedb» TopbKoro 3HaMeHaTejibHa: OHa B03BpamaeT HaM HHTepec k 
TajiaHTjiHBOMy nncaTejiK) CBoen enympenHeu npaedou; bo bchkom cjiynae, 

^aJieK HaM IopbKHH, KaK npe^CTaBHTeJIb HHOH, CHMBOJIH3My BO MHOrOM 

ny^cAOH, JiHTepaTypHoii rpynnw; ho cjiOBa ero o Pocchh 6jiH»ce npHHHMa- 
eM mw k cepAUy, neM quasi-HapoflHHHecKHe bhkphkh o tom, 6yflTO b ne- 
najibHOH CTpaHe HaineS cojmije chhct acapne, neM y TponHKOB («Ifle chh- 
eT cojmije acapne?»). Bo bchkom cjiynae, cjiOBa IbpbKoro o echbom Bore 
npaBflHBee, neM (J)HJiojiorHHecKHe ynpaacHeHHH TeoperaKOB «co6opHoro 
TBopnecTBa». 3flecb TopbRHH o^HHaKOBO 6jiH»ce h k pyccKHM ceicraHTaM 
(3toh com 3eMJiu napodnou), h k pe;iHrH03HbiM HCKaHHHM JX. C. Mepeac- 

KOBCKOrO. 

HCTHHHaH Cepbe3HOCTb 3ByHHT HaM B «Hcn06edll»; a 3TOH Cepbe3HOCTH 

HeT y caMOHOBeiiiHHx mhcthkob-mo^cphhctob. 

51 He 6yay ocTaHaBJiHBaTbcn Ha xyaoacecTBeHHOM HecoBepuieHCTBe 
«Hcnoeedu». Ha jiio6oh CTpaHHije BCTpeTHM mm scTeranecKH HenpneM- 
jieMbie (J>pa3bi, HeyaaHHbie CHTyaijHH: ho ecTb CTpaHHijbi, npoHHKHyTbie 
hcthhhoh KpacoToft, no^KynaiomeH y6e^HTejibHocTbio h MopajibHbiM na- 

4>OCOM. 

1908 

XII. CMMBOJ1MHECKMM TEATP 

I 

B noaneflHee BpeMH MHoro nncajiH o TeaTpe KoMHecapaceB- 
ckoh; ho ecjiH CBecra k e^HHCTBy Bee, HanHcaHHoe 3a 3to BpeMH no no- 
Boay «CecTpw BeaTpHCM», «EajiaraHHHKa», «BeHHoii CKa3KH», to mw no- 

JiyHHM ^BOHmHHCH BOCKJIHItaTeJIbHMH 3HaK. BoCKJIHIjaJIH nOKJIOHHHKH 

HOBmecTB, BocKJiHuajiH Hero^yiomHe: « OTKpoBeHHe I BbipoacaeHHel Cth- 



228 



jiH3aijHfl! Ilpo4)aHauHfl!» HaKOHeu, 6wjih nonbiTKH npHMHpHTb bockjih- 
uaTejieii cnpaBa h aneBa no 4>opMyjie: «XontH - odnaKO*... H kohchho, 3Ta 
(J)opMyjia npHHHJia HHacecjieayiomHH bh^: «Xomn nociaHOBKa «CecTpbi 
BeaTpHCbi» h «BeHHoii cKa3KH» CBHaeTejibCTByeT o cepbe3Hbix HCKaHHHx 
b o6jiacTH nocTaHOBKH, odnaKo «BajiaraHHHK» A. Bjioica CBH^eTejibCTByeT 
o Hecepbe3HOCTH, nojio^ceHHoii b ocHOBy cepbe3HocTH». «Xoma» npoBajiH- 
Bajio «odHaico» f «oduaKO» - «xomH». 

3a BbineTOM BOCKJiHuaHHH h HHnero He roBopniuHx nonbiTOK co cto- 
poHbi KpHTHKOB npo6ajiaHCHpoBaTb Meacay «CecTpoii BeaTpHCOH» h «Ba- 
jiaraHHHKOM», HHnero cepbe3Horo, npHHUHnnajibHoro, Ha Moii B3rjiH,a, He 
6wjio cKa3aHo. BocKJiHuaHHH b cTHjie Mo^epH cKopeii o6ecuBeTHjiH Bne- 

HaTJieHHe OT fleHCTBHTeJIbHO HpKHX MOMeHTOB nOCTaHOBKH CHMBOJIHHe- 

ckhx nbec. BocKJiHuaTejiH cnpaBa npocTO ociajincb b tchh. A KpHTHnecKan 
3KBHJiH6pHCTHKa Meacay OTHbme pa3pemeHHbiM HHTepecoM k MeiepjiHH- 
Ky h Hepa3pemeHHbiM k «BajiaraHHHKy», Bbi3Bajia yjibi6icy, noTOMy hto 
nbeca A. BjioKa - HeH36e»CHoe npoaojiaceHHe nyTH, HaMeneHHoro MeTep- 
jihhkom: CTpaHHO BH,zjeTb mMHacTa, npo^ejibmaiomero HeBepoHTHbie ycn- 
jihh, HTo6bi npoHTH no KaHaTy h He CBajiHTbCH, Kor^a caM KaHaT npoTHHyT 
no 3eMJie; 3aneM ycjioacHHTb OTHomeHHe k TOMy, hto Tpe6yeT TOJibKO npn- 

3HaHHH HJIH HenpH3HaHHH. H OflHaKO, ecjiH Mbl peniHTejibHO nOCTaBJieHbl B 
HeH36e»CHOCTb OTpHU,aTb BjIOKa H npHHHMaTb MeTepjIHHKa, TO 3AeCb-TO H 
BCKpblBaeTCH npHHUHnHaJIbHblH BOnpOC O TOM, HTO TaKOe CHMBOJIHHeCKaH 

apaMa h MoaceT jih cHMBOJiHHecKan apaMa He npHBecTH Hac k Tynnny, nona 
OHa ocTaeTCH Ha TeaTpajibHbix noflMOCTKax. 

/IpaMa roBopHT HaM o aeiicTBe. CHMBOJiHHecKan .apaMa roBopHT o chm- 
BOJiHnecKOM aeftcTBe. Ho hto TaKoe CHMBOJiHnecKoe aeftcTBO? 

CHMBOJiHnecKoe HCKyccTBO HMeeT uejibio noKa3aTb b o6pa3e ero BHy- 

TpeHHHH CMblCJI, He3aBHCHMO OT TOrO, 6yfleM JIH Mbl npH3HaBaTb 3a 3THM 

cmmcjiom BbipaaceHHe Hamero nepeacHBaHHH, hjih HeKOTopbiii BenHbiH 

CMblCJI (KaK TOBOpHT, - IljiaTOHOBy HfleK)). CHMBOJI C 3TOH TOHKH 3peHHH 

ecTb o6pa3, BbipaacaiomHH co6oio nepeceneHHe #Byx nopnaKOB nocjieaoBa- 
TejibHOCTeii, KaK 6h nepeceneHHe flByx npnMbix b o,zjhoh tohkc Ho TOHKa 
nepeceneHHH AByx npnMbix o^Ha: h noTOMy-TO cahhctbo o6pa3a, 3aHH- 
Maiomero, TaK cKa3aTb, MecTo nepeceneHHH .zjByx nocjieaoBaTejibHOCTefi, 
Han6ojiee nojmo nepe^aeT chmbojikhcckhh mctoa b HCKyccTBe. 06pa3 b 
TaKOM cjiynae BbipaacaeT Bceijejio TBopnecKoe MraoBeHHe, KaK hchto, b ca- 
mom ce6e 3aKOHneHHoe, uejiocTHoe. Ho CHMBOJiHnecKoe aeficTBO, o6ycjioB- 
jieHHoe apaMOH, Tpe6yeT BbiHBJieHHH He TOJibKO CHMBOJinnecKoro CMbicjia 
o6pa30B, ho h cbh3h hx. 06pa3yeTCH, TaK cKa3aTb, chmbojih3m BToporo 
nopH^Ka. Bot noneMy b jinpHKe, npHTne, H3peneHHH, ac})opH3Me - chmbo- 
jiHnecKoe TBopnecTBO oTo6pa3Hjiocb c HaHfojibineft nojiHOTOH h chjioh. 
06pa3 jinpHHecKoro nepeacHBaHHH noKpbiBaeT TOHKy nepeceneHHH nocjie- 
^OBaTejibHOCTeH. Ho cymecTBeHHoft nepToft apaMaTHnecKoro HCKyccTBa 

229 



15* 



HBjineTCH CMeHa o6pa30B (hx ^hh^mhk^). M noTOMy-TO b chmbojihhc- 
ckoh apaivie peajiH3yeTCH He ctojibko caMbie o6pa3bi aeftcTBa, ho hx cen3b. 
H noTOMy-TO 3flecb mm HMeeM actio KaK 6m c nepeceneHHeM flByx npnMbix 
bo MHornx TOHKax: TaKoe nepeceneHHe, KaK h3bcctho, hcbo3mo5kho. Hjih 
oho ecTb coBna^eHHe flByx jihhhh b oflHy, coBMemeHHe flByx nopnflKOB no- 
cjie^oBaTejibHOCTeH, yace He b co3epijaHHH, hjih nepeacHBaHHH, a b peajib- 

HOM, TaK CKa3aTb, )KH3HeHHOM aKTe. 

Bot noneMy CHMBOJiHHecKan apaina, 6yflb OHa npoBeaeHa co Bceft crpo- 
rocTbio b npe^ejiax cueHbi, npeacfle Bcero pa3pyuiHjia 6m noflMOCTKH, ot- 
.zjejraiomHe 3pHTejra ot aKTepa, pa3pyuiHJia 6bi nperpaay Meacay aKTepoM 
h apaMaTHHecKHM noaTOM; noaT hbhjich 6m b pojiH repoH cpe^H 3pHTejieii, 
HenpoH3BOJibHO 3axBaneHHbix aeiicTBOM. TaKan apaMa pa3pyuiHjia 6bi Te- 
aTp: OHa CTajia 6m 6biTHeM chmbojiob. Ho BCHKan pejinrHH h ecTb yTBepac- 
aeHHe 3a chmbojiom ero 6mth*l Bo3HHKHOBeHHe h pa3BHTHe pejiHrnii ecTb 
He hto HHoe, KaK npeBpameHHe 5KH3HH b CHMBOJiHHecKyio apaMy. Bot no- 
neMy B03HHKHOBeHHe apaMbi H3 pejiHrH03Hoii MHCTepHH rjiy6oKO 3HaMe- 
HaTejibHO. H CHMBOJiHHecKan apaMa HeH36eacH0 Be^eT k B03o6HOBjieHHio 
MHCTepHH KaK-TO no-HOBOMy. KaK 3to bo3mo»cho b coBpeMeHHOM yKjiaae 
)kh3hh? Bot TyT-TO h BbipacTaeT CTeHa, o KOTopyio pa36HBaiOTCH h eme 
AOJiro 6yzjyT pa36HBaTbcn Bee nonbiTKH jiarb crporo CHMBOJiHHecKyio apa- 
My. 3^ecb B03HHKaeT pna BonpocoB: 1) KaK B03MOHCHa MHcrepHH, npe^no- 
jiaraioman ynacrae 3pHTejieft b apaMaraHecKOM aeftcTBe (t. e. co6opHoe 
TBopnecTBo); ho MHcrepHH, He o6pameHHafl k e^HHoii ijejiH, k czihhoh Taii- 
He, k e^HHOMy hmchh, - TaKan MHCTepna 6eccMbicjieHHa h KomyHCTBeH- 
Ha; BCHKan ace HHaa MHcrepHH Tpe6yeT KyjibTa, t. e. pejinrHH, h noTOMy-TO 
B03HHKaeT Bonpoc: 2) KaK B03MoacHa pejinrHH h B03M0»CHa jih OHa BOo6me; 
3) KaK OHa Bon^oTHMa b coBpeMeHHbix (J)opMax HCKyccTBa; 4) KaK Bonjio- 

THMO HCKyCCTBO MHCTepHH B COBpeMeHHblX (J)OpMaX 5KH3HeHHMX OTHOUie- 
HHH? H eCJIH JIHpHHeCKH CHMBOJIH3M (HHflHBHflyaJIbHMH, CTaTHHeCKHH, 

co3epuaiomHH) eme yacHBaeTca b (J)opMax coBpeMeHHoii 5kh3hh, apaMa- 

THHeCKHH CHMBOJIH3M (KOJIJieKTHBHMH, flHHaMHHeCKHH, fleHCTBeHHblft) 
peiHHTeJIbHO B HHX He M05KCT y5KHTbCH. 

Bot noneMy b HacToamee BpeMH h He MoaceT 6biTb chmbojihhcckoh 
ApaMbi: 6yjib 3Ta apaMa - npea HaMH, pyxHyji 6bi TeaTp, KaK pyxHyji 6w 
o6pa3 Hauieft >kh3hh. A Kor^a cepbe3HO roBopHT o chmbojikhcckoh apaMe, 
Ha3biBaioT HMeHa aBTopoB (Baraep, MeTepjiHHK, H6ceH) He BeaaioT, hto 
tbopht. H aBTopbi, Ha3biBaH ce6n cHMBOJiHCTaMH, Toace He BeaaiOT, KaKoe 
6peMH ohh HajiaraioT Ha ce6n. 

ECJIH (J)OpMbI CHMBOJIH3Ma BOnJIOTHMbI B flpaMy B yCJIOBHHX coBpe- 

MeHHoro yKJia^a >kh3hh, to hjih chmbojih3m - He chmbojih3m, hjih apa- 
Ma - He apaMa. H noTOMy-TO apaMM H6ceHa - ^paMaTHHecKHii annjior, 
pa3birpaHHbift fleftcTByiomHMH jiHizaMH. H noTOMy-TO apaMa MeTepjiHH- 
Ka - ycjioBHo pa3birpaHHan JinpHKa, a He apaMa. H noTOMy-TO nonbiTKa 



230 



A. BjiOKa noflnepKHyTb ajieMem CHMBOJinnecKoro aeiiCTBa b jiHpnnecKHx 
cijeHax MeTepjiHHKa pa3JiaraeT npauy Ha HeyaaHHyio ajuieropHio (r^e Koca 
^eByniKH H3o6paacaeT Kocy CMepra), HeacHyio jiHpHKy h rpy6bift peajiH3M 
b cHMBOJiH3auHH, Kor^a nanij, na^an ne e Kaxyw-Jiudo eoo6paoicaeMyio f a e 
deucmeumejibuyTO 6e3dny, npwraeT b okho, pa3pbiBan He6ocBOfl H3 rojiy6oft 
6yMarn. H peajiH30BaHHan 6e3flHa npeBpamaeTCH b HMy. IlaHu npoBajiHBa- 
ctch Tyaa h BMecTe c hhm npoBajiHBaeTcn Boo6me npHHunn chmbojihhc- 
ckoh apaMbi, noKa OHa ocTaeTCH apaMoft, a He jiHTypraeii. 

Bot noneMy CHMBOJiHHecKaa apaMa HeocymecTBHMa. H Tpy^Ha 3a#a- 
na cueHHnecKOH nocTaHOBKH quasi-CHMBOjinnecKHx apaM: sto - 3aaaHa 
ocymecTBHTb HeocymecTBHMoe. Reno 3pHTejin noKpbiTb hjih He noKpbiTb 

HeHCKOpeHHMblH H3T>HH nOCTaHOBKH JIK)6oBHbIM OTHOUieHHeM K aBTOpy H 

peacHecepy 3a 6jiaropoacTBO hx ycrpeMjieHHH k 6yflymeii MHCTepHH, Be- 
jihkhh cmhcji KOTopofl b jiynmeM cjiynae jiHuib CMyTHO npe^omymaeTCH. 
B jiynuieM cjiynae nonbiTKa ocymecTBHTb CHMBOJinnecKoe aeftcTBo co cto- 
poHbi aBTopa h peacHccepa OKa3biBaeTcn hcmmm pa3roBopoM co 3pHTejieM 
o tom, nero HeT b 5kh3hh, ho hto Monro 6bi 6biTb. Kor^a ace 3flecb cKa3biBa- 
eTCH Boo6me «jieBoe ycTpeMjieHHe» b HCKyccTBe hjih acejiaHHe nocneicyjiH- 
poBaTb Ha MO^e, apaMa npeBpamaeTCH b npocJ)aHaijHK) hjih KomyHCTBO. 

Bee 3to HyacHO noMHHTb, Kor^a npnxoflHTCH roBopHTb o TeaTpe Ko- 
MHCcapaceBCKOH. 3a#ana 3Toro TeaTpa - aaTb chmbojihhcckhm apaMaM co- 
BpeMeHHOCTH cooTBeTCTByiomHe cueHHHecKHe paMKH. PoKOBbie Bonpocw 

CHMBOJIH3Ma BO BCefl HX CJI05KHOCTH H HCBblHCHeHHOCTH B o6jiaCTH flpaMbl 

o6ycjiOBjiHBaioT TpyzjHOCTb (h 6bi CKa3aji HeB03MoaaiocTb) ^aTb Ha^jie- 
acamHH cijeHHHecKHH (J>oh coBpeMeHHbiM HOBaTopcKHM nonbiTKaM. 3aecb 
npeacae Bcero npHxo^HTCH onpe^ejiHTb, b KaKOM HanpaBjieHHH Ha^jieacHT 
npoBo^HTb pecJ)opMy TeaTpa - b HanpaBjieHHH k ero coxpaHeHHio hjih 
yHHHTO^ceHHK). Ecjih mw HfleM b HanpaBjieHHH k MHCTepHH, mw Ha cijeHe 
pa3pyuiaeM cueHy. Tor^a hbjihctch Bonpoc o tom, KaK Ha3biBaeTCH nyTb, 
Ha KOTopbiH BCTynaeM. IIoflHepKHyTb stot nyTb, npnnoflHHTb 3aBecy asm 
nbecoii - Bee sto e^Ba jih noa cnjiy TeaTpy coBpeMeHHOCTH, noKa TBopijbi 
cHMBOJiHnecKOH apaMbi caMH He 3HaK)T hx 30Bymero 6ora. 3aecb pa6oTa 
no3Ta CTaHOBHTCH npoponecKoii nponoBe/jbio: OHa aojiaoia 6wTb yra^aHa h 
e,aHHOo6pa3Ho npoBeaeHa HcnojiHHTejieM bojih noaTa - peacnccepoM. Ho 
noKa HcnojiHHTejieM CBoen bojih He craHeT noaT, nona noa jihhhhoh aevL- 
CTByiomero repon (aicrepa) oh He BCTynHT Ha cijeHy, nona, c apyroft CTopo- 
hw, aKTepw h 3pHTejiH He npeBpaTHTCH b o^ho xopomee Hanajio, - Meaczjy 
3aMbicjiOM aencTBa h caMHM aeiicTBOM 6yaeT pacTH HenepecrynaeMafl 6e3- 
AHa. TBopnecKaa 3aa ana nocTaHOBKH o6ycjiOBJieHa yMeHHeM cjiHTbca KaK c 
Bojieii aBTopa, TaK h c BOJien TOJinw. B chmbojihhcckhx apaMax coBpeMeH- 
hocth 3Ta TBopnecKaH 3a^ana BbipacraeT b caMOCTOHTejibHoe uejioe: OHa 
ecTb h pyKOBo^nmee Hanajio nocTaHOBKH, h po6Koe npoponecTBOBaHHe o 

B03M05KHOCTH KOJIJieKTHBHOTC) TBOpneCTBa HOBblX ^KH3HeHHbIX UeHHOCTeH. 



231 



3to pyKOBOflflmee Hanajio nocTaHOBKH h ecTb cTHjiH3au,HH b HaH6ojiee 
TecHOM h rjiy6oKOM CMbicjie 3Toro cjioBa. TyT - npnnoflbiMaHHe 3aBecw 
Ha# coKpoBeHHbiM cmwcjiom chmbojiob apaMbi. H nocKOJibicy TaKoe npn- 
no^biMaHHe 3aBecbi npno6maeT k TparnnecKOMy fleftcTBy 3pHTejibHbiH 3aji, 
nocTOJibKy 3pHTe;ibHbiH 3aji nepedaeT co3epijaTb, ho h Bbixo^HT kojijick- 
thbhwm ynacTHHKOM pa3birpbiBaeMbix aeitcTB. /teftcTBO nepeciaeT 6biTb 

^eHCTBOM. OHO CTaHOBHTCH peJIHrH03HbIM aKTOM. 

Tor^a-To h B03HHKaeT Bonpoc, ot KOToporo 3aBHCHT Bee 6yaymee chm- 
BOJiHHecKofi apaMbi: peajieH jih pejiHrH03HbiH nyTb, Hanajio KOToporo ko- 

peHHTCH B yCJIOBHHX CUeHbl, npOflOJDKCHHe - B pa3pyiHeHHH 3THX yCJIOBHH, 

m h ycjiOBHH coBpeMeHHofl >kh3hh Boo6me. Ecjih 3tot nyTb Hedeucmeu- 
mejieH y cHMBOJiHHecKaa apaMa ecTb hh nojioacHTejibHaa, hh aaace oTpnua- 
TejibHan BejiHHHHa b coBpeMeHHOM HCKyccTBe, a npocTO BejiHHHHa mhum&r. 
A ecjiH TaK, to coBjieneHHe noKpoBa c chmbojiob apaMbi, t. e. CTHjiH3auHH, b 
Han6ojiee y3KOM h rjiy6oKOM CMbicjie, kqk 6u ona nu ocyiqecmeiuiacb, een> 
npo(J)aHauHH apaMbi, t. e. HH3BeAeHHe ee k KajieiifloCKony BHecMbicjieHHbix 
o6pa30B, Be^ymeMy k npoH3BOflCTBy HeHyacHbix BbiHHCjieHHH Haa mhhmh- 
mh BejiHHHHaMH. 3to - Hrpa b nycTOTy, 6biTb mohcct, h 3aHHMaTejibHan, ho 
He HMeioman HHKaKoro 3HaneHHH b npe^ejiax HCTHHHbix 3a^an apaMaTH- 
necKoro HCKyccTBa. Bot noneMy peniHTejibHbiH mar b CTopoHy chmbojih- 
necKHx apaM MO^ceT 6biTb npe^npHHHT c bwcoko cepbe3HbiMH HaMepeHHH- 
mh, c nyBCTBOM theckoh OTBeTCTBCHHOCTH KaK 3a 6yflymee coBpeMeHHoro 
HCKyccTBa, TaK h 3a HCKyccTBO 6yflymero. noBTopnio: nepBaa 3aflana, Jie- 
acaman Ha 3tom nyTH, ecrm ynuHmoo^enue meampa. Ho OHa npe^nojiaraeT 
3HaHHe He TOJibKO nyra, ho h onpeaejieHHbix (J)opM 3Toro nyTH. 

Cjie^yeT 3aMeTHTb, hto 3a HaMH ctoht 6jiecTHmee npoinjioe TeaTpa: 3a 
HaMH TeaTp Co(J)OKJia h 3BpnnHfla, IIIeKcnHpa h Kajib^epoHa, Mojibepa h 
KopHejiH, LUnjiJiepa h IeTe. 

Bot noneMy TOJibKO b no/piepKHyTOH ckpomhocth h OTcyTCTBHH npn- 
TH3aHHH - onpaB^aHHe CHMBOJinnecKoro TeaTpa Haiiinx flHeii. Cjie^yeT 

nOMHHTb, HTO fleHCTBHTeJIbHbie Hiam B CTOpOHy MHCTepHH eme HeB03M05K- 

hw, h Bee HOBaTopcTBO b o6jiacTH cijeHbi ecTb Privat-Sache He6ojibinoro 
KpyacKa y6e»CAeHHbix HccjieflOBaTejien nyTen 6yaymero - eme TOJibKO He- 

60JIbHIHe 3KCKypCbI BO BCe CTOpOHbl, a He fleHCTBHTeJIbHO H peiUHTeJIbHO 

c^ejiaHHbie inarn. 

H, Boo6me, noMeHbine BocKJiHuaHHH, no6ojibiue kphthkh: Be^b, OHa - 
TOJibKO noKa3aTejib fleHCTBHTejibHofi Bepbi b B03MO»CHOCTb 6yaymeH Tpa- 
re^HH, a He acejiaHHe bo hto 6w to hh crajio «noflCHfleTb» hobihcctbo. 

C ApyroH ctopohm, B03M0»cHa h TaKan nocTaHOBKa HOBeHuiHX apaM, 
r^e, Hao6opoT, pa3ra#Ka cHMBOJinnecKoro (J)OHa ocraeTCH Ha cobccth 
3pHTejiH, a 3a^ana peacnccepa cbo^htch k yMeHHio aaTb onpnTHyio, jiHiiib 
BHeuiHHM o6pa30M rapMOHHpyiomyio paMy k o6pa3aM aBTopa. 3^ecb aBTop 
roBopHT H3 paMbi cueHHHecKHx ycjiOBHH Henocpe^CTBeHHO CO 3pHTeJieM B 



232 



6ojiee y3K0M h BHeuiHeM, ho h 6o;iee ocymecrBHMOM MacuiTa6e. B TaKOM 

CMHCJie TeaTp HBJIHeTCH He eflHHCTBeHHbIM yCJIOBHeM B3aHMOfleHCTBHH 

Meacay aBTopoM h 3pHTejieM, a tojibko HaH6ojiee yao6HbiM. Ho h 3^ecbB03- 
HHKaeT Heo6xo,zjHMOCTb, hto6w nocTaHOBKa 6wjia no^HHHeHa e^HHOo6pa3- 

HOH HOpMC TaK B03HHKaeT CTHJIH3aiJHfl B 60Jiee IIIHpOKOM H nOBepXHOCT- 

hom CMbicjie - CTHjiH3au;HH ne cuMeojiuHecKOHy a, TaK cKa3aTb, mexHuuecKOM. 
Ho Taicaa crajiH3aijHH, Bonjioman MenTy aBTopa, cKopee yzjajineT chmbo- 
jiHHecKHH (J)oh apaMbi, KaK BOo6me nonbiraa BonjioTHTb MenTy yzjajineT ot 
MeHTbi, Kor^a BonjiomeHHe nponcxoflHT He noa ycjiOBHeM npeo6paaceHHH 

3pHTeJIH. H 3TO He3aBHCHMO OT TOTO, HMeeM JIH MM fleJIO C nOCTaHOBKOH B 

CTHjie Modepn, symbolisme hjih b KaKOM-jiH6o hhom cthjic 

CTHjiH3au;HH b 6ojiee rjiy6oKOM h tcchom CMbicjie TOJibKO oflHa: cthjih- 
3aiiiHH b 6ojiee iiihpokom CMbicjie - 6ecKOHeHHoe ko jinnecTBo . Bot noneMy 
npeacae, HeacejiH roBopHTb o nocTaHOBKe flpaM MeTepjiHHKa, IIuiH6biuieB- 

CKOTO H BjIOKa TeaTpOM KOMHCCapECeBCKOH, Mbl flOJIECHbl TBepflO BblHCHHTb 

ce6e B03MO»cHoe pa3Hoo6pa3He oTHoiiieHHii k chmbojihhcckhm apaMaM, 

B03M03KHOCTb CMeilieHHH H nyTaHHIJbl Ha 3TOH nOHBC 

Be/jb h TeaTp CTaHHCJiaBCKoro CTaBHJi MeTepjiHHKa, TaMcyHa, H6ce- 
Ha. Be^b h TaM mm hmcjih aejio co CTHJiH3aimeii («ZlpaMa hch3hh»). H, or- 
HaKO, ecjiH TeaTp KoMHCcapaeeBCKoft 3aaaeTca uejibio npojioacHTb HOBbie 
nyTH b pa3BHTHH cueHHHecKoro AeftcTBa, to 3th iuarH yace onpeaejiniOT 
bck) 3HaHHTe;ibHOCTb h BMecTe c TeM eflBa jih He nojiHyio HeocymecTBH- 
MOCTb ero 3a^aHH b HacTonmHH nepnoa hctophh. 

3^ecb mh HMeeM aejio c nonbiTKOH npn6jiH3HTb zjpaMy k MHCTepHH, 
t. e. TyT - Hanajio KopeHHoft peBOJiioimH b TeaTpe. TyT CTpeMJieHHe npe- 
BpaTHTb TeaTp b Hanajio, co3H^aiomee HOBbie (J>opMbi 5KH3HH. TymMU ime- 
eM dejio c pa3pyuieHueM meampa. 

Bot noneMy Hac 03a6oHHBaeT Bonpoc, noHHMaiOT jih pyKOBOflHTejiH 
TeaTpa, Ha KaKOH nyTb ohh HeH36eacHO aojDKHbi BCTynHTb, kskoh npocTop 
npo(J)aHauHH, (J)ajibCH(J)HKaL[HH h KomyHCTBa Ha stom nyTH? 

Bot noneMy pyKOBOflHTejiHM cjieayeT hjih TBepao crpeMHTbcn k pa3- 
pbmy c npoiujibiM h BMecTe c TeM CTporo 6opoTbca c bo3mo5khoh npoBO- 
KaLtneH, HeH36eacHO noacreperaiomeH Ha stom nyTH, hjih noica ne noadno, 
BepHyTbCH k 6ojiee ckpomhwm, 6ojiee HcnbiTaHHbiM h BepHbiM nyTHM, t. e. 
k coxpaHeHHio TeaTpa. 

II 

TacTpojiH KoMHCcapaceBCKOH - KaKoft cjioacHbift aKKop^ ro- 

Jiy6bIX, 30JIOTHX, 3eJieHbIX, py6HHHbIX TOHOB, HeBHHTHblX 3ByKOB, MOJIHT- 

BeHHbix BOCKJiHijaHHH h 6apa6aHHoro (J)HrjiHpcTBa: h MepTBbie cnjiysra 
3anyTaHHbix bo Bee rojiy6oe - MepTBeuw 3to hjih He MepTBeijbi? Ho ohh 



233 



30ByT k TaftHe, 30ByT. A Tenepb, Kor^a BcnoMHHaiOT 3pHTejiH TeaTp, tobo- 
Pht o KOCTioMax, o fleKopaunnx, o coKpoBeHHOM CMbicjie nbec, o TajiaHTe 
6ojibuioii apTHCTKH. 

J\a. } ho pa3Be coneTaeMo Bee sto BMecre: TajiaHT, chmboji, aeKopaijHH? 

H h 6oiocb, hto b TeaTp KoMHCcapaceBCKOH npHBjieKajiH cjihuikom 
pa3HopoaHbie h e^Ba jih coneTaeMbie ajieMeHTbi. H ottoto-to BnenaTJieHHe 
Hauie cjihuikom npKoe, cjihuikom necipoe: CMecb MpaMopa, bo^m h 3aKaT- 
hwx KpacoK. Moaoio nocTpoHTb flBopeu H3 MpaMopa h H30 Jibfla: ho hto 
bw cKaaceTe o ^Bopije, r^e jie^HHbie kojiohhw no^wepacHBaiOT MpaMopHbift 

KapHH3? 

To, hto mw BHflejiH h cjibiuiajiH co cijeHbi, He yKJia^bmaeTCH b npocToe 
h uejiocraoe BnenaTJieHHe. MojiHTBa poacaaeT b ayme Boaonaa jiynoM 3a- 
acaceHHbix MrHOBeHHH, h jiynoM 3aaoKeHHbie MrHOBeHHH npojiHBaiOTCH b 
mhp H3 ayuiH KacKa^OM ajiMa30B, py6nHOB, h mhp - caMOUBeTHan paayra. 
Ho hto bh cKaaceTe o 3acTbiBuieM cnjiyaTe MOHaxHHH b KacKaaax KpacoK? 
IIpeKpacHaH Kapmuna. 

Ho Kapmuna mi cuMeonuuecKoe deucmeo? H He cnpocm acpeu; TaiiHO- 
aeHCTBHH y co6paBiuHxca Ha MOJiHTBy: «KapmuuHO jiu h ctohji, npojiHBaa 
ejien?» 

3T0 6bIJIO 6bl KOUXyHCTBOM. 

IIoneMy ace Toraa KpacoHHaa H3ompeHHOCTb nocTaHOBKH chmbojihhc- 
ckhx jxpau Toace He KOuiyHCTBO, He npeBpameHHe CHMBOJia b 4>eepHio? 

Mw yace yKa3ajiH Ha Te cepbe3Hbie 3a^anH, KOTopwe BbiTeKaioT H3 npa- 
Moro CMbicjia nocTaHOBKH chmbojihhcckhx aeficTB. H noKa cymecTByeT Te- 
aTp (a oh flOJiaceH nacTb noa pa3pyuieHHeM TaftHbi sthx fleftcTB), 3^ecb Bee 
bo BjiacTH pyKOBO^HTejin: MeTOfl ero OTHOUieHHH k apaMe (npHnoflHMaHHe 
3aBecw Haa chmbo jiaMH ) ecTb CBHiueHHOfleiicTBHe ot jinua aBTopa. Mwc- 
jihm jih Ha 3toh noHBe HHTepec xoth 6bi h k reHHajibHOMy aapoBaHHio OT- 
aejibHbix HcnojiHHTejieft? 

HeT, OH HeMblCJIHM. A B MoCKBe TOBOpHJIH o ^apoBaHHH KoMHecap- 
aceBCKofi. 3to - BepHbiii noKa3aTejib Toro, hto TeaTp He cnpaBHJicn, aa h He 
Mor cnpaBHTbCH c B03JioaceHHOH Ha Hero 3aflaHeH. 

CueHHHecKHH aHcaM6jib CTaHHCJiaBCKoro nocTaBHJi HHflHBHflyajib- 

HOCTb Ha BTOpOH nJiaH, OCTaBJIHH B03MOaCHOCTb apTHCTy CKa3aTbCH B OTBe- 

^eHHbix eMy ckpomhwx rpaHHuax. MeTOfl TeaTpa KoMHCcapaceBCKoft - cth- 
jiH3auHH - BOBce ycTpaHneT jihhhmh noHHH apTHCTa: TajiaHT onpeaejiHM 
3^ecb b TepMHHax OTpHijaHHH! yMenueM cmyiueeueambca. Meacay TeM 
^apoBaHHe KoMHCcapaceBCKOH - aapoBaHHe nojioacHTejibHoe. Munyc Ha 
Munyc aaeT nmoc. Munyc, sto - mctoa nocTaHOBKH chmbojihhcckhx apaM 
b neTep6yprcKOM TeaTpe. IIjiioc, sto - caMa KoMHCcapaceBCKaa. Munyc Ha 
ruiioc aaeT Munyc. 

CTHJiH3auHH npeBpaiuaeT jiHHHOCTb b MaHeKeH. TaKoe npeBpameHHe 
ecTb nepBbift h peuiHTejibHbiH uiar Ha nyra k pa3pyuieHHK) TeaTpa. TojibKO 



234 



TaM, 3a npeaejiaMH cueH, no-unoMy BOCKpecHeT JiHHHOCTb ynacTHHKOB aeft- 
CTBa, ho man yace He TeaTp: TaM co3H,aaHHe hobwx 4>opM 5kh3hh; TaM aicrep 

CBHmeHHOCJiy^CHTe^b, TBOpeiX B fleftCTBHTeJIbHOM CMblCJie 3TOrO CJIOBa. 

A noKa? 

A noKa, raepaTHHecKH 3acTbiBinafl nepea MaaoHHoft BeaTpnca b bo^o- 
na#e 6Hpi030Bbix tokob - He CTaTyn: OHa roBOpHT, BOjmyeTCH, HrpaeT; He 
acHBoft nejioBeK: OHa CKOBaHa H3yneHHoft no3oft, npHicpenjiniomeft ee k ae- 
KopauHH, KaK xy^o5KecTBeHHyio apa6ecKy. Jlynine eft CTaTb coBceM nejio- 
BeKOM, ho Tor^a k neMy crajiH3aijHH; jiynine eft CTaTb coBceM BHHbeTKoft, 
ho Tor^a 3aneM y Hee nojiojKHTejibHbift TajiaHT? 

CaMa KoMHccap^KeBCKan Haxo^HTCH b HenpHMHpHMOM nporaBopenHH 
c MeTOflOM nocTaHOBKH. OHa h ee TeaTp - contradictio in adjecto. 

TyT noKa - KopeHHoe npoTHBopenne TeaTpa b noHHMaHHH pyKOBOflH- 
mero Hanajia nocTaHOBKH - e cmumisai^uu. 

Mw OTflejiHJiH cimeojimecKyio cra;iH3aijHK) ot mexHmecKou. 

Ooth poA cTHjiH3auHH, 3to - rapaH: oh npo6HBaeT 6peuib Meacay Tea- 
TpoM h MHCTepHeft; Taican crajiH3aijHfl TBopnecicaH: OHa co3HflaeT, Kor^a 
y nosTa h HcnojiHHTejieft ero bojih ecTb co3HflaiomHft nyTb. A Kor^a ero 
eme HeT, HenoHflraa po^b chmbo^hhcckhx aeftcTB. Tanas crajiH3aijHH - 
BOHCTHHy peBOJiiouHOHHa: pa3pyuian TeaTp, co3HflaeT xpaM; co3Hflaa xpaM, 

C03HflaeT KyjIbTJ C03Hflafl KyjIbT, BblXOflHT B 3KH3Hb; BblXOflfl B 3KH3Hb, ee 

npeo6pa3yeT. 

TexHHHecKan crajiH3aijHfl co3flaeT TOJibKO paMy, H3 KOTopofi no3T ro- 
bopht co 3pHTe;ieM: ho paMa h omdejixem. TyT noaT HHKoraa He 6yaeT cbh- 

meHHO^eftCTBOBaTb B XpaMe HCKyCCTB. 

IlepeHeceHHe TeaTpa b paMy ecTb nepeHeceHHe xpaMa Ha njiocicocTb; 
Tor^a nojiynaeM KapTHHy xpaMa. 

Bot noneMy hcbo3mo)kho coBMemeHHe o6eHx (J>opM cra;iH3aijHH: OHa 

3aTeMH«eT C03HaHHe H30mpeHHOft yCJIOBHOCTblOJ HO H nOHHTHO, npoc™- 

TejibHo CMeineHHe Ha 3Toft noHBe. Be^b CMeuiHBaiomHM HanajiOM HBjmeTCH 
Heo6xo,ziHMOCTb BBecTH b npeaejibi cijeHbi HejioBenecKyio JiHHHOCTb, b ko- 
Topoft to ace TparanecKoe pa3flBoeHHe, hto h b cHMBOJiHHecKoft apaMe. 

H noTOMy-TO 3aaana TexHHnecKoft cra;iH3aijHH - yHHHTOHCHTb He 
TOJibKO jiuHHOcmb aicmepa, ho u caMue nepmu uejioeena e uejioeexe. Haao 
BbmejiHTb ocHOBHbie nepTbi repoeB h hx 3anenaTjieTb b 3acTbiBineM, 6e3- 
jihhhom rane. TojibKO TaK peajiH3yeTCH ran: ynacrae nejiOBeica b aeftcTBe, 
r^e Bee - TOJibKO ranw, pa3JiaraeT ranw; ocTaHaBjiHBaeT B03MOHCHOCTb 
AOBecTH npHHUHn TexHHHecKoft CTHJiH3auHH jio B03MO»CHbix npe.ae.JiOB. 
H meamp MapuonemoK wiu daume meamp Kumaucnux meneu ecmb neooKu- 
daHHuUy ho enojine jiozuuecKUU eueod U3 npuni^una, Jieotcawpzo e ocmee 
mexHmecKou cmwiu3au,uu. 

Ecjih 3to a6cypa, to h TexHHHecKaa cra;iH3aijHfl - a6cyp,a tohcc 
A Meacay TeM OHa - Heo6xo,aHMbift anojuiUHmecKuu KOBep (eara BepHTb 



235 



Hnijme) Ha# hcboiijiothmoh 6e3AHOH TaftH, k kotopmm BJieneT Hac chmbo- 
jiHHecKoe aeficTBO, ho coBepineHHO HeBonjioTHMoe b coBpeMeHHbix ycjio- 

BHflX CUeHbi; a 3TH yCJIOBHfl nyCTHJIH KOpHH B flaBHIIJHH HaC CTpOH 5KH3- 

HeHHbix OTHomeHHH: jiynuie Ha CTeHe TiopbMbi H3o6pa3HTb KapTHHH MHpa, 
HeacejiH npeBpaTHTb TiopbMy b MHp, a CBeny, ocBemaiomyio TiopeMHbie cre- 
hh, b cojiHije, h cKa3aTb: «fl aoBOJieH». #a, 3to TaK. 

Jlynnie nociaBHTb aocKy c Ha^nncbio: «xpaM», neM Ha (J)OHe chm(J>o- 
hhh 6Hpio30Bbix tohob, H3o6paacaiomHx xpaM, npeBpaTHTb rojiy6oBaTbix 
MOHauieK b CTHJiH30BaHHbie apa6ecKH, c^ejiaTb H3 hhx H3nmHbiH 6yKeTeij 

rOJiy6eHbKHX KOJIOKOJIbHHKOB: Be^b 3TO - JIIOflH, a He I^BeTbl. 

H rojiy6eHbKHe KOJiOKOJibHHKH Heaoio KanaioTCH cbohmh rojioBKaMH 
Haa yMHpaiomefi BeaTpHCofi: bot noneMy TOJibKO ohh He inyMHT, 3bi6;ie- 
Mbie BeTepKOM - HeT, He inyMHT? 

KojioKOJibHHKH roBopHT MejiOBenecKHMH rojiocaMH h aaaee 6ojiee: nw- 
TaiOTCH nepe^aTb b cjiOBe mhcthhcckhh TpeneT TaiiH. O, 3aneM ace ohh - 
apa6ecKH, 3aneM ohh pa3flBaHBaK>T BHHMaHHe, Been 3acTbiBineii no3oii 

nOflHepKHBaiOT pOJIb 3pHTeJIbHOrO 3(J)(J)eKTa, OTBJieKaiOT OT CHMBOJIHHe- 

CKoii cbh3h ijejioro? B jiynuieM cjiynae TexHHHecKan CTHjiH3aijHH pa3flpo- 
6jineT e^HHCTBO ^encTBa mhohccctbom chmbojihhcckhx MrHOBeHHH, BHeui- 
hhm o6pa30M CBH3aHHbix. Chmbojihhcckhh CHHeMaTorpac}) ecTb (J>eepHH. 
HacTonmHH CHHeMaTorpacJ) Kyzja necTHee. 

B caMOM Rene: Tpy^Ho roBopHTb o HecKa3aHHOM, ctoh bot TaK, a He 
3flaK - sjxzK, a He bot TaK. Hejib3H Tpe6oBaTb ot acHBoro nejioBeKa h npo- 
HHKHOBeHHH b CMbicji nbecbi, h npeBpameHHH b xyAO»cecTBeHHyio apa6e- 
CKy. 3to - Ha/tpyraTejibCTBO Ha/* nejiOBeKOM. 

MapnoHeTKa - He nejioBeK. MapnoHeTKa Bee BbinojiHHT; ycTpaHHT aK- 
Tepa h coxpaHHT aeftcTBHe. 

A ecjiH MapHOHeTOHHoe achctbo - npeaeji TexHHHecKOH CTHJiH3aijHH 
(He^apoM MeTepjiHHK nncaji nbecbi rjix MapnoHeTOK), to acejiaTejibHbi Bee 
OTTeHKH npH6jiH»ceHHH k MapHOHeTKaM. Bot noneMy cjie^OBajio 6w ot- 
BJienbCH aKTepaM ot nejiOBenecKHX, cjihiiikom nejiOBenecKHx nepT b «Hyae 
CTpaHHHKa Ahtohhh», «BenHOH cKa3Ke» h «CecTpe BeaTpnce». 

O «BajiaraHHHKe» A. BjioKa CKaaey oco6o. 

AKTep aojiaeeH Bbipa6oTaTb onpeaejieHHyio cxeMy HHTOHaijHH b jiio6oh 
Pojih, ocBo6oflHTb 3Ty cxeMy ot Bcero jiHHHoro, ot ce6n caMoro: Bbipa6o- 
TaTb Tpa(J>apeT. Moryr 6biTb pa3Hbie no3bi, pa3Hbie rojioca, ho b npeaejiax 
Tpa(J>apeTa. Jlynuie Bcero, ecjin Ha cijeHe yBH^HM mw 5khbmx MepTBeijOB, 
coBepineHHO 6e3ynacTHbix k npoH3HOCHMHM cjioBaM, He noHHMaiomHX 
CB^meHHoro TpeneTa H3o6paacaeMoro aeficTBa. 

TojibKO TaK bwhbhtch ochobhoh 3aMbiceji aBTopa b paMKax TeXHHHe- 
ckoh CTHjiH3auHH. Kaac^OMy aBTopy cjieaoBajio 6w ^aTb Tpa(J>apeT: onn- 

CaTb BHeiHHOCTb repoeB H o6cTaHOBKH, B KOTOpOH OHH ^eHCTByiOT, HTO Mbl 

h bhotm b «>Kh3hh nejioBeKa» JI. AH^peeBa. 



236 



Ho nycTb b TaKOM cjiynae MapHOHeTKa 3aMeHHT aKTepa. OHa Be^b h 
ecTb peajiH30BaHHHbiii Ha cijeHe Tpa4)apeT. TaK 6yzjeT npoBe^eHa Henepe- 
CTynaeMaa nepTa Meacay TexHHnecKOH h chmbojihhcckoh CTHjiH3aijHeH, 
Meacay TeaTpoM h MHCTepneH b nocTaHOBKe chmbojihhcckhx apaM. ByaeT 
3aKpwT ^ocTyn Ha cueHy MHcrepHH. Ho He 6yaeT B03MoacHa h npo(j)aHaijHH. 
CueHa ocTaHeTCH cueHofi. CBameHHOfleficTBHe - CBameHHoaeiicTBHeM. 

CHMBOJiHHecKan apaMa B03MoacHa h b meampe MapHOHeTOK, h b d/cu3hu 
jHoaeft. 

TeaTp KoMHCcapaceBCKoft eiye TeaTp. Ho oh yoice TeaTp chmbojihhc- 
ckhh. 

Ero 3aflana - CTaTb TeaTpoM MapHOHeTOK. 

CaejiaHbi jih inara k MapnoHeTOHHOMy TeaTpy r. MeftepxojibflOM? /la, 
3th inarH caejiaHbi. /la, Tyr He3a6biBaeMan 3acjiyra TeaTpa. 

BcnoMHHM nocTaHOBKy «BajiaraHHHKa» A. Bjioica. 

/^eftcTByiomHe jinija pa3Be He HanoMHHaiOT 3flecb MapHOHeTOK? Reit- 
CTByiomHe JiHua npoH3BOflHT TOJibKo THnHHHbie acecTbi: ecjiH 3to Ilbepo, 
oh oflHOo6pa3HO B3,abixaeT, oaHOo6pa3Ho B3MaxHBaeT pyKaMH noa aKKOM- 
naHeMeHT H3HmHO-rjiynoft h rpycraofi, rpycTHoii My3HKH Ky3MHHa: pa3, 
#Ba - 6yM, 6yM. «Tpax» - npoBajiHBaeTca b okho, pa3pwBaeT He6ocBOfl. 
«ByM» - pa36eraioTCH MacKH. 

Ho Bcero coBepineHHee, noHTH reHHajibHo, H3o6paaceHbi mhcthkh b 
nepHbix ciopTyKax, ypofljiHBo noOTHpaiomnx hx iviynbie tojiobm; phtmh- 
necKH noBepTWBaiOT tojiobm, ep3aK)T khcthmh pyK - h no cTOJiy npo6era- 
ex hto-to ra^Koe, - 6yflTo Mbiiiib. Bee KaK no KOMaH^e npoBajiHBaiOTCH b 

CHDpTyKH! OCTaHDTCH HepHbie, MepTBbie KOHTypbl. H KOHTypbl B3BHBaK)TCH c 
KOJIOHHaMH H CTOJIOM. 

Bee sto oneHb CHJibHO, ho sto CHjibHO noTOMy, hto mhcthkh - nojiyMa- 

pHOHeTKH! CIOpTyKH HX Bbipe3aHbI H3 KapTOHa. 

Bot, ecjiH 6bi hm npnaejiaTb KapTOHHbie tojiobm, o6pa30Bajiacb 6w 
^eiicTBHTe^bHaH TOHKa conpHKOCHOBeHHH TeaTpa KoMHCcapaceBCKoft c 
TeaTpoM MapHOHeTOK. TeaTp aocrar 6w acejiaHHoii uejin. H ribepo CTaji 6w 

IlbepO KapTOHHblM. 

rioHBJieHHe KapTOHHbix HcnojiHHTejieH He yHHacaeT BbicoTy chmbojih- 
hcckhx apaM b npe^ejiax TexHHnecKOH CTHjiH3aijHH. Kyicjiw 6e3o6HflHH, 
6e30THOCHTejibHw k 3aMbicjiy aBTopa; jmjxn ace BHecyT HenpeMeHHO npe- 
Bparaoe OTHomeHHe. TaKoe oraoineHHe k chmbojihhcckhm apaMaM ry6HT 
3TH apaMbi. 

IloHBJieHHe Kymn He y^HBHJio 6bi b «BajiaraHHHKe». B «EajiaraH- 
HHKe» Hac yflHBjiaeT coBceM apyroe: 3aHBjieHHe aBTopa ycraMH Ilbepo o 
KapTOHHoii HeBecTe; 3Ta HeBecTa - chmboji Bchhoh JKeHCTBeHHOCTH. IIo- 
paacaeT 3aHBJieHHe neBija BeHHo-aceHCTBeHHoro A. BjioKa o tom, hto sto 
BeHHo-»ceHCTBeHHoe Hanajio - KapTOHHoe; yduejwem dyMaofcubLU nedoceod 
u eoruib KQKOio-mo nempyuiKu o moM, nmo cesimfinnasi Kpoeb mpazuuecKou 



237 



Mepmeu ecmb Kpoeb KmoKQennasi. MapHOHerabiH xapaicrep cy6cTamjHH 
6;iOKOBCKoro CHMBOJiH3Ma b «BajiaraHHHKe» - bot hto CTpaiimo: crpaumo 
HaM 3a BbicoKOOAapeHHoro no3Ta, HenpoH3BOJibHO aonycTHBiiiero b Tpa- 

reAHH KOmyHCTBO. RyMZSO, HTO KOmyHCTBO 3TO He CHMBOJIHHeCKOe, a, TaK 

cKa3aTb, TexHHnecKoe. Bot KaK Morjio oho nojiyHHTbca. KyKJiw TOJibKO 
no^HepKHBaiOT HeBonjioraMocTb flpaMaTHHecKoro CHMBOJiH3Ma b npe^e- 
jiax cijeHbi. KyKJibi - rpoMooTBoa KomyHCTBa. H KopeHHoe npoTHBopenne 
Meacay Heo6xo^HMOCTbio MHCTepHH h HeB03MO»CHocTbio ee b yKJiaae co- 
BpeMeHHoii acH3HH no3T nbiTajicn pa3peuiHTb, BHeca TexHHHecKHe npneMbi 
MapHOHeTOHHoro aeftcTBa b caMyio o6jiacTb chmbojiob bmccto Toro, hto6m 
ocTaBHTb b cTopoHe 3a6oTy o MeTo^e BonjiomeHHH chmbojihhcckoh #pa- 

Mbl. IIOJiyHHJICfl MexaHHHeCKHH CHMBOJIH3M, a 3TO y5Ke KOmyHCTBO. Beflb 
CMblCJI B TpareAHH - B OHHmeHHH H npocBeTJieHHH. 

Ho 3toh nonbiTKoii BoraaTb MHCTepHio b npeaejibi cueHW, czjejiaTb 

TaHHOe HBHbIM, A. BjIOK TOJIKHyjI TeaTp TeXHHHeCKOH CTHJIH3aUHH Ha 

e^HHCTBeHHO npaBHJibHbiii nyTb, ho TOJiKHyji 6ecco3HaTe;ibHO. OcTaeTCH 
oco3HaTb tojihok h y6paTb aKTepoB co cueHbi b «EajiaraHHHKe», 3aMeHHTb 

HX MapHOHeTKaMH, nOnblTaTbCH paenpOCTpaHHTb 3TOT MeTOfl no B03M05K- 

hocth Ha Bee CHMBOJiHnecKHe hjih aaace quasi-CHMBOJiHnecKHe apaMbi. 

Bot HCTHHHbiii nyTb TeaTpa KoMHccapaceBCKoii. Ho caMOH KoMHecap- 
eccbckoh b 3tom TeaTpe Henero aejiaTb: 6wjio 6w aeajib ry6HTb ee TajiaHT. 

Becco3HaTejibHbie HCKaHHH b CTopoHy MapHOHeTOHHoro fleficTBa nyB- 
CTByioTCH b oTflejibHbix cueHax «CecTpw BeaTpHcw», «Hy#a crpaHHHKa 
Ahtohhh», «BeHHoii CKa3KH». Pa3Be BejibMoacn, cocTaBjiniomHe cobct ko- 
Pojih b nocjieflHeft cueHe, roBopaT He oahhmh h tcmh ace rojiocaMH? Pas- 
Be He pa3MemeHbi ohh c KapTOHHofi cHMMeTpHeii no o6e ctopohw cueHbi. 
TaKace h MOHauiKH b «CecTpe BeaTpnce». 3to yace He jiioah - noHTH rojiy- 
6bie, MHCTHnecKHe KOJioKOJibHHKH. 3aneM ace MynHTb acHBbix jno^eii? 

A nepHbie ciopTyHHHKH «Hyaa CTpaHHHKa Ahtohhh»? Hjih 3to He cth- 
jiH30BaHHbie KOHTypbi, HanHcaHHbie xyaoacHHKOM BajuiorroHOM? Ohh Be- 
jiHKOJienHbi, Kor^a ohh 6eccTpacrabi, KaK KyKJibi: hm 6m h 6biTb KyKJiaMH. 
A to 3JieMeHT jihhhoh ncHxojiorHH Bee eme MeinaeT ucjiocthocth BnenaT- 

JieHHH. 

Ho coBceM Hey^aneH Ahtohhh, hjih npncjiyra, rjiyno npHCJiyacHBaio- 
maa, Kor^a OHa MoeT noji, hjih Kiops. 3to noTOMy, hto ohh - jho^h. A Meac- 
jxy TeM, ohh ocjia6jiHK)T BnenaTJieHHe ot nbecw. 

Tpy^HO, noHTH HeB03MoacHO npeBpaTHTb B MapHOHeTKH KopojiH HJIH 
CoHKy H3 «BeHHoii CKa3KH». Ho TyT npenflTCTByeT KopeHHoe otjihhhc 
apaMbi niHH6biineBCKoro ot apaM MeTepjiHHKa. JXpaMZ IIuiH6biuieBCKO- 
ro - Tpa^HUHOHHan apaMa peajibHoro fleftcTBHH c 3M6jieMaTHHecKHMH 3a- 
BHTKaMH ^najioroB; 3th 3M6jieMbi h AaioT ApaMe jioacHOCHMBOJinnecKHH 

JIOCK, HO H OCTaBJIHIOT npOCTOp JIHHHOCTH apTHCTa. H nOTOMy-TO Komhc- 

capaceBCKaa - BejiHKOJienHaa CoHKa. H noTOMy-TO nocTaHOBKa «Bchhoh 



238 



cKa3KH» yica3biBaeT Ha Heonpe^ejieHHOCTb h maTKOCTb 3aflan, npecjie^ye- 
mwx TeaTpoM. B npeaejiax TeaTpa oneBHflHa 6opb6a AByx TeneHHH, BjieKy- 
mnx b pa3Hbie cropoHbi; k MapHOHeTKaM, k MHCTepHH, k CTapoMy TeaTpy. 
H OTToro-TO KpacoHHan necTpoTa - bch 3Ta CMecb H3 He6ecHbix tohob 

B CTHJie «r0Jiy60H P03bl», MHCTHHeCKHX BOCKJIHIjaHHH, KJIIOKBeHHOrO COKa 

h 6apa6aHHoro «6yM-6yM». MHcraica - h 6yM-6yM\ 3apa - h, KaK 3apa, 

KpaCHMH KJIIOKBeHHblH COK! 

HeT - paBHOAeftcTByiomaa Been stoh KpacoHHOH cjio^chocth hbho 

CKJIOH^eTCH B CTOpOHy MapHOHCTOK, H BOBCe He Ha^O MyHHTb TyT 5KHBMX 

jHOAeii: KaK 6bi hh cTapajiHCb ohh 6wTb (J)pecKaMH, ohh - jiioah. Ha^o 
yAHBJiHTbCH eme, jyo KaKoro coBepmeHCTBa b npe^ejiax bo3mo»choh cthjih- 
3aitHH aoxoaht r-»ca BojioxoBa. 

HeT, ocBo6oflHTe jHOfleft; KaK jiioah, 3axBaneHHbie rjiy6oKHM ycTpeMjie- 
HHeM k 6yaymeMy, ohh xotht, 6bm> MoaceT, fleftcTBHTejibHbix ijeHHOcreH, 
AeiicTBHTejibHoro CBflmeHHOfleHCTBHH. A nepe^ hhmh - cijeHa co bccmh 
MHHMblMH flOCTHECeHHHMH. OHa co6jia3HHeT, 3aBjieKaeT, HO OHa HHnero He 
AaeT. CHMBOJiHnecKaH apaMa rjiy6oKa b htchhh. OHa Morjia 6w 6biTb rjiy- 
6oKa h b TeaTpe MapnoHeTOK. 

Bee ace «jieBbie y CTpeM jichhh » b o6jiacTH cupnu u mojibxo cupnu noa- 

HepKHBaiOT TOT (|)aKT, HTO CHMBOJIHHeCKafl ApaMa y»Ce BblXOflHT H3 C(J)epbI 
HCKyCCTBa. 

IlepeHeceHHaH Ha cueHy, OHa nojma dyxa msutcecmu, c kotopwm TaK 
ynopHO 6opojicH Hnuuie. Be^b h Ha stoh noMBe oh o6opBajica: TyT 3ajio- 
aceHO Hanajio KaTacTpo(J)bi BejiHKoro cTpacTOTepnua. 

He 3a6yaeM ero; Hac npeaocTeperaeT ero erpaaajibHecKafl TeHb. 

1907 



XIII. REALIORA 

Chmbojih3m peajieH; chmboji He mohcct 6biTb TOJibKO hjijik>3h- 
eft. .fleHTejibHocTb hcthhhoto xyaoacHHKa npoBHfleHUHajibHa. Bot Mbicjib, 

AOCTaTOHHO H3BeCTHa5L BOT CMblCJI B033peHHH Ha HCKyCCTBO Bjl. COJIO- 

BbeBa, KOToporo o6cy»cflajiH mm ceMb .neT TOMy Ha3aa, B3iviHflbi KOToporo 

BOUIJIH B njIOTb H KpOBb MHOTHX H3 HaC, BH^OH3MeHHHCb eme B TO BpeMfl, 

Koraa jiHTepaTypHa^i aenTejibHocTb yBaacaeMoro Bah. HBaHOBa He 6wjia 
HaM H3Becraa. 

Bch jiHTepaTypHa^i aenTejibHocTb J\. C. MepeaocoBCKoro, nocKOJibKy 
oh o6pamajiCH k HCKyccTBy, HanpaBJieHa npoTHB hjijik)30phocth h acreT- 
CTBa, KOToporo hhkto H3 Hac He pa3,aejiHeT. Cnop MoaceT h^th He o peajib- 
hocth CHMBOJiH3Ma, a o noHHMaHHH xapaKTepa 3TOH peajibHocra. 

Eme b 1905 roay B. fl. BpiocoB peuiHTejibHO BbiCKa3ajicn o npoBH^eH- 
UHajibHOM 3HaneHHH xyaoacHHKa b CTaTbe «CBflmeHHaa acepTBa» («Becw» 



239 



N° 1, 1905 r.): «Mu mpe6yeM om nosma, - nncaji oh, - hto6h oh HeycraH- 

HO npHHOCHJI CBOH «CBHmeHHbie 5KepTBbI» He TOJIbKO CTHXaMH, ho Kaac- 

flbiM nacoM CBoeii 3KH3HH, Kaac^biM nyBCTBOM, - CBoeii jno6oBbio, CBoeft 
HeHaBHCTbio, .aocra^ceHHHMH h naaeHHHMH. Uycmb nosrn meopum ne ceou 
KumUy a ceow dKU3Ub. IlycTb xpaHHT oh ajiTapHbift njiaMeHb HeyracHMbiM, 
KaK oroHb BecTbi, nycTb pa30»OKeT ero b bcjihkhh KOCTep, He 6oacb, hto 
Ha HeM cropHT ero acH3Hb. Ha aumapb nawezo doj/cecmea mu SpocaeM ca- 
mux ce6n. Tojibxo otcpeuecKuu how, pacceKmow^uu zpydb, daem npaeo na 
umh no9ma». 

Moh CTaTbH «AnoKajiHncHc b pyccKOH no33HH» ecTb nonbiTKa OTMe- 
THTb «ens realissima» b pyccKOH jinpHKe. Moh npoTed npoTHB coBpeMeH- 
hoh CHMBOJiHHecKoft /jpaMbi BbiTeKaeT H3 Moero y6eac#eHHH, HTO chmbo- 
jiHHecKan apaMa yace He MoaceT 6biTb 4>opMOH HCKyccTBa, a ecTb o6p*m 
pejiHrH03Hbiii. 

Eme b 1904 ro/jy h nHcaji: «HcTHHHbiii chmbojih3m coBna^aeT c hc- 

THHHblM peaJIH3MOM... Fjiy6oKHH XyflOECHHK y»Ce He MOHCeT 6bITb Ha3BaH 
HH peaJIHCTOM, HH CHMBOJIHCTOM B npeaCHCM CMbICJie» (T. e. B HJUII03HOHH- 

CTHnecKOM CMbicjie). H aajiee: «Chmboji... yr;iy6jieHHbiH h paciHHpeHHbift 
aHajiorHHHO H^ee, CBH3aH c mhpobmm chmbojiom. 3tot nocjie^HHii - He- 

H3MeHHbIH (f)OH BCHKHX CHMBOJIOB. TaKHM CHMBOJIOM HBJIfleTCH OTHOUie- 

HHe Jloroca k MnpoBoft .flyuie, KaK MHcranecKOMy Hanajiy HejiOBenecTBa» 
(«Becw» 1904 r. Jsfg 8 h 12). 

yBaacaeMbiii Bhh. HBaHOB .zjBaacflbi nponeji b MocKBe cboio jickuhio 
«,flBe cthxhh b coBpeMeHHOM CHMBOJiH3Me», Hocnmyio xapaKTep njiaT- 

(J)OpMbI, KOTOpyK) OH BblflBHraeT npOTHB TaHHCTBeHHblX CHMBOJIHCTOB- 
HJL7II03HOHHCTOB (flJIH npHJIHHHH Ha3BaHHbIX H^eaJIHCTaMH); BCHKHH, CJie- 

OTBihhh 3a nojieMHKoii nocjie^HHx jieT b jiarepe chmbojihctob, 6e3 Tpy^a 
no^CTaBHT HMeHa sthx hjuik)3hohhctob. B BHfly Toro, hto r. HBaHOB nr- 
HopnpyeT pa6oTbi HeacejiaTejibHbix jxjik Hero aBTopoB, eme HecKOjibKO JieT 
Ha3a^ BbiCKa3aBuiHxcH no 3TOMy noBoay b ero CMbicjie, h CHHTaio Heo6xo- 
^HMbiM 3aMeraTb, hto njiaT(|)opMa, Bbi^BHraeMaH hm b «nHKy» KOMy-TO, 
J13BUO BbiCKa3aHa, h hto b jieKijHH ero HeT HHHero HeoacH^aHHoro, KpoMe 
Hey^anHoro ynoTpe6;ieHHH TepMHHOB h CTpaHHoro ocBemeHHH hctophh 
HCKyccTBa b CBeTe npnnHCbiBaeMbix hm ce6e bstjih^ob. 
Bot KpaTKoe pe3K)Me pe(|)epaTa: 

y xyaoacHHKa ^Ba cnoco6a othoihchmh k co6cTBeHHbiM o6pa3aM TBop- 
necTBa. TBopnecKHH o6pa3 MoaceT 6biTb BoenpHHHT, KaK hjuik>3hh h KaK 
peajibHOCTb. B nepBOM cjiynae 32ma.Hn TBopnecTBa oco3HaioTCH hm, KaK 
npeo6pa30BaHHe aeficTBHTejibHocTH; bo btopom cjiynae 3a^anH TBopnecTBa 
nojiynaioT «03HaMeHOBaTejibHbiii» cmwcji, t. e. xyaoacHHK othochtch k bh- 
AeHHHM TBopnecTBa, KaK k 3HaMeHHHM HeKoefl aeiicTBHTejibHOCTH, 6o;iee 
peajibHoii, neM MHp hbjichhh. «A realibus ad realiora» - npoB03rjiauiaeT 
B. HBaHOB. 



240 



Ho hto ace TyT HOBoro? KaKOH ace hcthhhmh xyaoacHHK He nocryna- 
eT TaK? Ho r. HBaHOB cneijHajibHo H3MbiimiHeT KaKOH-TO chmbojikhcckhh 
H/ieajiH3M, KOTopwii onpeaejraeT hjih cobccm TyMaHHo (HanpHMep: b My- 
3biKajibHoii MejioflHH bh^ht H^eajiH3M, Tor^a KaK Mejio^HH CBH3aHa c pht- 

MOM, 3T0H peaJIbHeHineft OCHOBOH My3bIKH), HJIH 3HaKaMH MHHyC, OTHHMaH 

ot Hero nocjieaoBaTejibHO h poMaHTHKOB, h ^ame, h IeTe, h aaace flo6pyio 
nojiOBHHy Bo,o;ji3pa. 

Ecjih r. HBaHOB enje h npH3HaeT 3a xyaoacecTBeHHOH rpe3oii xapaic- 
Tep 6oro(HjiH .zjeMOHo) -HBJieHHJi, a 3a TBopnecTBOM - o6ycjioBJiHBaiomyK) 
HBJieHHe MOJiHTBy (6oroaejiaHHe, Teypraio), to TBopnecTBO OKaaceTca 
pe;iHrH03HbiM aKTOM b 6ojiee peajibHOM (npeBocxoflHOM) CMbicjie, a He b 

CpaBHHTeJIbHOM TOJIbKO («realiora»), MHOTOCMblCJieHHOM, HBaHOBCKOM 

CMbicjie; ho HMeHHO r. HBaHOB ocraHaBjiHBaeTCH Ha nojinyTH, npeacTaB- 
jihh nofl peajiH3M b hcthhho chmbojikhcckom CMbicjie cboh TeaTpajibHbiii 
HJIJH03HOHH3M (c xopoBbiM HanajioM h npoHHMH «aKceccyapaMU» TeaTpa, 
TOJibKO TeaTpa). 3HaeT jih r. HBaHOB, hto ecTb peajibHocTb 6o;iee peajibHan, 
neM cjiOBecHoe yTBepacaeHHe peajibHocTH 3a mh^otbophcctbom c acTpa^bi 
nepea CKynaiomeH ny6jiHKoii? Meac^y TeM, yTBep^HB 3a CBoeii co6crBeH- 
hoh (HJUiK)3HOHHCTHHecKOH) pejiHrneii peajibHocTb, oh onycKaeT cyme- 
CTByiomHe peajibHocTH pe;iHrH03Horo onbiTa. 

Koi7ja roBOpHT «o» HCKyccTBe, «o» pejiHrHH, nacTO 3a6biBaiOT, hto 
cjiobo «o» eme He ecTb pejiHTH03Hoe HcnoBeaaHHe, eme He ecTb xyaoace- 
CTBeHHoe «credo». ToBopHTb Heonpe/jejieHHO «o» rjiy6oKOM h BaacHOM - 
3to HaH6ojiee onacHan 4>opMa HfleajiH3Ma h HJuno3HOHH3Ma («o» ropa3flo 
6ojiee onacHan 4>opMa, HeacejiH cKpoMHoe 3aHHTHe npHKJia^HbiMH Bonpo- 

CaMH TeXHHKH H (|)OpMbl). TaKOMy «peCUlU3My» B KaBblHKaX ^eftCTBHTeJIbHO 

MoacHO nporaBonocTaBHTb H,aeajiH3M 6e3 KaBbineK, t. e. o6^PKTHBHbiH aHa- 

JIH3 3CTeTHHeCKHX H peJIHrH03HbIX (J)aKTOB C TOHKH 3peHHH TeOpHH 3HaHHH, 
OOTHaKOBOH flJIH peaJIHCTOB H HJIJII03HOHHCTOB. 

Bot noneMy h h no3BOJiHji ce6e B03pa3HTb r. HBaHOBy coBepiueHHO 
4>opMajibHo (Be/ib pe;iHrH03Hoe «credo» CBoe oh yTanji h He jxsui B03Moac- 
hocth roBOpHTb no cymecTBy; ho, yTaHB cboio «res», oh, r^e Mor, no^pbi- 
Baji flOBepne k aeiicTBHTejibHOCTH pe;iHrH03Horo onbiTa flpyrnx); h TeM, 

HTO T. HBaHOB yKJIOHHJICH OT OTBeTa 4>OpMaJIbHO, H B TO 5Ke BpeMH He Bbl- 

CKa3ajicH no KOHua cy6craHijHOHajibHO, oh floica3aji, hto pe(J)epaT ero Ha- 

CKB03b pHTOpHHeH. 

1) /loKJiaa r. HBaHOBa (cTOJib ypaBHOBeuieHHoro h CTOJib jiaBHpoBaB- 
uiero Mexmy jiothkoh h HcnoBe^aHHeM CBoero «credo») He ecTb hh 4>hjio- 

CO(J)CKHH flOKJia^, HH npOnOBeflb, HH MOJIHTBa. 

2) A pa3 ero pe4)epaT He Mor 6biTb OTHeceH k pejiHrao3HOMy aejiaHHio, 
no33HH hjih k BepoHcnoBeaaHHio, to k HeMy npHMeHHMbi 3aKOHbi o6me- 
npH3HaHHoii TepMHHOJiorHH; Meacay TeM r. HBaHOB jio KpaiiHOCTH Heonpe- 
^ejieHHO onepHpoBaji c TepMHHaMH «peajiH3M» h «H^eajiH3M», Tpe6yiomH- 
mh MeTO^ojiorHnecKOH o6pa6oTKH. 



241 



B TaKOM nojioaceHHH pec})epaT r. HBaHOBa npeacTaBJinji cTpaHHoe hb- 
jieHHe: 3a bmhctom aajieKO He opnrHHajibHOH mmcjih (MHoroKparao bw- 

CKa3aHHOH) O peaJIbHOCTH CHMBOJIH3Ma, OH OKa3aJICH CJIHHIKOM XOJIOflHbIM 

jinn Toro, hto6h BHyuiHTb cjiyinaTejiHM Henocpe^CTBeHHo ocHOBHbie nep- 

Tbl MHpOB033peHHH T. HBaHOBa, H CJIHIHKOM IIiaTKHM C TOHKH 3peHHfl o6~ 
IIJHX JIOrHHeCKHX OCHOBaHHH. 

XapaKTepeH h ji03yHr r. HBaHOBa: «A realibus ad realiora*: ot nojio- 
^CHTejibHofi CTeneHH k cpaBHHTejibHofi, t. e. OTHOcHTejibHOH, a He k npe- 
bocxoahoh. Eme nHTb jieT TOMy Ha3aa h BbicTaBHji npeBocxoflHyio CTeneHb 
(Bbipa^cancb cjiOBaMH HBaHOBa «a realibus ad realissima») b cTaTbe «Chm- 
bojih3m KaK MHpoco3epuaHHe», me b chmbojihkc ijbctob aocTaTOHHO hcho 
noKa3aji, 3a kskhm MHpoco3epuaHHeM h CHHTaio npaBO 6biTb peajibHbiM b 

nOJI05KHTeJIbHOM H npeBOCXOflHOM CMblCJie, a He TOJIbKO B CpaBHHTe JIbHOM . 

Bonpoc BOBce He b tom, HMeeM mm (H^eajiHCTbi no TepMHHOJiorHH 
r. HBaHOBa) peajibHyio pejiHraio hjih He HMeeM (kto homhht Hainy jiHTe- 
paTypHyio (|)H3hohomhio, TOMy Henero KpnnaTb 6e3 noBoaa o Hauiefi «cen- 
muHe»): OTKpbiTbifi nepexoa ot HCKyccTBa k pejinrHH BOBce He b tom, ono- 
3HaeM jih mh Haniy HHTynuHio, KaK «res» hjih hct; Bonpoc - 1) b MeTo^ax 
o4>opMjiHBaHHH cbohx HHTyHixHHj 2) b ycjioBHHx nepeacHBaeMoft anoxH: 
mw Tpe6yeM ot HCKyccTBa, hto6w oho 6mjio ocH3aeMOH 4>opMOH («res»), 
a He 6ec4>opMeHHbiM xaocoM mhcthkh; 3) ho, KaK jhoot, HMeiomne cbok> 
pejiHraio, mw Tpe6yeM TaKace, hto6h TyMaH mhcthhcckoh 6ec(J)opMeHHO- 

CTH, BHOCHMblH B C(|)epy HCKyCCTBa, He HaBH3bIBaJICH HaM, KaK pejinrHH, 

h6o npe^MeT pejinrHH «realissima res», t. e. oh ecTb onpeaejieHHoe «Hmo» 
(o6pa3 Bora, Ero hmh), a He flHOHHCHnecKoe «KaK» y npeBpamaiomee bch- 
Kyio «res» jih6o b (J)OHTaH Hjijno3HOHHCTHHecKHx nepe^cHBaHHH, jih6o b 

(J)OHTaH pHTOpHHeCKHX, TOJIbKO pHTOpHHeCKHX yTBep5K#eHHH peJIHrH03HO- 

ro TBopnecTBa. 

HcTHHHbift xy^o^cHHK, KaK h hcthhho pejiHrH03HHH nejioBeK, Bcer^a 
npeanoHTeT flo BpeMeHH o6jieHbcn 6poHefi HayHHo-(|)Hjioco(})CKoro MHpo- 
B033peHHH CBoeft anoxn nepea o6mecTBOM (KaK, HanpHMep, IeTe), a ecjin 
yac 6yaeT roBopHTb otkpwto, to otkpwto h necTHO Ha30BeT hmh CBoero 
Bora, a He craHeT 6eccHjibH0 cjiOHHTbca Meacay H^ojiom (.Hhohhcom) h 
Botom, no Mepe Haflo6HOcra npHHOca acepTBbi h TOMy, h /IpyroMy. 

1908 



XIV. MCKYCCTBO M MMCTEPMfl 

B HH^HBHAyaJIHCTHHeCKHX Kpy5KKaX OTHOIIieHHe MHCTepHH K 

HCKyccTBy 6wjio npe^MeTOM BceB03MoacHbix o6cyacfleHHH KaK nenarabix, 
TaK h ycTHbix. TaK hjih HHane, Bonpoc o MHCTepHH npKO BbiflBHHyT hh^h- 
BH^yajiHCTaMH. Meacay TeM MHcrepHa ecTb (})opMa TBopnecTBa co6opHO- 



242 



ro. CjieayeT pa3o6paTbcn b ochobhwx mothbex, onpeaejiHBiHHx HHTepec 

K MHCTepHH. 

BejiHKHe HH^HBH^yajiHCTbi Haniero BpeMeHH - Hnijiiie, H6ceH, 
YaHJiba - peuiHTejibHo h CMejio nopBajin cBH3b c 6ypacya3HbiMH Tpa^H- 
Uhhmh o6mecTBa. Ohh yMejio npoTHBonocTaBHJin jiHHHoerb MepTBHmeMy 
o6mecTBeHHOMy opraHH3My. Pa3BHrae hx nojioaceHHH KaK b KpHTHKe, TaK 
h b o6pa3ax TBopnecTBa o3HaMeHOBajio co6oio HOByio (})a3y b pa3BHTHH hh- 
aHBHflyajiH3Ma. Ho H6ceH npoB03rjiacHJi rpnaymee, HOBoe UapcTBO Jlyxa 
Ha KpaHHHX npeaejiax cBoero TBopnecTBa. O 6jiaaceHHOM ocTpoBe aeTeft 
MeHTaji Hnmne. B 3epHe xpHcraaHCTBa HOByio, BcejieHCKyio, 5KH3HeHHyio 
KpacoTy BHfleji OcKap yaibibfl. B to ace BpeMH h b coijHajiH3Me HHHero 
Bpa»c,zie6Horo juin pa3BHTHH jihhhocth He ycMaTpHBaji oh. BejiHKHe hh- 
OTBHflyajiHCTbi Hainero BpeMeHH HaMeTHJiH nyTH OTTopaceHHH jihhhocth 
ot ycToeB MemaHCKoft hch3hh. Ho ohh ace ocTaBHJin OTKpwTbiM Bonpoc 

O B03M05KHOCTH B 6yflymeM CTpoe npOHBHTb CBOK) JIHHHOCTb B yHHCOH C 

o6mecTBOM. H aaaee 6ojiee Toro: hcho aajin noHHTb ohh, hto yrjiy&neHHbiH, 
pacuinpHH CBoe h ao MHpa, He TOJibKo pacTBopneT b ce6e MHp, ho h caM pac- 

TBOpneTCH b HeM. 

TaK HeMHHyeMo B03HHKaji Bonpoc o (J)opMax co6opHoro TBopnecTBa 
y nocjieflOBaTejieii ucmuHHbix HacjieflHHKOB bcjihkhx HHflHBHflyajiHCTOB. 
TyT-TO h CTaji B03HHKaTb Bonpoc o MHCTepHH b KpyacKax, nocBHmeHHbix 
pa3pa6oTKe hobwx nyTen b HCKyccTBe. 

CymecTBeHHan 4>opMa BbipaaceHHH pa3Hoo6pa3Hbix pe;iHrH03Hbix 
KyjibTOB b hx HaH6ojiee HanpHaceHHbix 4>0Kycax h 6wjia MHCTepneft. Bo- 
rocjiy»ce6HbiH cmmcji ee peuiHTejibHo npeo6jiaaaji Haa sctcthhcckhm. 
SjieMeHTbi acTdHKH cjiyacHJiH cpedcmeaMU, a He ijejibio MHCTepHH. Pac- 
cMaTpHBan TaK MHCTepnio, mm He mohccm He BH^eTb, hto OHa jiokht 3a 
npcziejiaMH HCKyccTBa. rn6e^bio, BbipoacaeHHeM rpo3HT HCKyccTBy ero no- 
nbiTKH nepeftTH 3a npeaejibi CBoero pa3BHTHH, KaK CKopo sth nonbiTKH Ha- 

HHHaiOT flOMHHHpOBaTb Hafl SBOJHOUHeft H flH(j)(j)epeHIJHaUHeH SJieMeHTOB 

jik>6oh (J)opMbi HCKyccTBa. CTpeMjieHHe cymecTBeHHbix 4>opM HCKyCCTBa K 
MHCTepHH h co6ophocth He aojdkho noaTOMy paccMaTpHBaTb KaK npeoflo- 
jieHHe HCKyccTBa hcm-to bwcihhm; sto, TaK CKa3aTb, nonojiHeHHe KOMnjieK- 

Ca CymeCTByiOmHX (|)OpM HOBblMH, 6bITb MOECeT, nJIOflOTBOpHblMH (J)opMa- 

mh. OflHO BpeMH Ka3ajiocb, hto B03po»czieHHe pejiHrH03Horo TBopnecTBa b 

5KH3HH CnOCo6HO pa3pyiHHTb BCe yCTOH CTapOH 3KH3HH BMeCTe C (J)OpMaMH 

HCKyccTBa. CTpeMjieHHe HCKyccTBa k MHCTepHH Morjio Hac njieHHTb, KaK 

HBHblH 3HaK HOHCUia KOHUfii CTapOH 5KH3HH. IlpH TaKOM CBOeo6pa3HOM OT- 
HOUieHHH K MHCTepHH H CTaJia B03HHKaTb TeopHH O nOflHHHeHHH JIHHHOrO 

TBopnecTBa co6opHOMy. Ho Tenepb mm Tpe3BO h cTporo cmotphm Ha iuy- 
MHxy cjiob o pejinrH03HOM B03po»czieHHH MHpa. MHCTepHH yace He mohcct 
Ha npeacHeM ocHOBaHHH cjiyacHTb jinn Hac H^eajioM HCKyccTBa. Mm cmo- 
tphm Ha Hee Tenepb TOJibKo KaK Ha aonycTHMyio (J)opMy KpacoTbi. 



1 6 AHflpeii Bejihiii 



243 



OneHb Becico yKa3WBaioT no^nac Ha to, hto npHHijHnbi pejiHrH03Horo 
TBopnecTBa He OTJinnaiOTCH no cymecTBy ot npHHijHnoB TBopnecTBa acre- 
THMecKoro. PejiHrH03Hbift KyjibT Tor^a - sctcthhcckhh (J)eHOMeH. Ho h 
(J)eHOMeHbi acTeTHKH poac^aiOTCH H3 pejiHrH03Hbix r;iy6HH Me^OBeHecKoro 
cymecTBa. TpaHb Meacay sthmh o6jiacTHMH crapaeTCH: Tor^a MoaeeT jier- 

KO HaM MHCTepHH HBHTbCH 4>OKyCOM, COeflHHHIOmHM pa3JIHHHbie (J)OpMbI 

HH^HBH^yajibHoro TBopnecTBa. CTpeMjieHHe k MHcrepHH Tor^a - crpeM- 
jieHHe HCKyccTBa k MaKCHMajibHoii nojiHOTe h CHjie CBoeft. Ho ocTaeTCH 
HenoHHTHbiM, KaK coneiaTb CTpeMjieHHe k ,zjH(j)(j)epeHUHaiuiH b npe^ejiax 
jik)6oh (J)opMbi c acaacflofi OTbicKaTb yHHBepcajibHyio (J)opMy co6opHoro 
TBopnecTBa. H npn TaKOM ocBemeHHH MHcrepHH, o6i>ejxmisisi BaacHefiiiiHe 
(J)opMajibHbie 3JieMeHTbi HCKyccTB, de facto ocmaemcsi Jiuiub odnou U3 (popM 
ucKyccmea, noTOMy hto He MoryT pacTBopHTbcn b Heft 6ecKOHeMHbie 3Jie- 
MeHTbi ^H(J)4)epeHUHauHH TBopnecTBa. A ohh-to Be,zib cocTaBJiniOT HeMa- 
Jiyio aojiio onapoBaHHH. 

HaKOHeU, MHCTepHK) paCCMaTpHBaiOT npOCTO KaK CHHTe3 (J)opM HCKyc- 

CTBa. Ila^aeT OKOHnaTejibHO npH TaKOM B3rjiH,zje ee pejiHrH03Hbift cmmcji. 
OHa ajiH Hac Tor^a TOJibKO coe^HHeHHe (J)opM. Ho opraHHnecKoe coeflH- 
HeHHe, He 6yayHH cnoco6HbiM BKjiioHHTb njieHHiomee Hac pa3Hoo6pa3He 
no,apo6HocTeH, ho ecTb nojiHoe coe^HHeHHe (J)opM, nojmoe ace coe^HHe- 
HHe Heo6xoflHMO MexaHHHHO. 3^ecb mh HMeeM aejio c 3ioieKTH3MOM b ero 
onacHeftineH ajih HCKyccTBa (J)opMe. CTpeMjieHHe HCKyccTBa k MHCTepHH b 
TaKOM cjiynae HecoMHeHHbift h BepHbift npH3HaK yna^Ka OTflejibHbix TBop- 
necKHx (J)opM. 

Bo Bcex cjiynaflx TnroTeHHe k MHCTepHH, hoch b ce6e flocraTOHHbie mo- 
thbw, bbo^ht b HCKyccTBo, TaK cKa3aTb, KOHTpa6aHfloii hbho pa3JiaraiomHe 
ero Hflbi, ot KOTopwx mm aoji^CHbi peuiHTejibHO npe^ocTepeMb. 

Bee ace coBpeMeHHbie rpe3bi o B03poflc,zjeHHH MHCTepHH HecyT b ce6e 
o^ho HecoMHeHHO 3,aopoBoe flflpo: 3to acejiaHHe nepeHecTH TBopnecTBO 
KpacoTbi 3a npe^ejiw HCKyccTBa. TaKoe acejiaHHe npHMO Be^eT k npeo6pa- 
30BaHHio »ch3hh jxo (J)opMbi 3CTeTHHecKoro TBopnecrBa. rpaacaaHe rocyzjap- 
cTBa o6jieKaioTCH Tor^a caHKUHHMH cBo6o,zjHbix xyaoacHHKOB. Ohh - ca- 
Mouejib, a He opyzjHe rocyzjapcTBa. CBo6o,zjHbiH cok>3 cbo6oahmx tbopuob 
b npHHunne OToacecTBjineTCH Heo6xo,zjHMO c HeKoeft hoboh, co6opHofi h 

BCeJieHCKOH UepKOBbK), HBJIHH HOBblH o6pa3 3KH3HH Ha 3eMJIC IIpH TaKOM 
OTOaceCTBJieHHH CTpeMJieHHH K MHCTepHH CO CTpeMJieHHeM K HOBOH 5KH3- 

hh, mw conpHKacaeMCH c o6jiacTbio yac OKOHHaTejibHO He HMeiomefi HHnero 
o6mero c cymecTByiomHMH (J)opMaMH HCKyccTBa. My3biKajibHo 3ByHHT b 
ayuie 3Ta o6jiacTb, ho noKa OHa HeonpeaejiHMa cjiOBaMH. HopMbi aojira, 
TOJibKO ohh (J)opMajibHo onepHHBaioT sto KawnoecKoe i^apcmeo i^ejieu, a He 
HCKyccTBo b ero TenepenmeM coctohhhh. HcKaHHe (J)opMbi ^jih MHCTepHH 
rpo3HT Heo^CH^aHHO noAHHHHTb HCKyccTBo nyaeflbiM eMy MopajiH3Hpyio- 

mHM TeH^eHIXHHM. 



244 



«MHCTepHH, MHCTepHfl!» - eme Bnepa KpHHajiH b HeKOTopwx Kpyac- 
Kax. KpHHajiH h no^MHrHBajiH apyr apyry. /lypMaHHJiH Apyr apyra Hap- 
K030M ropHHKH, nojKHMajiH apyr apyry pyKm «Bw noHHJiH?» - «5I no- 
hhji!» /Ioxoahjio no CMeniHbix noApo6HocTeii b Mockbc Xo^hjih apyr k 
apyry, cHECHBajin no^ojiry, roBapHBajiH o rjiy6oKOM, o6;iHBafl naTOKOH 

CJia^KHX CJIOB H HepBHblX BH6paiJHH. HaKOHdJ B OflHOM ^oMe 0Ka3a;iacb 

npocaxapeHHofl aaace Me6e;ib; He;ib3H 6bijio ca^HTbcn b Kpecjia: Be3,zje 
jinnjio. 

Oaho BpeMH MucmepucuibHUU napK03 npHHHJi anH^eMHHecKHe (|)op- 
mh cpe^H HeoacH^aHHo BbicbinaBniHx, KaK cbinb Ha jiHije, mhcthkob. 
By^HCT bo hmh rpnflymeii TaftHbi 6paiajicH c xpHCTHaHHHOM. 3ctct 
o6pama;iCH k 6jiaroTBopHTejibHOCTH, a coijHaji-fleMOKpaT nncaji cthxh o 
zopnoM djiazopodcmee ueMHOzux. Bot yac BOHCTHHy ropa poflHJia Mbiuib. 
HaHHHaenib noHHMaTb, hto cjiobo iivaxfjSiov npoH30uijio ot cymecTBH- 
TejibHoro iivq (Mbiuib), a He ot rjiarojia |xi3eiv (MOjinaTb), h6o jiioot, npo- 

B03I\7iaCHBUIHe TaHHy ^eftCTBeHHOrO MOJIMaHHH, TOBOpHJIH 06 3TOM Ha 

Bcex nepeKpecTKax, bo Bcex rocraHbix, bo Bcex KopH^opax o6mecTBeH- 

HblX 3OTHHH. 

HaKOHeiz, kto-to Ha Bonpoc xo3hhkh flOMa: «Haio?» - KpHKHyji: «Haio 
BocKpeceHHH MepTBbix». Kto-to HeoacHflaHHo npeflJioacHji o6jiaHHTbca b 
6e;ibie oaeacflbi h B03Jio5KHTb Ha ce6n bchkh H3 po3, kto-to BbicicaKHBaji 
Ha o6mecTBeHHyio Tpn6yHy 3aaBJiHTb o npH6jiH5KeHHH KOHija MHpa, 3aTbi- 
KaTb peBOJiioiiHOHepy poT xpHCTHaHCKHM 6paTCTBOM 6opb6bi. HaKOHeu, b 
o^hom TeaTpe nocTaBHjiH nbecy c 3anaxaMH. 

TaK peniHTejibHO h 6biCTpo nbiTajiHCb OTBeraTb b HeKOTopwx Kpyacicax 
Ha npH3biBHbiH kjihm, pa3^aBiiiHHCH c 3ana,aa, TparanecKHM aeftcTBOM. Ho 

BMeCTO Hipbl CBHTOrO 6e3yMHH BOKpyr CBHIIjeHHOrO K03Jia npOBOJIOKJIHCb 
MHCTHKH B AOBOJIbHO-TaKH THyCHOM TaHIje - K03Jl06OKe. 

Mhothm H3 Hac npHHa^jie^KHT HesaBH^Han ^ecTb npeBpaTHTb caMbie 

rpe3bl O MHCTepHH B K03J106OK. 

1906 

XV. J1MTEPATOP nPE>KflE M TEnEPb 

B nopbDKeBineM najibTHiuice, 3acTpHBHieM Ha cnHHe, c KopoT- 

KHMH pyKaBaMH, B H3MHTOH npOflaBJieHHOH IHJIflne, C 06HTHMH JXOTKJieM H 
rpa#OM nOJIHMH, C BOJIOCaMH KHnHIIJHMH, B BeTpe H30pBaHHbIMH Ha .ZJJIHH- 

Hbie npnflH, c npH^caTbiM k Hocy neHCHe, apoacamHM b pacceHHHOH pyice, 
03a6oneHHO ceMeHHji jiHTepaTop mecra^ecHTbix ro,zjoB no 5KH3HH pyccKOH. 

3a6bIBHHBbIH B nOBCCZJHeBHOM, 6pOHieHHbIH B BHXpH 5KH3HH HfleHHOH, 
paCCeHHHO _ 3a^yiII6BHbIH CO BCeMH H Ka3KflbIM, npOHHKHOBeHHO HCTOHaiO- 

mHH 6Hcep penH CBoeft Ky^pflBOH aaaee nepea cBHHbHMH, roTOBbiii oflHHaico 
npoH3HecTH pe^b h b IleTporpafle, h b CanoHCKe, h b 6orocnacaeMOM rpa^e 

245 



16* 



pyccKOM CKOTonpHroHbeBCKe*, npoHocnmHii Hecrao H^eio rpaaczjaHCKyio 

CKB03B HeB3r0^bI 5KH3HH OTeHeCTBeHHOH - TaKOB OH 6bIJI, H - axl - HTO eMy 

6wjio 3a Reno no neicaHKH jiHTepaiypHoii (J>opMbil Oh He 3a6orajicfl o <})op- 

Me H3JI03KeHHH CBOHX MblCJieHJ KaaCflblM UiarOM 5KH3HH CBOefi OH 0(J)OpM- 

jiHBaji hx: HaHHHaji c npoTecia npoTHB y3 aecnoTHHecKHx h KOHnaji o6h- 
3aTe;ibHbiM TypHe no Ch6hph, HanpaBjiaeMbifi b MecTa yaajieHHbie, OTicyaa 
npne3Hcaji ycMHpeHHbiii, rpycTHO-pacceflHHbifi, c apoacamHMH pynaMH, c 
ydaMH cKop6HO-onymeHHHMH, ho c lOHouiecKOH ;ia3ypbio b MenTaTejib- 
hwx onax, ho c Bepoft cyry6oft b H^eio cboio. 

Ehji njio^OBHT jiHTepaiop 6biJioro BpeMeHH no Hpe3BbiHaftHOCTH: oh 
yMHpaji, OTnenaTaB tom 50-h nojmoro co6paHHH TBopeHHii cbohx h, cnpa- 
bhb ceMH^ecHTH^eraHH x)6njieH iior rpoM My3biKH, b neHe pencil apyace- 
CTBeHHbix h HiaMnaHCKoro - cxo^hji b Monuiy JiynHCTbifi, npecBeTJibifi; 
noHBjiHJiCH nopTpeT ero Ha CTpaHHijax acypHajiOB h nocMepTHbie 3aBeTbi. 
O, CKOJibKO 3aBeTOB B03OTHrHyTO nepea HaMH, KaK TpHyM(J)ajibHbie, 

HCTHHHO-JIH6epaJIbHbie, HCTHHHO-HeCTHbie apKH CBeTJIOH JIHHHOCTbK) JIH- 

TepaTopa. IlycTb roBopHT couHaji-aeMoicpaTbi, hto jiH6epajibHbie TpnyM- 
4>ajibHbie apKH coopyaceHM H3 ^paHOK h pa3yKpanieHbi icyManoM, - o, hto 
ro Torol IIIejiK h napny ycMaTpHBaji pyccKHH JiHTepaiop b ;iH6epajibHOM 
KyMane CBoefi ujieu. Oh Hecrao BbicTpaaaji npaBO ce6e pa3BeaTb Haa HaMH 
CBoe KyManoBoe 3HaMH, h He ero BHHa, hto icyMan nojiHHHji. Ho ckojib- 
ko rpy30B cyMeji oh B3BajiHTb Ha hokjiohhhkob, npeBpara hx H3 jnoaeft 
CBo6o,zjHbix b jHoaeii BbiOHHbix. H aocejie njieTyTCH cpe^H Hac CTa^a 3a- 
no3^ajiwe 6;iaropo^Hbix Bep6jnoflOB, naaaiomnx noa 6peMeHeM 3aBeTOB. 

O, H XHTpeU TKe 6bIJI 3T0T, CO BCeMH npOHHKHOBeHHblH, CO BCeMH £06pbIH 

jiHTepaTop pyccKHH, hto cyMeji 3acTaBHTb TamHTb Hac MHoro xjiaMa. He- 
aapoM HaHBHbie rjia3a ero mypHJiHCb Ha Kaamoro, h najieii ero 3HaMeHa- 
TejibHO, HacTaBHTejibHo Tpnccn npea KaacflbiM hocom: TaK yBepeH oh 6wji, 
hto o6jiajiaTejib Kaacfloro Hoca Ha njienn cboh jik>6oh 3aBeT rocTenpHHMHo 
B3BajiHT**. H B3BajiHBajiH. H HecjiH. H BjieKJiHCb no hch3hh pyccKofi Hey- 
aaHHbiMH TeHHMH. H Kor^a Bep6jno ( a; hjih Bep6jno,zjHua npHHocnjiH cboio 
KJiaflb k MecTy Ha3HaneHHH, t. e. HcnojiHHJiH 3aBeT, oh OKa3biBajiCH xjiaMOM 
npea CBeTOM hcthhhoh HayKH h HCKyccTBa. Mhothx aecnoTHHHO y6nBajia 
CBeTJian jiHHHOCTb pyccKoro jimepaTopa, Bocce^aBinero Ha TpoHe H3 Bcex 
50 tomob TBopeHHii cbohx. HacTO flyuiHji pacceHHHbift JiHTepaTop CBOHX 

nOKJIOHHHKOB, HO CaM OH 6bIJI BCeTfla HeJIOBeKOM. ECJIH XOTHTe, OH 6bIJI 

npeicpaceH, Koraa HaBO^HHJi eaceMecHHHO KaKOH-HH6yab tojictmh acypHaji 

CBOHMH TOJICTblMH CTaTbHMH. 



* Ceii rpaa aojdkho bhccth b reorpa(J)Hio Pocchh nocjie .flocToeBCKoro 
(cm. «BpaTbH KapaMa30Bbi»). 

** Ilpo K)pbeBa paccKa3HBajiH, hto oh b pacceaHHOCTH hht3ji r^e-TO HOHbio 
Ha njioma^H, b Mockbc o6opBaHuaM cboh nepeBoaw LLIeKcnHpa (KCTaTH cKa3aTb, 
njioxne), nojiaraa, hto 3to ero 3HaKOMbie, noKa He xBaTHjicn nacoB. 



246 



He to coBpeMeHHbiH nncaTejib: nacTO - sto MajibHnuiKa, ho yace ot- 
HOCHTejibHO npeKpacHO neKaHflmnn 4>opMy, oco6eHHO no cpaBHeHHio 
co CBeuioH jiHHHocTbio ao6poro CTaporo BpeMeHH, y KOTopon, npH Bcex 
cbohx ce^HHax b OTHOiueHHH k jiHTepaTypHoii pa6oTe, mojioko Ha ry6ax 
He o6coxjio no cpaBHeHHio c coBpeMeHHbiM nncaTejieM. CoBpeMeHHbiH 
nncaTejib nnineT HeMHoro: 3aT0 oh jiobko BbmejiwBaeT cboh jiHTepaTyp- 

HblH TOBap BCeMH yCOBepiIieHCTBOBaHHWMH Cpe^CTBaMH TeXHHKH. Oh, 

TaK CKa3aTb, jiobkhh nocTaBmHK MexaHnnecKnx H3flejinn ayxa; npeacHnn 
jiHTepaTop 6wji nocTaBmnKOM cwpba: 6biBajio, BaroHaMH bo3hji oh 3epHa 
hcthhw, hto6 3aTeM twchhh HepHopa6oHnx cenjin ao6pwe 3epHa HCTHHbl 
b 6ecnpeaejibHbix hhbsx npocTpaHCTB OTenecTBeHHbix. CoBpeMeHHbiH nn- 
caTejib Bbi^ejibiBaeT ajih HeMHornx niejiKa h aTJiacw, a niejiK, KaK h3bcctho, 
ctoht Aoporo. IlncaTejib ao6poro CTaporo BpeMeHH njiaKaji ot B/joxHOBe- 
hhh, Kor^a nncaji, H3JinBa5icb b cothhx twchh nenarawx, acnflKnx, no^nac 
rjiynbix, CTpaHHij; coBpeMeHHbiH nncaTejib xopotuo dejiaem khuzu, nponn- 
TbiBan nx octphmh npnnpaBaMn: coen, nepijeM. He ocnjiHTb cpa3y sthx 
cacaTbix aopornx H3flejinn ayxa. Ha#o MHoro nepennTWBaTb. 

Ho coBpeMeHHbiH nncaTejib He nejioBeK: oh oTMeneH poKOBon nena- 
Tbio MepTBeHHOCTH. 3aBHfleB pa3BeBaiomnecH BJiacbi, H3-no,a, KOTopwx 
Tpncjiocb neHCHe Ha ninpoKOM Hoce, Bjiacw, BjieKOMbie Been MacTHTon, 
cyTyjion (HenpeMeHHO cyTyjion!) 4>nrypon, xjnonaiomen KajiomaMH no 
Henpojia3Hon rpn3n jno6oro npoBHHunajibHoro ropo^Ka, npeac/je coBep- 
nieHHO npaBHjibHo 3aicjnoHaji o6biBaTejib: «nocTpa#aBiiiHH jinTepaTop!» 
3aBH/jeB 6jieAH0-K)Hbin TpynnK, c He6peaeHWM, 6pnTbiM jihijom, - Tpy- 
nnn, npnnaxnBaiomHH pa3JioaceHneM, ho b 6e3yKopn3HeHHOM CMOKHHre, 
bw cKaaceTe Tenepb: «OnepeTOHHwn neBeij!» H MoaceTe onin6nTbCH: sto, 
noacajiyn, OKaaceTCH sctct, CTHaeaBinnn nyTb Jin He eBponencKyio H3BecT- 
HocTb b H3BecTHbix KpyaeKax. Ecjih 3to nncaTejib, to, bo bchkom cjiynae, 
Macmep ceoeio dejia. Ecjih bw nocneniHO 3aKjnoHHTe hto-jih6o 06 yMCTBeH- 
hmx cnoco6HOCTHX nopa3nBinero Bac Tnna hjih 06 ero HannTaHHOCTH - He 
cneuiHTe BbiCKa3biBaTb cbohx 3aKjnoHeHnn: cpaBHHTe nncaTejien o6oero 
Tnna, Koraa ohh CTOJiKHyrcH jihijom k Jinny b JiHTepaTypHOM cnope. He 
y^nBHTecb, ecjin Tpynoo6pa3Hwn, TJieHOo6pa3Hwn sctct 3aroHHT b Ty- 
nnK 6ojibinoro, fljinHHOBOJiocoro, K)6njienHoro cTapua, BHe3anHO otkpwb 
y6niicTBeHHbin apTHJiJiepnncKHH oroHb no apaHOHHWM n KyManoBWM 3a- 
BeTaM. BbicjiynianTe noTOK ijHTaT, KOTopwn BbiKHHyT MepTBeHHbiMn ycra- 
mh JinTepaTypHoro iohouih, n bw yBH/jHTe, hto MajieHbKan, 3Jian niaBKa 
3aroHHT 6ojibinoro, flo6poayniHoro BOJia Tyaa, Kyda Manap mejixm ne zo- 
Hxem. KoHeHHO, He Bcer^a sto TaK, n b cjioBax mohx ecTb aojih inapaca. Ho 
h xony no^nepKHyTb pe3ne pa3JinHne Meacay nncaTejieM ao6poro CTaporo 
BpeMeHH n nncaTejieM-aeKafleHTOM, KaK Han6ojiee TnnnHHWM Bwpa3HTe- 
jieM xy^o»cecTBeHHwx 3aBeTOB Hamero BpeMeHH. 



247 



JXejio b tom, hto nncaTejib npoiiuioro 6mji nejioBeKOM. OTToro-To poA 

3aHflTHH MrHOB6HHO KJiaJI OTIieHaTOK Ha eTC) 5KH3HB (oh h xo^hji, KaK nn- 

caiejib, h o^eBajiCH, h eji, KaK nncaTejib, oh h bjik)6jihjich, KaK nncaTejib). 
CoBpeMeHHbifl nncaTejib npeacae Bcero - nncaTejib, a He nejiOBeK, ecjiH oh 
xoneT yroHHTbCH 3a bccmh yxnmpeHHHMH jiHTepaTypHOH tcxhhkh. Cna- 
CTbe, »CH3Hb, My3biKy 5KH3Hen 6e3»cajiocTHO, rpy6o ncTonneT oh rjisi CBoero 
CTHxa. Hejib3H ce6e Boo6pa3HTb, hto cnoco6eH npo/jejiaTb coBpeMeHHbin 
nncaTejib Haa «ceamoe ceambix* ayinn CBoeft bo hmh JiHTepaTypw. Rjir 
nezo jiumepamypHOM MU3m ecmb jtai3Hb. Ottoto-to oh TaKOH MepTBeH- 

HWH B 2CH3HH, TaKOH HCHHTepeCHWH, KaK HCJIOBeK. ECJIH OH CMdllHBaeTCH 
C 5KH3HbK), TO He KaK HCKJHOHHTeJIbHafl JIHHHOCTb, a KaK eflHHHIja. B 3KH3HH 
5KHBOH HaCTO OH - IJH^pOBOe o6o3HaHeHHe H 60JIbUie HHHerO. H B »CH3HeH- 

Hbix noTpe6HocTHx - Ta aee MexaHH3aijHH (ecT, KaK Bee, oaeBaeTca, KaK Bee, 

BJIK)6jIHeTCH, KaK Bee). 

nncaTejib CTaporo BpeMeHH nacTo r;iy6oKO 3aHHMaTejieH b hch3hh h 
HHTepeceH b khhtc nncaTejib coBpeMeHHwfi Becb b KHHre; b »ch3hh oh - 
MapHOHeTKa, MaHeKeH. 

He onpcaejiio, xopouio hjih jxypno, hto 5KH3Hb He coe^HHeHa c jih- 
TepaTypoii. Hacro MHe bhahtch 3#ecb TOJibKO yacac, TOJibKO OTna^HHe. 
^KH3Hb hjih jiHTepaTypa? Bot Bonpoc, KOTopwii npeacTOHT pa3peiiiHTb 
xyaoacHHKaM-MacTepaM CBoero aejia, co3HaBiiiHM cboio cBH3b c yneHWMH. 
Ecjih JiHTepaTypa npoayKT aHajiHTHHecKOH choco6hocth nejiOBeKa, to hh- 
KaKoe edunenue c 5KH3HbK> ajih Hee HeB03M05KH0. Bot noneMy Bee rpe3bi o 
co6ophom TBopnecTBe, B03HHKiiiHe b coBpeMeHHoii JiHTepaType, hjih cyTb 
jiHTepaTypHbie HHflHBHAyajibHwe rpe3w, He HMeromne iior co6oh hukokou 
noueu, hjih 3HaMeHyioT co6oh OTpeneHHe ot JiHTepaTypw bo hmh hch3hh. 
^Kn3Hb h jiHTepaTypHoe TBopnecTBO HecoH3MepHMM. Bot noneMy rpe3bi o 
co6ophom TBopnecTBe 3HaMeHyiOT co6oio Hanajio KpH3Hca, KOTopwii aojiac- 
Ha nepe^CHTb JiHTepaTypa, hjih CBH^eTejibCTByioT 06 ocKyzjeHHH JiHTepaTy- 
pw BOo6me. Ho HCKyccTBO ecTb nacTb KyjibTypw. KpH3HC JiHTepaTypw ecTb 
noKa3aTejib KpH3Hca coBpeMeHHbix 4>opM HCKyccTBa, t. e. KpH3Hca Kyjib- 
Typw. Ho r,zje y Hac mean KyjibTypa, Morymaa HBHTbca Ha cMeHy HameH, 
BeKaMH BbicTpa^aHHOH KyjibType? Ee nem. 

He npeacaeBpeMeHHbi jih Tenepb Bee rpe3bi o co6opHOM TBopnecTBe, 
B03HHKiiiHe Ha noHBe KpaiiHero HHflHBHflyajiHSMa? 

1906 



XVI. XYflOKHMKM OCKOPEMTEJlflM 

Mw, xy^o^CHHKH, k BaM, ocKop6nTejiHM, o6pamaeM cjiobo. 
Bh BHAejiH HauiH CHbi. Bw nmajiHCb Hauieii njioTHio. Bw nnjiH 
Haiiiy KpoBb. Bw o6paTHJiH b npnnpaBy k npecHWM ahhm BaiiiHM HauiH 



248 



KpecTHbie MyneHHH, Hani HeyracHMWH oroHb, HauiH HHCTbie mojihtbw. 
Hauia npojiHBaeMaH KpoBb 3aKHnajia oraeM TBopnecTBa: nepea BaMH mw 
o6HaacajiH KpoBb. 

B jiynineM cjiynae BaM HpaBHJica TOJibKO BKyc Hauieft kpobh. 

Hbme 6pocaeM BaM Hame npe3peHHe, Hainy apocTb, Hauie HeroflOBaHHe. 
KpoBb Hauia, ocKBepHeHHan BaMH, o miiichhh BOimeTl He no cmcjiocth, He 
caMOBOcxBajieHHH pa^H, - pa^H 6paTHH, eme He HCTep3aHHbix BaMH, k Ba- 
iiihm HoraM 6pocaeM Hainy CKpoMHocTb. nopa crpoHTejno xpaMa B03onHTb 
TaK, KaK eMy noao6aeT. 

JloKOJie eme npncjiyacHBaTb BameH Mep30cra, AOKOjie 6biTb iiiyTOM 
Bauieii nycTOTbi, nocMeiunmeM Bauiero HHHToacecTBa, pbothwm KaMHeM 
Bauieii npecwmeHHocTH - co3H^aTejiio ueHHOCTeft? 

H Bexy penb He o Hapoae. He Te, Ha kom jieacHT apMo otpocthbuihx 
ce6e acnp nycToro 6eineHCTBa, Bpara HaM, a bh, bm, Ha3WBaiomHe ce6n 
apy3bHMH xyaoacHHKa. 

Bbl He C03HflaTe.7IH 06meCTBeHH0CTH - Bbl, SCTeTbl, flpy3bfl HaiHH, 

jiio6HTejiH KpacoTbi. Bw HMeeTe HarjiocTb Hac 3amHiuaTb, Koraa ycTaB- 
ihhh napTHHHbiS TpyaceHHK He yaocyacHTCH Hac noHHMaTb h o6paujaeT 
Ha Hac cjiOBa, nojiHbie xyjiw h raeBa. Mw, xyaoacHHKH, 6e3rHeBHO, 6e3- 
ponoTHO npHMeM xyjiw hx, noTOMy hto ohh b npocTOTe CBoeft He Be^a- 
iot, hto TBopHT. HaM HeBbmocHMO Tor^a, Koraa bw, napa3HTbi, ao toih- 
hotw HanHBiHHecfl Hauieii KpoBbio, nHTHaeTe cjiiohoh noxBajiw HauiH 

HHCTbie pH3bI. 

Bepio, hto b BcecBeTjioM, rpnaymeM rpaae mm bctpcthmch jihijom k 

JIHIjy H C pa60THHK0M, H C OpaTaeM 3eMJIHHWM, H C 5KHCIJOM HHBHblM. H He 

cjiobom, He cjiiohoh npecwmeHHocTH, KaK c BaMH, yBeHnaeTCH Hani C0103, a 

AeJiaMH CTpOHTeJIbCTBa. 

TeM, kto cnHT uejiOMyapeHHO b Te ahh, Koraa bw yMHpaeTe ot npecw- 
meHHocTH, mw CKaaceM: «AHreji MHpeH h 6e3MHTe^ceH , xpaHHTejib ayui, aa 
6yaeT BaM nocjiaH b aeHb, Koraa npocHyTca Majiwe chh!» 

Ha Bac, KaK 6w bw ce6a hh Ha3WBajiH, - Ha Bac onpoKHHyjiH mw cjiobo 
Hauie CTporoe, cjiobo apocTH. Koraa bw Ha3WBajiH ce6n Apy3bHMH HauiH- 
mh, mw BepnjiH BaM. Mw noKa3ajiH BaM h3bw HauiH. Ho bw nepBwe Ha^py- 

raJIHCb H&JX HaMH 3a TO, HTO MW B CKpOMHOCTH TOBOpHJIH C BaMH, 3aKpwBaa 
OT BaC 6o5KeCTBeHHWH flap, HaM HHCnOCJiaHHWH, - TOBOpHJIH KaK HeJIOBeK c 

nejiOBeKOM, a He KaK Bor c MajiocMwcjieHHofl TBapbio. 

Bw, 6yAyHH pa3BpaTHw, eme h HBaHHTecb nepea HaMH, roBopn, hto 
bw - HaneTHHKH 6jiaropoflCTBa h MopajiH. ^a, - Toro 6jiaropoacTBa h toh 
MopajiH, KOTopwe c TaKHM yao6cTBOM noKpwBaioT Bain aynieBHWH CMpa^. 
3HaeM Bac h jno6oBb Baiuy k HCKyccTBy, h 6ecKopwcTHoe co6ojie3HOBaHHe 
MyKaM xy^o^CHHKa, jiacKy Baiuy, kpokoahjiobw cjie3bi BauiH - cjie3bi cjia- 
AOCTpacTHofl acecTOKOCTH Bauieii. 

3HaeM Bac, HMeHyioiijHe ce6n apy3bHMH xyaoacHHKa! 



249 



Hbme 6pocaeM b jihijo BaM 6Hcep Hauiero npe3peHHn: npHMHTe h Ton- 

HHTC 

Bwjih ahh. Mw 6bijih c BaMH. Bw He yBH^ejiH Hac noa jihhhhoh o6w- 
aeHHoro, KOTopyio mm Bceraa yMejio Ha^eBaeM npea BaMH. Bbi cKa3ajiH: 

«OHH TaK TKe HHHT05KHW, KaK H Mbl». 

Ho Kor^a bw pyrajiH Hac, hjih Kor^a XBajiHJiH H3 nycTOTbi He6wraH 
Baiuero, HHKoraa He moivih bh noHHTb, hto Kasc/jan HOBan CTyneHb, Kaacaoe 
HOBoe cjiobo poacaaioTCH H3 rpya npoHHTaHHbix, pa3o6paHHbix, coaoKeH- 

HblX, H BHOBb BOCC03flaHHbIX CKpHHCaJieft n03HaHHH, H3 MOpH BOCTOprOB H 

cjie3, BaM HeBe^oMbix. K bchhwm aceMnyacHHaM Ayxa OTHOCHJincb bw, KaK 
k hobwm copTaM CHrap, hjih KaK k hoboh TpnnKe 6jiaropoflHOH pa3BpaT- 

HHIJW. 

KaK cMeeTe bw xoth 6w ijeHHTb Hac! Bain yaeji - c jho6oiiwtctbom 
npecwmeHHwx cMOTpeTb Ha to, nero bobck BaM He co3,zjaTb. H^me ce6e b 
ijhpk: nann; cyMeeT KyBwpKaTbcn Jiynuie Hac. CTOJibKO ace ocHOBaHHii BaM 
yHHTbCH y xyaoacHHKa, cKOJibKO b ijnpKe hjih b ny6jiHHHOM flOMe. Be^b 
BOCTopr THiHHHw, BaM HeBe^OMOH, TOJibKO cpe^cTBO eme Ha ooth Jiaa non- 
pa3HHTb Bauiy c acnpy aa c 6e3aejibH HeacHyio nyBCTBHTejibHOCTb. 3HaftTe, 
hto Koraa, cohho HKaH, bw xBajiHTe xy^oacHHKa, a tot jno6e3HO yjiw6aeTCH 
BaM b oTBeT, oh BjiaraeT b yjiw6Ky cboio BenHyio aHa(j)eMy BaM h aeTHM 

BaUIHM. 

H Bce-TaKH b acajiKHx noTpe6HOCTHx Baiiinx bw bccm o6n3aHw xyzjoac- 
HHKy. Ecjih bw - 3CTeT hjih scTeTKa h ryTHpyeTe npnpofly, bw ryrapyeTe 
TOJibKO to, hto nepeacHTO xy^o^CHHKOM. B co6cTBeHHwx nepeacHBaHHHx 
bw acyeTe CTapyio scTeTHnecKyio HCBaHKy. 

Ho Koraa bw no^yMaeTe, hto Bee noHHJiH H3 toto, o neM roBopHT BaM 
xy^o^CHHK, bw acecTOKO ouiH6eTecb, noTOMy hto HHKor^a He HcnwTaeTe 
bw KpecTHwx MyK, KOTopwe aaiOT xy^o^CHHKy npaBO BH^eTb to, hto oh 

BHflHT. 

IlpHCOcaBiuHCb k xyflOJKHHKy, bw npHCBaHBaeTe h ce6e sto npaBO, ho 
nojib30BaTbCH hm He yMeeTe bw: Bauia 6ecnoMomHocrb o6Hapy»CHBaeTCfl 
bchkhh pa3, Kor^a cjiioHa scTeTHHecKoii npecwmeHHOCTH HaHHHaeT co- 
HHTbCH H3 no^Jibix ycT BauiHX Ha ero HHCTyio nopcjmpy. 

TaK xoTHTe bw 3anHTHaTb to, hto He BaMH otkpwto. Ho 3HaiiTe, hto 
HenHCTOTa Bauia k BaM B03BpaTHTCH, a nopcjwpa xyaoacHHKa nocjie cjie3 
BOCTopra h TBopnecTBa TOJibKO HHme 3a6jiecTHT ot Baiunx rHycHwx Haa- 
pyraTejibCTB. TaKOBw bw - 6e3,zjapHwe apy3bH xyaoacHHKa h ockop6htcjih 
ero CBHmeHCTBa. 

Ecjih bw b nacw aocyra 6pajiH Ha npoKaT ayuieBHyio rjiy6nHy y xyaoac- 
HHKa, cTyneHH KOTopoft oh roaa npoxoanji, npojiHBaa ot Bac TaiiHO npenH- 
CTyio cboio KpoBb, ecjiH bw H3BHe, KaK nonyraH, noBTopnjiH eMy npHHaa- 
jieacamne, eMy o^HOMy H3HyTpn BeaoMwe cjiOBa, h noTOM c hhm HanHHajiH 
cnopHTb, HeyjKejiH He 3HajiH bw, hto, noKa roBopnjiH c hhm KaK c poBHefl, 



250 



oh BHfleji b Bac TOJibKO napa3HTa, pa36yxuiero Ha nojie ero 3peHHH noTOMy, 
hto napa3HT Hacocajica TBOpHeCKOH KpOBH? 
IIpoHb c aopora! 

He ^HKTyHTe xyaoacHHKy Toro, hto bm ot Hero ace y3HajiH - nponb c 
Aoporal 

ECJIH Bbl npOBOflHTe CBOH flHH B CyeTJIHBblX 3aHHTHHX, 6yayHH cnH- 

ijeft b KOJiece pacnaflaiomeroca pw#BaHa h b MHHyTy ycTajiocTH CTaHeTe 
BAbixaTb eflBa yjiOBHMwii rjih Bac apoMaT H3 6yKeTa ^seynoe cjiadxux umo- 

JlUme», 3HaHTe, HTO TOJibKO XyflOECHHK, KOTOporO Bbl TaK On030pHJIH, 30JIO- 

tht nycTbie, 6e3paaocTHwe ahh Bauiero npo3n6aHHH, HeHyacHoro h aaace 
Bpe^Horo /pin 6ojibuiHHCTBa yrHeTeHHbix h cnpwx. 

A C KaKOH JIbCTHBOH 3a60TJIHB0CTbK) TJIHflHTe Bbl B JIHIJO XyflOECHHKy, 
C KaKOH HCaflHOCTbK) COCTaBJIHCTe Bbl KOJIJieKIJHK) H3 BCeX BOJIbHblX H He- 

BOJibHbix nperpeuieHHH xyaoacHHKa, hto6 noTOM 3Jiopa,zjHo menTaTb y Hero 
3a cnHHOH! «Oh TaK ace noon, KaK h mw, oh TaK ace hhhtohcch, KaK mw». 

HenpaBfla: bm Bee totobhtc eMy na^eHHe, npeBpamaa h 6e3 Toro Tep- 
HHCTbiii nyTb ero b aa KpoMeuiHbiii. Ho b na^eHHH cbocm xyaoacHHK ocTa- 
eTCH uapeM. H nop4>Hpw He coBjieneTe c Hero: OHa Ha HeM noHHeT, KaK 3apa 
Ha AepeBbHx. 

Xy^oacHHK - 6ojibinoH jxy6> MorynHH. He cpa3y ero oaojieeuib. 

Bw no^ fly6oBOH kpohoh KpacoTbi He pa3 noA6HpajiH acejiyan TBop- 
necTBa, ycrpaHBafl no# rocTenpHHMHOK) TeHbio HCKyccTBa xjieB pa3BpaTa. 
Bm KJibiKaMH cbohmh pbiJiH HMbi KpenKOMy aepeBy - cKaacirre, nacTo jih 
BHAejiH bm, KaK BajiHTCH ,ay6w? 

A ecjiH c TpecKOM Haa BaMH pyuiHTCH #y6, b CTpaxe 6eacHTe bw nponb 
ot Hero h TOJibKO H3flajiH, Koraa MHHyeT onacHOCTb, caMOAOBOJibHO xpio- 
KaeTe bw: «Oh 6ojibiiie He ynnpaeTca b cojmue: oh Tenepb, KaK mw, Ha 
3eMjie»... 3HaiiTe ace, hto ot acejiyaeft nofiaeT HOBaa nopocjib. OHa TaK 
Becejio 3aKanaeTCH noa cojmueM. A Bauie OTpo^be TaK h ocraHeTCfl ot- 

pOflbeM CBHHWM. 

Bw roBopHTe HaM, hto mw pyraeM apyr apyra, hto mw He ijchhm Ben- 
Hoe b Hac. 3to HenpaBfla: ecjin mw nocwjiaeM apyr apyry ynpeKH, H^y- 
mne npHMO ot cepaua, sth ynpeKH 3BynaT rjisi Hac He TeM, hto cnoco6HW 

npOHHTaTb B HHX BaillH HH3KHe Cepfllja. B MHHyTy peiUHTeJIbHyK) TOJibKO 

xyaoacHHK xyaoacHHKy, hto 6w hh pa3flejuuio hx, Bcer^a cyMeeT noaaTb 
6paTCKyio pyKy. Mw MoaceM apyr flpyra BOBpeMH nopnuaTb, noTOMy hto 
cyMeeM mw apyr apyry BOBpeMH noKJiOHHTbca. 

A bw - bw, 3aBHcnmHe ot Hac bo BceM caMOM HyacHOM, - cyMeeTe jih 

BW B peiHHTeJIbHyiO MHHyTy o6MWTb HaiUH yCTaJIbie OT CTpaHCTBHH Horn, 

hto6 yTepeTb hx BJiacaMH BauiHMH? 

nponb ot Hac, 6jiy#Hwe BaMnnpw, uenjiHiomnecH 3a Hac h b 6paHH, h b 
noxBajie cBoeS, - He k BaM o6pamaeMca mw co cjiobom acH3HH, a k ^thm. 
Mw 3aBemaeM hm Haiiiy nopyraHHyio necTb, HauiH cjie3w, HauiH BOCToprn; 



251 



npe/j hhmh roTOBbi mh npe^CTaTb Ha crpaiiiHHH cya, noTOMy hto bo hmh 

HX Mbl C03H^ajIH. 

Bw TOJibKO MeinaeTe HaM; b jiynuieM cjiynae, bh npncacHBaeTecb k HaM 
cbohmh ^yinoHKaMH, cHjiHCb Hac onycTOiQHTb: TaK xoneTCH BaM Hcno/j- 
THinica nojiyHHTb xoTb Kanjiio HauieH TBopnecKoii kpobh. 

Mw, xy^o^CHHKH, nocbiJiaeM BaM Haiiie HeyracHMoe npoKJiHTHe Hbme h 

npHCHO, H BO BeKH BeKOB. AMHHb. 

1906 



XVII. BOJlbHOOTnyiUEHHMKM 

CoBepiiiHjiocb: noKpwjiH rpH3bio HOByio jiHTepaTypy pyccKyio. 
CoBepuiHJiocb: hhbh ee nenajibHH, rpa3Hbi; h mh He bh^hm ee BepuiHH, 
He bh^hm; ho ohh ecTb: BepuiHHbi ecTb. BepniHHbi omrrb bhahm Tenepb: 
BH^Hbi TeM, kto flymoii nepe6ojieji no3op, kotophm noKpwjiH pyccKoe mo- 
jio/joe HCKyccTBo no3aBHepauiHHe ero Bpara, ero BnepauiHHe pa6bi, ero ce- 

rO^HHIUHHe BOJIbHOOTnymeHHHKH. 

CoBepuiHJiocb! 

Hto 6biJio 6bi, ecjiH 6 ropHbie BepuiHHbi mw cpaBHHJiH c HH3HHaMH? Ha 
HecKOJibKO 4>yTOB npHnoflHHJicfl 6w cpe^HHH ypoBeHb. Hto 6buio 6w, ecjiH 
Bocxo^eHHe Ha 3jib6pyc 6hjio 6bi He3aMeTHO? CTaB Ha BepniHHe, mh Bee 
ace HH3HHy yBH^ajiH BOKpyr ce6a. TaKOBa HH3HHa HOBeHuieS JiHTepaTypn 
pyccKOH: CHAHiuHe b 6ojiOTe - KaK 6h Ha BepuiHHe; ctohhhc BBepxy - KaK 
6h b 6ojiOTe. H /jaace Hao6opoT: BepuiHHbi onpe/jejinioT no^nac no OTpnija- 
TejibHOMy pejibe(J)y: h 6ojioto snnroHOB cHMBOJiH3Ma OKa3HBaeTCH bhco- 

HaHIIIHM KpH^CeM HOBOrO HCKyCCTBa. 

CoBepuiHjiocbl 

Ecjih mh npHHHMaeM, cicaaceM, MepeacKOBCKoro, BajibMoma, HBaHO- 
Ba, BpiocoBa, Cojiory6a, THnnHyc, PeMH30Ba h BjiOKa, OTHero 6h HaM He 

npHHHTb PoCJiaBJieBa, fl. IOflHHa, BJI. JleHCKOrO H BCeB03MOHCHHX «6aiHKH- 

hhx»? Ecjih 3Be3/ja nepBoii bcjihhhhh - AH^peeB, to, o, 6e3 comhchhh - 
nepBOH BejiHHHHH h 3aiiijeB, h /Ihmob, h KaMeHCKHH, h Apubi6aiueB. 
Ecjih no3T A. Bjiok, to neM He noara, HanpHMep, CTpaaceB h Hobhkob? 
B fleTCTBe H HHTHBaJI ABJIHHa. O, h Abjihh, h Abjihh noaT Toace! 

Bot TaK h^hjijihh! Bcex nmaiOT, bccmh flOBOJibHH, 060 Bcex cneumo 
cocTaBJiHiOTCH «KajieHflapH nHcaTejieii»; CKopo CTpaaceB h To^hh, noaca- 
jiyH, cnpaBHT cboh K)6HJieH, a hx Apyr-KpHTHK paccicaaceT, H3 kslkux 6juor 
coctohji K)6HjieiiHHH o6e^ «BbicoKo^apoBHTbix». Haao Bceiyja yBaacaTb 

KpHTHKa, a TO M05KHO erO H OCKOp6HTb. 

HbiHne TajiaHT oicpyaceH opeojioM H3 pa6oB. Pa6 3HaeT, hto jno6e3Heii- 
iuero H3 apy3eii naTpoH oraycicaeT Ha bojiio. A BOJibHOOTnymeHHHK b Haunt 
/jhh - 3to nepBbiii npeTeH^eHT Ha jiHTepaTypHHH TpoH naTpoHa. 06 3tom 



252 



nocTapaeTCH h naTpoH, h ero KpHTHKa. 06 stom no3a6oTHTCH caM bojibho- 
OTnymeHHHK. IIoTOMy hto, KaK ace HHane? BojibHOOTnymeHHHK HaKynHT 
ce6e pa6oB. Y BOJibHooTnymeHHHKa 6yayT cboh BOjibHooTnymeHHHKH. 
H Tan aajiee, h TaK aajiee. 

OTcio^a Mopajib: He omycKaft Ha bojiio pa6oB - He npaB^a jih? HeT, He 
npaBAa: He HMeft pa6oB, He ocraHaBjiHBaftcfl b noKopeHHoft dpaHe, ocTa- 
Baftcn bohhom BOJibHbiM! Bee BnepeA, Bee BnepeA. 

Bee Bnepe^. 

A TO npOH30HfleT C BOHHaMH BCHKOrO ABHHCeHHH TO, HTO npOH30IIIJIO C 

HeKOTopbiMH 6opuaMH 3a chmbojih3m, pacnojiojKHBiHHMHCH jiarepeM b 3a- 
BoeBaHHOH o6jiacTH. Bohhw npeBparajiHCb b uapeft: hx oKpyacnjiH pa6bi; 
ho nepBbift BojibHOOTnymeHHHK 0Ka3ajicn h nepBbiM rapaHOM, CBeprayB- 
iiihm 3aBoeBaTe;iH. 

IIocMOTpHTe Ha MOJio^yio pyccKyio jiHTepaiypy: Kaacabift Mecnu boc- 
xoflHT b Heft HOBaa 3Be3Aa; h b cjie^yiomnft Mecnu OHa 3aicaTbiBaeTCH. Jler- 
ko bocxo^ht h jienco HHcna^aeT: sto Bee noTOMy, hto b HOBeftuieft jihtc- 
paType pyccKoft yace HeT nonra bohhob: ecTb BOJibHOOTnymeHHbie pa6w h 

BOJIbHOOTnymeHHHKH BOJIbHOOTnymeHHHKOB. 

KaK BOJibHOOTnymeHHHKy 3aBoeBaTb TpoH? O, nycTb TOJibKO noacn- 
MaeT oh Bee rpH3Hbie pyKH, k HeMy npoTHHyTbie! Ho BOjibHooTnymeHHH- 
Ka He Haao ynmb: oh Bee 3HaeT caM. KaK 6biBuiHft pa6, oh xHTep, jiobok, 
MCTHTejieH; oh aorafljiHB h npHKHAHHB; H3yHHji Bee yacHMKH rocno^HHa, 
HaKpaji ero oaeacflbi h aparoueHHOCTH, BbicTynaeT Ha jiHTepaTypHoft ape- 
He b MacKe apHCTOKpaTH3Ma; bot oh paccKa3MBaeT o ce6e pa6y-6Horpac})y 
(6yAymeMy BOJibHOOTnymeHHHKy): «y mchh ecTb TOJibKO napa 6pioK. 
H jho6jiio cbok) aceHy, a nnuiy Bee o cBo6oAHoft jiio6bh. PioMOHKy bo^kh, 
t-h 6Horpac})... H-#a. H HHneMy He yHHJicn. MeHH BbiraajiH H3 raMHa3HH. 
3to 3eyuum zopdo, noTOMy hto 5KH3Hb - 6auiHH, Ha KOTopyio h Bcxoacy... 
Eme pioMOHKy, r-H kphthk». 

H TaK aajiee, h TaK aajiee. 

H pa6-KpHTHK (6yzjymHft BojibHOOTnymeHHHK) nHineT: «y Hainero 
BbicoKOTajiaHTjiHBoro Z. ecTb napa 6piOK. 3to 3eyuum lopdo. 3to Haao no- 
HHMaTb MeTa4>opHHecKH». 

H TaK Aajiee, h TaK aajiee. 

TaKOB BojibHOOTnymeHHHK jihuom k KpHTHKy h HHTaTejiio. IlepBoro 
oh no^KynaeT, BTopoMy oh 6pocaeT nbijib b rjia3a. Kphthk, coo6pa3HB, 
hto c hhm B03M03KHa a(J)epa, hto ero MOaCHO nOflHflTb H Ha npH3HaHHH 
ero nocTpoHTb jiHTepaTypHyio uiKOJiy, hto6w noA 4>JiaroM ee BcnjibiTb 
caMOMy, - kphthk nepe6eraeT ot naTpoHa k BOJibHOOTnymeHHHKy, 
CBepraeT naTpoHa, caacaeT Ha TpoH BnepaniHero pa6a. TaK bocxo^ht ho- 
BaH jiHTepaTypHan 3Be3^a. TaK Bbi6HpaeTCH kphthkoh KajincJ) Ha nac H3 
pa6oB: CBo6oaHbift caM 3aBoioeT ce6e KajiH(J)CTBo. TaKOBa ayTaa CTpe- 
MHTejibHOCTb HOBoft jiHTepaTypbi pyccKoft, HOBoe ee pa6cTBO, aeajiKoe 



253 



ee yHH>KeHHe. TaKOB BOJibHOOTnymeHHHK, o6pameHHbift jihijom k hhts- 

TeJIK) H KpHTHKy. 

He TaKOB oh, o6pameHHbift jihijom k naTpoHy, noKa stot naTpoH eme 
HyaceH eMy. H3-noa MacKH bcjihhhh cjiaaeHbKoft yjibi6aeTCH oh yjibi6icoH 
naTpoHy, eaeeMKHyrao y6eran k HeMy 3a KyjiHcw jiHTepaTypHoft apeHbi no- 
acaTb apaacaftniyio pyKy: «HHHcaftiiiee BaM, flpaacaftiiiHH: BauiHMH mojiht- 
BaMH hchb, BauiHMH xapnaMH cwt, o6yT, OfleT». 

H TaK aajiee, h TaK aajiee. 

IIotom CHOBa Bbi6eraeT Ha apeHy KpnnaTb: «H - h - h... HnneMy He 
yMHjiCH, HHnero He 3Haio. Ilapa 6pioK. 3BynHT sto ropao»... 
H TaK aajiee, h TaK aajiee. 

«BpeMH IbcnoflHe, 6jiaronpHHTHoe», - Mor 6w cKa3aTb jiio6HTejib 
cnopTa. Ha aBaHCueHe jiHTepaTypw pyccKoft Tenepb bchkhh cnopT. 
JlHTepaTop-cnopTCMeH, noaT-KJioyH 3acjioHHjiH aeftcTBHTejibHbie bwco- 
tw coBpeMeHHoro TBopnecTBa. A TaM, Ha BbicoTax, ctoht no-npeaeHeMy 

BOHHbl ^BHJKeHHH, no6eflOHOCHO nOflHHBIHHe 3HaMH CHMBOJIH3Ma. Oa- 

jiaHra 6ohuob npouijia Bnepea h CKpwjiacb. A bot 3a Heft noTHHyjica 0603 
BoftcKa. JlHTepaTypHbift 0603 BCHKoro flBHaceHHH H3o6HJiyeT reiue(|)T- 
MaxepaMH. Tope BOHHy, OTCTaBineMy jio 0603a: 3flecb aczjeT ero TpoH h 
BeHea ijapcKHft. Ho BeHeu; uapcKHft - sto aypaijKHft KOJinaK, kotopwm 
yBeHnaeT BOJibHOOTnymeHHHK BHepaiimero BOHHa, ceroflHHnmero naTpo- 
Ha jiHTepaTypHoro 0603a. 

Bnepean H^yT jibBbi flBH>KeHHH, Hana^aiomHe Ha BparoB; c3aflH npoxo- 
Aht aca^Hbie uiaKajibi h raeHbi, Tep3aiomHe Tpynw naBuinx bohhob. 

Eme BMepa He6ojibinafl <J)ajiaHra chmbojihctob, crpynnHpoBaHHbix 
BOKpyr He3a6biBaeMoro «Mnpa HcKyccrBa», a noTOM BOKpyr «Hoboto 
IIyTH», no6e^OHOCHO npouuia CKB03b CTpoft jimepaTypHbix BparoB, Bcrpe- 
thbuihx ee yjiiojiioKaHbeM h Tyneft H3BHTe;ibHbix CTpeji. IlocMOTpHTe Te- 
nepb: r^e TBep^biHH BHepaniHHx BparoB? Hx npocTO HeT. OajiaHra nponuia 
Bnepea. OHa >KHBa h Tenepb: H3 ee paaoB BbiftayT h HOBbie 6opijbi. Ho 3a 
Heft noTHHyji 0603, KpHHaBinnft b yiiiH naBniHM, Tenepb 6e3Bpe,zjHbiM, Bpa- 
raM o tom, hto «KpacoTa - KpacHBa», «HCKyccTBo - cbo6o,zjho». H ecjiH 
3tot 0603 npHHHMaeT HHTaTejib, eme He BnojiHe ocBeaoMJieHHbift b xo^e 

pa3BHTHH HOBOTO HCKyCCTBa, 3a HOBaTOpOB, Mbl flOJDKHbl eMy HanOMHHTb, 

hto sto Bee He JibBbi ^BH^ceHHH, a TpycjiHBbie raeHbi, ynpa^CHHiomHe cboio 
xpa6pocTb Haa TpynaMH. Bnepa 3th raeHbi 6hjih BparaMH flBHaceHHH, He- 
MHoro no3flHee ohh CTajiH ero pa6aMH: acajiKO npnTajiHCb b KycTax, Koraa 
Tyr npoxoflHJiH JibBbi; Tenepb ohh npa3flHyiOT He hmh coBepnieHHyio no- 
6eay, 3th Bo^bHooTnymeHHbie pa6bi, cKajia 3y6w yxoflHiijHM ot hhx B^ajib 
BOHHaM flBHaeeHHH. Ohh xpa6pw: ohh OTpnuaiOT h BHepaniHHx BparoB mo- 
^epHH3Ma, roTOBbi OTpnijaTb h Tex, y Koro ohh ace HaKpajiH cboh Ji03yHra. 
Ho oTpHixaiOT ohh Hcno^THuiKa. Ilpn BCTpene c bohhom, odepuyewuMCfl 
Hd3ad, ohh 6biCTpo npnnyTCH b KycTbi. 



254 



BoHCTHHy - 3to Ha bojik) OTnymeHHbie pa6w Tex cjia6oBOjibHbix boh- 

HOB, KOTOpbie C06jia3HHJIHCb JieCTbK) noKopeHHbix. 

Ho BOHHaM Hyacaa noxBajia, KaK nyacao hm HenpH3HaHHe. Bohh o6Ha- 
aeaeT cboh Men 3a jno6e3Hyio eMy H^eio, He oacHflaa hh 6paHH, hh noxBajiw 
3a cboh noflBHr. Bohh HeyTOMHM. Oh Bcerzja Ha CTpaace: y Hero 3Be3flHoe 
He6o b rpyOT h Men, o6HaaceHHwft 3a 3Be3flHoe He6o. 

Mw, chmbojihctw, He 3HaeM jiHTepaiypHbix naaueB, 6jiy,zjjiHBbix KoiueK 
h raeH, noe^aiomnx Tpynw naBiunx BparoB. Ecjih ohh roBOpHT, hto h ohh - 
chmbojihctw, ohh jiryr, mw nporaajiH ot ce6n 3Ty TOJiny npa3flHbix na*meB. 
Co6paBiuHCb Ha nonraTejibHOM paccTOHHHH ot Hac, ohh orjiainaioT BoeM 
HHBy jiHTepaTypw pyccKOH, npeaaBan 3aBeTw, HaBopoBaHHwe y Hac. 

IlycTb hx npHHHMaiOT 3a Hac. IlycTb coBepuiaioT ohh cboio jiHTepaTyp- 
Hyio Kapbepy ot hmchh flBHaceHHH, HaM jno6e3Horo: 6yzjeT nac, Kor^a ohhjtt- 
ch ohh Meacay mojiotom h HaKOBajibHeft. HaKOBajibHeii OKaaceTcn ajih hhx 
uinpoKHH Kpyr HHTaTejien, cjienca 3aHHTepecoBaHHwft coBpeMeHHWM hc- 

KyCCTBOM, KOTOpblH OHH BOflflT 3a HOC. MOJIOTOM OKaaceMCH flJW HHX Mbl, BO- 

hhw, KOTopbiM Heaopora Kapbepa, He HyacHa cjiaBa, He CTpaumo nopniiaHHe; 
mojiotom oKaaceMCH mw, BeTepaHbi CHMBOJiH3Ma; mw 3amnmaeM CBoe 3HaMH 
HaniHM MenoM KaK ot bhciiihhx BparoB, TaK h ot BparoB BHyTpeHHHX. 

Ecjih He HcnyrajiHCb mw HeKoraa BparoB, kohchho, He HcnyraeMcn 

OpaBW 0603HUK06, 3aKpaBUIHXCH B HaiHH pflflbl. MhOTHC JIH H3 o6o3HUK08 

aepacajiH b pyKax Men 3aBoeBaTejieH? 

1908 



XVIII. JlKDflM C «J1EBblM YCTPEMJ1EHMEM» 

IlojiHTHHecKoe npo6yacfleHHe CTpaHw BW3WBaeT Hapyacy 

CKpblTbie CHJIW TBOpneCKOH 3HepTHH. ApTe3HaHCKHe BOflbl, BbipblBaHCb H3- 

uojx 3eMJiH, 6bK)T (J)OHTaHOM. Ho He cjieayeT 3a6biBaTb, hto nepBoe BpeMH 

OHH 6bK)T ipH3bK). 3Ta rpH3b - 3CMHaH KOCHOCTb, KOTOpafl 6bIJia H OCTaHeT- 

ch KOCHOCTbio. He nonajm OHa b CTpyio apTe3HaHCKHx boa, OHa HHKor^a He 
B3JieTejia 6w. 

A bot y,zjo6HWH MOMeHT, h OHa bo3hochtch BBepx. Mw 3HaeM: BO^a 
ohhcthtch, rpH3b HHcnaaeT, ho b 6ypHwft momcht Bceo6mero npo6yacfle- 
hhh caMoco3HaHHH b Pocchh, BMeCTe C HHCTOH CTpyeii OpraHH30BaHHWX 
napTHHHWX BWCTynjieHHH, BMeCTe C B03M03KHOCTbK) CKa3aTbCH TeM, KTO 

noTaeHHO BbmaiiiHBaji 6ojib h yHHaceHHe, B3JieTaiOT BBepx crpyn apme3u- 

aHCKOU ZpH3U. 

B Hacroflmee BpeMJi h b o6jiacTH coiiHajibHwx oTHouieHHH, h b o6jia- 

CTH HCKyCCTBa OCo6eHHO pa3BHJiaCb 3Ta rpH3b, H H n03TOMy CHHTaK) He- 
o6xOflHMWM BWCKa3aTbCH 06 OC060M COpTe JHO^eH, 3aCOp5IK)mHX HHCTbie 
CTpyH OCBo6o^HTeJIbHOrO flBHECeHHfl (Bee paBHO, B neM 6bl OHO HH cKa3a- 



255 



JlOCbl B nOJIHTHKe, B HCKyCCTBe H T. fl.). B npOTHBOnOJIO»CHOCTb napTHHHbIM 

h 6ecnapTHHHbiM JieBbiM, 3aHHMaiomHM onpeaejieHHyio no3HijHK), h Mory 
xapaKTepH30BaTb 3Ty KaTeropHio jnoaeii, KaK jno^eii c «jieBbiM ycTpeMjie- 
HHeM» Boo6me. 

Hto TaKoe hcjiobck c «JieBbiM y crpeM jieHHeM » b o6biKHOBeHHoe BpeMH? 

IIonpo6yHTe cociaBHTb nporpaMMy H3 6ecTOJiKOBbix o6pwbkob ero 
Mbicjieii o nojiHTHKe, (J)hjiococ^hh, HayKe, HCKyccTBe: nepea BaMH, b Jiyn- 
ineM cnynae, OKaaceTca okth6phct; acTeTHnecKHe BKycbi ero HeonpeaejieH- 

Hbl H IIiaTKH! R3& BOT eMy XOTb 60HKOM nOflOHTH K HeXOBy; (J)HJIOCO(J)HH y 

Hero He OTbimeTe: b Hayne HHTaji o ZlapBHHe no PoM3Hcy, - h cjiaBa Eory. 

H bot, ot npHpoflbi kochmh, oh nonaaaeT b apTe3HaHCKyio CTpyio 6bio- 
iijhx bor. Oh HcnyraH. IIotom npHCMOTpHTcn: «/Jejio, 6aTK)uiKa moh, co- 
BceM He CTpauiHoe: Kor^a-TO TaM npaBHyKH aoacHByT no o6o6mecTBJieHHH 
opyOTH npoH3BO,acTBa». 

H bot, oh cnoKOHHO B3JieTaeT b apie3HaHCKOH CTpye. H, KaK npeac^e 
oh kocho jieacaji noa 3eMjieii, TaK h Tenepb oh kocho jictht BBepx h bjicbo. 

B He\i He Ha inyTKy pa3BHBaeTcn jieBbifi nac|)Oc. He y^HBHTejibHO, ecjiH 
oh coijHaji-.zjeMOKpaT. 

Ho bot (J)paKizHOHHaH 6opb6a, MeHbiueBHKH: - 3, aa Tyr Bee pa3roBO- 
pw o npH6aBOHHoft qeHHocTH! HeT, «Kom> pydumb, man yjtc c ruieua*. Oh, 

KOHeHHO, 60JIbUieBHK. 

Bot oh 6eraeT no cbohm 3HaKOMbiM h, noTpncaa najibijeM, He Ha uiyTKy 
nyraeT hx cBoeii KpaiiHocTbK). «Haui-TO HBaH HBaHOBHH, - kto ayMaji, 
hto oh TaKoii onacHbiH nejiOBeK? IIIyMHT, 6paTeii, iuyMHT». 

Ho aajiee... 

HBaH HBaHOBHH noHHJi «ihhk» CBoero uiyMHoro noBe^eHHH b tocth- 
hwx; oh pa3BHBaeT 6bicrpo CTOJib MomHoe «jieBoe ycrpeMJieHHe», hto ero 

yyK HeJIb3H OCTaHOBHTb. 

H oh jieTHT k jieBOMy ropH30HTy, o6roHHH Ha xoay h IIlTHpHepa, h 
BaKyHHHa. «BaKyHHH, - hto BaKyHHH! HyjiKOB - bot b neM CHJia!» 

TaK HBaH HBaHOBHH cTaHOBHTCH MHCTHHecKHM aHapxHCTOM. TaK 6jia- 
ronojiyHHO npH6biJi oh k npe^ejiy bo3mo»choh jicbocth. Ho «ycTpeMJieHHe» 
ero HHneM He nmaeTCH, h 6eflHbift HBaH HBaHOBHH Bee eme HcnbiTbiBaeT 
jieBbifl rojioa; Bee KaaceTcn eMy KOMnpoMHecoM, h bot oh npoBajiHBaeTCH 

3a ropH30HTOM. 

Oh nepeceK Bee ottchkh nojiHTHnecKoii rpynnnpoBKH, Becb cneKTp 
KpacoK - ot (J)HOJieTOBoro ro KpacHoro: aajibine He ot nero KpacHeTb. 
H HBaH HBaHOBHH nepHeeT. Oh Tenepb HH(J)paKpacHbiH*. 

Oh BCTynnji Ha nyTb 6opb6w c peaKUHOHHbiMH CHjiaMH y ce6n b Ka6n- 
HeTe (Hy, cKaaceM, BoeBaji c MyxaMH). TaM ace 6opojicn oh h c 6yp»cya3HeH 



* JleBee KpacHbix jiyneft b cneKTpe HanHHaiOTCH HH(})paKpacHbie jiynn (Tenjio- 
Bbie), HeBHflHMbie nia30M. 



256 



BOo6me. TaM ace HHcnpoBepraji oh rocyaapcTBO bo hmh HejiOBenecTBa. TaM 
ace noHHJi oh peaKijHOHHyio CHjiy nejiOBenecTBa h BOCCTaji Ha nejiOBeKa. 

TaM, HaKOHeU, OH 6opOJICH C MHpOM, BOCKJIHIjafl, HTO MHp BO 3Jie JieaCHT. 

Ero nporpaMMa-MHHHMyM - nocjie^Hee KomyHCTBO. (He MeHee, o, He 
MeHee!) 

BcTpenaeT ero Ha yjiHije Ka^eT: «OTHero bw He npHHHMaeTe ynacTHH b 
Bbi6opHoii arHTauHH?» - «EoHKOTHpyio ZlyMy». 

EioTOM ero BCTpenaeT KpaHHHH jicbwh: «OTHero He 3axo ( zurre?» - «Ot- 
pnijaio BCHKyio opraHH3auHK), bchkhh napraHHWH mer: npH3Haio tojibko 
xaoc». 

EioTOM BCTpenaeT ero aHapxHCT: «Bw 6w, mo20..> H nojiynaeT ropawH 
otbct: «Bbi eme roBopHTe «da» nejioBenecTBy, an- «hct». M3 «nem» ne- 
npuMupuMozo cjienumejibHoe «da». 

Ch^ht ^OMa. H3ynaeT «333 o6*bHTbH» (peajiH3aijH5i nocjie^Hero ko- 
myHCTBa). IIpe3pHTejibHO nocMeHBaeTcn H3 OKHa: a noa okhsmh eBpeiicKHH 
norpoM. Ho BCTynHTbca, noAflepacaTb TaKTHKy HejioBenecTBa - noHra Ha 
nyTb KOMnpoMHeca: oh cjihhikom ajih 3Toro jieB h co3HaTejieH. Bee 3th co- 
UHajiHCTbi h aHapxHCTbi 6ecco3HaTejibHo jieBbi, a oh JieB co3HaTejibHO. 

Oh cjihuikom JieB ajih MHpa Boo6me, cjihuikom KpaceH - uncppaKpacen. 
«Oh nepeH», - CKa3ajiH 6w 3th ^yMepennue dojibiueewcu*. 

HaKOHeij, bw BCTpenaeTe ero TeoKpaTOM! «CjienHTejibHoe «d#» po- 
OTJiocb H3 Moero HenpHMHpHMoro «HeT». 51 nepeacnji KOHeij MHpa, yMep 
h BocKpec, TKUBy Ha hoboh 3eMjie, noa hobwm He6oM». Bw acaeTe, hto ot 
jiHua ero hcxo^ht paftcKoe chhhhc. O, hct: oh chhct ajih ce6a caMoro. Ero 
bw yBHflHTe 3a naeM b 6peHHOM o6pa3e MHpa cero. 

TmeTHO bw 6yAeTe ero HCKaTb Ha jicbom ropH30HTe. 

«JIeeoe ycmpeMJienue* npoKaTHjio ero mhmo Hac h npoBajiHJio 3a ro- 

PH30HT. 

Ecjih oh h B30HfleT Tenepb, to TOJibKO cnpaBa. Oh onHineT, KaK cojmije, 
Kpyr. 

H b nepnoa nojiHTHnecKoro 3aTHuibH bw BCTpeTHTecb c HBaHOM HBa- 

HOBHHeM, BOCXBaJIHIOmHM IIjieBe, KaK BeJIHKOrO HHKBH3HTOpa, H HHTaK)- 

mHM jieKUHH o «IOia^e3e hcthhw», o nane h t. r. 

Hbzh HBaHOBHH, caejiaiiTe MHjiocTb, 6yflbTe nonpaBee, He ycrpeMJiflft- 
Tecb 3a ropH30HT, BCTynHTe b KOMnpoMHec h xoth 6w counajiH3M He py- 
raftTe! 

BoioiiTe c MHpOM y ce6a b Ka6HHeTe (jiOMairre CTyjiba, hjih - Hy, xoTb 
o6HHMaHTecb c KeM yro^Ho), ho ocTaBbTe b noKoe o6mecTBeHHocTb! OHa 
^ajieKO He TaK jieBa, KaK bw. I^e eft, 6e^Hoft, nocneBaTb 3a BaMH? 

Ecjih b nojiHTHKe nepea hsmh npHMepw cjihuikom 6ypHoro «Jieeozo 
ycmpeMJieHUH»y to h b coBpeMeHHOM HCKyccTBe 3thx npHMepoB flocraTOHHO. 

Bwji HBaH HBaHOBHH, jiHTepaTop Hnnero ce6e - ckpomhwh; nncaji, Hy 
CKaaceM, He^ypHwe cthuikh. Be3 Hero jho^h 6opojincb 3a HHflHBHflyajiHSM, 



257 



OTKpwBajiH Hnmiie, H6ceHa, BoflJispa, MsTepjiHHKa, BepxapHa, Koraa 

HM6Ha 3TH 6bL7IH BOBCe HyHCflbl 06bIBaTeJIK). 

B to BpeMH, Kor^a 6paHHJiH 6opuoB 3a cBo6oay HCKyccTBa, HBaH HBa- 
HOBHH, 3eBaa, HHTaji 6paHb. 

KaKHM OTKpOBeHMeM flJIH CTapiUHX CHMBOJIHCTOB Ka3aJiaCb B03MOHC- 

HocTb npeo^ojieHHH HHijuie (ohh, Be^b, HHTajiH Bcero Hnijiiie, h b nofl- 
jiHHHHKe, - h He pa3). KHHra MepeacKOBCKoro o Tojictom h /locToeBCKOM 
Ka3ajiacb OTKpoBeHHeM b o^hhokhx KpyacKax, b KOTopwx uuia HanpnaceH- 
Han pa6oTa mwcjih. CjiOBa o MHCTepHH, TaftHe, co6opHOM TBopnecTBe 6bijiH 
jinuib CHMBOJiaMH ycTp6MJieHHH k aajieKo 3a6pe3»CHBiueMy cBeTy yHHBep- 

CaJIbHOrO CHMBOJIH3Ma. 

Ka3aJIOCb, HTO TOJIbKO nOTOMy H MOHCHO 060 BCeM 3TOM rOBOpHTb 

BCJiyx, hto Bee paBHo KpyroM He ycjiwinaT (h6o cjioBa 6bijiH jiHuib 3Haica- 
mh, kotopwmh o6MeHHBajiHCb jhoah, npomefluiHe TepHHCTbie nyTH oahho- 

KHX HCKaHHH H nOTOM, nOTOM H3yMJieHHO y3HaBIHHe Ce6H B flpyrHX, CTOJIb 
ace OflHHOKHX BCTpeHHWX). 

H bot, He npouijio iuec™ jieT, KaK Bee H3MeHHJiocb. JIioot, yBHAeBiHHe 

B03MO»CHOCTb HOBOIX) Co6opHOrO TBOpHeCTBa IjeHHOCTeH, 3a6pe3»CHBIUHX B 

rjiy6HHe hx HHAHBH^yajibHwx HCKaHHH, npeoflOJieBiiiHe b ce6e HHflHBHaya- 
jih3m, npeoflOJieBiHHe ero H3HyrpH, KaK hm Ka3ajiocb, jiioot 3th 3aroBopHJiH 
BCJiyx, cjihuikom rpoMKO o cbohx rpe3ax. Pa3,zjajiHCb cjioBa o hoboh pejinrHH, 
pa3,zjajiHCb B03rjiacw, nojiHbie Bepw. Ho cjioBa sth, ecjiH h nHcajiHCb, nn- 

CaJIHCb Co6cTBeHHOH KpOBbK) H KpOBbK) BeJIHKHX HHflHBHfly&TIHCTOB. Ka3a- 

jiocb, hto Hnuine noTOMy-TO h yMep, hto6w e^Ba He noni6iHHH b oTHanHHH 
Mepe^cKOBCKHH Mor, HaKOHeu, 3aroBopHTb o nojieTe Haa nponacTbio ayxa. 
Ho jhoak hoboh co6ophocth caejiajiH oflHy TaKTHHecKyio ouiH6Ky: ohh 

6bICTpO HaBeJIH nOHTOHHbie MOCTbl MeTKRy C060H H HBaHOM HBaHOBHHeM, 

nejiOBeKOM «6ypubix cmpeMJieuuu*, HHKor^a He nepeacHBiHHM hh oflHoro 
MHpoco3epuaHHH flO KOHUa. 

BwcTpo BCKapa6KajiCH HBaH HBaHOBHH no sthm hohtohhhm coopy- 

5KeHHHM. 

nonyrao oh HHTepecoBajiCH HHflHBHflyajiH3MOM: nponeji hto-to o 
Hnmue, YaftjibAe, H6ceHe. (OcTaHOBHTbcn 3Aecb HeKoiyja - Haao cneuiHTb 
Ha KpaftHHH jieBbift (})jiaHr, a to KaK ace TaM 6e3 mchh!). 

Bot yac oh kphhht, ycTpOHB ce6e noflHOHcne H3 bocbmh tomob Cojio- 
BbeBa h ceMH tomob MepeacKOBCKoro: «H Bcex jieBee!». 

«IeTe - ho kto HHTaeT IeTe Bcepbe3 Tenepb, Kor,aa?.. HnijiHe - ho ero 
npeoflOJieji MepeacKOBCKHii»... 

« Mepe^KKOBCKHH, - ho ero npeB30iueji HyjiKOBl» H HBaH HBaHOBHH, 
H3 nyjiKOBCKofl KyxHH oTBeaaB Hnmne, CojiOBbeBa, MepeaocoBCKoro, yac 

MeTHT npHMO B CBepX-HyjIKHCTa. 

EMy roBopHT: «Ho no3BOJibTe: a «3cmjih» BpiocoBa?» - «Oh, - boc- 
KJiHuaeT oh, - TaM MexaHHHecKoe MHpoB033peHHe, a ace MHCTHK-oprnacT- 



258 



apoTHCT-CBepx-3HepreTHCT! IIoMHjiyHTe... HauiH ahh: mm hchbcm b nyae, 
Bee mw nyflHM... Mm, mm, mh... Mbi He MoaceM nncaTb b npe^ejiax otechb- 
uihx 4>opM TBopnecTBa... Mh, BOo6me, He MoaceM nncaTb... Hy, TaM npnxo- 

flHTCH 3aHMCTBOBaTb y 3THX BpiOCOBblX, MepOKKOBCKHX, CoJIOBbeBblX, HO 

pa3Be b stom Hauie aejiaHHe?». 

Bwjia snoxa, Kor^a HeKOTopbie TeneHHH b HCKyccTBe Hecrao npe- 
He6perajiH KyjibTOM cjiOBa bo hmh TeH^eHUHH. IIotom HBHjiacb HecTHan 
pa6oTa Haa cjiobom. H Tor^a-TO HBaH HBaHOBHH, B3MBaa k HeBbipa3HMo- 
My c ufuppaicpacHbiMU cjiOBaMH, t. e. BOBce 6e3 cjiob, CTaji ueuecmuo jih- 
raTb pa6oTHHKOB cjiOBa, npH3MBan k CBepx-HHflHBHayajiH3My, k CBepx- 
^eHCTBy. 

H HBaH HBaHOBHH CTaji nncaTb: «HHflHBHflyajiH3M» njiOTb npeTBopnji 
b cjiobo, a mw cjiobo - b HOByio njiOTb. H k cjiOBecHOMy TBopnecTBy npn- 
coe^HHHJi acajiKHe paccyacaeHHH «o cjiOBo-njiOTCKOH» cjiobcchocth. 

Tenepb HBaH HBaHOBHH 3a ropH30HTOM pa^HicajibHoro HCKyccTBa 

CTpOHT H3 CJIOB «Zpdd H06UU». 

Hto aejiaTb: HBaH HBaHOBHH nejiOBeic c «jieBbiM ycTpeMjieHHeM». 

HBaH HBaHOBHH 3Haji o .flapBHHe, no PoMSHcy. IIotom oh y3Haji, hto 
3HepreTH3M yHHHToacaeT MaTepnio. IIotom oh CTaji CBepx-3HepreTHCTOM. 
Tenepb oh pyraeT Hayicy, Bcex sthx KaHTOB, TeKKejieH; yBjieicaeTCH Teo- 
cocJmeH, 0KKyjibTH3M0M h, KaaceTCH, co6HpaeTCH HOBeftiHHMH cnoco6aMH, 
peKOMeH^yeMbiMH Marneft, pa3BO^HTb y ce6n b hmchhh pycajioK. 

O, eCJIH 6bl Bbl, HBaH HBaHOBHH, n03HaKOMHJIHCb XOTH 6w c MexaHH- 

necKHM MHpoco3epuaHHeM, npoHJiH 6bi xhmhk) RJin CTy^eHTOB nepBoro 
Kypca! O, ecjin 6w bm pa3yHHJiH ocHOBaTejibHo xoth 6m TOJibKO 3p4>ypT- 
CKyio nporpaMMy! 

O, eanH 6w bw nonpaBe^H b HCKyccTBe, Hy, xoth 6m no aeKafleHTCTBa! 

TaK mhht «jieBoe ycTpeMjieHHe» HBaHa HBaHOBHHa 3a npe^e^w bch- 
necKoro pa^HKajiH3Ma, npoBajiHBaeT 3a ropH30HT ocH3aeMoc™. 

H HeyjioBHMbift HBaH HBaHOBHH npeBpamaeTCH b TeHb. 

IIonpo6yHTe yjiHHHTb ero flBaOTaranpycHoe HacrpoeHHe b uiaTKOcra, 
h oh npncTpoHT k HeMy ^Ba^uaTb nepBWH npyc. H TaK 6e3 KOHija. 

TaM 3a ropH30HTOM uH(ppaicpacHbie sctcth b coio3e c wuppciKpac- 
miMU o6mecTBeHHHKaMH, 3aHHMancb nocTpoiiKOH hobwx He6ec, njiaHeT, 
Teji h jxyw, nonyTHO CHHTe3HpyioT BaKyHHHa c CojioBbeBbiM, BapHT cyn 
H3 KaHTa h HyjiKOBa. H npe6biBajiH 6bi 3a nepTOH flocnraeMocra cmhpho 
B CBOeM «o6meCTBeHHOM 3pOTH3Me» (CHHTe3 aHapxH3Ma, ncHxonaTOJio- 
THH, HayKH H CHMBOJIH3Ma). Ho OHH 6pOCaK)T KaMHH H3"3a TOpH30HTa B 
cen 6peHHbIH MHp. 

Ho 6eaa b tom, hto cy^b6a hx Hcne3aTb 3a toph3ohtom - TOJibKO cpea- 
ctbo, hto6w noHBHTbCH cnpaBa. 

H OHH BOCXOflHT CnpaBa. C KOJIbHMH B pyKaX OnpOKH^blBaiOTCH Ha 

KyjibTypHbie uchhocth. 

259 

1 7 AHflpefi Be^uii 



HOR BHflOM TOrO, HTO OHH 6opK)TCH C yCTapeJIbIM HH,ZtfIBH,ZjyaJIH3MOM, 

ohh nflraaiOT TeTe, IlyinKHHa, BaiipoHa, KaK nnTHaioT Mapnca. Ohh BapnT 
cbok) oprHacTHnecKyio noxjie6Ky Ha pa3BajiHHax IIap4)eHOHa. 
HBaH HBaHOBHH, cKopee npoxo^HTe mhmo! 

Bo ckojibko pa3 6jiH»ce HaM Bcjihhckhh, IlHcapeB, MnxafijiOBCKHH, 
neM coBpeMeHHbie rocno^a, CBapHBuiHe aypHyio noxjie6Ky H3 co6cTBeH- 
hoh nenyxH, npHnpaBjieHHoit CojiOBbeBbiM, BpiocoBbiM, MepeaucoBCKHM, 
Hnmne, LllTHpHepoM h BaicyHHHbiM. 

HeT, ^OBOJibHO c Hac jieBbix ycTpeMJieHHH. IloTHine, noTHinel Jiynine 
coijHajiH3M, jiynine aaace KaaeTCTBO, neM mhcthhcckhh aHapxH3M. Jiynine 

HH,aHBHayaJIH3M, HeM Co6opHbIH 3pOTH3M. JlyHUie 3MnHpHOKpHTHUH3M, 

neM oKKyjibTHHecKoe pa3Be^eHHe hhm(|). 

Jiynine c komiipomhccom b Mepy peajiH30BaTb Ty hjih HHyio ueHHOCTb, 

HeM 6e3 BCHKOrO KOMnpOMHCCa npOBaJIHBaTbCH 3a ropH30HT H BblCKaKH- 

BaTb cnpaBa. 

Mw ^aBHO yace iiohhjih, hto «jieBoe ycrpeMjieHHe», TaK, Boo6me, Be- 
jxej k naenHTHK), hto oho, b jiynineM cjiynae, - inapjiaTaHCTBO, a b xymneM 
cjiynae - npoBOKauHH. 

ZloBOJibHO «jieBbix ycTpeMjieHHH». Mm Bac He 3HaeM, HBaH HBaHOBHnl 

1907 

XIX. WTEMnEJlEBAHHAfl KAXIOUJA 

B IIeTep6ypre CTeKJiHHHbie TpoTyapw. Ylojx Horoii - HMa. 
A Horn yBepeHHO jieTaiOT no TBepaoMy cTeKJiy. Ho CTeKJio npo3paHHO. 
H Ka^fceTCH, hto neTep6yprcKHH mhcthk xo^ht no B03flyxy. Mw y^HBJiH- 
eMCH, BocKJiHiian: «Bot TaK urryKa!» 

B IleTep6ypre CKOJib3KHe TpoTyapw. JlerKO nocKOJib3HyTbcn, jierKO 
ynacTb. HaM CTpanmo 3a B03flyniHbix jieTyHOB. Bot nocKOJib3HyjiCH, 3Ha- 
hht, ceiiHac nojieTHT b 6e3MepHyio nponacTb: b B03ayxe 3aMejibKaioT Hora, 
B03,ayx 3acBHmeT eMy b rpyzjb, B03flyx 3aayniHT copBaBinerocn, nepHan 
nacTb coMKHeTCH Haa o6opBaHHbiM. He TyT-To 6wjio: B03flyniHbiH nyTeine- 

CTBeHHHK nOBHCHeT B B03,ayxe C pa3BeHHHbIMH (J)aJI,aaMH, C nO^HHTblMH K 

He6y KajiomaMH: tohho HeBHflHMaa pyica yaepacHT ero, h He ero TOJibKO, ho 
h KOTejiOK Hey^aMHHKa 3acTbmeT r,zje-HH6yflb pnflOM c hhm. Bot TyT mw 
h HanHHaeM Bnojme ueHHTb BbmyMKy neTep6yprcKHx MoaepHHCTOB; npo- 
THHyTb HaA 6e3^HOH CTeKjiHHHWH TpoTyap. Oho h 6e3onacHO, h He bh^ho 
co CTopoHbi. H He copBeiiibCH, h nojiyHHinb cjiaBy B03flyniHoro nyTeme- 

CTBeHHHKa. 

H ynaBuiHH Ha CTeKJio neTep6yprcKHHMoaepHHCT, npo,aejiaB Ha CKOJib3- 

KOM nO^H05KHH HeCKOJIbKO yMOpHTeJIbHblX £BH5KeHHH, ropflO BbinpflMJIH - 

eTCH h KpHHHT HcnyraBinHMcn: «Bw hto? H - HHHero. 3to h Bac xoTeji no- 



260 



TeuiHTb njiHCKOH b B03flyxe». H H2weB KOTejiOK, oh npoaojiacaeT nonnpaTb 
6e3,zmy KajioiuaMH. 

B IIeTep6ypre npHBbiKJiH Mo^epHHCTbi xo^HTb Haa 6e3flHoii. Ee3flHa - 
Heo6xoaHMoe ycjiOBHe KOM(J)opTa zuih neTep6yprcicoro jimepaTopa. TaM 

XOflHT BJIK)6jIOTbC5I Ha£ 6e3flHOH, CHflHT B rOCTHX Hafl 6e3flHOH, ydpaHBaioT 

cbok) Kapbepy Ha 6e3^He, cTaBHT Haa 6e3flHOH caMOBap. 

Ax, 3Ta MHJian 6e3,zmal OHa nyraeT TOJibKO mockbhhch aa npoBHHijH- 
ajiOB, npHBbiKiiiHx OTHOCHTbCH c cepbe3HOCTbio k npoBajiaM ayxa. 3^ecb 
6opk>tch, HmyT nyTeft. A bot IIeTep6ypr HHnero He HmeT - Bee Haineji: 
nodpoHji HaA 6e3^HOH yao6Hbie, npoHHbie CTeicjiflHHbie (HeMHoro cKOJib3- 
KHe, BnponeM), TpoTyapw. «Eopb6a e 6e3dnax dyxa - (pu, smo npoeum^ua- 

JIU3M,!» - CKa»CeT BaM H HHHOBHHK-KapbepHCT, HHTaBIIIHH MHCTHHeCKOrO 

aHapxHCTa, h caM mhcthhcckhh aHapxHCT. «Cymb e nocjiedneM Kouiyn- 
cmee» y - corjiacHTca 06a. H mhcthhcckhh aHapxHCT noft^eT c tpoctohkoh 
no CTeKJiHHHbiM njiHTaM HeBCKoro npocneKTa, yrpoacaa noKopHOH 6e3flHe 
uiTeMnejieBaHHoii, pe3HHOBoii Kajiomeft, a hhhobhhk Ha tom ace ocHOBaHHH 
orapaBHTCH b .aenapTaMeHT o6cy»cflaTb nyHKT 33-h ^jih ry6epHHH, r^e yace 
Bee nepeBemaHbi. 06a bctpcthtch b yioTHOH tocthhoh h 6yayT apyacecKH 
nepeKHflbiBaTbCH cjioBaMH o ^nocjiedneM KOiuyHcmee». 

Ax, 3Ta MHJiaa 6e3flHa neTep6yprcKHx MoaepHHCTOBl OHa - npe^MeT 
KOM(J)opTa, OHa - yioT, OHa - peKJiaMa, OHa - KOCTep, Ha kotopom cropa- 
iot; OHa - (paxeji, cacHraiomHii BcejieHHyio, «Qaicejiu» Ha o6jioaace npe- 
TeHUH03Hoii KHHra. He 6e3flHa - a djiaiodemejibuui^a, «EjiaiodemeJibHUi^a 
Haiua t - noioT neTep6yprcKHe MOflepHHCTbi, - tw nory6HJia HHijuie, Toro- 
jih, ,flocToeBCKoro, Yaftjib^a, Bofljiapa: Hac th He nory6Hiub!» 

KapTHHa, aocToiiHaH yMHJieHHa! 

BojibHO 6opoTbCH co 3BepeM HyzjaicaM, BjiaraiomHM cmwcji b cjioBa, 
Kor^a cjioBa - TOJibKO My3biKa. Kor^a MocKBa o6jiHBajiacb KpoBbio b aeica- 
6pe h KpacHoe 3apeBo noacapa chhjio Haa ropo^oM, - y IlajiKHHa KpacHbie 
HeanojiHTaHuw 6pHHnajiH K3K-yoK. 3to 6uji ue npocTo K3K-yoK: sto 6wji 
K3K-yoK Hdijx 6e3dnou\ 

BojibHO 6opoTbCH co 3BepeM, Kor^a neTep6yprcKan aaMa-fleicafleHTKa 
npeBparajia 3Bepn b 3aBHTyio, po30Byio 6ojioHKy; aaMa noHT KO(J)e cbok) 
6ojiOHKy, caacaeT ee Ha noflynncy, jieTaa no HeBCKOMy b jiaHflo, KHBan h 
HHHOBHHKy, h MHCTHKy-aHapxHCTy, jno6yHCb KomyHCTBOM o6ohx: 06a - 
6jiaroBocnHTaHHbie MOJioflbie jhojxu - rpo3HT 6e3flHe nrreMnejieBaHHoii 
Kajioineii, npo6eraa no HeBCKOMy. H bot hto yzjHBHTejibHo: ohh rpo3HT 
Kajioineii, a xopouiero, CTeKJiHHHoro TOHa He HapyniaT: 6yayT roBopmb 3a 
CTaicaHOM BHHa o tom, hto noBHCJiH Haa nponacTbio, hto aajibine - nojieT 
hjih npoBaji; ho sto hhkotc) He CMyTHT. Bchkhh cMbiinjieHbift, 6;iaroBOcnH- 
TaHHbiii nejioBeK npeKpacHO 3HaeT, hto cjiobo «6e3dna» - acaproH b cTHjie 
Mo^epH. H 6e3,zjHbi HeT HHKaKOH noa pe3HHOBoii Kajioineii neTep6yprcKoro 
Mo^epHHCTa: ecTb cKOJib3Kaa naHejib, a no,zi Heft - 6ojioto. Ho 06 stom - 

261 



17* 



hh ry-ry! IIporoBopHTbCH, 3HanHT 6biTb He6;iaroBOcnHTaHHbiM. Bee paBHO 
hhkto HHKy^a He nojieTHT: h nojieT, h npoBaji .zyin ynaBiuero Ha CTeKJie 
neTep6yprcicoro MHCTHKa - hcckojibko yMopHTejibHbix 1103, hchto Bpo^e 
3HaMeHHToro KOJieHa KoMapHHCKoii, HMeHyeMoro «no;i3yHKOM». Ho bw- 
jxarb 3Ty BceMH co3HaBaeMyio HCTHHy, 3HaHHT - HapyuiHTb npaBHJia xopo- 
uiero TOHa, hto, kohchho, cTpanmee bchkoh «6e3flHbi». JXa. h KpoMe Toro: 
«6e3,aoHHbiH» acaproH npeBpamaeT b repon HBaHa AjieKcaHflpoBHna: b Ile- 
Tep6ypre Bee njiHinyr, Bee oTKajiwBaiOT «noji3yHKa» Haa 6e3flHoft - 3HanHT 
Bee repoH. 06 stom CBH^eTejibCTByeT hx KpyroBaa nopyna apyr 3a apyra. 
TaK npHHTHO npoBO^HTb »H3Hb b HHHe «ezo eucoKonpeeocxodumejibcmea* 
c yBepeHHocTbio, hto Bee paBHO b 6ofl He noHAeuib. 

A bot noeaeT KaKofl-HH6y^b H3 HBaHOB AjieKcaHflpoBHHeft b npoBHH- 
UHio HHTaTb pe(J)epaTbi h paccKa3biBaTb o cbohx nojieTax no B03flyxy Haa 
6e3,aHOH, npaBO aaace npHHTHO TaK CTaHeT, b acap h b xojioa 6pocHT. Ohh 
eMy: «Ax, ax, ax!». Oh hm: h... h...I» 

Be,zja o3opHHKy, yHHBUieMycn HacroflmHM nojieTaM y B03flyxonjiaBa- 
Tejieii, hjih BepHBineMy b aeiiCTBHTejibHocTb nojieTa TaM, r^e HBaH AneK- 
caH^poBHH noKa3WBaji eMy (J)OKyc-noKyc, - 6e^a 03opHHKy, ecjin 03opHHK 
Ha «(py-mu, ny-mu* neTep6yprcKoro Mo^epHHCTa nepca; TOJinoft 3eBaK 
KpHKHeT* «)KajiKHH ihjtt!». HBaH AjieKcaH^poBHH He Ha inyTKy o6hahtch: 
oh coctpoht aHrejionoflo6Hyio MHHy h CTaHeT kpotko ycnoKaHBaTb «no- 
zu6weio» 6paTa, a mjina 3eBaK npojibeT c;ie3bi o tom, hto HBaH AjieKcaH- 

flpOBHH OCKOp6jieH HeBHHHO. 

lloTOM b IleTep6ypre HBaH AjieKcaH^poBHH pacnjianeTCH nepea toji- 
noft HBaHOB AjieKcaHflpoBHHeft, h Bee HBaHW AjieKcaHflpoBHHH CKaacyT 
03opHHKy: «XyjiHraH, Haxaji!» IIotom HBaHbi AneKcaHflpoBHHH 3anHinyT 
06 HBaHe AjieKcaH^poBHHe: «Iobopht, hto Haui MacraTbift H. A. X. o6pHji 
ce6e 6opoay». Ha hto 6jiaroflapHbiH H. A. X. otbctht nenaTHo: «roBopHT, 
hto y MacTHToro (hmh pen) bckohhji npwm Ha caMOH nepeHOCHue». 

A mh HHTaeM, HHTaeM h B3flbixaeM: «KaKHe repon! Haa 6e3flHOH xoaht, 
pe3HHOBofl KajiOHieii eft rpo3HT, Bee o hhx tobopht, o hx Hocax h 6opoaax 
roBopHT, o npwmax hx nnuiyT b ra3eTax - bot TaK repon!» 

BoCXHUtaiOTCH TOMy, HTO CHMBOJI nOCJieflHerO flep3HOBeHHfl - 30JIOTOH 
«6yJlOHHUU» KpeHflCJIb, KaK O TOM B03BeCTHJIH. Ho aBTOp 30JIOTOIX) KpeH- 

flejia cKpoMeH h necTeH. Mhcthhcckhh aHapxH3M co3^aji eme hchto 6ojiee 
CMejioe: pe3HHOByio, uiTeMnejieBaHHyio Kajiouiy. Kajioina, HacMeuiJiHBO 
BbicTaBJieHHaii b Mara3HHe pe3HHOBbix H3flejiHH BMecTe c pe3HHOBoft aei- 

CKOH HrpyiHKOH (nbeppo) - BOT 3HSMH MHCTHHeCKHX aHapXHCTOB, Kor^a 

,5e(J)HjiHpyeT hx ^eMOHCTpai^HH no HanpaBJieHHio k pecTopaHy «Bena». 

yKeny, o6jieHeHHyio b Cojmije (chmboji 6opb6bi c yacacoM), mhcthkh 
6orocnacaeMofl ctojihum npeBparajin b Kajiouiy. H OKpyacnjiH Kajiouiy bo3- 
3peHHHMH .aencTBHTejibHo 3aMenaTejibHbix MbicjiHTejien. 3th mhcjihtcjih 
pa3pa6oTajiH MHCTHKy TeopeTHHecKH: ohh 3HajiH bcio TpyzjHOCTb peajiH3a- 



262 



Uhh ee. H bot, noKa mw ye^HHeHHO cacHraeM cboh M03r, cboio TKmub Haa 
BomiomeHHeM rjiy6HHbi b aeScTBHTejibHOCTb, neTep6yprcKHe mhcthkh co- 
6pajiH 6a3apHoe c6opHme. C6eHcajiHCb uiyTW. IIIyT roBopHji iuyTy: «BpaTeu, 
hto ecTb nocjie^Hee KomyHCTBo, hto ecTb xpHcraaHCTBo, hto ecTb mhcth- 
Ka, hto ecTb )KeHa, o6jieHeHHaH b CojiHije?» Xpa6pwii uiyr He 3aayMajicn; 
6peHna 6y6eHU0M, oh BcDkho 3aMeTHJi: «nocjie^Hee KomyHCTBo ecTb pe- 
KjiaMa; xpHcraaHCTBo ecTb oco6oro po#a (Jxzihpt; MHCTHKa, sto - yMeHHe 
TpHCTa TpHflijaTH Tpex o6t>hthh; JKeHa, o6jieHeHHan b CojiHue, ecTb Kajio- 
mal» Bee ocrajiHCb AOBOJibHw h bhccjih Kajiouiy b xpaM. HeyAHBHTejibHo, 

HTO CKOpO 46CHKUU HepTHUK 3(inpOCUTnCH» B OCKBepHeHHOe CBHTHJIHme. KaK 

6biTb tjtt HacjieAHHKaM CojiOBbeBa, H6ceHa, HHuuie, MepeacKOBCKoro? 
OcTaeTCH yirra H3 xpaMa, He noAflaBaacb npoBOKauHH, hjih pa^H cna- 

CeHHH CBHTWHb HaHaTb KOHTpnpOBOKaiJHOHHyK) arHTauHio. H Ha yHH^ceH- 

Hoe npncTaBaHbe HBaHa AjieKcaHApoBHna: «H Toace mhcthk, h c BaMH» - 

OTBeTHTb! «BepHTe Ce6e 3aHMCTBOBaHHbie CJIOBa, KOTOpbie BW OCKBepHHJIH. 

Mw eme nHTb jieT TOMy Ha3aa tobophjih o My3WKe, o MHCTepHH, 06 Ano- 
KajinncHce. Rjix Hac sto 6wjih cjioHCHeiiiiiHe Bonpocw, Tpe6yiomHe hch3hh 
jXJia peuieHHH. Bw CTamnjiH y Hauinx ynHTejieft h y Hac sth CJIOBa, bw co3- 
aajiH H3 hhx peKJiaMy. BepHTe cjiOBal Mw-to yac 6ojibiiie He 6yzjeM HaHB- 
Hbi: 5KH3HH, owhhoh TaiiHe, bw y Hac Bee paBHO He B03bMeTe. BepHTe ace 
y Hac CJIOBa, ho He flHBHTecb, hto Ha cjioBa 3th, bomu npousnecennue, mw 
BaM OTBeTHM BecejiwM CMexoM. Mw yiifleM b cboh npocropw, rae bw - npo- 
BOKaTopw ayxa - He yBH^HTe Hac. OcraBbTe Hac, HBaH AjieKcaHflpoBHH, 
jiyniue noTOJiKyirre c riaBJiOM HBaHOBHHeM, cKynmHKOM MepTBwx xyw: 
sto h npome, h BwroflHee /jjih Bacl» 

1908 



XX. SANCTUS AMOR 

- Pa3Be TaK 6wBaeT... 3to KpacHBwii nnoHCKHii pncyHOK, a He 
ropo^cKan BeceHHHH HOHb, - BOCKJiHijaeT repoHHH oahoto H3 paccKa30B 
«Sanctus amor». 

«Pa3Be TaK 6wBaeT? - BOCKJiHijaeiiib, npoHTH KHHxcenicy Hhhw Ile- 
TpoBCKoii. - 3to nnoHCKHH pHcyHOK, a He CBHTan jno6oBb». He 6y^b 3Aecb 
co3HaTejibHoro ynpomeHHH b crajie nnoHueB, mw BocKJinuajiH 6w: « Amor, 
inutilis amor!» IIocMOTpHTe, KaK pa3JiaraeTca ABHaceHHe (J)a6yjiw Ha Me- 
xaHHKy o6bmeHHOcra h MexaHHKy jno6oBHoro CBHiueHHO^eHCTBHH. TepoH 
h repoHHH paccKa30B xo^ht, KaK MaHeKeHw, onbHHeHHwe jno6oBbio. Ho 
h jno6oBb hx MaHeKeHHan. Bee repon paccKa30B hocht oaho jihuo; h re- 
poHHH tohcc JlHHHOCTb hx HcnapaeTCH. Bhciuhhh »CH3Hb y Hhhw IleTpoB- 
ckoh - MauiHHa: b Heft tomhtch ayiiia jiio6bh. Ho ayuia jik>6bh - MauiHHa 
b MauiHHe. 



263 



Bot KaK npoBOflHT BpeMH repoH Hhhh IleTpoBCKOH. «5I cnacy Ha 6aji- 
KOHe, KypK) h ffyMZio» (OHa npnaeT). «Bbixoacy Ha aopory... Oixoacy b 
CTopoHy... Caacycb nofl 6epe3ofL.» (OHa npnaeT). «CeroflHH h He Mor o6e- 
^aTb. KoTjieTbi TaK h cthjih ao Benepa» (OHa npnaeT). «yjioHceHH Bemn, 
ynjianeHbi cneTa...» «Xoacy h acay ee». «B pynax .zjjihhhhh jihctohck - 
MeHK). Bee TaK npocTO». Bee TaK npocTO, HeHyaoio npocTO. «Cmotpk> Ha 
Hee. MajieHbKa^. 3aKyTajiacb b 6ejiHH njiaTOK. JIhijo cnoKOHHoe. TaK pa3- 
roBapHBaiOT aceHH Ha nHTbiH roa 6panHOH >kh3hh». TaK acHByT KyKJibi hjih 
6y,zmHHCKHe Myapeubi, TaK hchjih flHKapn, TaK 6yaeT acHTb b stom CTapoM 
MHpe cocTapHBineecH HejiOBenecTBo. 

Bot KaK jho6ht repon h repoHHH Hhhh IleTpoBCKOH. «3to cjiynaeTCH 
nacTO. >KflyT o^Hy, a npnxoflHT flpyran»... «CjiyuiaH, - roBopio a npocTO, - 
3to ouiH6Ka. Tw He Ta, - bot h Bce»... «Kto th? 51 BH^eji Te6n flBa pa3a 
h He 3Haio, 6bijia th hjih npHCHHJiacb»... «He Haao cnpauiHBaTb. HyacHO 
noKopHO npn6jiH»caTbCH k jiio6bh. Mh TaK Majio jik>6hm. BcTpenaeMCH h 
yxoflHM, MoaceT 6biTb HaBcer^a»... «Tw oT^ajiacb 6bi MHe pa^ocrao? /la. 
Tw Hcaajia MeHH? J\a. Th moh? Jla»... «JXBe nocTejin c^BHHyTbi pa^OM. TaK 
6hjio aecHTb jieT, TaK 6yzjeT Bcer^a. Ch^hm mh 6jih3ko, pas^erae, b 6ejibix 
py6aniKax... - «5I KyK-jia», - roBopio a aceHe»... «TeHb naaaeT en Ha rjia3a. 
KaKHe ohh? HepHbie, chhhc, cepbie - He 3Haio. Boo6me h HHnero He 3Haio 
o HeS»... «Bce o6ouijiocb TaK npocTO»... «IIoHeMy th cero^HH co mhoh?»... 
«JIOHCHMCH 6JIH3KO... IIotom Bee 6hjio npocTo». 

Xo^ht TaK npocTO b npocTOM MHpe, roBopHT - HeT, aa. IIotom ijejiyiOT- 
ch. IIocTejiH c^BHHyTH pHflOM, jioacaTCH 6jih3ko. IIotom Bee 6bmaeT npo- 
cto. TaK 6hjio, TaK 6yzjeT Bcer^a. «KyK-jn>i», - pa3flaeTCH HacMeiiiJiHBHH 
rojioc. TaKHe KyKJibi H3o6paacaiOTCH Ha KapraHKax moothx acypHajioB. 
TaM Toace crajiH3aijHH HejioBenecTBa. Becb Bonpoc b tom, OTKyaa tjihaht 
aBTop Ha MHp, Korfla mhp h jno6oBb pa3JiaraK>TCfl fljin Hero Ha pna npo- 

CTHX, KyKOJIbHHX flBH>KeHHH. 

Bot 4>hjioco4)hh repoeB Hhhh IleTpoBCKOH. «Mh HHnero He 3HaeM o 
jiio6bh»... «Ohh noflBJiHiOTCH oceHbio - 3th... cjia^KHe uBeTH. Hx 3anax - 
...o^hh H3 3ByKOB noxopoHHoro HaneBa, KOTopHH noiOT BenepHHe KOJIO- 
KOJia, 6jie,aH0-30Ji0THe 3aKa™ h HeBeaoMO o neM 3arpycTHBiiiHe flyiiiH»... 
«Mh HHHero He 3HaeM o ce6e. HHnero!»... «HyacHa jiacKa, He tboh ko MHe, 
He moh k Te6e. He 3Haio HbH»... «HeT hh Te6n, hh mchh. HeT bojih hh TBoeii, 
hh Moen»... «BbiJia th hjih npHCHHjiacb?»... «OHa npn^eT! OHa npH^eT... 
IIpH^eTl.. Ilocjie CMepTH». TaK bot OTKyaa KaaceTCH mhp npocTHM aBTO- 
py «Sanctus amor»l 3to - npocTOTa nocraaceHHH CKB03b npH3My KaKoro- 
HH6yflb JIao-/l3H, KHTaScKoro Myapeija, npocTOTa HenocTHacHMoro Tao, a 

He npOCTOTa KapTHHOK HCH3HH H3 MOflHOTO 5KypHaJia. CMOTpHTe - KaKaH 

H3HCKaHHOCTb b neiteaace: «03epo o^eBajiocb b rojiy6bie h »ejiTbie uieji- 
Ka». Hjih: « KpHKJiHBbie 3ByKH, KaK pon 3bohkhx Myx, y^apniOTCH b ctchh h 
rjia^KHe CTeKJia 6jiecTnmHx 3epKaji». «Ha otkphtom okhc uinpoKan BeTKa 



264 



h6jiohh, bch CKB03Han... IIpHnjibuia JiyHa, orpoMHaa, 6jieAHan, aca/uian, 3a- 
uenHJiacb 3a bctkh h cmotpht». 3to - BeceHHHH HOHb, Kor^a OTKpbraaeTCH 
BejiHKoe «Tao». «3a6brn>cH... He noMHHTb, He /jyMaTb, He 3HaTb HHHero»... 

IlocTejiH. KyKJiw. Kotjicth. CnnT. Bpo^HT. JIoacaTcn. Ho cnaT, 6po#HT, 
jioacaTca Ha 4>OHe 3apn. HeT, sto He noimiocTb: sto - MyapocTb npocTOTbi. 
3aneM ace TaK pe^KO npnnoflbiMeT noKpoB HHHa IleTpoBCKaH? Cjihihkom 
OHa 3arpoMO^aeT 3apeBoft h niy6oKHft 4>oh cbohx paccKa30B KOTJieTaMH, 
KyKJiaMH h nocTejiHMH. Eme HeMHoro, h 3apn He 6yaeT bh^ho: ocraHeT- 
ch Tor^a HHKOMy He HyacHan KapraHKa H3 MOflHoro acypHajia. B3HTb 6bi 
aa BbmepHyTb paccKa3bi HaH3HaHKy 3apeft k HHTaTejiHM; Torzja Bbinrpajio 
6bi HecoMHeHHoe aapoBaHHe aBTopa; a Tenepb oho cjiobho HapoHHo noA 
Byajibio HeHHTepecHbix CHHeMaTorpa(J)HHecKHx noapo6HOCTeft 5KH3HH, TaK 
hto He cpa3y yjiOBHiiib HeMHorae nepjiw. H3 Hhhw IleTpoBCKoft Morjio 6h 
Bbipa6oTaTbCH .zjeftcTBHTejibHoe .zjapoBaHHe, ecjiH 6w OHa He oraocHjiacb 

TaK naCCHBHO K C06cTBeHHbIM CBOHM Xyfl02CeCTBeHHbIM nepe»CHBaHHHM. 

A ajih 3Toro eft HyaeHa Bepa b Menmue tuejiKa 3apn. Ho OHa tohho OTMa- 
xHBaeTCH ot cbohx 3opb: «Hac mhoto, Hac ropa3^o 6ojibine, neM echbmx, 
ho mw - npH3paKH, mw tchh caMHX ce6a, acajiKHe o6jiomkh co6cTBeHHoro 
npouuioro». 

Bot 3to-to He^oBepne b na(|)oc >kh3hh (Heo6xoflHMoe ycjiOBHe xy#o- 
^cecTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa) 3aBOJiaKHBaeT no^nac ee TBopnecTBO yace He 
CTHjiH30BaHHbiMH, KaK b HnoHCKOM neft3aace, o6pa3aMH, a KyKJiaMH, TOJib- 
ko KyKJiaMH. Ottoto-to nnoHCKHft neft3aac ee TBopnecTBa c6nBaeTCH nacTO 
Ha KapraHKy H3 acypHajia /jaMCKHx mor. 

1908 



XXI. CMHEMATOrPAO 

CuHeMamozpcKp - CKOJibKo uejiOMy^peHHoft rpycTH, Haaeaeflbi, 

CKOJIbKO BOCnOMHHaHHft npH 3TOM CJIOBel CHHeMaTOTpa^ - HHCTOe, He- 

BHHHoe pa3BjieneHHe Ha coh rpH^ymnft nocjie TpyaoBoro ^hh! CnHeMaTo- 
rpa4> - yioT, TporaTejibHoe noyneHHel CHHeMaTorpacJ) -npe^BecTHe. 

Oh B03BpamaeT HaM npocTbie hcthhw, 3axBaTaHHbie rpn3HbiMH py- 
KaMH; B03BpamaeT nejioBenecKoe MHJiocep^He, He3jio6HBOCTb 6e3 bchkoS 

TeopeTHKH - npOCTO, yjIbl6HHBO. 

CHHeMaTorpa(|) - KJiy6: 3^ecb coeflHHHioTCH ajih toto, hto6w bw- 
BecTH HpaBoyneHHe, nonyTeuiecTBOBaTb b AMepHKy, no3HaKOMHTbCH c 
npoH3BOACTBOM Ta6aKy Ha OHJiHnnHHCKHx ocTpoBax, nocMeflTbca Haa 
rjiynocTbio nojinijeftcKoro, noB3flbixaTb Ha# npo^aiomeft ce6a mo^hct- 
Koft, co6HpaioTCH, hto6w BCTperaTb 3HaKOMbix, - Bee, Bee: apHCTOKpaTbl 
h ^eMOKpaTbi, coji^aTbi, cryzjeHTbi, pa6oHHe, KypcHCTKH, nosTbi h npocra- 
TyTKH. Oh - TOHKa eflHHeHHH jiio^eft, pa3onapoBaHHbix b bo3mo*chocth 



265 



jiHTepaTypHoro, jiio6oBHoro eflHHeHHH. IIpHxoflHT yciajibie, oahhokhc - h 
Bflpyr coe^HHHiOTCH b co3epiiaHHH acH3HH, bh^ht, KaK OHa MHoroo6pa3Ha, 
npenpacHa, h yxo^HT, o6MeHHBiiiHCb apyr c apyroM B3rjiH,aoM cjiynaHHOH, 
a noTOMy h 6ojiee Bcero i^hhoh, cojiH^apHocra: 3Ta cojinaapHocTb He bh- 
TeKaeT H3 nero-jiH6o npeAB3HToro, a H3 cymHOCTH HejioBenecKOH HaTypw. 

BblTb MO^CeT, OflHHOKHe, pa30HapOBaHHbie JHOflH TOJIbKO noTOMy H BepHT B 

CBeT, BonpeKH BceMy, hto ohh xoaht b CHHeMaTorpa(J). CnHeMaTorpacj) bo3- 
BpamaeT hm jiio6oBb k 5kh3hh. /la, sto - HecoMHeHHo, h kto MHe flOKaaceT 
o6paTHoe? 

IIpHXOflHT H6JIOBCK, KOTOpOrO o6MaHyjIH JHOflH, IipeflaBaJIH H TOnHJIH 

Apy3bH, - h Bapyr bhaht, KaK co6aKa cnacaeT MajiioTKy; npnxoflHT h 3a- 
AyMbiBaeTCH: ecjiH 3Bepio He OTKa3aHO b tom, b neM 0TKa3aH0 6ojibiiiHM, 
TaK Ha3biBaeMbiM KyjibTypHbiM jhoahm, to HecoMHeHHo: TaKofi 0TKa3 - 

TOJIbKO HaCTHOe HCKJUOHeHHC H BOT B HeJIOBeKe COBepUiaeTCH MHCTepHH 

OHHmeHHH, npocBeTJieHHH. OHa npoHCxo^HT He noa aKKOMnaHeMeHT 
BbiKpHKOB o «aep3aiomeH KpacoTe», HeT, - non 3ByKH pa36HToro poHJin, 
Haa KOTopwM corayjicH KaKOH-HH6y^b HeyaaHHHK-Tanep hjih Tanepma 
c noflBH3aHHOH meKOH (name Bcero - CTapan aeBa), nponcxoflHT b ayine 

MHCTepHH 3KH3HH. 

MHorne nocemaiOT CHHeMaTorpa(j) TOJIbKO Tor^a, Kor^a ayiiia y hhx b 
CHHHKax. HanpacHo: npHxoflHJiH 6w noname - chhhkob 6w He 6biJio. Ho 

XOpOUIO, HTO npHXO^HT, TOJIbKO nyCTb OHH yMaTCH y CHHeMaTOrpa(J)a 2CH3- 

hh (KOTopyio pacTepnjiH b jioacHbix noHCKax ee), nycTb ynaTCH hcbhhho, 
KaK aera, a, rjiaBHoe, 6e3 HaapbiBa: ox, yac h 6eaa c sthmh Ha^pbiBHHKaMH 
#a Ha^pbiBHHi^aMH ! (He c acnpy jih 6cchtch?) HeT: tot, Koro cnacaeT ch- 
HeMaTorpacJ), yac kohchho He no3BOJiHT ce6e TaKoro 6ypacya3Horo BpeMH- 
npenpoB05K,aeHHH, KaK HaapbiB. HaapbiBHHKaM HyaceH CHHeMaTorpacJ) hc- 

KJIIOHHTejIbHO flJIH TOrO, HTo6bI nOJIK)6oBaTbCH C060H B paMKe nOHIJIOCTHI H 

TyT ohh nonaaaiOT BnpocaK, noTOMy hto KaKan ace nomjiocTb b cuneMamo- 
zpacpe? HaapbiBHHKH - nouuian paMKa npeKpacHofi 5khboh (J)OTorpa(J)HH, 
h noTOMy-TO HyacHo hx 6e3acajiocTHo 3KcnponpHHpoBaTb H3 KOMHaTbi, b 
KOTopoft coBepuiaeTCH aeficTBO. 

CnHeMaTorpacJ), coxpaHHH nejioBeKy ero HHflHBHflyajibHocTb, npno6- 
maeT ero k o6meMy aeficTBy b ropa3,ao 6ojibinoH Mepe, neM Bee TeopeTHne- 

CKHe nOCTpOHKH K Co6opHOMy HH,aHBHAyaJIH3My. CHHeMaTorpa(J) - fleMO- 

KpaTHnecKHH TeaTp 6y£ymero, 6ajiaraH b 6jiaropoflHOM h bwcokom CMbicjie 
3Toro cjiOBa, Bee, hto yroflHO, TOJIbKO He BajiaraH«*/i/H>. Yac, noacajiyiicTa, 
6e3 «huk»; Bee 3th «huku» - exHflHaa h, npH3HaTbcn cKa3aTb, ra^Kan iiiTy- 
Ka. yMeHbiHHTejibHbie cjiOBa BbipaacaioT HeacHoerb, 6yflT0 aocTaTOHHo k 
jno6oMy cjiOBy npncTaBHTb MaHHJioBCKoe «huk» - h jno6oe cjiobo jiacKOBO 
TaK 3arjiHHeT b ayuiy: «6cuiazamuKu» MHcrepHio npeBpamaiOT b CHHeMaTO- 
rpacfr, cHHeMaTorpacJ) B03BpamaeT HaM 3£opoByio acH3Hb, 6e3 mhcthhccko- 
ro «HUKaHbx», npaB^a, - ho c mhcthhcckhm TpeneTOM. 



266 



CwHeMaTorpac}) c 6bicrpoTOH mojihhm o6Be3eT Bac BOKpyr 3eMHoro 
inapa - tojibko rjiyno, ecjiH bw cocpeflOTOHHTecb bo BpeMH KpyrocBeTHoro 
nyTeuiecTBHH Ha njrraax, apoacaHHH, TpecKe (J)OHapH; sto Bee ycmpanuMue 
3pHTejibHwe h HHbie TexHHHecKHe Ae4>eKTbi, Meacay TeM KaK MHCTHHecKoe 
«HUKanhe» HaHOCHT HenonpaBHMbift ae^eKT ayuie. 

nocjie^Hee cjiobo HOBefiuieii pyccKoii apaMbi, sto - BHeceHHe npecjio- 
ByToro «Hwca» b HaH6o;iee cBnmeHHyio o6jiacTb - b TpareflHio h MHcre- 
pHK). CjiaBa Bory, TaKofi apaMbi bw He BCTpeTHTe b CHHeMaTorpa4)HHecKOM 
AeftcTBe, KOTopoe He jie3eT Tyaa, rae Bee - cbhtmhjl H oTToro-TO H3 dpa- 
mohku He BbiHfleuib k CBHTbiHe, a CHHeMaTorpac}) B03po3KflaeT b ayine yBe- 

peHHOCTb B TOM, HTO MHCTepHfl OCTaeTCH HeOCKBepHeHHOHI OCKBepHHTCH 

KomyHbi. Ho BepHeMca k CHHeMaTorpa4)y. 

3#ecb Bee HanHHaeTca c KyKOJibHoft *ch3hh - h aajiee: nepexoflHT k 
xch3hh HejiOBenecKOH, k ee CMbicjiy, uejiHM - h aajiee: excelsiorl B jihtc- 
paType nacTO o6paTHo: ot nejiOBeica k CBepxnejioBeKy h aajiee - k MapHO- 
HeTKe; ot MHcrepHH, xpaMa - k KyKOJibHOMy aeftcTBy n oa orpoMHWM, KaK 
Kynoji xpaMa, aypauKHM KOJinaKOM. Ecjih 6m TaKoe KomyHCTBO nponc- 
xoahjio ot noTepn Bepbi b »H3Hb, oho Bejio 6m k rH6e;iH: ho OTnero ace 
hhkto He rH6HeT? OTnero KomyHCTBeHHoe Aep3HOBeHHe oceHneT rpy^b 
CMbiuiJieHbix jnoaefi, cnoKOHHO aejiaiomHx cboio jiHTepaTypHyio h npo- 
nyio Kapbepy? MHorae H3 hhx coBepmaioT TpHyM(J>ajibHoe uiecTBHe no 
»ch3hh - Mo»ceT 6wTb, b KOJiecHHije, Be30Mbie Ha KocTep? O, HeT: npo- 
cto b yao6Hbix TejiexcKax b BH^e Kop3HHoii pa3BepHyToro acypHajia, Be- 

30Mbie TeMH 6e3AapHbIMH KpHTHKaMH, KOTOpblX y HHX XBaTaeT CMeJIOCTH 

npeB03HOCHTb. Ho Bbi6HpajiH 6w ohh yac ao6pyio KOJiecHHuy, #o6pbix 

KOHefi (opjIOBCKHX pblCaKOB, HTO JIH), He ACTCKHe TeJie»CeMKH (MHCTHHe- 

ckhh aHapxH3M, HanpHMep), 3anpflaceHHbie nerauiKaMH, - eft-eii CMeuiHoI 
BnponeM, nerauiKa, MoaceT 6biTb, h He nerauiKa, a CHBKa-6ypKa-KaypKa? 
A BApyr He KaypKa? 

Ho BepHeMCH k CHHeMaTorpa(J)y. 

CHHeMaTorpacJ) ocBo6oacaaeT Hac ot rpa3HeHbKoro npHBKyca MapHO- 

HeTOHHOH MHCTepHHJ 5KH3Hb npeflCTOHT HaM OHHIIjeHHOH. B MHCTepHflX 

Bee He jiioah, a CTpaHHbie ^Myoicu*, «Reebi PadywHue*, «06jieueHHue» h 
t. r. Ho nacTO ohh He BbmepacHBaioT cBoefi pojih, aa b cepe^HHe MHCTepHH 
TaK Tyno, Tyno yjibi6HyTcn: «zu-u, zu-u». HaHBHbie ao6pHKH noflHHMaiOT 
nepcTbi h rapKaiOT, KaK no KOMaH^e: «Hep3Hyn y etu,e dep3nyji! /Jep3Hem u 
eiu,e», cjiOBHO nejio ujieT o HHxaHbe, HeBeacecrBe, TpwH-TpaBH3Me. H no- 
jiynaeTCfl oaho 6ojibuioe: «Ah-jiiojihI» 
BepHeMCH k CHHeMaTorpa(J)y. 

B CHHeMaTorpa(J>e H3BpameHHoe Kocorjia3He ocTaeTca y Hac 3a njie- 
naMH. BepHM b MHCTepHio TOJibKO noTOMy, hto HeT 3^ecb noKyuieHHH Ha 
Bee c HeroflHbiMH cpe^CTBaMH. TaM - HanjieBaTb! 3aecb - uejioMyapeHHoe 
AwxaHHe xch3hh cKB03b CKyflHyio, CKyflHyio o6cTaHOBKy (pa36HToe nnaHH- 



267 



ho, CTapan fleBa, MejiaHxojiHnecKHH Bajibc h co6anKa, cnacaromaa pe6eH- 
Ka). H b ayine CHOBa pa^ocTb: «Eme He Bee on;ieBaHol» H jiioah OTflbixaiOT, 

CMdOTCH H paCXO^HTCH no flOMaM. 

KaK-To h BCTpeTHJi b cHHeMaTorpa(J)e 6apbiuiHio c actckhmh mhjiwmh 
r^a3aMH - noceTHTejibHHijy KOHijepTOB OjieHHHOH-a'AjibreHM, jickijhh 
BajibMOHTa, BpiocoBa... TojibKo hto nepea Te\i a BHflaji ee y ce6n Ha jieK- 

LJHH, H MHe 6bIJIO npHHTHO BO BpeMH HTeHHH 3aMeHaTb OTKpblTbie, HeCTHbie 

rjia3a. Ho bo CKOJibKO pa3 MHe npHaraee 6wjio BCTpeTHTb moio He3HaKOMKy 
b CHHeMaTorpa(J)e! Mm neperjiHHyjiHCb, KaK 3HaKOMbie, h h mmcjichho en 
roBopHji: «Mhjimh pe6eHOK, xopoiuo, hto tm BceM HHTepecyeuibca. Mh- 
jimh pe6eHOK, TOJibKO noAajibiue ot bchkhx Mucmepuu; noMeHbine mhctc- 
pHH, no6o;ibiue CHHeMaTorpacJ)aI» 
BepHeMCH k CHHeMaTorpacJ)y. 

51 cjiynaHHO otkpwji CHHeMaTorpacJ), yfiflH c o6e,zja 4>paHijy3CKHx 
nHcaTejieii b riapHace, Hecuinx noinjieHinyio axHHeio cjiob. IlHcaTejiH, 
Ka^cawfi b OT^ejibHocTH, BepoHTHo, 6biJiH b TMCHHy pa3 yMHee Toro, HTO 
ohh roBopHjiH, co6paBinHCb b jiHTepaTypHoe CTaao. 51 xoTeji cMWTb Ha- 
jiHnuiHe b M03ry cjioBa h 3auie;i b Ka(J)e-KOHijepT. OrojieHHbie aaMbi Ha 
cueHe h orojieHHbie aaMbi b (J)OHe. Xoth 3to 6wjio yace ropa3,zio Jiyn- 
ine pa3roBopoB o jiHTepaType, ho TyT 6mji Ha^pwB, a... 3aneM HaapbiB? 
H noineji h 6ecijejibHO inaTaTbCH no 3a;iHTbiM cbctom 6yjibBapaM. He- 
npoH3BOJibHO nonaB b CHHeMaiorpa(J), - h yuieji H3 Hero, KaK H3 xpaMa, c 
mojihtboh b cepaije: TaM H3o6pa3HjicH KpecTHWH xon y a 6jieaHaH (J)paH- 
ijyaceHKa npeKpacHbiM flpaMaranecKHM conpaHO mojihtbchho nejia H3 
TeMHoro yrjia: «Ave Maria». 51 CTaji peBHOCTHbiM noceraTejieM CHHe- 
MaTorpa(J)a. Oh H36aBHJi mchh ot mhothx MHHyT yHMHHH, Bceraa Ha- 
pacTaBinero nocjie pa3roBopoB o MHCTepHH. KaK xoTeji 6w h nepeaaTb 
CBoe oTHomeHHe k CHHeMaTorpa^y nacTO HepBHbiM, HeonbiTHbiM iohmm 
jiHTepaTopaM: «/Ja 6yaeT c bsmh TafiHa noa MacKofi 6epeacHoro otho- 
uieHHH k cjiOByl ^a KpacKa cTbma 3a;ibeT BauiH meKH npn BCTpenax co 
CBepx-jiHTepaTopaMH: nepe6eraiiTe yjiHijy CKopeii h Jlyxa ue yrainafi- 
Te - xo/jHTe b CHHeMaTorpa(J)I». 

1907 



xxii. ropofl 

TopoA. 

Oh BbinycTHJi cboh CTpauiHbie mynajibijbi, no cjiOBaM Bepxap- 
Ha. BbinycTHJi mynajibijw h Bbicocaji npocTpaHCTBa 3eMjiH. 

}Kejie3HO,aopo»cHbie Jianw, KaK 6ecKOHenHbie jianw nayKa, oKOBajiH 
npocTpaHCTBa. TaM KOJiwxajiacb 3JiaTOTeKyman HHBa. H bot Ha hhx jierjia 
jiana nayKa c 6ecHHCJieHHbiMH npnjieraiomHMH CTaHijHHMH. 



268 



H, KaK KpacHbie inapHKH kpobh, noTHHyjiHCb k npncocKaM TOBapHbie 
BaroHbi. 

IIpHcocKH BbicocajiH npocTpaHCTBo. KpoBb BaroHOB BnHTajia b ce6n 
Bee, neM nHTajiacb MecraocTb: OTKpwjiHCb nepHbie jiiokh, cbenn Bee 3epHO, 
Bee 3epHo. 

IIo apTepHHM noHecjiacb KpoBb, npHjiHBaa k M03ry, hto6w M03r npe- 

TBOpHJI B (J)aHTaCTHHeCKHH BblMblCeJI 6oraTCTBa 3CMJIH. 

Mo3r 3eMjiH - ropoa, OKpyaceHHbift KOJibijOM TOBapHbix BaroHOB. Oh 
ncoKHpaeT 3eMjiio, hto6w Bbi6pocHTb H3 ce6n MHorosTa^KHbift 6;iecK ^omob, 

cothh 4>a6pHHHbix Tpy6 H HpKHe 3JieKTpHHeCKHe COJIHUa. 

Bot yjiHua. HpKHe nepbH HaicpameHHbix aaM, Bonjib aBTOMo6Hjieft, 
KpacHbix flpaKOHOB, 6eineHO Mnaiimx bctihkhx 6jiyflHHij b orae CBepKaio- 

HJHX BblBeCOK. 

KpacHbift ApaKOH, cnnjio npoBepemaB, noKopHO ocTaHOBHJica y pecro- 
paHa. Bjiy^HHua, cBepicaiomaH ajiMa3aMH, bch b co6ojihx, npoinymyicajia 
uiejiKOM b oTKpbiTyio flBepb. Ee npoBejia nofl pyKy 6e3HOcaa CMepTb, o6jie- 
HeHHan b najibTO h uhjihh^p, uhhhhho ocicajiHCb Ha paBHoayumbix Jiiofleft. 
/IpaKOH 3aMep, nonbixHBan. JIio^h He HcnyrajiHCb - HcnyrajiHCb 3BepH: jio- 
nia^HHaH Mopaa 6ecnoKOHHO 3a4>bipicajia, HacTaBHB yira Ha aBTOMo6Hjib. 
H xoTejiocb 6w KpHKHyTb: «rope, rope b ropoae 5KHBymHM». 

HHKTO He OTKJIHKHyjICH 6bl. 

IIocMOTpHTe Ha npoxoacHx: ohh 6eryT - 6eryT b Morajiw. Ohh yTpoM 
6eraioT Ha cjiyxc6y, a BenepoM 6eraiOT b Ka6aKH. Ohh Bcer^a 6eiyr; Bceraa 
3aHHTbi 6ercTBOM. 3to 6ercTBO - 6ercTBo ot »ch3hh. 

- IlocHflHTe: BHAHTe, 6eceaa oacHBHJiacb. 

- HeKoraa: aejia. 

- nocTOHTe: BaM Ha^o oxaoxHyTb. 

- HeKor^a! 

- IIocHflHTe c yMHpaiomHM. 

- Mm Bee yMHpaeM: HeKor^a! 

H 6eryT, 6eryT - b npH3panHbix ropo^ax npH3panHbie jho^h - 6eryT: 
6eryT b Morajiy. 

CMepTb, cKJioHHCb k BejiHKoft 6jiyflHHue, nacTO o6roHneT hx Ha aB- 
TOMo6HJie, no^HOCH neHCHe jiaftKOBoft nepnaTKoft k CBoeMy 6e3HOCOMy 
nepeny. 

H ohh jiOMaiOT nepea Heft manKH. 

CMepTb H3Bejia H3 aaa BejiHKyio 6jiyAHHuy, hto6m Ta 6pw3Hyjia b hohh 

TeMb TOpCTHMH 6pHJUIHaHTOB, Can(J)HpOB, HXOHTOB. 

BpHjiJiHaHTbi, can4)Hpbi, hxohtw BbicwnajiH Ha CTeHax aomob, CBep- 
KaiOT nepeMeHHbiM 6jiecKOM. Bot HanepTaHHe «Omega», 6y#T0 co3Be3- 
flHe, MepijaeT py6HHOBbiMH oroHbKaMH c bwcotw nHTH3TaacHoro flOMa. 
IIocMOTpHTe BBepx b TyMaHHyio HOHb, h bw no^yMaeTe, hto b He6e ropnT 
He6biBajibie 3Be3flbi. 



269 



A bot: 3Be3flbi cnycrajincb h HHace - TaM H3 TyMaHa aoMa b 6phji- 
jiHaHTOBOM KpyaceBe orHefl: sto - CHHeMaTorpa(|>. Bofl^HTe: bw ayMae- 
Te, hto 3^ecb cpeflH jnofleii, noa My3biKy nouuioro Bajibca, Bbi HaKOHeix 
nonyBCTByeTe uoji co6oii noHBy, yAjiere H3 MapeBa yjinij, - ho HeT, 
HeT. 

BaM noicaacyT KapTHHy jkh3hh, CBe3yT Ha HnarapcKHH Boaonaa. Bbi 
y3HaeTe h KycTHKH, pacTymne Ha# BoaonaflOM, h KaMHH, apo6flmHe Boay. 
Bw no6biBaeTe Be3fle. Curb. Ha MecTe - Bbi o6jieTHTe Becb MHp. TyT bh 
nonyBCTByeTe, hto npocTpaHCTB He cymecTByeT yace, h hto, CTajio 6biTb, h 

3CMJIH HeT T05KC 

H BaM 3axoneTCH npocTwx 3KH3HeHHwx cueHOK, K)Mopa, CMexa. CMex - 
KpyaceBo, 3aHaBeuiHBaiomee nponacTb 6wthh. 

A BOT BaM H CMex. KTO-TO 3a KeM-TO 6e»CHT. JleTHT aBT0M06HJIb, Bejio- 

CHne^, nojiHueflcKHe. Tpax - aBTOMo6HJib npo6nji cTeHy, nepeceK KOMHa- 
Ty, r^e mhpho Temia aoMaiiiHHJi »cH3Hb - Tpax; npo6Hji CTeHy h cnoKOHHo 
noKaTHJicH no yjiHije. CMeniHo - ho cmciiiho jih? Ctchm He 3amHmaioT Hac 
ot npHxoaa HeBe^OMoro. MnpHaa *CH3Hb. Cmcihho - CMeuiHO jih? A bot 
nofl My3biKy Bajibca Bee tot ace aBTOMo6HJib mhhtch yac no creHe BonpeKH 
3aKOHy TnroTeHHH, a 3a hhm Toace BonpeKH 3aKOHy 6eiyr h nojiHuencKHe. 
Bwiiie, Bbiuie - excelsior! 

ABTOMo6HJib Bpe3aeTCH b He6o: mhmo Hero jictht MeTeopw, a KpyroM 
nycTOTa, nycTOTa. 

Topofl, cbeBuiHii nojiH, CTHHyBuiHii k ce6e Bee 6oraTCTBa 3eMHbie - 

TOJIbKO aBT0M06HJIb, BHCHIIJHH B nyCTOTC KpyTOM MHHTC5I flOECflb 3JieK- 

TpHnecKHX CBeTonen, ropamnx Ha BbiBecnax. Ho 3to - ao)Kflb MeTeopoB, 
nepepe3aiomHx dfyup. A B03HHija - CMepTb b ijHjiHHflpe - cicajiHT Ha Hac 

CBOH 3y6bl H MHHT. 

TeMHan KOMHaTa. 3ByKH Bajibca. Pa6oHHe, cryaeHTbi, KypcHCTKH, - 
Bee acaflHO cmotpht, Bee: ho He KaaceTCfl jih hm, hto h ohh b nycTOTe? Ohh 
npnuiJiH c TyMaHHbix, oceHHHx yjmu, nocn^eTb Ha Hapo^e, OT^oxHyTb, BceM 
BMecTe nocMeHTbcn: boiujih b rocTenpHHMHyio ocBemeHHyio flBepb. Bom- 
jih, cejiH - orHH noTyxjiH. ABTOMo6HJib yMnaji b nycTOTy. 

Cmciiiho - ho cmcihho jih? 

Bot apyraa KapTHHa. CTapHK Hacwnaji nero-To pe6eHKy. Pe6eHOK 
HHxaeT. Ilpo6HpaeTCH b KOMHaTy, r^e cnHT CTapHK: paccwnaeT nopomoK. 
CTapHK BCTaeT h HHxaeT: pyinaTCH ctchw. BeacHT Ha yjinuy - HHxaeT: Tpe- 
CKaiOTCH BHTpHHbi, na^aiOT (|)OHapH, pacna^aiOTCH flOMa; HHxaeT, - 3cmjih 
HanHHaeT pacnaa aTbcn. HnxaeT, - h jionaeTca o6jiaHKOM flbiMa. 

HejiOBeK - o6jianKO flbiMa. CxBaTHT npocTyay - hhxhct h JionHeT; a 
jlhiM pacceeTCH. 

Bbi npninjiH cio^a, hto6m BepHyTbCH k peajibHoc™, 6biTb no6jiH»ce k 
nejiOBeKy: BaM CTpauiHW 3Bepn, peBymne cthxhh, h xojioaeH BaM CBepx- 
HejiOBeMecKHH nojieT, BbipbiBaiomHH 3eMJiio H3-noa Hor. Bw npninjiH cio^a, 



270 



hto6w 6biTb h6jiob6kom - k nejiOBeicy npHinjiH. HejiOBeic HHXHyji h jion- 
Hyji - h paccenjicn. 

CMeiHHO - HO CMeiUHO JIH? 

CHHeMaTorpacJ) ijapcTByeT b ropo^e, ijapcTByeT Ha 3eMJie. B MocKBe, 
b IlapHEce, b Hbio-ftopice, b BoM6ee - b ooth h tot ace aeHb, 6biTb mo^kct, b 
ooth h tot ace nac twchhh jnoaeii npHxo^HT k nejiOBeicy, a oh hhxhct: hhx- 
HeT h jionHeT. CHHeMaTorpacJ) nepecTynHJi rpaHHijbi peajibHocTH. Bojibine 
neM nponoBe^b yneHbix h MyapeijoB - HarjinflHO oh noica3aji BceM, hto Ta- 
Koe peajibHocTb. OHa - aaMa, XBopaioman HacMopKOM: HHXHyjia h jionHy- 
jia. A Mbi-TO, aep»caBiHHecH 3a Hee, - mw-to r^e? 

Mw bhchm b nycTOTe. 

TopoA, H3BpaTHBiiiHH 3eMJiio, C03flaji to, nero HeT. Ho oh ace nopa6o- 
thji h nejiOBeica: npeBpaTHJi ropoacaHHHa b TeHb. Ho TeHb He noao3peBajia, 
hto OHa npH3paHHa. 

H bot Tenepb TeHb oco3Hajia ce6n. Oco3HaTb, 3HanHT, HCKaTb cpeacTB 
npeo^ojieHHH CBoeft 6o;ie3HH. 

Bot HaM aaeTcn B03MO»cHOCTb BepHyTbcn k 5KH3hh. BepHeMca. 

TBopnecKan Mbicjib npeoaojiejia npocTpaHCTBO h BpeMH h Bee, hto ecTb 

BO BpeMeHH H npOCTpaHCTBC ToJIbKO B Heft 6bITHe ECH3HH. 

Ibpofl y6HBaeT 3eMjno. IlepeKOBbiBaeT ee b xaoranecKHH KoniMap. To- 
pofl - M03r 3cmjih: M03r, pa3BHBancb, onjieTaeT Tejio cTajibHOH npoBOJio- 
koh HepBOB. Oh - napa3HT. 

Ho nejiOBenecKHH M03r CTajibHOH npoBOJiOKoii mwcjih onyTaeT ropoa. 
Oh npeoflOJieji co6jia3Hw He6wTHH. Oh otctohji tot crpaniHWH flHHaMHT 
mwcjih, ot KOToporo B3JieTHT BcejieHHaa. H ropo/i; pacceeTcn: OH - TyMaH, 

3aHaBeCHBIIIHH 30pK). 

Topoa npeBpamaeT nejiOBeica b o6jianKO awMa: HejiOBeic hhxhct h 
JionHeT. 

Ho Mbicjib nejiOBeKa, npeoaojieBan XHMepw, npeBparaT ropoa b TyMaH 
h 6yaeT ropofl ropoaoM o6jiaHHWM. 

Tenepb moecho cna3aTb npo ropoa cjiOBaMH AnoKajinncHca: 

«H noKJiOHHjiHCb 3Bepio, roBopa: kto noao6eH 3Bepio ceMy h kto mo- 
TKer cpa3HTbCH c hhm?.. H aaHa 6wjia eMy BJiacTb naj\ bchkhm kojichom 
h HapoflOM, h h3wkom h njieMeHeM. H noKJiOHHTCH eMy Bee acHBymne Ha 
3eMjie, KOTopwx HMeHa He HanncaHw b KHHre ech3hh». 

Ho TBopnecKafl Mbicjib - rojioc MHpa - pacceeT CMeprawft coh. Mw 
cicaaceM: «CMepTb noBepaceHa b 03epo oraeHHoe*. 

Toraa BOCCTaHyT Bee Te, kto pa3JieTejic*i awmom, BWH/jyT H3 CMepTH h 
3anoiOT Ha rycjiax KaK 6w necHb HOByio, necHb pa^ocTH hoboh. 

A noKa, BHflH npH3paHHbiH 6jiecK ropoacKHx pecTopaHOB h 3pejiHm, 
xoneTCH CKa3aTb: «rope, rope noKJiOHHBiiiHMCH ropoay: rope hm, rope!» 

1907 



271 



XXIII. O nbflHCTBE CJ10BECH0M 



Hto no^ejiaTb c 6e3o6pa3HWM xoaom >kh3hh, b KOTopofl mw 
Bee Haxo^HMCH? KaK copa3MepHTb ynopHyio TBopnecKyio pa6oTy c thtoct- 

HblMH yCJIOBHHMH, B KOTOpblX OHa npOTCKaeT? 

ToBopHT, hto uiHpoKafl cjiaBHHCKaH HaTypa Hy^aeTCH Tex paMOK, b 
KOTopwx c TaKHM yflo6cTBOM yacHBaeTca HaTypa He\ma. Tobopht, hto cjia- 
BHHe rjiy6ace 4>paHiiy30B. Tjiy6HHa h mnpHHa coneTaiOTCH b Hac, pyccKHx. 

TaK JIH 3TO? 

Ho Torfla oTnero ace mw 6wcTpo BOcnjiaMeHaeMCH h 6bicTpo cropaeM? 

Iloacap mhcjih oxBaTbiBaeT Hac h 6e3yflep»CHO mhht, KaK 6e3yaep>KHo 
pa3JieTaeTCH noacap b HccyiueHHOH cojihiicm npepHH k ropH30HTy. 

H bot - BbDOceHHbie npocTpaHCTBa. H bot k TpHfluara na™ roaaM 
BwacaceHHwe npocTpaHCTBa ayuiH. OTnanHHe h yHHHHe TaM, r^e Bnepa ro- 
pe;ia pa^ocTb. 

Mw rjiy6oKH. HacTo mw TaK rjiy6oKH, hto He MoaceM BonjioraTb fleft- 
CTBHTejibHyio rjiy6HHy Hauiefl ayum hh b neM kohkpcthom. H mw cpa3y 
OTpwBaeMCH ot OKpyacaiomeft Hac o6bmeHHOcra; norpyacaeMCH b co3ep- 
uaTejibHyio r;iy6HHy, ho H3BHe KaaceTca, hto mw, HajieTeB c pa36era Ha 
KOJioae3b, cTpeMHTejibHo jieTHM Ty^a BBepx HoraMH. B tot momcht, Koraa 
yTBepacaaeM mw ce6a MyzjpeijaMH h yxo^HM b rjiy6HHy, HaM b KOJioae3b 
6pocaioT BepeBKy, Hac, KaK yTonjieHHHKa, noMHHaioT apy3bfl. OTnero sto, 
OTHero? 

UlHpoTa b Hac ropamero noacapa - h noTOM BwaoKeHHan CTenb. Diy- 
6hhh b Hac OTKpwBineScH »ch3hh h - nepHaa awpa KOJio^ija b Tex npo- 
CTpaHCTBax. H KapTHHa pyccKoii npHpo^w OTpaacaeT nenajibHwe ctopohw 
pyccKoii HaTypw, ihhpokoh h rjiy6oKoS: uinpoKH cnpoTjiHBwe npocTpaH- 
CTBa; B^ajiH ropHT oroHeK, Haa hhm noBHC awm, tomho THrocTHaa Hbfl-TO 
oceHHHH Mwcjib. A OBpar, pa3T>e,aaK)mHH npocTpaHCTBO, c otko njiHinymeft 
MeTjioH nepTonojioxa Haa rpe6HeM - rjiy6oKHH OBpar. 

H CHflHT, ch^ht Ha rpe6He tom CTpaHHHK, KpyroM - mnpoTa, noa hhm - 
rjiy6nHa, a oh coeflHHaeT B3opoM mnpoTy c niy6HHOH. 

Bot kto mw: ropecTHwe CTpaHHHKH c KOTOMKaMH 3a njienaMH. Moji- 
to HOHbio 6pe,zjeM mw no BwaoKeHHWM acHHBbeM Ha^OBpa^CHOH TponoS 

MWCJIH. 

H hhhto He 6^ecHeT. Bjicctht Ka6aK. Haa Bojirofl, 6;iecHeT oh - 
Ka6aK. 

H noTHHeTCH Ty^a crpaHHHK; nponbeT cboh JianoTKH. A KpacHOHO- 
cwh Ka6aTHHK, TaiiKOM npoMwiu^HiomHH «Ka3eHKOH», ropbKoe to rope- 
ropeBaHbHiie, HazjMeBaeTca oho, Ha^MeBaeTCH. Cnwrna pacTeT oho npea 
cTpaHHo 6jiy»caaK)meH pyccKoii aymoH, BwpacTaeT b crpauiHoe MapeBO, 
3aKpwBaeT co6oio cojmue. H rpoMaAHan nepHan TeHb jioechtch Haa JiecaMH 
h aojiaMH, ce^aMH h ropoaaMH. H B^pyr - CTpanmaH Mwcjib. He ecTb jih 



272 



noacap, MrHOBeHHO pa3JiHBiiiHHCH b npocTpaHCTBax pyccKOH ayiiiH, - no- 
acap nbflHCTBa? He ecTb jih rjiy6HHa pyccKOH mmcjih - flbipa 6yTbijiKH, H3 

KOTOpOH THHeT TOpiOHyiO CTpaHHHK Bjiary. 

Tjiy6HHa OTpbiBaeT ot acH3HH, mnpHHa cacnraeT ayuiy - h 6ecnoHBeH- 

HblH, HO UIHpOKHH H I7iy6oKHH pyCCKHH HHTeJIJIHTeHT OKa3bIBaeTCH c ot- 

naHHHeM b jiyuie h onymeHHbiMH pyKaMH nbHHHueft nocjie 3anon. 

He C 3TOH JIH MHHyTbl HaHHHaeTCH flJIfl Hero 5KH3Hb, He TyT JIH flOJDKeH 
OH Tpe3BO B3rJIHHyTb Ha aeHCTBHTeJIbHOCTb? 

Ho flJiH 3Toro ROJiTKen oh HaBcer^a paccTaTbcn c nbHHbiM na(J)ocoM 
yTBep^eHHH, 6y^TO y pyccKOH nyum «oco6aa CTaTb», hto ee «H3MepHTb 
Hejib3H», a «BepHTb b Hee mohcho». 

Ox, yac 3Ta Bepa b HeH3MepHMwe BejiHHHHbi: cKOJibKO pa36njia OHa mo- 
jioflbix »cH3HeH, OTopBajia ot acHBoro aejia, onbHHHJia nbHHbiM yrapoM, co- 
acrjia. 

rioMeHbiue yrapa, no6ojibiue Tpe3BocTH. 

MHe npHxo^HJiocb Ha6jnoaaTb h TyroyMHbix HeMijeB, h jiencoMbicjieH- 

HblX (J)paHUy30B. 

Bot HeMeu. y Hero Bee pa3MepeHO. y Hero b 5kh3hh hct HeH3MepHMbix 
BejiHHHH. yTpo - h oh Ha Horax. Oh npo^ejiaeT Bee: b TaKOH-TO nac npo- 
ryjiKa, noTOM pa6oTa. IIotom Tpy6Ka h ithbo, h jiencoMbicjieHHbift Bajibc. 
H HeMeu CHflHT h apeMJieT, ynjibiBan Haa nHBOM b MHp HeH3MepneMbix 

BejIHHHH. BblTb MOSCeT, 3TO pa6oHHH, 6bITb M03KCT, yHeHblH, 6bITb M05KCT, 

xyAO^CHHK - bw He y3HaeTe, ho oh, Beflb, tohho TaK ace CH^eji b cbocm 3Ha- 
MeHHTOM Ka4>e: cnaeji h MOJinaji. BbiTb mohcct, h oh TyroyMeH? Hjih Tyroy- 
MeH KaHT? BbiTb MoaceT, TyroyMHa HeMeuKan KyjibTypa, h mm nojib3yeMCH 
BceMH 3thmh KaHTaMH, MapKcaMH, BaraepaMH h BeTxoBeHaMH TOJibKo 
AJiH Toro, hto6h, npeTBopHB hx b Hauiefl rjiy6oKofl h uihpokoh ayuie, 

HBHTb MHpy fleCHTKH MapKCOB! 

Ax, cicaaceT jih 3to pyccKHH HHTejuinreHT c coaoKeHHOH ayiiiOH, npo- 
BajiHBiiiHHCH b KOjiofle3b cBoeft ayuiH, no KoeS ropioiOT Apy3bH, KaK no 
yTonjieHHHije? 

BOT IlapH^C. >KH3Hb, )KH3Hb H 5KH3Hb! neCTpbie HapHflbl AaM, BOJIHbl Ha- 

poaa Ha 6yjibBapax, orHH, Ka(J)e, aBTOMo6HJiH, uhjihhapw, cMOKHHra, 6jiy- 
3bi. JlerKOMbicjieHHbifl 6jiecK, jierKOMbicjieHHbiH CMex. 

Ho OTnero 3flecb jierKo pa6oiaTb, OTnero HanpnaceHHe mmcjih He pac- 
ceHBaeTCH b KpacoHHoii 4>aHTacMaropHH IlapHaca, a b rjiy6oKo HaapMBHoft 
MocKBe, yrpioMofl, yHbijioft, pa6oTaTb Hejib3H? 

TaM Ha yjiHije HCH3Hb 6beT kjiiohom, ho caMOH yjiHijbi KaK 6y#ro He cy- 
mecTByeT, OHa TOJibKo onpaBa k BauiHM ayMaM. 

y Hac yjiHua MepTBa, ho OHa - BpwBaeTCH b pa6oHyio KOMHaTy, noce- 
jineTCH b ayiuy, onycTouiaeT ee. 

3to OTToro, hto 3a rpaHHueft ecTb CTporoe pa3flejieHHe noBceflHeBHOH 
}kh3hh ot acH3HH TBOpHecKOH. Be3fle - HenepecrynaeMan rpaHb: TBopne- 



273 



cKan Mbicjib cbo6o^ho pncyeT nojieTw, a OKpyacaiomaa - tojibko ycjioBHWH 
pHTyaji, KOTopbift noMoraeT jho^hm, coxpaHHH o6meHHe apyr c flpyroM, 

OCTaBJIHTb CBHTOe-CBHTblX HepaCKpblTbIM: H CBHTOe-CBHTWX ayuiH HeJIOBe- 

necKOH TBOpHT KyjibTypy, noBce^HeBHocTb ace bhochtch b Ka(J)e. JlerKo h 

CBo6o^HO: H OflHH, H He OflHH. 

A y Hac? 

y Hac HeT noBce^HeBHOcra: y Hac Be3^e cbhtoc-cbhtwx. Be3^e npoKJin- 
Taa rjiy6HHa pyccKOH HaTypw OTbimeT Bonpoc: ynopHyio noBce^HeBHOCTb 

pa60TbI pa3JI03KHT MHpOBblMH npo6jieMaMH. Mbl TOJIbKO 3aHHMaeMCH TeM, 

hto npoTHrHBaeM cboh pyKH b nyum oicpyaeaiomHx h omynwBaeM nyacHe 
ayniH, h 3axBaTbiBaeM hx najibijaMH. H k Hanieft aywe bchho npoTHHyTw 
3TH najibubi. 

3to noTOMy, hto mw Bee oneHb rjiy6oKH. Mbi 3a6biBaeM, hto ynopHwft, 

THHCeJIblH, 6bITb MOJKeT, nOTaeHHWH TBOpHeCKHH Tpyfl C03flaeT yCJIOBHH 

^eHCTBHTejibHoro o6meHHH, hto 6e3 3thx ycjiOBHH BCHKan rjiy6HHa, npo- 
THHyTan k nyacoH nywe - TOJibKO najieij, omynwBaiomHH cepflije. A He- 
npocBeTjieHHan cpe^a, pa3flejiHK>mafl Hac, noKpbiBaeT stot najieu; HajieTOM 
rpH3H. 

Mw He npnneM b KaTaKOM6w CBoe CBHToe-CBHTbix h xo^hm o6maTbcn 
apyr k apyry, a He b Ka(J>e. H rjiy6HHa pacTBopneTCH b cjioBax. 

IIocMOTpHTe Ha pyccKoro HHTejuiHreHTa: bot oh BCTaeT, bot oh ca^HT- 
ch pa6oTaTb, ho npHxoflHT TOJina apy3efi. Bee roBopnT aojiro h MyHHTejib- 
ho. Kaacflwft, 6biTb MoaceT, yTpOM OTKpbiji r;ia3a, hto6w pa6oTaTb. IIpHHijia 
rypb6a. H Bee 3aroBopHjiH. Diy6HHa ^chctbhh npeBpaTHjiacb b BaBHJiOH- 
CKyio 6aniHK) HeHyacHwx cjiob, h bot Hafl KaacflWM H3 Hac - BaBHjiOHCKan 

6aiHHH CJIOB. 

Mw Bee pa3,zjaBjieHbi stoh 6auiHeH: mw - pa6w cjiOBa. 

H KaK nbHHHi^e bhho, TaK HHTejuiHreHTy - cjiOBecHoe o6meHHe: npefl- 
MeT o6meHHH - Bcer^a npoKJiHTbift Bonpoc. H mw yrjiy6jineM Bonpoc jxo 
HeBepoHraocTH. A oTBeT Ha Bonpoc - bchboh, ^eftcTBHTejibHWH aKT - y6e- 
raeT b HeonpeflejieHHOCTb. Ottoto-to y Hac Bee Bonpocw - Bonpocw npo- 
KJiHTwe. Mw c ropaocTbio Tor^a cneuiHM ce6fl npoB03r;iacHTb hochtcjihmh 
npOKJIHTWX BonpocoB. 

TaK co3flaeM mw ce6e y6e»caeHHe, hto mw Heo6wKHOBeHHO rjiy6oKH. 
Ho rjiy6HHa 3Ta - nacTO cjiOBecHoe nbHHCTBO. ,fla, cjiOBa HaiiiH - nbHHCTBO. 
H nacTO mw b Ka6aKe. Ka6aK BceiTja c hrmh. 

O, oTnero y Hac HeT Ka(J)e, icyaa 6w cxo^HJiHCb mw nocH^eTb Haa nn- 

BOM, OTpe3BHTbCH OT CJIOB H BepHyTbCH K flejiy. 

Ho npoKJiHTbift Ka6aTHHK, nocTaBjiHiomHH Hac cjiOBaMH, pacTeT h nyx- 
HeT Ha# HaMH, napa3HrapyeT Ha 6eccHjiHH. Mw nona^aeM b Ka6ajiy, mw 
nponHBaeM HauiH 6oraTCTBa. Mw npeBpamaeMCH b CTpaHHHKOB, tockjihbo 
6pe^ymHx b npocTpaHCTBe. 

HepHan, 3Jiaa TeHb jioechtch Haa JiecaMH, aojiaMH, ropo^aMH h cejiaMH. 



274 



Mw 3a6biBaeM, hto 3to - Tem>. 

JlOBOJlbHO TJiy60KHX CJIOB, flOBOJIbHO npOKJIHTMX BonpocoB. 

Cjiobo, ot KOToporo pa3JieTaeTCH TeHb, BOBce He cjiobo: oho - TBopne- 
CKan pa6oTa. 

EyaeM pa6oTaTb: noyHHMca y 3anaa a. 

Tor^a mw noft^eM nocTynbK) BeTxoBeHOB, KaHTOB, Be6ejieii, MapK- 

COB BMeCTO KOBblJIHIOmeH nOXOflKH CHpOTJIHBblX KaJIHK, 3anjiyTaBIHHXCfl B 

npocTpaHCTBe. 

1908 



XXIV. MIOHXEH 

CBecHJiacb oceHb Ha# Miohxchom 6hpk>3oh, npo3paHHo non- 
meii rpycTbio. Uoji enje JiacKOBbiM, 6y,mo jicthhm flbixaHbeM noa Horn 

XCeJITblMH nHTHaMH CBeBaiOTCH CyXHe JIHCTbH KaillTaHOB. yCKOJIb3HyB OT 

xojioflHOH oceHH, yac pacnjiecHyBineft KpbuibH Haa PoccneH, xohctch 3^ecb 
TOHyTb b npo3panHOM 6apxaTe rojiy6oro, ro;iy6oro h TaKoro Tenjioro B03- 
ayxa nofl menoT 4>OHTaHOB, to 6pbi3acymHx nepjiaMH h 6biomHX xpycTa- 
jihmh b ruiHuiymHe bo^m 6acceftHOB, to 6jie^HO Beiomnx nbijibio. Ejih3- 

KO npHHHKJIO He6o 3^eCb nbHHMMH CBOHMH o6"bHTbHMH, H flyUia npOCHT, 

onHTb npocHT He6a: rojiy6bie kohkh, rojiy6we MyHflHpw, HaHBHbie rjia3a, 
rojiy6we, hcmok h HeMijeB - tohho npojiera Jia3ypn Ha cjienHTejibHOH TKa- 
hh H3 6jieflHO-cepbix, Bbipe3aHHbix b He6e npHHyzyiHBbix 3^aHHH. HaKo- 
Heu, 30JiOTbie napKH; Bpe3aHHbie b ropoa h y6eraiomHe b jieca, - Bee ycno- 
KoeHHo He5KHTCH b jieraeH jiacKe OTxoflamero cojmixa. 

CTpaHHO 3^ecb coneTajiacb roTHKa c poMaHTHKoft cmmui Modepn, B3Jie- 
TaromeH h TaM, h 3^ecb to 6auieHKOH, Bpe3aHHofi b He6o, to 6apejibe4>OM, to 
H3o6paaceHHeM pbmapa, nonnpaiomero apaKOHa. JIk>6ht MioHxeHUbi ynpa- 
inaTb cboh ropoa KOJiOHHaMH, apKaMH, BO^OMeTaMH: TaM 6mkh, H3Bepraio- 
mne Bo^y, TaM flo6poflyuiHbiH MpaMopHbift OaBH HeycTaHHo njiroeT CTpyn- 
mh b MajibHHKa, TaM b thxhh 6acceftH coHaTCH no 3e;ieHH HHcnaaaiomHe 
KanjiH. 3,aecb rapMOHHHHo CMeinaHbi cthjih: ecTb 3,zjaHHH, HanoMHHaiomHe 
xpaMbi apeBHeft Tpei^HH, KaK, HanpHMep, 3^aHHe, b kotopom noMecTHJicn 
MHDHxeHCKHH CeueccHOH, hjih KaK, HanpHMep, BHjuia IIlTyKa. H o6bmeH- 
Hbie ^jih ropo^a nocrpoftKH BOBce He HapyuiaioT CBoeo6pa3HO CMeuiaHHbiH 

CTHJIb 06meCTBeHHbIX 3AaHHH. 

A KaK xoponiH CTapbie yrojiKH MioHxeHa c y3KHMH yjinijaMH, c 4>OHa- 

PHMH, BZieJiaHHblMH B CTeHbl, C BblCOKHMH HepenHTHaTblMH KpOBJIHMH, KOT- 

aa jiyHa npopeaceT o6;iaKo h o6ojibeT ropoa 6e36ypHbiM cbctom cbohm! 

H cTapaa ayMa, hto MOJinajiHBo TaK ycTaBHjiacb Ha Bac OKHaMH noTeM- 
HeBiHHx aoMOB, CTapaa ayMa, hto orjiaiuaeT ropoa nepe3BOHOM kojiokojiob 
b nac thxhh, BenepHHH, TaK 6e3rHeBHO coneTajiacb OHa c flbixaHbeM mo- 



1 8 Auapeft Bejiuft 



275 



jioflocra. 3aecb He omymaeM 6opb6w Meacay cTapbiM h hobwm. naTpnap- 
xajibHaa ayuia 6aBapija jienco yacHBaeTCH c xyaoacecTBeHHofi 6oreMoft Bcex 
CTpaH, oniamaiomeH yjinijbi MioHxeHa BcnjiecKaMH mhothx HapenHH. Bot 
py6HHOBbiM oroHeHKOM npoHeceTCH KpwjiaToe cjiobo 4>paHixy3a, bot npo- 
MepijaioT H3yMpyAbi pyccKoft penn, a bot iiojihk 3aacaceT yjirnxy BcnbiuiKoii 
MarHHH. TaK nepTHT HHOCTpaHijbi npHHyzyiMBbie y3opw Ha 30jiotom, CTa- 
Phhhom (J)OHe 6aBapcKoro HapenHH. TaK necTpo pacrjBeneHbi HHOCTpaH- 
hok) penbio rocTenpHHMHbie yjiHijbi MioHxeHa. 

Bee 3^ecb, KaK y ce6n flOMa; a pyccKHe, KpoMe Toro, nyBCTByioT ce6n 
eme 6ojiee flOMa, neM Ha poflHHe: nacTO y3Haeuib hx no pa3BH3HOCTH. yjiH- 
ija HanoMHHaeT cijeHy, r^e ce6n nyBCTByeiiib aKTepoM, ncnojiHHTejieM 

Heo6bIKHOBeHHO JieiTCOH pOJIH. BblCTpO H OXOTHO BXOflHIIIb B CBOK) pOJIb H 

HeBOJibHO no/mepacHBaeuib o6myio HOTy. 

XapaKTep onepeTOHHOcra hjih aaace jiencoMbicjieHHocra, KOTopyio 
bhocht CT>e33KaiomaflCfl cio^a MOJio^eacb, 3BynHT b yHHCOH c flo6poayin- 
hhm, HecKOJibKO rpy6oBaTWM BecejibeM 6aBapijeB - sthx «ueMei^Kux (ppan- 
Hy3oe». HeBOJibHO 6pocaeTCH npne3aceMy b nia3a noBepxHOcrabiii TeMn 
MioHxeHCKoii »ch3hh; sto - TeMn Bajibca. IIpHe3acHe HanHHaiOT Bajibcnpo- 
BaTb 3^ecb, e^Ba 3aMenan cboh TaHeij: BajibcnpyiomeH noxo^KOH inaTaiOT- 
ch ohh no MiOHxeHCKHM yjiHijaM, BajibCHpyioT nepea caMHMH co6oh, Bajib- 
cnpyioT nepea cbohmh H^eajiaMH tohho TaK ace, KaK 6aBapeu BajibcnpyeT c 
KpyacKoii nnBa nepefl KejibHepinen hjih c KejibHepmeii. /la, b TaKT c mojio- 
fleacbio BajibcnpyeT caM TOJicToayuiHbiH, HenoBopoTJiHBbiii 6aBapeij! Be3fle 
pa3JiHT JierKO yjiOBHMbin ottchok KOMH3Ma h mapaca: 3^ecb JierKO MoacHO 
ocMeHTb 6aBapija, ho BMecTe c 6aBapijeM ocMeeuib, noacajiyii, h caMoro 
ce6n: caM-TO 6aBapeu nsm co6on nocMeeTca oxotho. Bee 3to BejiHKOJien- 
ho noHHJi Heine, o^hh H3 ocHOBaTejieii MioHxeHCKoro «Simplicissimus» , a, 
SToro ocTpoyMHeiiuiero xyaoacecTBeHHo-caTnpHHecKoro acypHajia. Heine 
TOJibKO OTpaacaeT h aaace 6e3 inapaca MioHxeH. npnesacaa b MioHxeH, He- 
BOJibHo roBopnuib ce6e: «da eedb smo - Heineh 

CTapbiH MioHxeHeu He oTBepraeT MOJioaoro 3aaopa, KaK 6aBapcKoe npa- 

BHTeJIbCTBO He 60HTCH peBOJIIOUHOHepOB. H MOJIOflOKb, BblUiyHHBafl MK)H- 

xeHueB, Bee ace jik)6ht 3th npocTbie, OTKpbiTbie, Becejibie, necrabie ayinn; 
tohho TaK ace peBOjnouHOHepw He 6e3 ao6poflyinnH othochtch k 6aBapcK0- 
My npaBHTejibCTBy; 6aBapcKne npnmjbi flepacaT ce6n He3aTeiuiHBO h npo- 
cto: oahh h3 npHHijeB, KaK roBopHT, npeBocxo^Hbiii OKyjiHCT h He^ypHOH 
yneHbin. CaM npnmj-pereHT - nepBbiii nHBOBap; y Hero ecTb nnBHaa, b ko- 
TopoH noflaiOT KpyacKH c KopoHaMH: bh MoaceTe ce6e KynnTb KpyacKy, h BaM 
BbmaioT nyTb jih He 6yMary b tom, hto bw - o6jia£aTejib Tenepb KopojieB- 
ckoh KpyacKH 3a N° TaKHM-TO. KejibHepuiH b 3toh nHBHoii coctoht Ha rocy- 
aapcTBeHHoii cjiyac6e. IIpHHU-pereHT nojib3yeTCH Bceo6meii jno6oBbio: oh 
HHKoro He CTecH^eT h jiio6ht, hto6h MiOHxeHUbi nnjiH ero nHBO h BecejiH- 
jincb. Oh 6biBaeT Ha TopacecTBeHHbix nHBOBapeHHHx h BbinHBaeT c Hapo^oM 



276 



nepByio Kpyaucy. Oh iiohhji, hto iihbo - TOJibKO oho HacTonmaa pejiHran 

MIOHXeHUeB, H BblCOKO nOAHHJI B MlOHXeHe 3HBMH 3TOH peJIHIUH. flOTOMy- 

to HapoA BOdop»ceHHo npHBeTCTByeT CBoero Ao6poro npHHija, npoTHBono- 
CTaBjiHH ero BnjibrejibMy, KOToporo 3Aecb He jiio6ht, KaK h Bee npyccKoe. 

IlHBO BapHT B HeBepOHTHOM KOJIHHeCTBe, H JiyHIIIHe COpTa HeJIb3H Bbl- 
B03HTb H3 MlOHXeHa: OHH nopTHTCH. Boo6me AOCTOHHCTBO MIOHXeHCKOrO 

nHBa 3aBHCHT He ot cnoco6a npHroTOBJieHHH, a ot aTM0C(J)epbi, pa3JiHToii 
noBcro^y: iihbom BeeT 3Aecb B03Ayx, h 3ojiotoh 3aicaT xmcjiht, KaK iihbo. 

M05KHO CKa3aTb! MKDHXeHCKOe IIHBO - 3TO OTCTOeHHblH, 30JIOTOH 3aKaT, 

h MioHxeHUH HflyT b nHBHyio, hto6w npcaaTbCH 6e3,zjyMHOMy 3aKaraoMy 

OHapOBaHHK). 

Kpyrjibiii toa pa3HOo6pa3Hbie nHBHbie BapHT nHBo HCKJiioHHTejibHO- 
ro .aocTOHHCTBa, a 6aBapcKHH naTpnoT HeH3MeHHO npncyTCTByeT Ha Bcex 
nHBOBapeHHHx. TaK cocTaBjineTCH KajieH^apb 6aBapija: BpeMHHCHHCJieHHe 
ero He lOJinaHCKoe, He rperopnaHCKoe, a nHBHoe. Cepwe MioHxeHua o6pa- 
meHO k nHBy, h h yBepeH, hto h b aenjiax MioHxeHua TeneT nHBO h TOJibKO 
iihbo, noTOMy hto Bee KpynHbie Mecrabie npoijeccbi h co6mthh hcthhho- 
MiOHxeHCKoii hch3hh BpamaiOTcn BOKpyr nHBa. TaK: b jiaHATare AOJiro h 
cepbe3HO Ae6aTHpoBajiCH Bonpoc o tom, hto neHa 3aHHMaeT mccto b jihtpo- 
boh KpyacKe, h o tom, KaK 6biTb c 3thm, - noKa npHHii-pereHT He pa3peuiHji 
Bonpoca, yBejiHHHB Ha noji^iOHMa BbicoTy KpyaeeK b CBoeii nHBHoii. Pa6o- 
hhh BbinHBaeT ao ceMH jihtpob b AeHb, h counaji-AeMOKpaTbi nojiaraiOT, 

HTO peBOJHOUHK) 3AeCb M05KHO BbI3BaTb TOJibKO eAHHCTBeHHbIM CpeACTBOMI 

noAHHTb ijeHy Ha nHBo xoth 6bi Ha oahh TOJibKO u^euuur. 

IIhbo - hcthhhhh 6or, h HapoAHbie necHH, npocjiaBjiHiomHe nHBO, 
pacneBaioTCH BCioAy b AHOHHcnaHCKOM HCCTy n jichhh . 

Tenepb y Hac MHoro roBopHT o MHCTepHH, o co6opHOM TBopnecTBe, o 
MHCTHHecKOM aHapxH3Me h TOMy noAo6Hbix Ba^CHbix MaTepHHx; H nOHTH 
Bceraa cjiOBa ocTaiOTcn cjiOBaMH, He nepexoAH b Aejia, KpoMe oAHoro cjiy- 
nan, KorAa noHTeHHbie nncaTejin, o6paTHCb k AeJiaHHio, boahjih xopoboa y 
Koro-TO Ha HacraoH KBaprape. TaK mhoto HenpeoAOJiHMbix 3aTpyAHeHHii 
BCTpenaiOT nonbiTKH ocymecTBHTb MHCTepnio h - ax! - KaK sto acajib! Ho 
6aBapeu npeoAOJieji Bee sth TpyAHocTH h MHCTepnio ocymecTBHJi hckohh, 
KaK 6bi b nHKy nncaTejiHM, boahbhihm TaK HeyAaHHO xopoBOA. B. HBaHOB 
mohcct ycnoKOHTbCH Tenepb: hckohh 3Aecb coBepuiaeTcn MHCTepna BOKpyr 

nHBHOH Kpy)KKH! 

MHe nocnacTjiHBHjiocb 6biTb Ha HapoAHOM npa3AHHKe («October- 
Fest»), npoAOJi^caiomeMCH HeAejiio. EaBapeij OTnpaBJineTCH H3 ropoAa b 3th 
Ahh b cneunajibHO ajih 3Toro npa3AHHKa B03ABHrHyTbie Ha uinpoKOM nojie 
nHBHbie Bajirajuibi, HeHMOBepHoii BejiHHHHbi. THpojieu-KanejibMeiicTep 
pa3AaeT HapoAy khhhcchkh c necHHMH, npocjiaBjiaiomHMH nHBO h 5kh3hb, 
h noA My3biKy hx 3aTHrHBaiOT twchhh KpecTbHH, KpecTbHHOK, cojiAaT H 
HHTejuinreHTOB. CiOAa npnxoAHT 6aBapeij MOJiHTbCH CBoeMy 6ory h pa3AH- 

277 



18* 



paTb poT b necHe. BH^eji twchhh pa3oapaHHbix ptob, h BH^eji - KejibHep- 

UIH, KaK THepO^aHTHflbl MHCTepHH, pa3MaXHBaJIH CTOJIHKaMH pyKaMH 

B TaKT neHHio... 

O, Susanna, wie ist das Leben doch so schon, 
O, Susanna, wie schmeckt das Bier so schon!.. 

Bot KaKoe b MioHxeHe iihbo, h bot KaK ero nbiOTl 

TaK BecejiHTCH Hapoa. Ho BecejiHTCH h xyaoacHHKH b Ka6anKax h pe- 
CTopaHax. B yioraoM He6ojibinoM noMemeHHH 6arpoBbie nnraa uBerawx 
jiaMnoneK, acapKHe, flbiruamHe oraeM ctchw, yBeniaHHbie KapTHHaMH npo- 

nHBUIHXCH 3fleCb Xyfl05KHHK0B. Bot KapTHHa H3BeCTHOrO Xy^O^CHHKa, BOT 

KappHKaTypa Ha IIlTyKa; yioTHbie ctojihkh; moecho npHcaacHBaTbcn ko 
BceM, noTOMy hto Bee 3flecb 3HaKOMbi, KaK rocra xo3hhkh. Ymcjio, jiio6e3- 
ho, inyTjiHBO, ho CTporo ^HpH^CHpyeT BceM xo3HHKa, pHTyajibHO npHCJiy- 
ECHBaioT KejibHepuiH, Tanep, oraHBaa nHBO, HrpaeT Bajibcw, nonyppH, ho h 
cepbe3Hbie BemH. Ero cmchhiot jno6HTejiH H3 ny6jiHKH - cKpnnaHH, neB- 
nbiy MaHflOJiHHHCTbi, nHaHHCTbi: nocjie Becejioro Bajibca B^pyr npo3BynHT 
He^ypHO cbirpaHHbiii TpHr, IlIyMaH, BarHep. TaKOB H3BecTHbifi b Mk>h- 
xeHe Ka6anoK «Simplicissimus», ocHOBaHHbiH HeKorzja KpyacKOM mojio^wx 
noaTOB, a Tenepb nepeineauiHH b pyKH 3toh Herjiynofi, TaK yMejio nozwep- 
»CHBaiomeH peHOMe Ka6anKa, xo3hhkh. Y3HaB, hto h pyccKHH, 0Ha He 6e3 
ropflocra coo6mHjia, hto y Hee 6biBaeT IliHH6biineBCKHH, a Tanep, jno6e3Ho 
KHBHyB, cwrpaji MHe ubiraHCKHe necHH. 3aecb HHTepecHo 6biBaTb, noTOMy 
hto jienco 3HaKOMHTbCH c xy^o^CHHKaMH h no3TaMH: 3flecb BCTpenajicH h 
c HeMijaMH, noKJiOHHHKaMH JlocToeBCKoro, BepxapHa, K. CoMOBa, c mo- 
aepHHCTaMH, HHTaiomHMH h KHpKeropa, h HKo6ceHa, C nOJIHKaMH, HHTe- 
pecyiomHMHCH MOJIOflOH pyccKofi JiHTepaTypoH. 

Xyao^cecTBeHHan MOJioaeacb, 6y^yHH nojiHOH npoTHBona/ioacHOCTbio 
KopeHHOH BaBapHH, o^HaKo, cxoottch c Heft b o^hom TeMne: 3to TeMn 
Bajibca. H Kor^a 6poxey h Tenepb Ha 3aKaTe no yjiHuaM MioHxeHa, omw- 
twm Tenjioft crpyefi oceHHero B03flyxa, h Kor,zja Benep 3ojiotoh, 6e3flyM- 
ho rpycTHbifi Benep, Benep 6e3MHTe5KHO npHHHKaeT k cepauy, HanHHaio h 
noHHMaTb 6aBapija; b sto hmchho, 6biTb MoaceT, BpeMH mojihtbchho ony- 
CKaeT yew cboh b nHBO 6aBapeu ) - b CBoe 30JioToe, cBHToe, bchho MHJioe 
6e3AyMbe, H3 KOToporo oh bmxoott TOJibKO b nonuiocTb. TyT hmchho ajih 
Hero He BCKpwBaiOTCH jih TaHHbi 5kh3hh, h noeT B HeM HTO-TO TOH CaMOH 
My3biKOH, KOTopaH hbctbchho TaK npo3Bynajia LUyMaHy? Pa3Be He yMeji 
C03,zjaTejib «Man<ppeda» npo3HHBinHe nacTH MHpa OBenTb 3o;iotom «PeuH- 
ckou cuM(ponuu». IIhbo - He6o ayuiH, rjiy6oHaHniHH pejiHrH03Hbifi chmboji 
6aBapija; nHBo: sto - BbipacTaiomaa flajib, b KOTopyio ynjibmaeT 6aBapeu, 

HT06bI KOCHyTbCH CKpblTblX CHJI flyUIH TepMaHCKOH. 

JlerKHMH, aKBapejibHbiMH TOHaMH 3KH3HH BCTpenaeT MioHxeH npH- 
e3*cero. BajibCHpyiomHH xyaoacHHK MoaepH noa pyKy c TnacejioBecHbiM 



278 



6aBapueM noa rojiy6biM, jiacKOBbiM, tskhm TemibiM He6oM Ha cjienniijeM 
accJ)ajibTe miohxchckhx yjiHu b BOJiHax 30JiOToro B03flyxa noa 3ejieHWMH 
nHpaMH^ajibHbiMH toiiojihmh, - cjiobom, inapac b CTHjie Heine - bot Ka- 
koh o6pa3 npeacTaji MHe npeacae Bcero. JlacicaiomHe aKBapejibHbie TOHa 
Ka3ajiHCb MHe HHTep(J)epeHUHeH CBda Ha 6ojibinoM MbijibHOM ny3bipe. Ka- 
3ajiocb, eme MHr, h pa3JieTHTCH, jionHeT MbiJibUbiPi ny3bipb - pa3JieraTCH, 
jionHeT MioHxeH. 

Ho Tor^a Zliopep co ctch UunaKomeKU koji^obckhmh jiHijaMH cbhtwx 
h anocTOJiOB rjiHHyji Ha mchh cep^HTO h rpo3HO. Tor^a yacacoM moiijh 
yxHyjio Ha mchh CTapoe, HeMeuKoe HCKyccTBO. IlpHiiijiocb 3a#yMaTbcn. 

06bmaTejiH h npHe3»CHe oflHHaKOBo BajibcnpyioT Ha yjiHijax, a nyjibc 

KyjIbTypHOH >KH3HH 6beTCH H 6beTCH. Exce^HeBHO HHTaiOTCfl BCeB03MO»C- 

Hbie jieKijHH b deHax, h BHe ctch yHHBepcHTeia. MHe nonajiacb cjiynaHHo 
nporpaMMa ycTpaHBaeMoft cepHH jickijhh - TOJibKO jxjisl j&m h aeBHu; bot 
HeKOTopwe Kypcw jickuhh, ux cmoum npueecmu: «}Ku3Hh u npon3eedenuH 
Mouftpma*, ^tpeuecKoe ucicyccmeo*, ^Cot^ucuihnue sjieMenmu e anzjiuu- 
ckou Jiumepamype XIX cmojiemuH*, «TenpuK H6cen», «Eyddu3M e ceeme 
ucmopuu pejimuu*, ^Peneccanc u pefyopMaujun e TepManuu* ht./i.h t. r. 

MioHxeHuw cjiyniaioT My3WKy b HecicojibKHX cepnnx chm^ohhhcckhx 
opKedpoB; KpoMe Toro: 3^ecb b ce30He 6biBaeT ro TpHflua™ nonyjinp- 
hwx KOHuepTOB, KOTopwe nocemaioTca BceMH, noTOMy hto edb MecTa ao 
15 KoneeK. KoHijepTbi 3th oTHOCHTejibHO HeaypHO o6craBjieHbi, a Bbi6op 
npoH3BeAeHHii yMejibiH h CTporHH. B MioHxeHe BejiHKOjienHeHinaH 6h6jih- 
OTeica - TpeTbH b MHpe no 6oraTCTBy MaTepnajia, ijeHHbie cepHH rpaBiop b 
nHHaKOTeKe, aocrynHbie KaacflOMy, KOJioccajibHbiH HauHOHajibHbift My3eft, 
b kotopom co6paHo Bee, oTHoenmeecH k HeMeuKOH KyjibType ot BpeMeH 

pHMCKOH HCTOpHH H flO HaUIHX AHeft, 3fleCb nOCTOHHHO yCTpaHBaiOTCH Bbl- 

CTaBKH! He^aBHO 6wjih MOJio^we (J>paHuy3bi, Tenepb - CeijeccHOH. 

Kor^a BcnoMHHUib Bee 3to, c yBaaceHHeM HanHHaenib oraocHTbCH k 
TnacejiOBecHOMy, rpy6oMy 6aBapijy, co3aaBineMy H3 bhcuihocth ropo^a 
xy^oacecTBeHHoe npoH3BeaeHHe, a H3 BHyTpeHHeii )kh3hh ero - nyjibc 
KyjibTypHoii ech3hh Bceft TepMaHHH. TaacejioBecHbiH 6aBapeu b cymHO- 
cth jiecHoe KOJi^oBCKoe cymecTBO. BbiTb MoaceT, b KaacflOM 3,aecb nacTb 
AyuiH /Iiopepa 6ecco3HaTejibHO Tamca. Zliopep - bot 6yaymee TepMaHHH; 
h k 3TOMy 6y#ymeMy npH3WBajiH Hac h Bckjihh, h IIIbhha, h KjiHHrep, h 
IllTyK, o6Hapy»CHBuiHe HeH3BeaaHHbie aajiH b hcmcijkoh ayine. H yBepeH, 
hto bchkhh HeMen; - HeMHoro reHHH, Kor^a oh nbeT nHBO h KypHT Tpy6icy: 
TOJibKO eMy HeaocTaeT cjiob, hto6 cKa3aTb o cBoeft Aynie. He noTOMy jih 
oh TaK OTKpoBeHHO ynHBaeTCH noinjiocTbio, hto He 6ohtch pacTepnTb to, 
hto eMy rpe3HTCH 3a Kpy^CKoii nHBa? Be^b ao6po^yniHbiH 6aBapeu, cwh 
MejibHHKa, IllTyK, cyMeji »ce npopacaTb ahkhm KeHTaBpoM. BepHO - b Jie- 
cax TepMaHHH onHTb 3aBejiHCb (J>aBHbi, a no bcchm Hbme CKanyT KeHTaBpbi. 
3thmh jiecHWMH, koji^obckhmh cymecTBaMH eme CTaHyT repMaHuw, Kor^a 



279 



CTpnxHyT coh cboh. 3to - TeHb npojieTaiomero 6yzjymero, HepaccKa3aH- 
hmh cKa3 o HeMeuKoii ayuie, mhpho ycHyBinefi, ho He yMepuieft. 

H He xony nncaTb o coKpoBHmax HeMeuKoro HCKyccTBa, co6paHHbix b 
IlHHaKOTeKe BMecre c jiynmeH b MHpe KOJiJieiojHeH Py6eHca. 3to bmbcjio 
6m MeHH H3 npHHHTbix rpaHHij. O^hh Rioipep 3aHHji 6bi nejibiii TOM, ecjiH 6 
mohcho 6mjio onncaTb Bee, hto aaeT jxyuie CTapaa BaBapHH. 

HeT, KaK TyMaH, He pa3JieTHTCH MioHxeH, He pa3o6beTCH HCHBaa crpyn 
nbijibio Jiencoii h bo^omcthoh ! Bepio b Miohxch: Bepio, hto CKB03b jier- 
Koe Becejibe, CKB03b CHHiomHe aKBapejibHbie KpacKH 3a6peac*cyT CTpaHHbie 
3aecb ^aJiH. 

Tjiy6HHa 3^ecb acHBeT, h Kor^a noBepHuib b r;iy6HHy repMaHCKoii ayiiiH, 
no-HOBOMy yjibi6HeTCH He6o, no-HOBOMy 6jiecHyT r;ia3a HeH3BecTHbix npo- 
xohchx, eme cjiame bckhhht BOflOMerabie cTpyH, h niy6oKOH, niy6oKOH 
My3biKoft nponoeT Kywe MioHxeH, 03apHTcn aajiHMH 5KH3hh h CBeTa. 

H 6Hpio3a He6a npo3paHHO noHT rpycTbio, h eme jicthhm flbixaHbeM 
CBeBaiOTCH no,zj Horn jiHCTbH KauiTaHOB, h njinuiyT BOflbi 6acceiiHOB noji 
y^apaMH 6jie^H0 Beiomeft, boahhoh nwjiH... 

1906 



XXV. P030BblE rUPJl^Hflbl 

IlbiniHOJiHCTBeHHbiH KycT cbchji po3bi nepjioBbie Ha JieBKoii 
cjiatfKHH; necoK CKpHnHT noa hotoh, KOiyja yxo/jHHib b r;iy6b /jopoacKH. 
CicpHnKH pbmaHbe k j&jwm po30BMM npHrjiauiaeT... Mnr, h ymeuib B/jajib. 

BcnoMHHaenib, hto CTOHUib nepe/j nojiOTHOM, h hath HeKyzja. Ho ny! 
PbmaHbe ckphhkh eme pa3flaeTca OTKyzja-TO H3,zjajiH. 

BejiHKa BJiacTb nap My3biKajibHbix b npoH3Be^eHHHX BopncoBa- 
MycaTOBa, - BJiacTb nap jiacKOBbix aa yjibi6nHBbix. Bnxpb 3ByKOB, raxan 
3epKajibHOCTb HaneBOB Me;io,zjHHHbix, HapacTan, noBHCJiH b npocTpaHCTBax 

flyiHH BHHMaiOIUieH, - H CJIOBHO OCaflHJIHCb pOCaMH XJIMHblMH MyCHKHH- 

CKHe b3.zjoxh; h b TyMaHHOCTH nap 3anajiacb chm(J>ohhh o6jiaKOB, uiejiKa h 

p030BbIX-p030BbIX THpjIHHfl. 

H 3ByKH H3 xaoca He6biTHH Bbi3BajiH o6pa3 npouijioro poflHMbift. 

OBenHbi chjioh MarHHecKoii sth y6opbi, ara cajionw, sth uiejiKa; 6yzjHT 
b flyine b3aoxh apcj) sojiobmx. Tohho caM 3oji ctohji 3a njienoM xyzjoacHH- 
Ka, HanienTbiBaH bhxphhmmh ycTaMH KpacoHHbie raMMbi. Bcioay b TBopne- 
CTBe MycaTOBa BHxpnHbie tokh raMM nepeKpemHBaioTCH y3JiaMH. 3th-to 
y3Jiw h hbjihiotch HaM, KaK o6pa3bi 3a>nyMHHBOH CTapHHM, co3epuaK>iu;eH 
6e3BOJibHo aojioBbi BHxpH rjiy6HH 3aHaBenieHHbix. Bcioay y MycaTOBa 3a 

3epKaJIbHOH nOBepXHOCTbK) THHIHHbl 6ypH pOMaHTHKH. 

HacTo hmh MycaTOBa coczihhhjih c hmchcm CoMOBa, KaK 6y/*TO Meacay 
hhmh ecTb hto-to o6mee. 06mHOCTb no^nac H3o6paacaeMoii anoxn - bot 



280 



eflHHCTBeHHan o6jiacTb hx o6T>eflHHeHHH. Comob - xyzjoacHHK-peajiHCT. 
MycaTOB - poMaHTHK. Comob - 3HaTOK H3o6paacaeMOH anoxn: MHoace- 
ctbom He3aMeTHbix noapo6HOCTeH BocKpeiuaeT oh o6pa3 )kh3hh mhhyb- 
ineii. Oh H^eT ot noBepxHOCTH H3o6paacaeMoro k bchho noiomeft Aywe ero, 
ot 6biTa k My3biKe. Hao6opoT: MycaTOB bmboaht noApo6HOCTH 6wTa H3 
BenHO noiomero ayiiiH BO^OMeTa. Comob MyacecTBeHeH. MycaTOB, Hao6o- 
poT, aceHCTBeHeH. Comob cepbe3eH, no^nac cyx no neaaHTHHHOCTH. 3Ta 

BHflHMOCTb CyXOCTH, OflHaKO, HBJIHeTCH OflHHM H3 TJiaBHblX flOCTOHHCTB 

TBopnecTBa xyzjo)KHHKa: OHa yKa3biBaeT Ha yMeHHe Bjia^eTb cbohm TBop- 
necTBOM. MycaTOB BjiaacHO cKOJib3HT Ha jiyrax flyiHH, ocTaBjian pocy boc- 
noMHHaHHH. Comob - xyzjoacHHK 3aKOHHeHHbiii; orpoMHbiH TajiaHT ero 
Boineji b 6epera. B npeaejiax 3thx 6eperoB oh MoaceT co3^aBaTb npoH3Be- 
AeHHH BeMHbie, ho caMbie npe/jejibi He nepedynHT. BenHO noroman CTpyHa 
pbmajia b ayine MycaTOBa, h 6epera ero TBopnecTBa He onpe^ejiHjiHCb rjisl 
Hac. Ero necHH to KaK paScKaa nraija Ha «cyny meiuiucmoM u uydnoM* 
Kanajiacb Ha# ^c^obckhm aomom, to, pacnycTHB napyca o6;ia T iHbie cboh, 
Hecjiacb npoHb oTcro^a, yjieTajia k hhmm 6eperaM, b anoxn hhwc 

H3o6paaeaH npouijioe, MycaTOB He 6wji c hhm CBH3aH, Tor^a KaK Co- 
mob o6peneH ocTaTbcn b rpaHHijax, Hbme onpeAejunomHx ero aapoBaHHe. 

H3o6pa3H Comob rapjiHHflbi po30Bbie, mm nopa3HjiHCb 6m cTHjibHOCTbio 
3thx po30Bbix rHpjiHHfl. riojiynHjiacb 6bi npejiecTHan 3acTaBKa k KHHre, H3- 
aaHHoii bo BKyce XVIII ctojicthh. HHKorfla He cyMeji 6m MycaTOB HapHco- 
BaTb CTHjibHoS 3acTaBKH. JlenecTKH uBeTHKOB po30Bbix 3aBHjiHCb 6bi y Hero 
b Kyzjpn o6;iaHHbie, h rHpjiHH/jM noHecjiH 6m Hac k ihhpokhm npocTopaM. 

rHpjIHHflbl p03 0Ka3ajIHCb 6bl o6jiaKOB THpjIHHflaMH, nJIMByilJHMH THXO Ha# 

BeHepHe-^bmiameii BjiaroS npyaa. Ot o6;iaKOB nepeineji 6m MycaTOB k Ben- 
ho po30BWM ayMaM, nipjiHHflOH My3WKH nponjibmaiomHM b flyme. H bot 
6ypn poMaHTHKH H3opBajia 6w CTHjib 3acTaBKH: BHxpb My3biKH pacTpenaji 

6bl UBeTHKOB JIHCTHKH, HHX 3a3HHJIH 6bl flaJIH npOCTOpOB, pa3AaJIHCb 

6bi rjiacw cmhob 3ojia. He Mor 6bi MycaTOB HapncoBaTb 3acTaBKH H3 po3o- 
bwx rapjiHim, noTOMy mto Bee TBopnecTBo ero - 3apeBbie nipjiHH^bi. 

Mm BH/jejiH, KaK cnjieTaJiHCb rapjinH/jbi sth, KaK nonjiwjiH Ha Benep- 
HeS 3ape, KaK paccbinajiHCb po3bi Ha mejiKOBbix njiaTbnx My3WKOH MeHys- 
Ta, hto6m onHTb h onHTb coneTaTbCH b eme 6o;iee nbiuiHbie y3opbi. 

CMepTb o6opBajia rapjinHflM, paccbinajia po3M, pa3Ben.7ia jienecncH. 
Ho BeTp TBopnecTBa b3bhji hx CHOBa nepefl HaMH. 3aMe;ibKajiH onHTb 3Ha- 
KOMbie jienecTKH: TBopnecTBo MycaTOBa, o6opBaBiHHCb b hcm, He3aMeTHO 
OTKJiHKHyjiocb b flyinax ero noHHTaTejieii: jiyHHOH CTpyHHOCTbio npojiH- 
jiocb y oothx, MaxpoBbiMH acTpaMH 3aBHJiocb y apynix. 

EcTb uiKOJia MycaTOBa. H to, hto OHa He CBH3aHa c onpe^ejieHHoii 3no- 
xoh, HCHee Bcero roBopHT HaM o tom, hto TBopnecTBo MycaTOBa, 6yayHH 
cbo6oaho, cjierKa h H3BHe ByajinpoBajiocb snoxoS h cthjicm. 3tot npo- 



281 



3panHbiH Byajib anoxH npH^aBaji npoH3BeaeHHHM MycaTOBa HenpoH3BOJib- 
Hyio KOK6TjiHByio jiencocTb h My3biKajibHOCTb, CTOJib njieHHBinyio Hac. 
Po30Bbie rapjiHHflbi, hm cnjieTeHHbie, aojixchh mm 6epe»cHO coxpa- 

HHTb, ^a6bl yKpaCHTb HMH HCepTBeHHHK HCKyCCTBa. 

1906 

XXVI. HMKOJ1AM METHEP 

Ha Bcex npoH3Be#eHHHx HHKOJiaa MeTHepa jieacm nenaTb hc- 
KJiiOHHTejibHOH xyzjoaeecTBeHHOCTH. Meraep - KOMno3HTop nepBoie/iacc- 

HblH. ECJIH npOCJieOTTb 3a npOH3Be,ZjeHHHMH MOJIOflblX pyCCKHX KOMII03H- 

TopoB 3a nocjieflHHe .zjecHTb jieT, to mm 3aTpy^HHeMCH yna3aTb Ha hto- jih6o 
^eflcTBHTejibHO Bbmaiomeecn, KpOMe npoH3Be^eHHH PaxMaHHHOBa, CKpn- 

6HHa H MeTHepa. OflHaKO TpH Ha3BaHHMX KOMn03HTOpa HeCOH3MepHMM. 

B to BpeMH, KaK caMo6biTHMH TajiaHT PaxMaHHHOBa, CTH^caB ce6e Bcio^y 
3acjiy»ceHHoe npH3HaHHe, He yrjiy6jineTCH, ocraBaflCb b cpaBHHTejibHo 
CKpoMHbix 6eperax, Meraep h Ckph6hh HecyT HaM HOBoe cjiobo. 3to ho- 
Boe cjiobo BbipaacaeTCH KaK 3aBoeBaHHHMH b o6jiacra My3MKajibHoii (J)op- 
mm, TaK h b pa3pa6oTKe bchhmx 3a/jaH, nocTaBJieHHbix My3biKe bcjihkhmh 
KOMno3HTopaMH XIX cTOJieran. B MeTHepe h Ckph6hhc coeflHHHjiHCb 
TajiaHTM c KyjibTypofl h o6pa30BaHHeM. 3to - o6pa6oTaHHbie KyjibTypHbie 
TajiaHTM. Ckph6hh h MeTHep cocpeaoTOHHBaiOT Hbme b ce6e Bee to, neM 
MoaceT rop^HTbCH MOJio^an pyccKan My3MKa. Ohh ujiyj Bee Bnepea, ohh 
HcnojiHeHM My3MKajibHOH MbicjibK) h 6yaymHM. Ho KyjibTypa h cepbe3- 
HocTb BnojiHe 0T,ziejiHK)T Ha3BaHHbix KOMno3HTopoB ot 6ecnoHBeHHoro 
opHraHajibHHHaHbH. EcTb napajuiejib Meaczjy 3aBoeBaHHHMH b o6;iacTH jih- 

TepaTypHOH (J)OpMM H pa3BHTHeM MOJIOflOH pyCCKOH My3bIKH. HCTHHHMM 

xy^o^CHHKaM jiHTepaTypbi cooTBeTCTByioT cepbe3Hbie TajiaHTM b My3MKe. 

HMeHa BpiocoBa, MepeacKOBCKoro, Bpy6ejin coczihhhmm c HMeHaMH 
Meraepa h CKpn6HHa. 

MeTHep h Ckph6hh Bnojme npoTHBonojioacHM. Ecjih aonycKaTb cpaB- 
HeHHH, 3Ta npoTHBonojioacHOCTb aHajiorHHHa HecoH3MepHMOCTH 6e3yKO- 
pH3HeHHoro MyacecTBeHHoro CTHxa BpiocoBa c HeBepHo-aceHCTBeHHOH, 
neByneH ctpohkoh BajibMOHTa. KpoMe noBepxHOCTHoro HaBeaeHHH aHajio- 
thh 3Ta He 3aTparHBaeT sjicmchtob cKpn6HHCKoro h MeTHepoBCKoro TBop- 
necTBa. MeTHep He BpiocoB, Ckph6hh He BajibMOHT. 

06;iacTb TBopnecTBa CKpn6HHa - yTOHneHHeHiiiHe, He Bceiyja rjiy- 
6oKHe, Bcer^a cjioacHbie tcmm, o6jieHeHHbie b opHraHajibHyio, Bcer^a 
Tpe6yiomyK) BflyMHHBoro othohichmh (J)opMy. MeTHep, nojib3yncb Bceft 

CJIOECHOCTbK) TeXHHKH, B CBOHX OCHOBHMX TeMaX TeHHaJIbHO npOCT. H 3Ta- 

to 3^opoBaH, i^ejibHan npocTOTa - npocTOTa nepe3 cjioacHOCTb - 6e3pa3- 
^ejibHO cBH3yeT ero TBopnecTBo c o6mHM pycjiOM My3MKH, npeflCTaBjieH- 
hmm reHHHMH Bpoae BeTxoBeHa, UlyMaHa, Baraepa. MeTHep - cepbe3HMH 



282 



6opeu 3a CBo6o,ay hhctoh My3biKM, TaK acajiKO 3axHpeBinyio y coBpeMeH- 
hhx KOMno3HTopoB, nacTO nopa6omeHHyio nyacflbiMH eft TeHflemjHHMH 
(P. UlTpayc). Hto6h He cMeinaTb to HOBoe, hto /jaeT naM TBopnecrBO 
MeTHepa, c oKpyacaiomeft nac My3biKajibHoft H3,zjepraHH0CTbK), Monoaoft 
KOMno3HTop o6jieKaeT ero b CTporyio, coBepineHHO onpe^ejieHHyio 4>opMy. 
Bot noneMy He3aBHCHMO ot niy6HHbi h caepacaHHOCTH My3biKajibHbix TeM, 
pa3pa6oTaHHbix MeTHepoM, mm npHBeTCTByeM b MeTHepe 6jiaropo,acTBo h 
CTporocTb ero aapoBaHHfl KaK 3ajior aeftcTBHTejibHbix KpynHbix 3aBoeBa- 

HHH B 06jiaCTH HHCTOft My3bIKH. 

My3biKajibHbie tcmh, pa3pa6aTbiBaeMbie MeTHepoM, 6yayHH 6e3yKO- 
pH3HeHHO npocTbi h CTporH, no co^ep^caHHio CBoeMy flaiOT nemo nojioacH- 
TejibHoe, yTBepacaaiomee uchhocth 6mthh. 

MeTHep HCTHHHblft TparHK B My3bIKe, KaKHM 6bIJI BeTXOBeH. 3tot 

sjieMeHT HHCToro TparH3Ma h coo6maeT ero TeMaM KaKoft-TO Bemnft, npo- 
BHAeHUHajibHbift cmwcji. TojibKo TaM, r^e ecTb eepa b ijchhocth, bo3mohc- 
Ha 6opb6a, Tpani3M - nojieT CKB03b yacac. TeMbi MeTHepa oKpwjieHHO 
HecyTCH Haa Heo6opHbiMH nponacTHMH ayxa. MeTHep - e^HHCTBeHHbift, 
6biTb MoaceT, pyccKHft KOMno3HTop, KOTopwft yTBepacaaeT, a He pa3pyinaeT 

5KH3Hb. A TOJIbKO TaKHM C03HAaTeJieM (TeyprOM) MOflCeT 6bITb HCTHHHblft 

TparHK. MeTHep Bnjiorayio npHMbiKaeT k BeTxoBeHy h llIyMaHy. Oh ocra- 
HaBJiHBaeT Hauie BHHMaHHe: mhmo Hero hjih moecho npoftra, coBepmeHHO 
He 3aMeTHB r;iy6HHbi ero TajiaHTa, noTOMy hto reHHajibHO npocTbie TeMbi 
ero Tpe6yiOT caMoro cepbe3Horo BHHMaHHH; hjih ace oh njieHaeT HaBcer^a. 
Cpe^Hero othoiuchmh k HeMy 6biTb He MoaceT. 

Ho npHMbiKaa k bcjihkhm KOMno3HTopaM npouiJioro, Meraep OT^ejieH 
ot hhx xaocoM oKpyacaioiiuix ycjioBHft coBpeMeHHOCTH. Oh H3 xaoca KaK 

6bl BTOpHHHO B03BpamaeTCH K IjejIOMyflpeHHO TBOpHeCKHM HCTOHHHKaM 

5KH3HH h My3biKH. B HeM eocKpecaem HHcran My3biKa, cyjiH 5KH3HH 3apio 
HeyracHMyio. 3tot 3apeBoft 4>oh coo6maeT My3biKe MeTHepa oco6wft npe- 
o6pa3yiomHft cmwcji. OHa - 6jiaroBecTHe, OHa - o6eTOBaHHe «o mwiom, 
eeuno 3HOK0M0M eo ece epeMena*. 

«Bo36pawflemcsi padocmb* - xoneuib CKa3aTb, BHHKaa b cmhcji sthx My- 
3biKajibHbix TeM. HajieT HecKa3aHHbix naaHHft poflHHT My3biKy MeTHepa c na- 

flHHtfMH, B03HHKaK)mHMH B o6jiaCTH HOBOrO peJIHrH03HOTO C03HaHHH HaiUHX 

flHeft. B Heft HaaHHH sth KaK 6bi ocBo6o»cfleHbi ot HacHjiyiomHx Hac aorMara- 
necKHx 4>opM h o6pa30B. MHe xoneTCH 3aaBHTb nonyTHO, hto Bee Jiyninee, hto 
bo3hhkjio y MeHH b Mbicjwx h nepeacHBaHHnx, HeMajio o6n3aHO My3biKe MeT- 
Hepa, BOHCTHHy uejmmeft ayiuy eft h TOJibKO eft H3BecTHbiMH CHaao6bHMH. 

EcTb b My3biKe MeTHepa hchto, HenpoH3BOjibHO poflHnmee ee c nos- 
3Heft TeTe. BeTXOBeH He coBna^aji c IeTe. BeTXOBeH BHTaji b «3Be3flHOM», 
He cxo/jh Ha 3eMjno o6eTOBaHHeM. Y IeTe, Hao6opoT, nocTeneHHO 3ByHHT 
HaM o6eTOBaHHe HecKa3aHHoro, Hbme BHOBb BocKpeciuee b ayuiax Haiunx 
h o6i>eKTHBHpyeMoe hsmh b (J)opMax h o6pa3ax pejiHrH03Hbix. HoBoe pe- 



283 



JIHrH03HOe C03HaHHe B TaHHblX HCTOHHHKaX CBOHX npOBHfleHUHaJIbHO CBH- 

3aHO c IeTe. Ectb y Teie Beman, 6eccMepTHaa, Becejian cepbe3HOCTb. 3toh- 
to Becejiofl cepbe3H0CTbK> HaaejieH TajiaHT MeTHepa. KaK 6y^TO 06 stoh 
cepbe3HOCTH roBopHT IeTe: 

Und solang du das nicht hast 
Dieses: Stirb und Werde, 
Bist du nur ein triiben Gast 
Auf der dunkler Erde. 

Bot noneMy Bbi6op re/reBCKHx neceH rjisi poMaHcoB He cjiynaeH y MeT- 
Hepa. Oh Bbi3BaH po^CTBeHHbiM npHTHaceHHeM k re'Te. EcTb y MeTHepa h y 
IeTe HenpoH3BOJibHoe coBnaaeHHe b nepeacHBaHHnx. 

OieflH 3a MejiOAHefl h aKKOMnaHeMeHTOM bo BpeMH HcnojmeHHH po- 
MaHCOB MeTHepa, HeBOJibHO nopaacaeuibcn TeM, hto My3biica k necHHM TeTe 
He HanncaHa, a KaK 6bi BbmyTa H3 caMHx neceH. H TeM He MeHee b npe/jejiax 
reTeBCKofl mcjio^hh KOMno3HTop cbo6oaho pacnopnacaeTCH My3biKoii. 

HanHHaeTCH uhkji H3BecrabiM «Uber alien Gipfeln ist Ruh*. 3aTeM 
cjie^yiOT ocjienHTejibHO cojmeHHafl My3biKa «Mailied» h jiyHHan «Elfen- 
liedchen». B cojihchhom h JiyHHOM Hanajie My3biKa BCKpbiBaeT HHinneBCKHH 
^eMOHH3M (HenpoH3BOJibHO BbipocniHH H3 IeTe) «Im Voriibergehn». 3/jecb 
Mani3M TeTe flocraraeT b npocTbix cjiOBax chjih Heo6bmaHHOH. IeTe onHcw- 
BaeT, KaK 3axoTeji oh copBaTb ubctok, ho ubctok npocHji, hto6m IeTe nepe- 
ca^HJi ero c KopHeM. Toiyja IeTe nponieji mhmo. KpoMe toto, IeTe Hanncaji 
coBepnieHHo aHajioniHHoe craxoTBopeHHe, HaHMHaiomeecfl toio ace ctpokoh, 
KaK b «Im Voriibergehn», ho KOHHaiomeecH TeM, hto no3T nepecaacHBaeT uBe- 
tok b cboh ca#. Meraep nyTKO nonyBCTBOBaji bck) MaraHecKyio rjiy6HHy pa3- 

JIHHHfl npH BHeUIHeM COBnatfeHHH 3THX CTHXOTBOpeHHH. AKKOMnaHeMeHT 

«/m Vorubergehn» rjiy6oKO TparHHeH. IeHHajibHO H3o6paaeeHO cjiobho npo- 
xo^cAeHHe IeTe mhmo nBeTKa. BTopoe CTHxoTBopeHHe «Gefunden» - Topaee- 
CTBeHHan snmajiaMa. IlpoHHKHOBeHHOCTb My3biKH 3/jecb HanoMHHaeT ine- 

CTBHe H3 «IIapCH4)aJIH», npH nOJIHOH CaMOCTOHTeJIbHOCTH B MeJIOflHH. 

Ymhwh no^6op h pacnojioaceHHe rereBCKHX neceH b TaKoii yrjiy6;ieH- 
Hofi My3biKajibHofl onpaBe mw /jojiacHbi npHBeTCTBOBaTb, KaK o/jho H3 He- 

MHOTHX npOHBJieHHH HCTHHHOH KyjIbTypbl. 

1906 

XXVII. JKEMHyr XW3HM 

^KH3Hb JieraT. Bee CKopeii, Bee CKopee. 5KH3Hb JieraT. TyHH 
pa3HOo6pa3Hbix BnenaTjieHHH, tohho npKHe KpacoHHbie nnTHa, oTnenaTJie- 
BaiOTCH b co3HaHHH. Tohho nepe/j B3opoM npoHOCHT pa3Hoo6pa3Hbie apa- 
roneHHbie KaMeHbn: py6HHbi, can^npbi, hxohtw. He Hajno6oBaTbCH BceM, 

* TaK HeyAanHo nepeBeaeHHMM JlepMOHTOBbiM «ropHbie BepuiHHw». 



284 



He 3anoMHHTb Bcero: TaK jierKO ycraTb, cjio^chtb pyKH nepea jiHKyiomeft 
»CH3Hbio BnenaTjieHHH, oTCTaTb ot acH3HH. 

H Tor^a cpa3y noMepKHeT Bee MHoroo6pa3He aeftcTBHTejibHoc™. 
H Tor^a cepaa Byajib, tohho flOKyHHwft npax, BCTaHeT nepea ycTaBiiiHM 
B3opoM: cepwe Jinija, cepaa, cepaa auraHb. 

Bee ocTaHOBHTCH. BpeMeHH tohho He 6yaeT. Kohhhtch mhp jxjik MepT- 
Beija, He oaojieBiiiero Bcex KpacoT MHoroo6pa3Hoft ^eftcTBHTejibHOCTH. 

)KH3Hb jieTHT. Bee CKopeft, Bee CKopee. )KH3Hb jictht. 

H BMede c Heft jictht 3aacHBO norpe6eHHbie MepTBeijw, KOTopwe 
y^cacHyjiHCb Bo^onaay ech3hh. Cpe#H 6pw3r MraoBeHHft B03HHKaiOT npea 
HaMH hx 3acTbiBHiHe jiHua. HacTO mh npoBOflHM ahh h nacbi c MepTBeijaMH . 
MepTBeuw TanTCH cpe^H Hac. Ohh TaK xopoiuo yMeioT noapaacaTb flBHace- 
hhk) *chbwx, TaK ohh yMejio yjiw6aiOTCfl, TaK yiOTHO 3BynaT HaM no^nac 
hx cjiOBa, o6BeBaiomHe cjia^KHM xojio^om CMepTH. MepTBeijw o6jiaaaiOT 
TOjibKo oflHoft cnoco6HOCTbio: 6biTb, KaK Bee. HHor^a ohh paayiOTCH cpean 

HaC. nO^HHMaiOT 60KaJIbI C 30JIOTWM BHHOM HCKpOMCTHWM, H Mbl, Onbfl- 

HeHHbie BOCToproM 5KH3HH, HienneM Ha yxo hm floporne cboh npH3HaHHH; 
Apy^cecKH o6HHMaeM MepTBeuoB, ijejiyeMca c hhmh. 

BeperHTecb: nocjie Kaacaoro noijejiyfl o6MWBaftTe cboh pot! OpaiiiHO 
3apa3HTbCH TpynHbiM h^om! 

Pa3Be bw He 3HaeTe KpacoTw onycTomeHHocTH? Pa3Be CMepTb He jno6a 
BaM, Kor.zja B3op ycTaji h Bee npHMejibKajiocb? 

Bac 30BeT 30JioTan aajib h bw pacceKaeTe bojihw MrHOBeHHfi Ha Kpw- 
jiaTOM cBoeM Kopa6jie «HaAeac,zja». Bw caMH - kopmhhh CBoeft Haaeacflw: 
BOJieio cBoeio ee tbophtc HyacHO ynopcTBOBaTb, hto6w Bcer^a mibiTb k 
3ape, noTOMy hto bojihw MrHOBeHHH TaK nacTO CTapaiOTCH onpoKHHyTb 
BaM KOpa6jIb. EioCMOTpHTe Ha 3TH bojihw - ohh H3yMpyAHO neHHbie. 

3ojiOToe KpyaeeBo neHbi noawMaeTca Haa 6opTOM. IljiwBHTe, njiwBHTe 
HanepeKop BOJiHaMl Bcio KpacoTy 6ypn BjieKymeft Bac nponb ot 3apn, bw 
eft njieHHTecb - npeBpaTHO b 6opb6y c 6ypeft. TaM, r^e cjiaa KHe b o6eccn- 
jihh pa3AaioTCH necHH, HeT jih eme cnpeHw cMepraoft? 

JierKO pacnycTHTb napyca no BeTpy, h BeTep yMHHT b 6ecnpeaejib- 
HocTb - HaBcer^a, HaBcer^a. 

Bot 30JiOToe KpyaceBo neHbi o6jiHBaeT Bac xojioaom, h KpwjiaTwft Apro 
3aKanajiCH: oh onpoKHHeTcn. 

- «Oh onpoKHHeTCH», - uienneT BaM Bain TOBapnm-aproHaBT, mohcct 
6wTb, jiyHinnft Bain .zjpyr, nocBnmeHHwft b TaftHy Baiuero njiaBaHHH. He 
BepbTe eMy: HHKoraa He 3HaeM mw Toft MHHyTw, Kor^a ero yKycnji BaMnnp 
CMepTH. A yKymeHHwft BaMnnpoM npeBpamaeTCH b BaMnnpa caM. EcTb 
o^ho cpe^CTBO oTflejiaTbCH ot BaMnnpa: npoTKHHTe ero kojiom Baiuero 
ynopcTBa, kto 6w oh hh 6wji: apyr, aceHa, oTeij, cwh. 

HnKor^a He y3HaeTe bw MHHyTw, Kor^a 6jih3koto BaM yKycnji BaMnnp 
CMepTH. A ecjiH oh eme BOJieft cyflb6w 3araaH Ha Bam Kopadnb, oh mohcct h 



285 



noTonHTb ero. H ecjiH ecTb b Bac xotb Kanjin chji, ecjiH bm 3HaeTe, hto TaKoe 
My3biKa repoScTBa, B3rjiHHHTe BanieMy 6jiH3KOMy apyry b rjia3a, Kor^a oh 
noflOHaeT k pyjiio, y KOToporo bh ctohtc, B3r;iHHHTe eMy »cH3Hbio b r;ia3a 
b tot mht, Koraa peByman neHa CMepra bhcoko 3aKypnaBHTCH Haa BaMH: h 
B3rjiH,a BauiHX CBepKaiomnx rjia3, KaK mojihhhhhh koji, npoH3HT MepTByio 
ayniy BaMnnpa CMepra. H KypnaBaa neHa CMepTH noicpoeT He Bac - ero 
OHa noKpoeT, 3aMoeT, CMoeT, cjinaceT c Bainero Kopa6jia. B tot nac ynaayT 
bojihw MopcKHe, h 6yaeT Mope KaK H3yMpyflHO-30JioToe cTemio, noTOMy 
hto 6ypn 6buia TOJibKO b BaineM cepaue; Tyaa npoHHKJiH acHBbie MepTBeijbi; 

TaM nOAHHJIH OHH 6ypK) COMHeHHH. 

CMOTpHTei bojihw ynajiH. Ot ropH30HTa ao ropH30HTa 3epKajibHan 
rjiaflb. 

B 3TOM 3epKajie cMepTb yTOHyjia 6eccjieaHO, HaBeKH. A nonocKa hxoh- 

TOBOH 3apH CMeeTCH, 30BeT, MaHHT. 

«H tojioc Bee tot ace 3ByHHT b thuimhc 6e3 yKopa: KOHeu yace 6jih30k, 
acejiaHHoe c6yaeTCH CKopo» (Bji. CojiOBbeB). 

Bbi y3HaeTe CBoe aeTCTBo; KaK »CH3Hb BnepBbie cKjioHHjiacb Haa BaMH 
3apeBbiMH ycTaMH cbohmh, OKponHjia Bac aceMHyroM cjie3. 5KeMnyr, aceM- 
nyr: TaM b okhc Haa nnrasTaacHbiMH aoMaMH npoTHHyTa jiacKOBaa HHTKa 
aceMnyroB - yMHpaiomaa aceMnyacHaa 3apa. Bbi OHHyjiHCb. 

MoaceT 6biTb, 6opb6a Meacay acH3Hbio h CMepTbio nponcxoAHJia Bcero 
o^hh mht. A Kopa6;ib «Apro», 6ypn h njiaBaHHe Bbiiue k ocmpoeaM SjiaMen- 
mix, 6hjio jiHuib o6pa30M h no,zjo6HeM Bainero nepeacHBaHHH. BbiTb mo- 
aceT, bh BepHyjiHCb k ce6e aomoh nocne aha TpyaoBbix cKHTaHHH h ycTajio 
CKJiOHHjiHCb Ha flHBaH. B jiencoM CHe npouijia nepea BaMH Tpare^HH 3KH3HH. 
H Bbi no6eflH.7iH. Cero^HH ahcm bh no6biBajiH b aecHTH MecTax, roBopHjiH c 
aecHTKaMH jihu, yMajiHHBa^ o BaineM rope: y Bac yMep eflHHCTBeHHbifi cwh, 
b jxeub ero CMepra y3HajiH Bbi 06 H3MeHe jik)6hmoh aceHbi. Ho Bee TaK ace bm 
ctohjih c TejiecJ)OHHOH Tpy6Kofi b pyKe h roBopHjiH o nycTHKax c 6e3yKO- 
pH3HeHHOH caepacaHHOCTbio: Bbi He xotcjih BaiiiHM ropeM oTeMHHTb cep,aue 
Toro AeJibua, KOTopwii coo6mHji BaM no TejiecJ)OHy, hto bh jinniaeTecb Baine- 
ro 3apa6oTKa. Bee 3to 6hjio flHeM. BepHyjiHCb: rpo6 cbma Mepuaji 30jiotom 
napHH. y rpo6a CTonjia aceHa, npojiHBan aceMHyr cjie3, h bh ee yTemajiH, Tan 
ot Hee ee HeBepHocTb. IIotom bh npouuiH k ce6e. Bee 3jx3.nue Baineii 2CH3HH 
pyxHyjio Tenepb Ha Bac, Kor^a bh ocrajincb oahh. CiuiOHHjiHCb Ha flHBaH. 
Pa3,aajiCH 3bohok. Bh BcnoMHHJiH, hto 3to Bain Apyr, HCKOHH C06jia3HHB- 

UIHH BaC CMepTbK). Bbi XOTCJIH eMy OTBOpHTb, HO JierKHH COH Ha MTHOBeHHe 

CKOBaji Bac - nojiycoH, nojiy3a6biTbe: h bot npouieji o6pa3 Baineii 6opb6bi, 
Kopa6jib «HaaeacAa», 3ajiHBaeMHH 30jiothm KpyaceBOM CMepra. MraoBe- 
HHe - bh OHHyjiHCb: bh OHHyjiHCb no6e.aHTe.7ieM. 

H MepTBbin Apyr, 6ecue;ibH0 3bohhbuihh, cxo^ht Tenepb no cryneHHM 
jiecraHijbi. XjionHyjia flBepb: MepTBeu yKpnji b TeMeHb yjiHijbi cboh boc- 

KOBOH JIHK. 



286 



Bw cTOHTe y OKHa - no6eOTTejib: b npojieTe Meacay 3^aHHHMH aoropaeT 
aceMHyacHaa nojiocKa 3apn. Bbi nbeTe 3tot jiacKOBbift aceMHyr: h HceMHyacn- 
Ha 3a 3KeMny»CHHOH, KaK c;ie3bi, hto KaTHTCH Ha BauiHx jiaHHTax, na^aiOT b 
Bainy ayiny: ayma Bania - aparoijeHHbiH cocya, HanojmeHHbiH aceMnyroM. 

Bw 3HaeTe Tenepb, hto Haa CMepTbio h »cH3Hbio, Haa 6ojibio h pa^ocTbio 
o^HHaKOBO BoexoflHT aceMHyra 3apn. Bch 5KH3Hb zuih Bac Tenepb - TOJibKO 
aceMHyr. Bee npHBOflHTe bw k aceMHyry 3apn. 

Bot naHHXHfla. Bbi ctohtc Ha# rpo6oM cbma c po30BbiMH KaMejiHHMH. 
,flpy3bH BaniH njianyT. )KeHa Baina b c;ie3ax. B chhhx BOJiHax jiaaaHHoro 
^biMa MepuaioT cne3Hbie aceMHyra. JKeMHyr, aceMHyr - «sto 3apa», - men- 
neTe bm: h 3HaeTe, hto 3to - cnacTbe. A ecjiH h 3to - cnacrbe, to hto ace 
HecnacTbe? Bch >KH3Hb - TOJibKO cnacrbe, Koraa OHa npHBeaeHa k 3ape, 
Tenepb HHKor^a bm He yMpeTe. Ha# Bcefl Baineii >KH3Hbio 6yaeT Bceraa 
pa3BepHyTan Jia3ypb. B r;ia3ax y jnoaeft bw 6yaeTe HCKaTb 3toh jia3ypH: 
rjia3a jnoaeft - 3to rojiy6oH He6ecHbift npojieT, kotopwh 3aKpwBaiOT 6e;io- 
CHe^cHbie o6jiaHKa MajieHbKHX pa^ocTeii h TeMHbie TyHKH HecnacTHH. Ohh 
npHxoziHT h yxoflHT, 3acjiOHHK)T Jia3ypb: 3HanHT jih sto, hto HeT Jia3ypn? 
Bceraa, Bceraa OHa - c HaMH: Haine cnacTbe, Haine THxoe, KaK aceMHyr, cna- 
cTbe - oho Bceraa c HaMH. 

He6o oMbiBaeT 3eMjno cBepxy h cHH3y. Ha 3eMJie Haina >KH3Hb. Haina 
3KH3Hb jieTHT: Bee cKopeft, Bee CKopee. 

OHa JieTHT. 

Haina aoraHb, KaK otth, noHHBaeT b rojiy6oii KOJibi6ejiH. OHa - Bcer^a b 
KOJiw6e^H. Haina »CH3Hb - B3BH3rHyBinaH jiacTOHKa, yronaiomafl b Jia3ypn. 

KTO 3TO nOHHJI, - nOHHJI, HTO HeT HH 60JIH, HH pa^OCTHI H B 60JIH, H B 

paaocra ycMHpeHHaa rainHHa He6ecHoro 03epa, no KOTopoMy npo6eraeT 
pn6b TyneK. 

Kto noHHJi, noHHJi Bee. Oh He h3mchhtch, 6biTb MoaceT, pa6oTa ero yae- 

CHTepHTCH. HO B CyMaTOXe HCH3HH, CTOH y TeJie(J)OHHOH Tpy6KH, BCnOMHHT 

oh, hto Haa HaMH Jia3ypb h, ax, yjibi6HeTCH ce6e caMOMy, oTBenan cyeToft 
Ha cyeTy. 

,3hh, KaK MaTOBbie aceMHyacHHbi, 6yayT rjiaaeTb k HeMy b OKHa, Koraa 
He6o b TyHKax, pocbi, KaK po30Bbie 6pHJuiHaHTbi; h 3acBepKaioT h ottopht, 
Koraa He6o ohhcthtch ot Tyn, 6Hpi03a, 6Hpio3a npojibeTca b okho. 

Ha^o noMHHTb, hto ecn> BecHa, jieTo, oceHb h 3HMa. BecHoft TeKyT py- 
HbH. JleTOM KOJie6^eTCH 3o^OTan HHBa. OceHbio CBeBaeTCH c aepeBbeB 6a- 
rpeij. 3hmoh cepe6pHHbift aTJiac MeTejieft npocHTca b OKHa, BCKHnaa, KaK 
neHa nwrnoro maivinaHCKoro. 

A eCJIH HHHTO He B CHJiaX OTHflTb y HaC 3TOT Cepe6pHHbIH aTJiaC, 30JIO- 

to h 6arpeij, Bee ocTajibHoe, hto norn6jio, BepHeTCH. Pcjihthh, HCKyccTBO, 
HayKa, cnpaBe^jiHBocTb, ao6po, - Bee po^HJiocb b tot mht, Koraa nejiOBeK 
BcnoMHHJi, hto 3apa - 30JioTaji, a He6o 6Hpio30Boe. A nporpecc To^bKO 

yTOHHHJI 3TO 3HaHHC 



287 



JlK)6HTe 3KH3Hb, jiK)6HTe BecHbi, - jiio6HTe, He ydaBaHTe jno6HTb! Ilo- 
CMOTpHTe: TaM... B^ajiH nojiocKa floropaiomHX aceMnyroB. 

1907 

XXVIII. PAflY>KHblM TOPOA 

A aynia - KaKHe OHa B3pwBaeT njiacTbi nepeacHBaHHii? Zfyuia - 
OTHaMHT; rjiy6oKO, rjiy6oKO 3apwTa ayma! rjiy6ace Bcero OHa 3apwTa. 

A aynia - Bcer^a OHa paayeTca. Zlyuia Jienca, ayiiia - cBeTjia. Ztyina - 
3(J)Hp. 3(|)Hp crymaeTCH. ITecoK, rjiHHa, rpaHHT - tojibko crymeHHWH s^Hp. 

IlecoK ycTajiocTH, BH3Kaa rjiHHa noBce^HeBHOH »ch3hh, rpaHHT ot- 

HaHHHfl - TOJIbKO KOpa, nOKpblBaiOmaH BeHHO JierKHH 3(J)Hp. H HeJIOBeK 

OKaMeHeBaeT b racKax rpaHHTHOH CKyKH, b TpncHHe bh3koh jkh3hh, Becb 

OCbinaHHblH nblJIbK) HeHyJKHblX CJIOB, ^eHHHH HHHT02CHMX. 

Ho bot eme HeMHoro CKyKH, OTHaaHHH, naaaiomero KaMHeM b flHHaMHT 
3acHyBineii ayiiiH, h B3pwB: B3pbiB CBeTa. 

Pa36HTbi rpaHHTHbie CKajiw. 3a hhmh - cjienHTejibHbiH npojieT. Ho 
MacKa caMO^OBOJibHoii TynocTH pa36HTa Ha nejiOBeice. Oh Becb chhct, och- 

HHHblH. 

EcTb jhoah. Edb cjiOBa juojxtih. EcTb cjioBa, KaK 3apn. Edb cjioBa, KaK 
npax npHflopoacHbiH. 

JIio^h to yMeroT, to He yMeiOT roBopHTb. KaK nacTO H3-noa nwjibHoro 
CMepna cjiob MepuaioT BaM £>HpK)30Bbie ohh, - to He ohh: to rojiy6bie npo- 
jieTbi b He6o. YcTa roBopHT noBce^HeBHbie cjioBa: pa3flaeTCH nouuiocTb 3a 
nouuiocTbK). HejioBeK He HMeeT «cjiob k BbipaaceHbio »cejiaHHH». Ho oTHe- 
ro yjiw6Ka uBeTeT, KaK 3apn? 

EcTb jiio^h c npojieTOM b ayiiiy. KaK H3-3a rpH3Horo, y6ororo CTeicna 

TJIHOTTCH nop^HpopO^HaH 3apH-3apHHHUa: TaK H3-nOfl H3HOUieHHOH Ma- 

ckh, KOTopyro noBceflHeBHOCTb BbiJienHjia Ha jihuo, ubctct Ha Bac Jiyn 3KH3- 

HH 5KHBOH. 

JXyum jHO^eft, hto nwiHHbie 3opH. OflHa 3apa bch aceMHyacHaa; apy- 
raa - nepjiaMyTp. 

Bot - tohho THrpHHaa uiKypa, B03#yiHHafl, OTjiMBaiomaa HHTapeM 
h 30jiotom; bot - npocHHBiiiee bhho; bot - 6jieflHaH, 6jie^Han... nyTb 
po30Ban. 

/lyiiia ayme cbctht. 3apa c 3apeft cxoahtch. JIkdah BCTpenaiOTCfl apyr 
c apyroM, tohho rpaHHTHan r;ibi6a HeyioiioHce crajiKHBaeTCH c rpaHHTHOH 
rjiw6oH. Ho bot flBoe nepeacHjiH ooth no^eM, yBH^ejin ojxno rope, o^hohd 
paaocTbK) yjibi6ajiHCb - nocMOTpHTe: njiaBHTCH rpaHHT, KaK jiencHii Jiea, 
KaK npbiH bock. H ayuiH - cbchh thxhm oraeM npocTHpaiOT apyr apyry 
cboh jierKHe KpwjibH, cjiobho KpbijibH pa3MeTaHHbix, nepHCTbix tohck Ha 
paccBeraoM He6e BeceHHeM, Kor^a Becb ropH30HT h CMeeTCH, h nwuieT, h 
njianeT o^hoh 3apeft, oahoh MOJib6oft. Othoihchmh Meaefly jiioflbMH - 3to 



288 



rapjiAHfla UBeracTbix 3opb, r,zje Bee ottchkh ubctob b cjio2chwx aKKopaax 
ciuieTaioTCfl b o^Hy rapMOHHio, b oaho, nwjiaiomee noaeapoM, He6o. 

IIo He6y npo6eraioT rpo3w, chhhc kjiohkh rpoMbixaiomnx Tyn. 5IpocTb, 
CTpacTb, HeroAOBaHHe 3aBOJiaKHBaioT noaeap BcejieHCKoft jik)6bh. Tyme, 
Bee ryme Tynn, ohh crajiKHBaioTCfl, h bot cepaa nejieHa hh3ko onymeHHbix 
Tyn cnydHJiacb hh3ko. 

IIocMOTpHTe: tohho rpaHHTHaa KpwuiKa rpo6a HaBajiHjiacb Ha Bac, - 
ho He BepbTe. CHHMaeTca cepaa nejieHa. 3to He rpaHHT, 3to - TyMaH. 

JlroflH, Haine,muHe cboio aymy, pa3Be He cnoco6Hbi ohh 03apHTb no- 
BceflHeBHocTb MHorouBeTHOH pa^yroft He6ecHbix mcjio^hh?.. Pa3Be He 

BHflflT OHH, HTO TO, HTO Mbl Ha3bIBaeM nOBCe^HeBHblMH CJIOBaMH, - TOJIb- 
KO OT6jieCK HHOrO, 5KHBOTC). JIlOflH, B30pBaBIIIHe rpaHHTbl CBOeft TIOpbMbI, 

no6eflHjiH TiopeMHbie ctchw ropoaa. Iopo^ CBepKaeT hm 3apen MHpoBoro 
noacapa. B Mejionax ohh OTwcKajiH HecKa3aHHoe. 

Ohh jijo6ht ropoa hoboh jno6oBbio, Jiio6oBbio no6eflHBuiHx. Ohh mo- 
ryT 6ecue;ibHO 6poflHTb cpe^H TyMaHHwx yjiHij h pa#OBaTbcn 6;iecKy. Kaac- 
mn BHTpHHa, Kaacaoe okho Mara3HHa - Mope CBeTa. Bot okho: nofloiifleM. 
3aecb (J)HOJieTOBo-po30Bbie uiejiKa h jia3ypHwe 6apxaTbi. Bchomhhm aymy, 
oTouieaiuyio b BenHocTb. 3to 6wjia npocTan, jiacKOBaa CTapyuiKa. Y Hee b 
AOMe BHcejiH nacw c KyKyuiKoft h OHa KopMHjia Bac mhthwmh npaHHKaMH. 
OHa roBopnjia o aaBHO npouieaiuHx ro^ax, o HeB03BpaTHoft iohocth cBoeft, 
a bw - Toraa MajieHbKan aeBOHKa - miajiH en Ha kojichh cboio 6e;iOKypyio 
rojioBKy. CTapyuiKa KJioHHjia k BaM cboh ckbo3hoh, KaK 6e;ioe KpyaceBO, 
jihk, h 4>HOJieTOBo-po30Bbie jieHTbi ee nenija meKOTajiH BaM HeyracHBiuHeca 
meKH. OHOJieTOBo-po30BbiH mejiK h CTapyuiKa: 3to coeAHHeHHe 3anenaT- 
jiejiocb y Bac Ha bcio aeH3Hb. IIotom bw bhacjih 4>HOJieTOBo-po30Boe He6o: 
TaKoe He6o 6braaeT b aBrycTe. Bw bchomhhjih yMepuiyio CTapyuiKy. KpyroM 
y6npajiH poacb. Taaeejiwe, 3o;iOTwe CHonw, CKB03Han CTapyuiKa, BcraBiuaa 
npaxoM Ha nwjibHOH aopore, 3apHHijw h 3aKaTbi. H bot Bee, Bee bchomhh- 
jih bh, B3iyiHHyB Ha okho Mara3HHa. Mhjiwh, (J)HOJieTOBO-po30BbiH mejiK no 
py6juo 3a apuiHH. H pa^oM jia3ypHwii 6apxaT. TaKofi 6apxaT cMOTpeji BaM b 
rjia3a. 3to 6hjih ohh jno6HMoro aceHHxa: ppe 6apxarawx He3a6y^KH. Ohh 
roBopHJin: «He 3a6yzu>». H bh He 3a6buiH, cnyTHHua mohx ropo^CKHX npo- 
ryjioK. OTToro-TO bw TaK Hca^HO ocTaHOBHjincb y OKHa. IIpoxoaeHe BHcejiH 
TOJibKO 6apwuiHK), aeaa ho rjiH^Hmyio Ha TpanKH. 

«TpnnKH» - ax, ayma npeBpamaeT hx b 6wjioe. 

Dia3a oTopBajiHCb ot ocBemeHHoro OKHa, hto6w BnHTbcn b apyroe: 
TaM poacaecTBeHCKHe HrpyuiKH, TaM 6jiecK napnoBbix HHTeft, 3Be3^ h ropw, 
ropw TaM 30jiotwx h cepe6pHHbix opexoB. H3-noa ckbo3hoh nayTHHW CBe- 
Ta rjiH^HT cepe6pflHwft /leayuiKa Mopo3, PynpexT, cb. HnKOJiaii - kto xo- 
thtc H, cnyTHHua moh, - c;ie3w noflCTynnjiH k BaiueMy JiHijy. 

Ho aajibiue, ^ajibiue: ot OKHa k OKHy, ot BOcnoMHHaHHH k BOcnoMHHa- 

HHK). CKOJIbKO ^OpOrHX Ha^e^Ca, HeB03BpaTHWX, CJiaAOCTHWX MHrOB CHHIOT 



289 



b 6e3flejiyuiKax. H HeT MejioHen: Be3fle 3Be3flM CBeTa. Bm nepeHOCHTe Hani 

B3I7IHfl B^aJIb! CHHK)maH OrHHMH yjiHija. y (J)OHapeft pOHTCfl CHC3KHHKH. 

Hon HoraMH xpycTHT 6em>m 6apxaT CHeroB. Kaacflaa CHeacHHica - ajiMa3- 
Haa 3Be3^a. MmuiHOHaMH ajiMa3Hbix 3Be3fl BbiCTjiaH Bain nyrb, Ha# rojio- 
boh Toace 3Be3^bi. KaKoe CHHiomee BejiKKOJienne b ayiiie! Mw npoimiH 
Bcero o^Hy yjiHijy, ho ayuia ocBerajiacb: ayina, y6paHHaa ejiica, bch ropn- 
man b 30JioTbix 4>0HapHbix oroHbKax, Mepijaioman cepe6pHHOH nyTaHHiteii 
hhtok - ejiKa, KOTopyio HeceT cKa30HHbift cTapHK, PynpexT, hto6h Koro-To 
nopa^OBaTb. Ho Be^b h ayuiH npoxoacnx, Be,ab h 3th ayuiH (noneM mm 3Ha- 
eM?), - He ropHT jih ohh cnacTbeM, 6oraTCTBOM HaiconjieHHbix BCTpen, yjibi- 

60K, B3flOXOB. Dia3a npOXOHCHX CHHIOT OTBeTHbIM CBeTOM, yda CMdOTCH. 

H ropoa npeBpamaeTCH b cnjioumoe o6eTOBaHHe ajih no6eflHBiiiHx 
co6;ia3H. Kto CKa3aji ce6e: «ayina - 3apa, 3apn - najieBbift inejiK, najie- 
Bbift inejiK ctoht cTOJibKO-TO KoneeK apniHH», tot npeBpaTHJi ayiny cboio 
b acejiTyio TpnnKy. Kto ace CKa3aji: «uiejiK HanoMHHji MHe iiiejnc He6ecHbix 
3opb, a He6ecHbie 3opH - chmbojim npeKpacHbix nyw HejioBenecKHX», tot 

B HHHT05KHMX 3M6jieMaX TOpOfla npOBHfleJI rpa,Zl HOBOft HCH3HH, Becb co- 

TKaHHbift H3 3apeBbix Bcnbiuieic ayiiiH. JXjik Toro HeT co6jia3Ha 3pejinm: HeT 
necTpoft iuyMHXH ropoacKHX BnenaTJieHHft: Bee 3to - cjiaaocTHbie npea- 

BeCTHH HerO-TO HHOTO, HCHBOrO. 

Hto-to HHoe, HCHBoe BCTaeT h Haa ropo^oM, h Haa aepeBHeft, 6apxaT- 
hoh jiacKoft 3apn. 
3to ayuia. 

EcTb jho^h c npojieTOM b ayuiy. Bw BCTperaTe hxhb ropoae, h b ae- 
peBHe. HacTO ohh He yMeioT roBopHTb, a ecjiH roBopaT - roBopnT He o tom. 
Ho ohh yMeioT 6e3 yjibi6KH yjibi6aTbca. MoaceT jih jiencoBecHbift ctoji6 
npaxa 3aHaBecHTb acHyio 3apio? MoaceT jih HeKpacHBoe jihijo, HeyKjnoHcan 
(J)pa3a noracHTb chhhhc ayxa? 

Bee nojiHO ajih hhx BejiHKOJienHH. Kor^a roBOpHT, H3 ycT hx CTpyHTca 
UBeTbi h BbinapxHBaioT ajiMa3Hbie 6a6oHKH. 

EcTb KpacHBbie cjiOBa; cjioBa njieHHioT, npHHeceuib hx k ce6e b aom, h 
ohh npeBpaTHTCH b noji3aiomHx MOKpHU. 

Kto nacTO BH^eji cboio ayuiy, tot h b yjiHHHoft rpn3H cyMeeT paccMO- 
TpeTb OT6jiecKH HHTapeft. A iiiejnc cyMeeT npeBpaTHTb oh b jiencnft njia- 

MeHb BOCnOMHHaHHH. 

J\jin Hero yjinua coTKaHa H3 nepjioB h CBeTa: 3to 6yaymee yjibi6aeTcn 
b HacTonmeM. 

Bee - TOJibKo moct k 6yaymeMy. H 6yAymee 6yaeT. 

Topoa - xHMepa, ropoa - nyaoBHme, noKa He yMeeuib ero nonnpaTb. 
Iopoa - moct k 6yaymeMy. Oh - paayra, nepeKHHyTaa ot 3cmjih k He6y, ot 

TOrO, HTO eCTb, K TOMy, HTO flOJI5KHO 6bITb. 

«HMeiomHe yuiH, aa cjibiuiaT». 

1907 



O ni/ICATEJlflX 



1 9 AHApeii Eejiuft 



BJlAflMMMP COJIOBbEB 



M3 BOCnOMMHaHMM 

Edb cnyTHHKH Bainero aeTCTBa: HMeHa h npeflcraBjieHHH, nopa3HBinHe 
pe6eHKa hcm-to Heo6binaHHbiM. OaHTa3HH HanHHaeT ycnjieHHo pa6oTaTb, 
h cjioBa, no^nac coBepineHHO npodo CKa3aHHbie, noKpwBaiOTCH 30jiotoh 
(J)aToii CKa3KH. H HMeHa, no^nac He3HaKOMbie, KaK-To npico chhiot. 

H no3HaKOMHJiCH c B. C. CojiOBbeBbiM cpaBHHTejibHO no3flHo; ropa3,zjo 
paHbine h o HeM cjibiuiaji. 

He 3Haio, kto, r#e h Kor^a BnepBbie 3aroBopHji o HeM npn mhc Ho eme 
b paHHeM ACTCTBe pe^KO, ho hpko npoxoflHJi oh b mocm Boo6paaceHHH. 

CTpaHHbIM H CTpaiHHbIM Ka3aJICH OH MHC MoHCeT 6bITb, 3T0 6bIJIO OTTOrO, 

hto, 6yayHH c aeTCTBa o^hh cpejw B3pocjibix, h npHCJiyuiHBajiCH BHHMa- 
TejibHO k nojiynoHHTHbiM cjiOBaM, k OTBJieneHHbiM cnopaM. H He3HaKOMbie 
HMeHa 3anaAajiH b naMHTb. IIoHeMy-TO npico 3anajiH HMeHa BeHepunpac- 
ca h CojioBbeBa. BepoHTHO, npn MHe KTO-HH6yab H3 «yHHBepcHTeTCKHX» 

Bbipa3HJICH B TaKOM TOHd « CTpaHHblH HeJIOBeK BjiaflHMHp C0JI0BbeB». 

Hjih aaMa cKa3ajia: «3araflOHHbiii». A aeTCKoe Boo6paaceHHe 3apa6oTajio. 
MHe dajio Ka3aTbcn, hto Bjia^HMHp CojiOBbeB - CTpaHHHK, inecTByiomHH 
c nocoxoM no ropo^aM, cejiaM, JiecaM. Oh - hchto Bpo^e BarHepoBCKoro 
«Wanderer'a»: noHBjineTCH to b Mockbc, to b ApaBHHCKoii nycTbme. Moii 
mhp cKa30HHbix npeflCTaBJieHHH nepeceKaji oh peaico, ho nepeceKaji. Kyaa? 
B ApaBHio, Ha ceBep? mchh 6mji oh o#hhm h3 My3biKaHTOB, hto npo- 
xo^ht Ha ceBep b «,3paMe *ch3hh», B03Bemaa npn6jiH»ceHHe ropnHKH. 3to 
6hjio npoBHAeHunajibHo: Bjia^HMHp CepreeBHH 6uji jxjw. mchh Bnocjiefl- 
ctbhh npeflTeneH ropanKH pe;iHrH03Hbix HCKaHHH. 

IIomhk), oAHa^c^bi pa3,zi;ajiCH 3bohok. OTija He 6buio AOMa. K HaM bo- 
uieji, KaK MHe Ka3ajiocb, kto-to cyxoii, fljiHHHbifi, nepHbiii, cor6eHHbiH, c 
BOJiocaMH, na^aiomHMH Ha njienn, c ajihhhoh nepHO-cepoii 6opoflOH, c H3- 

MOHCfleHHblM JIHIJOM H CepblMH I\7iy6oKHMH TJia3aMH. Ceji H nOKa3aJICH flO- 

6pbiM h MajieHbKHM, noTOMy hto fljiHHHbi 6biJiH ero Horn: cn^eji c bmcoko 

nO^HHTblMH KOJieHKaMH H CMCHJICH 6oJIbIHHM, 6oJIbIHHM pTOM, npOTHrHBafl 

MHe cbok) KOCTjiHByio, ho KaKyio-TO 6eccHjibHyio, ^jiHHHyio pyKy. riocH^eji 
h Hcne3. H3 pa3roBopa MaTepn c otuom h noHHJi, hto 3to 6wji Bjia^HMHp 



292 



CojiOBbeB. npHxoflHJi no KaKOMy-TO Aejiy, ho MHe oh hbhjich, KaK hbjih- 

K)TCH CKa30HHbie He3HaKOMU,bI H3 ToC^MaHa. B3pOCJIbie TOBOpHJIH, HTO B 

nycTbme ero npHHHJiH 3a nepTa. MHe Ka3ajiocb, hto oh Bbiuieji H3 CMepneii 
CaMyMa, npHiueji k HaM; a Kor^a Bbiuieji 3a ABepb, to CMepneM pacKJiy6Hji- 
ch, MeTejibio npoHeccH. Tpe3a CTajia peajibHee. 

BcKope onHTb h ero BH^eji y npocJ)eccopa CTopoaeeHKO. OnHTb no- 
pa3HJio ero b eccctokoh AyMe coaoKeHHoe jihijo cpe^H 6jiaroo6pa3Hbix ao- 
BOJibHbix jihu OKpy^caiomHx. Ka3ajiocb, hto rojiOBy bot-bot nojioacHT oh 
Ha KOJieHH, noTOMy hto kojichh ero ajihhhmx Hor bwcoko noAHHMajiHCb, a 
TyjioBHme Ka3ajiocb KopoTeHbKHM. Mw, AeTH, 6erajiH cpe^H rocTeft, CTapa- 
HCb npHKOJioTb k ciopTyKaM 6yMaacHbie xbocthkh. Mw, Ae™, c myTjiHBWM 
CTpaxoM KocHJiHCb Ha CojioBbeBa. A «6yna» CojiOBbeB Ao6poAyuiHO no- 
CMaTpHBaji Ha Hac. 

TaK CKa30HHO npoMejibKHyjia (J)Hiypa BjiaAHMHpa CepreeBHna b AaJie- 
kom fleTCTBe MoeM. H no3AHee h bctpcthjich c hhm. Ho TOJibKO nocjieAHHH 
BCTpena, He3aAOJiro ao ero CMepTH, HMejia ajih mchh pokoboh h r;iy6oKHH 

CMblCJI. 

TpoMaAHbie OHapoBaHHbie rjia3a, cepwe, cyTyjian ero cnHHa, 6eccHJib- 
Hwe pyKH, ajihhhmh, co b36htwmh cepbiMH KocMaMH npeKpacHan ero ro- 
jiOBa, 6ojibuioii, cjiobho pa3opBaHHbiii, poT c BbinHHeHHofl ry6oii, MopmH- 

Hbl, - CKOJIbKO 6bIJIO B o6jIHKe CoJIOBbeBa HeBepHOrO H ABOHCTBeHHOro! 

y 4>paHijy30B ecTb oaho cjiobo, He nepeBOAHMoe Ha pyccKHH H3biK. Oho 
xapaierepH30Bajio 6w BnenaTjieHHe, KOTopoe ocTaBJinji Ha oKpyacaiomnx 
BjiaAHMHp CepreeBHH. OpaHijy3 CKa3aji 6w npo Hero: «Il etait bizarre». 
THraHT - h 6eccHjibHbie pyKH, AJiHHHbie hoth - h MajieHbKoe TyjioBHme, 
OAyxoTBopeHHbie rjia3a - h HyBCTBeHHbift poT, rjiarojiw npopoKa, h - no- 
CMOTpHTe: bot mhmo npoHOCHT noAHOc c neneHbeM; AJiHHHan pyKa Co- 
jiOBbeBa npoTHrHBaeTCH k neneHbio, c BHHOBaTO-6ecnoMomHoft yjibi6Koii 

OH mypHTCH, HaKJIOHHHCb H3J[ CJiaCTHMH, OCMaTpHBaeT Ka^CAyiO KOH(|)eTy, 

Ka^cAoe neneHbe; ijenKHe najibijbi B03bMyT to h sto, 6jiaroAapHO 3aKanaeT- 
ch nepeA npHCJiyroft, pacTepneTCH. IIotom o6epHeTCH k co6eceAHHKy, 3a- 
6yAeT CTapaTejibHo Bbi6paHHyio KynKy cjiacTeft, cKaaeeT OAHy TOJibKO 4>pa- 
3y (roBopHT oh Majio), ho cjiobo ero 6pbi3HeT 3apefi. BeccHJibHbifi pe6eHOK, 
o6pocuiHH jibBHHWMH kocmsmh, jiyKaBbifi nepT, CMymaiomHH 6eceAy cbo- 
hm y6HHCTBeHHbiM CMeuiKOMi «Xe-xe», h - 3apn, 3apn! 

CojiOBbeB BcerAa 6wji noA 3HaKOM eMy cbcthbiiihx 3opb. H3 3apn bw- 
mjia TaHHCTBeHHan My3a ero mhcthhcckoh (J)hjiococJ)hh (oua, KaK oh Ha- 
3biBaji ee). OHa HBHjiacb eMy, pe6eHKy. OHa HBHJiacb eMy b 6pHTaHCKOM 
My3ee, menHyjia: «ByAb b ErHnTe»*. H mojioaoh AOijeHT 6pochjich b ErH- 
neT h nyTb He norH6 b nycTbme: TaM noceTHJio ero BHAeHHe, npoHH3aHHoe 

* 3tot (J)aKT, coBepiueHHO peajibHbiH, onncaji oh b noaMe CBoeH «TpH cbh- 

AaHHH». 

293 

19* 



«jia3ypbio 30Jiothctoh». H H3 eraneTCKHx nycTbiHb po^HJiacb ero rHocra- 
HecKan Teoccx})HH - yneHHe o bchho-^c6hctb6hhom Hanane 6o»cecTBa. My3a 
ero CTana HopMoft ero TeopHH, ho h hopmoh ero »ch3hh. Moecho CKa3aTb, hto 
CTpeMJieHHe k 3ape npeBparaji CojiOBbeB b aojir, h pacKpbiraio 3Toro aojira 
nocBHmeHbi BOceMb tomob ero cohhhchhh, r^e tohkhh kphthhcckhh aHajiH3 
nepeayeTCH c pacruibiBHaTofl HeflOKasarejibHOH MeTa(J)H3HKOH h c rjiy6HHoft 
MHCTHnecKHx nepeacHBaHHH Heo6bnaHHOH. .fleiiiHc^pHpyH ero yneHHe, mm 
BCTpenaeMCH c rpoMaa hoh spyflHUHeft h c ^bHBOJibCKHM yMeHHeM no;ieMH3H- 
poBaTb, KOTopwM CojiOBbeB TaK nacTo 3jioynoTpe6^HJi: KaK H3 nyuiKH, crpe- 
juui CojiOBbeB CBoeH kphthkoh h no BparaM, h no apy3bHM, h - yBbi! - no 
Bopo6bHM. Ho ecjin bw noacejiaeTe y3HaTb, zyra nero HyacHo 6buio CojiOBbeBy 

BCK) >KH3Hb ipOMHTb, 6llHeBaTb H B3bIBaTb, TO nOfl erO KpHTHKOH H nOJieMH- 

koh Bac BCTpeTHT 6jieflHbie, 6e35KH3HeHHbie cxeMbi MeTa(J)H3HKH. Ho caMan 
3Ta MeTa(J)H3HKa CojiOBbeBa - TOJibKO cKpoMHaa Byajib Ha# eMy oaho- 
My Be^oMOH TaHHoft: 3Ta TanHa - tojioc 3apeBOH ero My3bi. 3tot tojioc eMy 
inenTaji: «Eyzu> b ErHnTe». Ho stot ace tojioc uierrraji eMy: «IIojieMH3HpyH 
co CipaxoBbiM, h6o CrpaxoB - 3M6;ieMa CMepra». TaKOBa )KH3Hb CojiOBbe- 
Ba - Bcer^a h Be3,zje 6biTb 03apeHHbiM. 3apa npnHHMana o6pa3 npeKpacHofl 
My3bi h MaHHJia ero. H CojiOBbeB H3 « Hotel d'Angleterre», b IIeTep6ypre 6po- 
cajiCH Ha CaftMy, noTOM b MocKBy k H. JI. TpoTy, nocjie nero TpoT HannHaji 
3aHHMaTbCH nyrb jih He cnHpHTH3MOM. A CojiOBbeB ompaBJuuicH b EraneT. 

rioMHio 6o;ibiHHe KopHHHeBbie cbchh, KOTopwe npHBe3 oh CBoeMy 6pa- 
Ty, M. C. CojiOBbeBy, H3 Emma. CojiOBbeB Bcio^y KaK 6w xozjhji c 6ojibinoH 
KopnHHeBOH eraneTCKOH cbchoh, hcbh^hmoh juw ero MacTHTbix h ypaBHO- 
BenieHHbix apysefl, ho, 6biTb MoaeeT, bh^hmoh hckotophm H3 ero flpy3eH, 

OTHOCHTeJIbHO KOTOpblX XOflHJIH CJiyXH, HTO flPy3bH 3TH - «TeMHbie JIHHHO- 
CTH». BOT 3TH-TO TeMHbie JIHHHOCTH BnepBbie H B03BCCTHJIH O TOM, HTO Co- 

jiOBbeB - BOBce He (})hjioco(J), a CTpaHHHK, xoOTmHH nepea BoroM. 

CTaciojieBHH, KOHenHO, He BHfleji CBenH b pyKax CojiOBbeBa, apy3bH- 
TOeajiHCTbi, KOTopwe Bee 6buiH no MeHbineH Mepe npo(J)eccopa h Bee ro- 
BopHjiH Bjia^HMHpy CepreeBHHy «tw», cbchh He bh^cjih Toace. Ohh npe- 
BpaTHjiH yneHHe CojiOBbeBa npocTO-HanpocTO b (J)hjioco(J)ckhh H#eajiH3M 
h aaace He b HeoKaHTHaHCKOM CMbicjie 3Toro cjioBa, a npocTo rjisl hhx 4>h- 
jioco(|)hh CojiOBbeBa 6buia yao6HbiM cpe^CTBOM jym 6opb6w c no3HTHBH3- 

MOM, C KOTOpbIM Bjl. CojiOBbeB eCJIH H 6opOJICH, TO pa3Be B paHHCH MOJIO- 

.zjocth; noTOM oh npH3Han h no-CBoeMy ocbcthji kohtobckhh no3HTHBH3M. 

Bot noneMy nyBCTBOBaji ce6n CojiOBbeB o^hhokhm, xoth H3 o^hhx apy- 
3eH ero h coctohjio ncHxojiorHnecKoe o6mecTBO. H H3-3a 3e;ieHoro CTOJia, 
r^e pa3,aaBajiHCb TaKHe Ba^cHbie, TaKHe jno6e3Hbie, Ka3ajiocb 6w, rjik Hero 
penH, y6eraji CojiOBbeB k xojio^hwm CTpynM MHoroniyMHOH HMaTpw hjih 

K 6eJIbIM KOJIOKOJIbHHKaM IlyCTblHbKH*, a TO H np^MO K «n0^03pHTeJIbHbIM 



* HMeHHe, npHHa^JieiKaBinee npeac^e rp. Tojictwm, r,zie tocthji CojiOBbeB. 

294 



JIHHHOCTHM»: IlbflHCTByiOmHM npopOKaM, K)pOflHBbIM HeyaanHHicaM, K 3Ha- 

komhm hhiijhm hjih, noaeajiyft, ko bccm 6e3 pa36opa H3B03HHKaM, pa3flaBaa 
cboh AeHbra. Eiocjie kohhhhm (})Hjioco(})a cTpaHHbie o6HapyacHjiHCb ero 

CBH3H CO MHOrHMH «OTBep5KeHHbIMH». Ho CTpaHHee, HTO HMeHHO K HHM- 

to, noacajiyft, h noBepTbiBajica CojiOBbeB cbohm HacToamHM jihkom. 

MHorae yBH^HT b mohx cjioBax (J>aHTa3Hio, cicaacyT, hto npo noKoii- 
Horo mo3kho nHcaTb Tenepb Bee, hto 3a6jiaropaccy 1 ziHTCH. Ho nycTb sto ace 
cicaacyT h 6jiH3KHe k CojiOBbeBy jinija, 3HaBinHe TpawuHH ero hhthmhoh 
»ch3hh. MHe npHxo^HJiocb BCTpenaTbCH c CojiOBbeBbiM h b npo(J)eccop- 
ckom Kpyry. MHe npHxoflHJiocb cjibimaTb o HeM ot ero «noHTeHHbix» apy- 
3eii. Ho h BH^eji ero nepHOBbie 6yMara, npn MHe HHTajiHCb ero hhthmhwc 
nHCbMa. Ho h 3Haji o HeM H3 HaH6ojiee BepHoro HCTOHHHKa: ot 6paTa no- 
KOHHoro MbicjiHTejiH, M. C. CojiOBbeBa, c KOTopwM oh 6mji oco6eHHo xpy- 
aeeH h b ceMbe KOToporo a 6mji npHHHT KaK po^Hoii. B yioTHoft tocthhoh 
y Co^OBbeBbix npoBO^HJi h Bee CBo6oflHoe BpeMH, 6yayHH rHMHa3HCTOM, 
a noTOM h CTyaeHTOM. 3aecb bcjih mw HecKOHnaeMbie 6eceflbi, h MHoroe 
b 3thx 6eceaax Kacajiocb npHMO hjih kocbchho noKOHHoro (})HJioco4)a. 
M. C. CojiOBbeB 6mji 3aMenaTejibHbiM HejiOBeKOM; oh yMeji coeflHHHTb cno- 
KOHHyio ypaBHOBeuieHHOCTb, apy^HUHio, c toh 6e3rpaHHHHoft cbo6o,zioh, 
KOTopan He 3acjioHHjia ot Hero HHnero HCKpeHHero, KaKHe 6w 4>opMbi 3Ta 
HCKpeHHOcTb hh HOCHJia. Oh 6hji aBTopHTeTOM h ajih cBoero 6paTa, h /uih 
«MacTHTbix» apy3efl Bjia^HMHpa CepreeBHna, h ajih mojioaoh KyHKH hc- 
KaTejieii, KOTopwx b to BpeMH o6jiHBajiH npe3peHHeM «MacTHTOcra»-OT- 
cxojiacraKH. BoKpyr CojiOBbeBbix rpynnnpoBajiHCb Bee CMejiwe h HCKpeH- 
HHe, H^ymne cbohm nyTeM. 

M. C. CojiOBbeB jiio6hji b 6paTe cbocm BOBce He aBTopa BOCbMH to- 
mob, a HOBoro nejiOBeKa, ycjiwuiaBinero npH3MB h b 6apxaTHoft jiacne 3apn, 
h b thxom njiecKe 6ejiwx KOJioicojibHHKOB: «CKOJibKO hx pacuBeTajio He- 
,aaBHo!» (Bji. CojiOBbeB). Bot noneMy h He mot He HaynHTbca jno6HTb b 
CojiOBbeBe He mmcjihtcjih TOJibKO, ho h Aep3HOBeHHoro HOBaTopa *ch3hh, 
yKpbiBinero cboh hobwh jihk noa 3a6pajiOM HHnero He roBopnmeii MeTa- 
(J)H3hkh. H He Mor h He CMOTpeTb Ha Bji. C. CojiOBbeBa c rjiy6oKOH jiio- 
6oBbio, Kor^a Bcrpenaji ero b o6mecTBe 6paTa 3a He6ojibuiHM yiorawM 
ctojiom, nofl mhtkhm a6aacypoM. H hto-to HeyjiOBHMO-MHncoe, rpycTHoe 
h 6jiH3Koe 3auBeTajio b cepaije - ubctok 3a ubctkom. «CKOJibKo hx pac- 
UBeTajio HeaaBHo* - TaK eme He/uiBHo, Bcero ceMb-BoceMb jieT TOMy Ha3aa! 
A bot npouijio ceMb JieT, h jiaMna^w thxo MHraioT Haja; TpeMH He3a6BeH- 
hwmh MornjiaMH, h jiHHHOCTb Bji. CojiOBbeBa yace OTXOflHT Kyaa-TO B^aJIb, 
CTaHOBHCb jiereHAapHOH. H TOJibKO rpycTHbie 6epe3w B3floxHyT, B3floxHyT 

nJieCKOM BeceHHHX JIHCTbeB, 06jieTHT OCeHbK), a nOTOM MeTeJIb B30BbeT Hatf 
THXHM KJiaA6HmeM OTKHe BHXpH CBOH. 

BojibHOH, xyaoft npHxo^HJi CojiOBbeB k 6paTy tohho H3 HeBeflOMbix 

CTpaH. XyflOH, MaJieHbKHH, C BblCOKO nOAHHTWMH KOCMaMH, CH^eJI OH c 



295 



6paT0M 3a nianiKaMH, BpbiBancb b Ham pa3roBop to rpeMflmeft CBoeft myT- 
koh, to BbipbiBaiomHM H3-no^ Hor noHBy 3aMenaHHeM. Ho 6ojibine Bcero 
xoxoTaji oh myTKaM MajieHbKoro CBoero njieMHHHHKa (Tenepb TajiaHTjin- 
Boro noaTa), ahko pacaji h CTynaji no nojiy HoraMH. BbiBajio, npn/jeiiib k 
CojioBbeBbiM: b nepe^Hefi 6ojibinafl MexoBan, KaK y CBnmeHHHKa, uianKa 
h 6ojibiuaH MexoBa^, KaK y cBnmeHHHKa, iny6a. IIoflyMaenib: «Ax, 3HaHHT, 
npnexaji Bjia^HMHp CepreeBHH». Boftflenib, - npoTHHeT /jjiHHHyio cjia6yio 
cbok) pyKy, He cmotph b rjia3a, CKaaceT: «A Bain Te3Ka B. H. HHnepHH?»* 

CKa^ceT h 6wcTpo nepe^BHHeT nianiKy. CjiymaeT, paceT. HmaiOTCH cth- 
xh. Ecjih HTo-HH6y^b b CTHxax Hey/janHO, cMeniHO, Bjia^HMHp CepreeBHH 
pa3pa3HTCH cbohm rpoMOBbiM HCCTynjieHHbiM «xa-xa-xa», noflMbreaiomHM 
CKa3aTb HapoHHO HTO-HH6yAb napa^oKcajibHoe, flHKoe. Hmeuy b pa3roBO- 
pe He yzjHBjifljiCH Bjia^HMHp CepreeBHH; ,zjo6poflyiiiHO rpeMeji CBoe: «Xa- 
xa-xa! Hto 3a B3flop!» H pa3roBop npn HeM Bcer^a hckphjich, KaK uiHnynee 
bhho. He THHcecTbio ^OKa3aTejibCTB H3Mepnji CojiOBbeB pa3roBop, a I^eHOH 
ocTpoyMHH. HeM 6ojiee CTapajicn oh b cTaTbnx Ka3aTbcn Bep6jno,zjOM, Ha- 
BbiOHeHHbiM rpy30M OT^KHBaiomeH cxojiacTHKH, TeM CBo6o,aHee, KanpH3- 
Hee, cjienHTejibHee 6mjih ero pe^KHe a(J)opH3Mbi H3-3a maxMaTOB. Oh roBO- 
Phji, onycKan npoMeacyTOHHbie 3BeHbH mmcjih, kopotkhmh ac})opH3MaMH; 
jho6hji CKanKH mmcjih c BepuiHHbi Ha BepiiiHHy h He nyacaajiCH cmcjiocth; h 

TaM, Tfle MaCTHTbie ero flpy3bfl BJieKJIH MblCJIb C BepiUHHbl yM03aKJIK)HeHHH 

k apyrofi BepiiiHHe, KaK 6w Ha CKpnnyneH ap6e, TaM Bji. CojiOBbeB npwraji. 
H mw, MOJio^we npe^CTaBHTejiH TaK Ha3biBaeMoro fleKa^eHTCTBa, nyBCTBO- 
BajiH Bji. CojiOBbeBa cbohm, po/jHbiM, 6jih3khm, hmchho 6jih3khm no acap- 
roHy penn, no ncnxHHecKOMy TeMny nepeacHBaHHH. Bcer^a jno6oBajicfl h 
(J)HrypoH Bji. CojiOBbeBa. 

JIio6oBajiCH hm h 3a ctojiom. JIio6oBajicH hm h Ha yjiHije. Oh npoe3- 
acaji b cBoefi 6ojibiuoH, KaK y CBHmeHHHKa, manKe, KyTancb b Mexa, cpe^H 
chokhmx BHxpefi. BcTpenaji ero h b rjiyxnx nepHbix no/n>e3flax, Kor^a 
noflHHMajicn oh, cTyna KajioinaMH, tohho 6aTioniKa, nocneinaiomHH Ha 
MOJie6eH. IIotom oh Hcne3aji. H omrrb h 3acraBaji ero 3a yiorabiM Haft- 

HblM CTOJIOM. 

IIomhk), HacTynHjia BecHa 1900 ro#a. CojiOBbeB KaK-TO oco6eHHo 6mji 
H3MyneH HecooTBeTCTBHeM Meacay Been CBoefi jiHTepaTypHO-(})HJioco(J)CKOH 

AeHTeJIbHOCTbK) H CBOHM COKpOBeHHbIM ECeJiaHHeM XOflHTb nepefl JIIOflbMH 

c 6ojibinoH ernneTCKOH CBenoH. Oh roBopnji 6paTy, hto mhcchh ero 3a- 
KjnonaeTCH He b tom, hto6w nncaTb (J)Hjioco(J)CKHe khhhi; hto Bee, hm Ha- 
nncaHHoe - TOJibKo npojior k ero flajibHeftiiieH aeHTejibHOcra. He3a^ojiro 
nepea TeM oh nponeji cbok) jickijhio o KOHije BceMHpHofi hctophh. TyT mw 

BCTpeTHJIHCb KaK-TO nO-HOBOMy: Mbl BCTpeTHJIHCb B nepBblH pa3, HO 3TO 

6biJia h nocjieflHHH BCTpena. CojiOBbeB CKOHnajicn. 



* H npHBHK, hto6m c aeTCTBa Bee HanoMHHajiH MHe 06 stom. 

296 



IIomhk), h nojiyHHJi 3anHCKy ot iiokohhoh O. M. CojiOBbeBoii. OHa H3- 
Bemajia, hto Bjia^HMHp CepreeBHH nmaeT hm cboh «TpeTHH pa3roBop», h 
npocHJia MeHH npniiTH. IIpHxoacy. CojiOBbeB ch/jht rpycTHbift, ycTajibift, c 
toh nenaTbio MepTBeHHOcra h acyTKoro bcjihhhh, KOTopan nonnjia Ha HeM 
b nocjieflHHe Mecflijbi: tohho oh yBH^eji to, Hero hhkto He BH^eji, h He mo- 
aceT Hairra cjiob, hto6w nepeaaTb CBoe 3HaHHe. B Te ahh y mchh b ayine Ha- 
KonHJiocb MHoro TpeBorH. IIpH BH^e CojiOBbeBa MHe xoTejiocb eMy CKa3aTb 
hto-to TaKoe, hto roBopHTb He nojiaraeTCH 3a naiiHbiM ctojiom. Ho acejia- 
HHe ocTajiocb acejiaHHeM, h h 3aroBopHJi c hhm o Hnijine, 06 othohichhh 
CBepxnejiOBeKa k Hflee 6oroHejiOBeHecrBa. Oh CKa3aji HeMHoro o HHirme, 
ho 6wjia b ero cjiOBax rjiy6oKan cepbe3HOCTb. Oh roBopHJi, hto njien Hhii- 
ine - 3to e^HHCTBeHHoe, c neM Ha^o Tenepb CHHTaTbcn, KaK c rjiy6oKofi 
onacHOCTbio, rpo3Hmeft pejiHrH03Hoii KyjibType. KaK h hh pacxo/jHjiCH c 
hhm bo B3rji*max Ha Hnijuie, mchh rjiy6oKO npHMHpHjio cepbe3Hoe OTHome- 
HHe ero k Hnmne b tot momcht. 91 noHHJi, hto, Ha3biBan Hnuuie «CBepx4)H- 
jiojioroM», Bjia^HMHp CepreeBHH 6bui TOJibKO TaKTHKOM, HraopHpyromHM 
onacHOCTb, rpo3HiiryK) ero HaHHHHM. Ho nopa 6hjio npHCTynHTb k htchhio. 
B^pyr pa3flajicfl 3bohok. CojiOBbeB o6ecnoKOHJicn: «Hejib3H jih CKa3aTb...» 
TyT oh Hanaji TepeTb ce6e jio6 h OTbiCKHBaTb HenpaB,a;ono ( zjo6Hbie npczyiora, 

HTo6bI H36aBHTbCH OT HeHaflHHOH CJiyiliaTeJIbHHIJbl. HTeHHe flOJIHCHO 6bIJIO 
HOCHTb COBepiHeHHO HHTHMHblH XapaKTep. IIOTOM OH HHT3JI CBOK) «IIOBeCTb 

06 aHTHxpHCTe». IIpH cjioBe: «HoaHH noflHHJicn, KaK 6ejiaa CBena», oh Toace 
npHnoflHHJicfl, KaK 6h BbiTHHyjicn Ha Kpecjie. KaaceTcn, b OKHax MepijajiH 
3apHHUbi. JIhijo CojiOBbeBa TpeneTajio b 3apHHijax b^oxhobchhh . Tyr h He 
mot He cKa3aTb nero-TO TaKoro, hto 6buio MHe 6jih3ko h hto h ycMOTpeji b ot- 
ajiore flencTByiomHx jihu «pa3roBopa». CojiOBbeB nocMOTpeji Ha mchh y#HB- 
jieHHO. H Ha «po6KHe», jxmtne jxjik Bcex 3aMenaHHH, cKa3aji MHe: «/la, ,zia, 
3to TaK». H nony BCTBOBaji , hto Meaeay HaMH B03HHKaeT hto-to oco6eHHoe. 
CojiOBbeB nocbijiaji mchh aomoh npHHecTH ojxny moio pyKonncb, b KOTopofi 
h KacajiCH Toro, b neM mh HeoacHflaHHO coinjiHCb. Ho O. M. CojiOBbeBa CKa- 
3ajia: «yace no3/rHO». Mm ycjiOBHjiHCb, hto BCTpeTHMCH nocjie jieTa. H yace 

3HaJI, HTO Mbl BCTpeTHMCH npOHHO. Ho CojiOBbeB CKOHHaJICH. H He CKa3aH- 

Hoe Meacay HaMH cjiobo CTajio j\Jin mchh ji03yHroM, KaK CTajia nnn mchh Bno- 
cjieacTBHH jio3yHroM ero MorHJia, 03apeHHaa KpacHOH jiaMna^Kofi. 

HacTO noTOM MHe npHxoflHjiocb 6biBaTb b MecTax, r^e tocthji Cojio- 
BbeB. Eme He^aBHO CMOTpeji h Ha 6ejibie KOJiOKOJibHHKH, nepecaaeeHHbie 

H3 IlyCTblHbKH, O KOTOpblX CKa3aJI OH! «CKOJIbKO HX paCITBeTaJIO He,fl[aBHO». 

Eme He^aBHO Ha^eBaji h b aoaczyiHBbie ^hh ero Heo6T>HTHyio HenpoMOKae- 
Myio KpwjiaTKy. H floporoft o6pa3 b KpwjiaTKe, Ha 3ape, CKJiOHeHHbiH Haa 

6ejIbIMH KOJIOKOJIbHHKaMH, TaK OTHCTJIHBO B03HHK - o6pa3 BCHHOrO CTpaH- 

HHKa, yxoanmero nponb ot bctxoh 3cmjih b zpad noeuu. A 3a hhm BOCKpec- 
jih /joporae, oToiiiefliHHe b BeHHOCTb, o6pa3bi. 

1907 



297 



HEXOB 



A. n HexoB 

HexoB - 3to 3aBepnieHHe uejiofi anoxn pyccKOH jiHTepaTypbi. 
A Mbi He MoaceM cKa3aTb onpeaejieHHo, hto ero yace He HanHHaioT 3a6biBaTb. 

HexoB - 3to orpoMHbiii, BceM HaM HyacHbiii, BaacHbiii ajix. Hac TajiaHT. 
Eme BaacHee ero TeoperaHecKoe MecTo b KOH(|)HrypaijHH coBpeMeHHbix 
HaM ^HTepaTypHbix hikoji. B HeM BCTpenaiOTCH, b HeM CKpemHBaioTCH npo- 
THBonojioacHbie TeneHHH: chmbojih3m h peajiH3M. Ha HexoBe jieacHT npe- 
eMCTBeHHOCTb aopornx ajih Hac jiHTepaTypHbix Tpa^HijHH JI. TojiCToro. 

H B TO »Ce BpeMH B HeXOBCKOM TBOpHeCTBe 3aJIO»CeH flHHaMHT HCTHHHOrO 

CHMBOJiH3Ma, KOTopbiH cnoco6eH B30pBaTb MHorae npoMeacyTOHHbie Tene- 
hhh pyccKoii ^HTepaTypbi; 3th TeneHHH nacTO OTKpemHBaiOTCH ot 3,zjopo- 
Boro uecmmio peajiH3Ma, nopTH cboh peajiH3M 3aeMHbiMH pyMHHaMH quasi- 
CHMBOJiHHecKHx o6pa30B. B to ace BpeMH cpeflH chmbojihctob nocjieflHero 
BpeMeHH npouBeTaiOT TeHfleHijHH, H3BHe coneiaiomHe peajiH3M c chmbojih3- 
mom. Iloc^e HexoBa Tanoe coneTaHHe - a6cypa. Mucmmeacue pecuiucmu ot- 
KpwBaiOT b 6apaHKe h KpeHflejie hto-to oco6eHHoe; ohh onHCbmaiOT KpeH- 
neJib Tax, hto bojiocw CTaHOBHTCH am6om. B to ace caMoe BpeMH CHMBOJIHCTbl 
HeT-HeT, - h noca^HT KaKoii-HH6yflb H3 cbohx CBepxBpeMeHHbix chmbojiob 
Ha napoxoa. Te h apyrae He hmciot HHnero o6mero c HexoBbiM. Y Tex h jsjpy- 
rax - KOMnpoMHec, y Tex h apyrax - npeaaTejibCTBO cBoero jiHTepaTypHoro 
nyTH. Te h apyrae He npeoaojieBaiOT hh cHMBOJiH3Ma, hh peanH3Ma; Te h 
apyrae npeacraBJiHiOT co6oio iiiar Ha3a# b hctophh pa3BHTHH jiHTepaTypw 
nocjieAHero aecHTHJieTHH cpaBHHTejibHO c HexoBbiM. Chmbojihctm, Bjieico- 
Mbie k «3HaHHK)», «3HaHbeBUbi», pacTBopneMbie chmbojih3mom - Bee 3th 
nojiycHMBOJiHCTbi, no^ypeajiHCTbi aajieKH ot HCTHHHoro peajiH3Ma HexoBa. 
Ho h ^eiicTBHTejibHOCTb nexoBCKHx chmbojiob hm nyac^a. 

IIOHCHHM Hailiy MblCJIb. 

HaM KaaceTCH aajieKo He cjiynaftHbiM, hto HaH6o;iee KpynHbiS nnca- 
Te^b nocjieflHero BpeMeHH ocTajicn 6e3 iukojim, b to BpeMH KaK TBopnecTBo 
TopbKoro nopoAHJio uejiyio njienay no^paacaTejieii. B to ace caMoe BpeMH 
BajiepHH BpiocoB, BbipacTan y Hac Ha nia3ax, yace o6pa30Baji uiKOJiy. Bpio- 

COB flaJI HaM MeTOflbl HCTHHHOrO CHMBOJIH3Ma! OH nepeXOflHT OT CHMBOJia- 

nepeacHBaHHH k o6pa3y-MoaejiH. Ero MHp - sto mhp RByx ^eScTBHTejib- 

HOCTefl, - H3 HHX BHflHMOCTb - TOJIbKO apKa, IIOR KOTOpOH Mbi npOXOflHM B 
HeH3BeCTHOCTb. 

HexoB, Hao6opoT, hcxoah H3 peajibHoro o6pa3a, yTOHnan h H3ynaH ca- 
Mbiii o6pa3 bhahmocth, paccMaTpHBaeT ero KaK 6bi b MHKpocKon, yKa3braa- 
eT HaM Ha to, hto o6pa3 stot b cymHOCTH ckbo3hoh. Ho Bbixoaa oh He aaeT, 
h Mbi, OKpyaceHHbie HeH3BecTHOCTbio, o6peneHbi npe6biBaTb b 3aMKHyTbix 
npeaejiax HauieH CTeKJiHHHoii TiopbMbi. 



298 



BpiocoB HaM KaK 6bi roBOpHT cbohmh o6pa3aMM: «Mbi He Mo^ceM o6t>hc- 
HHTb Ha H3biKe TaHH. H bot h onycKaio Ha TaHHy 3aBecbi ycjioBHbix 3HaKOB. 
Ho nocMOTpHTe: ycjioBHbie 3HaKH coBna^aiOT c OKpyacaiomeH fleftcTBH- 
TejibHocTbio». HexoB roBopHT HaM o6paTHoe: «H HHnero He 3Haio o TaftHe, 
He BHacy ee. Ho H3yHHTe fleiicTBHTejibHocTb b ee MrHOBeHHbix Mejionax. 

H He 3HaK> BblXOfla H3 CTeH MOefl TIOpbMbI, HO, 6bITb M03KCT, 6eCK0HeHHbie 

y3opw, HanepTaHHbie Ha CTeHax, He asyxMepHbi, a TpexMepHbi: ohh y6era- 

K)T B npOCTpaHCTBO HeH3BeCTHOCTH, nOTOMy HTO CTeHbl MOiyT OKa3aTbCH 
CTeKJIHHHblMH, H TO, HTO Mbl BHflHM Ha HX nOBepXHOCTH, M05KCT OKa3aTbCH 

3a npe^ejioM stoh noBepxHOCTH. Bee ace a HHnero He 3Haio». 

lIlKOJia BpiocoBa ycTaHaBjiHBaeT KyjibT MrHOBeHHH. TicaHb BpeMeHH 
HexoB pacHjieHHJi Ha OT^ejibHbie ajieMeHTbi ee - MTHOBeHHH. 3aecb oh 3a- 
BepuiHTe^b hcthhhoto peajiH3Ma (mhp MrHOBeHHbix o6pa30B h nepeacH- 
BaHHfl). Chmbojih3m h peajiH3M, KaK Hanajio h KOHeu, conpHKacaiOTCH b 

OflHOH TOHKej 3Ta TOHKa - MTHOBeHHe; HO nO/JXOflbl K MrHOBeHHK) npOTHBO- 

nojioacHbi. B CHMBOjiH3Me MTHOBeHHe ecTb cpe^CTBO 3anenaTJieTb nepeacn- 
BaHHe, He HMeiomee cooTHOCHTejibHoii (J)opMbi BbipaaceHHH b bhahmocth. 
B hcthhhom peajiH3Me ,zje3HHTerpauHH BpeMeHH b pn^e OT/jejibHO b3hthx 
MrHOBeHHH ecTb uejib; cpe^CTBOM 3toh uejiH hbjihctch onHcaHHe MaTepna- 
Jia, ^aHHoro HaM b bh^hmocth h nepeacHBaHHax. 

Chmbojih3m h peajiH3M : - ABa MeTO/jojiorHnecKHX npneMa b HCKyc- 
ctbc B 4>hjioco(J)hh MrHOBeHHH 06a MeTo^a coBna^aiOT, KaK coBna^aiOT 

ABe OKpy»CHOCTH, TOJIbKO B OflHOH TOHKC 3Ta TOHKa COBna^eHHH peajiH3Ma 

h CHMBOJiH3Ma ecTb ocHOBa BCHKoro TBopnecTBa.* 3^ecb peajiH3M nepexo- 

flHT B CHMBOJIH3M. H o6paTHO. 

3aaana hcthhhoto peajiH3Ma 3aKJiK>HaeTCH b npHBeaeHHH ero k ochobc 
TBopnecTBa, k coBnaaeHHio ero c chmbojih3mom b tohkc KacaHHH chmhx 
b ce6e 3aMKHyrax c(J)ep. H ecjiH chmbojih3m moecct pa3BHBaTbcn b Ha- 

npaBJieHHH KOJIJieKTHBHOH CHMBOJIH3aUHH (peJIHTHH), 6a3HC erO yCTOHHHB 

TOJibKO Tor^a, Kor^a oh npHBe/jeH k tohkc KacaHHH c peajiH3MOM. 3aaana 
pyccKoro cHMBOJiH3Ma He 3aKJi lonaeTCH TOJibKO b pa3BHTHH ero KaK koji- 
jieKTHBHoro CHMBOJiH3Ma, ho h b yTBepacaeHHH ero b caMOM ce6e, t. e. b 
npHBeaeHHH k tohkc KacaHHH c peajiH3MOM TaK, hto6w peajiH3M He3aMeT- 
ho .zjjifl ce6n CTaji chmbojih3mom. 

Pa3BHTHe CHMBOJiH3Ma H#eT b nporpeccHBHOM h perpeccHBHOM Ha- 
npaBJieHHHx; 3to He 3HanHT, hto HyacHO Koe-KaK CMeuiHBaTb peajiH3M c 

CHMBOJIH3MOM! TaKOe CMeiHHBaHHe KOIUyHCTBeHHO /jjih o6eHX IHKOJI. 

HexoB HHKor^a He co3HaBaji ce6a chmbojihctom, ho oh 6jiaropo,ziHO h 
necTHO KaK 6bi oT^aji Bee CBoe TBopnecTBO Ha to, hto6w TBopnecTBO ero 
CTajio no^HoacneM pyccKoro CHMBOJiH3Ma. 

Bch noBepxHOCTb ero o6pa30B peajiHCTHHecKaa. 06pa3bi nepBbix 
ero npoH3Be^eHHH hhhcm He OTJinnaiOTCH ot o6pa30B Haiiinx ranHHHbix 
npe^CTaBHTejieH peajiH3Ma. Ho neM rjiy6ace npoHHKaeT ero B3op b caMyio 



299 



dpyKTypy 5KH3HeHHbix OTHOineHHH, neM ^eTajibHee oh H3ynaeT CTpyKTypy 
cbohx o6pa30B, - TeM o6pa3bi 3th npo3paHHeH: TaK Henpo3paHHbiH KycoK 
^epeBa, Kor^a mhkpotom cpeaeeT TOHHaHiiiHH ero cjioh, no/j MHKpocKonoM 
pacna^aeTCH Ha OTflejibHbie kjictohkh, h aajiee: KJieTOHKa, ee (J)H3HHecKHe 
CBOHCTBa, pHcyn pnji 4>opMyji, cmmcji KOTopwx ycKOJib3aeT ot noHHMa- 
hhh, - KJieTOHKa caMa npeBpamaeTcn b TaiiHy; h aepeBo yac He aepeBo, a 
coBOKynHocTb MHoroo6pa3Hbix TaiiH. 

TaK c yrjiy6jieHHeM nexoBCKoro peajiH3Ma BHyTpeHHaa ocHOBa 3Toro 
peajiH3Ma, He npeaaBafl Tpa^HijHH npoimioro, nepexo^HT b chmbojih3m. 
HexoB pacnojioaeHji Bee MHoroo6pa3He HHcro-peajiHCTHHecKHx npneMOB 
BOKpyr CBoero ijeHTpajibHoro CHMBOJinnecKoro (J)OKyca; bot noneMy b hcm 

Mbl HaXO^HM OTKJIHKH MeTepjIHHKOBIIJHHbl (BCer^a HeCKOJIbKO fleuieBofi) 

h HacTpoeHHH TaMcyHa. TojibKO y Hero e/jHHCTBO cHMBOJia h peajibHoro 
o6pa3a - fl&jieKHH (J>oh; Mexay 3thm 4>ohom h hsmh oh Ha6pacwBaeT pna 
nepcneKTHB, Bee cyacHBaiomHx ,ziiHana30H nepeacHBaHHH, noflcrajiaiomHx 
o6pa3, noKa He BbipacieT Ha nepe^HeM njiaHe He6yTbiKHH. Ch^ht He6yTbi- 
khh, h noKa ydajibie jhoot MenTaiOT o cnacTbe, rpoMKO BocKJiHijaeT: «L[h- 
UHKap: 3Aecb CBHpencTByeT ocna!» («TpH cecTpw»). Ha noBepxHocra npo- 
TeKaeT 5KH3Hb pyccKoro o6mecTBa anoxH AjieKcaH^pa Ill-ro. Ho ihtphxh 
ero nHCbMa, caMH no ce6e BnojiHe tohho nepeaaiomHe aeHCTBHTejibHocTb, 
o6pa3yiOT TaKyio KOH4)HrypaijHio, KOTopan npHno^biMaeT HBaHa HBaHO- 
BHna Ha^ H3BecTHoft snoxofi. 3noxa craHOBHTcn chmbojiom Boo6me 3nOXH 
HejiOBenecTBa. HBaH MBaHOBHH eraHOBHTcn nejioBeKOM, KOMHaTa ero pa3- 
pacTaeTCH no MHpa. Ho h Kaae/jbiH OTflejibHbifi iutphx npn BceM ero pea- 
jiH3Me y HexoBa TOJibKO paBHoaeficTByiomaH 6ojiee aeTajibHbix ihtphxob: 
CHanajia oh pa3JiaraeT aeficTBHTejibHOCTb Ha oraejibHbie aTOMbi, noTOM 
coBepuiaeT He3aMeTHyio neperpynnnpoBKy 3thx aTOMOB h CKJia^biBaeT H3 
hhx o6pa3, HeoTJiHHHMbiii ot o6pa3a aeHCTBHTejibHocra, ho roBopamHH 
HaM o neM-TO hhom, nero He co3HaeT hh caM HexoB, hh ero repon: ohh 
KaKHe-TO CKB03Hbie, 6y^TO TeHH, h pa3roBop hx o noBce^HeBHOM nopaacaeT 
Haui cjiyx, KaK «IIapKH 6a6be jieneTaHbe». H mm acaflHo cjiyuiaeM noBcea- 
HeBHyio penb, h HanHHaeT Ka3aTbca, hto OHa CMyTHo abohtch, hto h He- 
xob, h repon ero nero-TO He ,zi;ocKa3biBaK)T, hto-to 3uaiom } ho He yMeioT hh 
CKa3aTb, hh npHBecTH k co3HaHHio CBoe 3HaHHe. Bee, hto CKa3aji HaM Me- 
TepjiHHK, mw HenpoH3BOJibHO yra^biBaeM b TBopnecTBe HexoBa. 3aecb Me- 

TepjIHHK flaJI TOJibKO KJIIOH K TOMy, HTo6bI Mbl MOrJIH CJIOBaMH npOHHKHyTb 

b yaajieHHbie 30hw nexoBCKoro HHTHMH3Ma. H mm noHHMaeM no-HOBOMy 
MHTKyio rpycTb hcxobckoh yjiw6KH. 3Ty yjiw6Ky HexoB MOJinajiHBO yHec 
b MorHJiy h He CKa3aji 6ojibine HHnero; 6biTb MoaceT, h He Mor CKa3aTb, no- 
TOMy, hto caM He 3Haji, bo hto npeBpaTHTCH ero peajiH3M, k KaKoft tohkc 
npHBeji oh peajiH3M pyccKoii jiHTepaTypw. 

TaKOBa cy6cTaHUHH nexoBCKoro TBopnecTBa - onpo3paHHeHHbiH pea- 

JIH3M, HenpOH3BOJIbHO CpOCIHHHCH C CHMBOJIH3MOM. ^Be 3aMKHyTbie Cpeflbl 



300 



b HeM conpHKOCHyjiHCb, KaK b oflHoii tohkc Bonpoc tojibko b MeTOfle noa- 
xo^a k 3toh tohkc H MeToa HexoBa - peajiH3M. CoxpaHHM ace 3a hhm Ha- 
3BaHHe peajiHCTa, ho He 6yfleM coe^HHHTb c noHHraeM o maxoM peajiH3Me 
npHMHTHBHblX npe^cTaBJieHHii. 

CoBepineHHO o6paTHa (J)opMa nocjie^HHx npoH3BeaeHHH HexoBa. 
OHa - ycjioBHa. Onnpancb Ha tmchhh aeTajieft, oh HeBOJibHO npoH3BOOTT 
Bbi6op aeTajieft h CTHJiH3yeT o6pa3. Ilo flByM uiTpHxaM BoccraHOBJiHeM mw 
no,zjpa3yMeBaeMbie iiitphxh. A ecjiH h pncyeT oh repoeB cbohx mhothmh 
iirrpHxaMH, KaacflbiH H3 hhx CHHTe3HpoBaH: He3aMeTHO oh bbo^ht Hac b 
ccj)epy ycjiOBHoro, h mm, He noao3peBaH, 3ano;iHHeM caMH ero ihtphxh jie- 
TajiHMH. Coo6pa3Ho c Bbi6opoM nepT KpenHeT (J>opMa ero nncbMa. Kaacaan 
4>pa3a bchbct co6cTBeHHofi >KH3Hbio, ho Bee (J)pa3bi noaHHHeHbi My3biKajib- 
HOMy pHTMy. ^najior «Tpex cecTep» h «BHinHeBoro caaa» - aa, sto My3bi- 
Ka! A mw nacTO ee He cjimiiihm, noTOMy hto repon ero He H3MeHHK)T moji- 
naHHK), uiennyT cboh noBce^HeBHwe cjiOBa o tom, hto «Bajib3aK poflHJicn b 
Bep^HHeBe» («Tpn cecTpw»). 

HeXOB y^HBHTeJIbHblH CTHJIHCT. Oh nepBblH HHCTpyMeHTaJIHCT CTHJIfl 

cpe^H pyccKHx nHcaTejieH-peajiHCTOB. TopbKOMy, JleoHH^y AH^peeBy h 
npoHHM nHcaTejiHM-peajiHCTaM c chmbojihhcckoh 3aKBacKoii aajieKO ro 
cthjih HexoBa, KaK 3eMjie ao He6a. 

06pa3bl HeXOBCKOrO peaJIH3Ma, H3BHe CTHJIH30BaHHbie H H3HyTpH co- 

npHKOCHyBuiHecH c chmbojih3mom, 3aBepmaiOT anoxy pa3BHTHH peajiH3Ma 
b pyccKoii jiHTepaType. Bot noneMy y Hero He MoaceT 6biTb caMOCTOHTejib- 
hoh uiKOJibi; nexoBijaM ocTaeTCH jiuuib pa3pa6oTaTb aeTajiH hm ro KOHija 
npoHAeHHoro nyTH. Ecjih h ctoht cepbe3HO ynHTbcn y Hero, to TOJibKO 
cHMBOJiHCTaM, KOTopwe o^hh cnoco6Hbi H3MepHTb Becb AHana30H ero 
orpoMHoro, eme h Tenepb HeoueHeHHoro ^apoBaHHH. 

Bot noneMy b HacTonmee BpeMH HaM cMeuiHbi nonwTKH anHroHOB pea- 

JIH3Ma H3BHe 3aBH3aTb CBH3b C CHMBOJIHHeCKHM MHponOHHMaHHeM. EflHH- 
CTBeHHO CBH3yK)maH TOHKa TOJibKO B HeXOBC OHa 6bIJia, OHa H OCTaHeTCH. 

riponee pa3BeeTCH, KaK npax. 

Okho Bcer^a ocTaHeTCH TOJibKO okhom, ho oho mohcct cjiyacHTb ycjiOB- 
hwm 3HaKOM nepe^KHBaHHH, HeBonjioTHMoro ,zjo KOHua hh b o^hh o6pa3 
aeftcTBHTe^bHOCTH. A HOBeftuiHe nojiyaeKa^eHTbi («peajibHbie chmbojih- 
ctw») - 3th anHroHbi CHMBOJiH3Ma h peajiH3Ma - KaK 6bl HaM TOBOpHT: 
«Okho He okho, ho h He He okho». H TBopnecTBo HexoBa 6ecnoma^Ho 

y^HHaeT HX H JIHCHBOCTb, H CepeflHHHOCTb. 

Ho Bcero no3opHefi 3aaBJieHHH chmbojihctob o tom, hto chmbojih3m 
HcnepnaH, Kor^a y Hac HeT eme no chx nop hh oahoh cTporo pa3pa6o- 
TaHHoii TeopHH h noHTH hh o^Horo CTporo CHMBOJiHHecKoro npoH3Be- 
aeHHH. Bnepe^H cjioHCHan pa6oTa, Tpe6yiomafl nojiHoft oT^anH hhtcji- 
jieKTyajibHbix, MopajibHbix h TBopnecKHX chji. H 6paTaHbe anHroHOB 
CHMBOJiH3Ma c peajiHCTaMH 03HanaeT jinuib nojiHoe HenoHHMaHHe toto 



301 



3HaMeHH, IlOfl KOTOpbIM OHH BblCTyilHJIH (H He XOHy ^yMaTb, HTO 3T0 

uiapjiaTaHCTBo). 

HexoB Hcnepnaji peajiH3M. Mm, chmbojihcth, npeicjiOHHeMCH nepea 

HHM, Mbl He XOTHM B03BpamaTbCH K TOMy, HTO HcnepnaHO, nOTOMy HTO 

mw co3HaeM npoBH^eHUHajibHOCTb nexoBCKoro TBopnecTBa. Mbi totobh 
yHHTbCH y Hero, npoBepnTb ce6n hm, aaace cMOTpeTb Ha MHp ero rjia3aMH - 
ho CMOTpeTb Bnepea b Te o6jiac™, icyaa Bejzyr Hac nyTH 6yAymero. 

HexoB 3aHHMaeT ixeHTpajibHoe nojioaceHHe Meaczjy flfiyMH 6o;ibuiHMH 
nepno^aMH pa3BHTHH. Oh 3aicaHHHBaeT co6oii XIX cTOJieTHe, craBHT ot- 
Hbme HenepecTynaeMyio rpaHb Meaeay peajiH3MOM h HaMH. H HaM HeT bo3- 
BpaTa k HHCTOMy peajiH3My; noBepxHOCTHbiii chhtc3 o6enx uikoji - Haa- 
pyraTe^bCTBo najx peajiH3MOM. Mw He xothm Tanoro CMeineHHH, noTOMy 
hto mh yBa^caeM peajiH3M b ero hhctom BH^e h cjihuikom ijchhm aoporyio 
naMHTb A. II. HexoBa. 

1907 

«BnLUHeBbiM cafl» 

BoCnpOH3BO^H .ZieHCTBHTejIbHOCTb, xyaoacHHK-peajiHCT CHa- 

najia pa6oTaeT Haa caMbiMH o6mHMH nepTaMH ee, noTOM oh CTaHOBHTCH 
(J)OTorpa(J)OM ^eScTBHTe^bHOCTH. Ero 3peHHe pa3BHBaeTCH. Oh He flOBOJib- 
CTByeTCH yace noBepxHOCTHOH phcobkoh HBJieHHH. Bcjiea 3a onpeaejieH- 

HblM H ^JIHTeJIbHblM OH OCTaHaBJIHBaeTCH Ha HCOnpefleJieHHOM, MHMOJieT- 

hom, H3 KOToporo cjiaraeTCH BCHKan onpeaejieHHOCTb h fljiHTejibHOCTb. Oh 

BOCnpOH3BOAHT TOrfla TKaHb MrHOBeHHH. OTOpBaHHblH MOMeHT CTaHOBHT- 
CH ijejibio BocnpoH3Be,aeHHH. ^Cn3Hb b TaKOM H3o6paaceHHH - TOHKan, Kpy- 
aceBHan pa6oTa, noHTH cKB03Han. CaM no ce6e b3htmh momcht »ch3hh npn 
yrjiy6;ieHHH b Hero craHOBHTcn flBepbio b 6ecKOHenHocTb. Oh, KaK neTjin 
5KH3HeHHoro icpyaceBa, He ecTb hchto caMO no ce6e: oh onepHHBaeT bmxoa 
k TOMy, hto 3a hhm. BecKOHeHHa HHTeHCHBHOCTb nepeacHBaHHH. KpyaceBo 
5KH3HH, cocTonmee H3 OTflejibHbix neTejib, CTaHOBHTCH ph^om flBepeft b na- 
pa/iJiejibHbie Kopn^opw, Beaymne k HHOMy. XyaoacHHK-peajiHCT, ocraBancb 

CaMHM C060H, HeBOJIbHO pHCyeT BMeCTe C nOBepXHOCTbK) )KH3HeHHOH TKaHH 

h to, hto OTKpbmaeTCH b r;iy6HHe napajuie^bHbix apyr apyry jia6HpHHTOB 
MraoBeHHii. Bee ocTaeTCH TeM ace b ero H3o6paaceHHH, ho npoHH3aHHWM 
UHbiM. Oh caM He no,ao3peBaeT, oTKy^a roBopHT. Cica^KHTe TaKOMy xyaoac- 
HHKy, hto oh npoHHK b nomycmopoHHee, h oh He noBepHT BaM. Be^b oh ineji 
h3bhc Oh H3ynaji aencTBHTejibHOCTb. Oh He noBepHT, hto H3o6paacaeMan 

HM fleHCTBHTejIbHOCTb y5Ke He ^eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTb B H3BeCTHOM CMblCJIC 

^KH3HeHHbiH MexaHH3M HanpaBjineT pyejio nepeacHBaHHH He Tyaa, 
Kyaa mw CTpeMHMCH, oweT Hac bo BjiacTb MauiHH. Haina 3aBHCHMOCTb 

HaHHHaeTCH C o6lIJHX HaM HCBeflOMMX npHHHH H KOHHaeTCH KOHKaMH, Te- 

jie(J)OHaMH, jiH(})TaMH, paenncaHHeM noe3flOB. Meacay HaMH Bee 6o;ibine h 



302 



6ojibine o6pa3yeTCH 3aMKHyTWH, MexaHHnecKHH, uhkji, H3 KOToporo Bee 
Tpy^Heii BwpBaTbcn. «^4> y6nBaeT ce6n jxnn «B» ajih «C», ho h «C», 
3a KOToporo «A» h <B» OT^aioT ce6n, ocraBancb HyjiHMH, bmccto opraHH- 
necKH CBH3aHHoft nepe^CHBaHHHMH ech3hh, oraaeT ce6n «i4», Toace npeBpa- 
mancb b Hyjib. 06pa3yeTCH MaiiiHHa 6ecijejibHoro y6nHCTBa ayin. 

BjiacTb MrHOBeHHH - ecTecTBeHHbiii npoiecT npoTHB MexaHHnecKoro 
ctpoh >kh3hh. HejiOBeK, OCB060OTBUIHHCH, yrjiy6jineT cjiynaHHbiH momcht 
ocBo6o»caeHHH, ycTpeMjiHH Ha Hero Bee chjiw ayuiH. IlpH TaKHx ycjioBHHx 
HejiOBeK HaynaeTCH Bee 6ojibinee h 6ojibinee BH^eTb b Mejionax. MejioHH 

5KH3HH HBJIHIOTCfl BCe 6oJIbUie npOBO^HHKaMH BeHHOCTH. TaK peajiH3M He- 

npHMerao nepexo^HT b chmbojih3m. 

MrHOBeHHH - 3to pa3HOOKpauieHHbie CTeKJia. CKB03b hhx mw cmo- 
tphm b BenHOCTb. Mbi aojbkhu ocTaHOBHTbCH Ha ootom creicjie, HHane 
HHKor^a mw oTHeTJiHBo He pa3rjiH^HM Toro, hto 3a cjiynaftHbiM. Bee npn- 
MejibKaeTCH, h mm ycTaHeM cMOTpeTb icyaa 6h hh 6wjio. Ho pa3 mw flocra- 

TOHHO HHTeHCHBHO nepOKHJIH H3BeCTHOe MrHOBCHHe, Mbi XOTHM nOBTOpe- 

hhh. IIoBTopHH nepeacHBaHne, mm yrjiy6jineMCH b Hero. Yrjiy6jiHHCb, Mbi 

npOXOflHM pa3JIHHHbie CTa^HH. H3BeCTHOe MrHOBeHHe CTaHOBHTCH flJIfl Hac 
He05KHflaHHWM BWXOflOM B MHCTHIJH3M! o6o3HanaeTCH HaiU BHyTpeHHHH 

nyTb h BOCCTaHOBjineTCH ijejibHocrb Hauien ayineBHOH 3kh3hh. no6e>Kfla- 

eTCH H3HyTpH MexaHH3M 5KH3HH, OTflejIbHbie MrHOBeHHH He HMdOT 6ojibuie 
BJiaCTH. ^(H3HeHHOe Kpy^eBO, COTKaHHOe H3 OTfleJIbHWX MrHOBeHHH, HC- 

ne3aeT, Kor^a mw Hafl^eM bwxoa k TOMy, hto npeac^e ckbo3hjio 3a auraHbio. 
PaccKa3WBan o tom, hto bhahm, mw npoH3BOjibHO pacnopnacaeMCH MaTe- 

pHaJIOM .ZieHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH. 

TaKOB MHCTHHeCKHH CHMBOJIH3M, o6paTHWH peaJIHCTHHCCKOMy CHM- 

Bo;iH3My, nepeaaiomeMy noTycTopoHHee b TepMHHax OKpyacaiomeii Bcex 

fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH. 

HexoB - xyaojKHHK-peajiHCT. H3 SToro He BWTeKaeT OTcyTCTBHe y 
Hero chmbojiob. Oh He MoaceT He 6wTb chmbojihctom, ecjin ycjiOBHH aeft- 
CTBHTejibHOCTH, b KOTopoft mw acHBeM, fljiH coBpeMeHHoro nejiOBeica nepe- 
MeHHjiHCb. /leftcTBHTejibHOCTb cTajia npo3paHHen BCJieacTBne HepBHoii 
yroHHeHHOCTH Jiyninnx H3 Hac. He noKH^an MHpa, mw HfleM k TOMy, hto 3a 
MHpoM. Bot hcthhhwh nyTb peajiH3Ma. 

Eme He^aBHo mw ctohjih Ha npoHHOM ocHOBaHHH. Tenepb caMa 3eM- 
jih CTajia npo3panHa. Mw wjxgm kzk 6w Ha CKOJib3KOM npo3paHHOM creKJie, 
H3-noa CTeKJia cjie^HT 3a usmu BenHan nponacTb. H bot HaM KaaceTCH, hto 
mw H^eM no B03flyxy. CTpaumo Ha stom B03flyuiHOM nyra. MoacHO jih 
roBopHTb Tenepb o npe^ejiax peajiH3Ma? Moaoio jih npn TaKHx ycjiOBH- 
hx npoTHBonojiaraTb peajiH3M CHMBOJiH3My? Hbme yine^uiHe ot acH3HH 
onHTb 0Ka3ajiHCb b 5kh3hh, h6o caMa acH3Hb CTajia hhoh. Hbme peajiHCTw, 
H3o6paacan aencTBHTejibHOCTb, chmbojihhhw: TaM, r^e npeac^e Bee KOHna- 
jiocb, Bee CTajio npo3panHWM, ckbo3HWm. 



303 



TaKOB HexoB. Ero repon oHepneHbi bhciiihhmh uiTpHxaMH, a mh nocrH- 
raeM hx H3HyTpH. Ohh xo^ht, nbioT, roBopnT nycTHKH, a mm bh^hm 6e3^Hbi 
ayxa, CKB03HmHe b hhx. Ohh roBOpHT, KaK 3aKJHOHeHHbie b TiopbMy, a mw 
y3HajiH o hhx hto-to TaKoe, nero ohh caMH b ce6e He 3aMerajiH. B Mejionax, 

KOTOpblMH OHH ACHByT, flJIH HaC OTKpblBaeTCH KaKOH-TO TaHHMH IHH(J)p - 

h MejiOHH yace He mcjiohh. IIoiiijiocTb hx 2CH3HH hcm-to HeihpajiH30BaHa. 
B Mejionax ee BCioay OTKpbiBaeTCH hto-to rpaHflH03Hoe. Pa3Be 3to He Ha- 

3bIBaeTCH CMOTpeTb CKB03b nOIIIJIOCTb? A CMOTpeTb CK603b HtnO-Jlu6o - 3Ha- 
HHT 6bITb CHMBOJIHCTOM. TjlHdft CK603b, COeflHHHK) npeflMeT C TeM, HTO 3a 
HHM. IIpH TaKOM OTHOUieHHH CHMBOJIH3M HCH36e5KeH. 

Jlyx My3biKH npoHBJineTCH BecbMa pa3Hoo6pa3HO. Oh MoaceT paBHo- 
MepHO npoHH3biBaTb Bcex ^eiicTByiomHx jihu ^aHHoii nbecw. Kaac^oe jxeA- 
CTByiomee jihuo Toraa - CTpyHa b o6meM aKKopae. «IIbecu c nacmpoenu- 
eM» HexoBa My3biKajibHbi. 3a 3to pynaeTCH hx chmbojih3m, h6o chmboji 
Bcer^a My3biKajieH b o6meM cmmcjic Chmbojih3m HexoBa OTJinnaeTCH ot 
CHMBo;iH3Ma MeTepjiHHKa BecbMa cymecTBeHHO. MeTepjiHHK aejiaeT re- 
poeB apaM cocyaaMH CBoero co6cTBeHHoro MHCTHnecKoro coaepacaHHH. 
B hhx OTKpblBaeTCH ero onwT. YKa3biBaH Ha npH6jiHaceHHe CMepTH, oh 
3acTaBJineT CTapHKa roBopHTb: «HeT jih eme Koro-HH6yab cpe^b Hac?» 
Cjihuikom hbhmh chmboji. He ajuieropHH jih 3to? Cjihhikom o6me ero bm- 
paaceHHe. HexoB, HCTOHnan peajibHOCTb, Heo^KH^aHHo HanaaaeT Ha chmbo- 
Jibi. Oh eflBa jih no,zjo3peBaeT o hhx. Oh b hhx HHnero He BKJiaabiBaeT npea- 
HaMepeHHoro, h6o bpha jih y Hero ecTb mhcthhcckhh onbiT. Ero chmbojim 
noaTOMy HenpoH3BOJibHO BpacTaiOT b aeiicTBHTejibHOCTb. Hnr^e He pa3o- 
pBeTCH nayTHHHan TKaHb hbjichhh. Bjiaro^apn 3TOMy eMy yaaeTCH rjiy6ace 
pacKpbiTb 3BynamHe Ha (j)OHe Mejionen chmbojim. 

Bot CHflHT H3MyMeHHbie jiioah, CTapaacb 3a6biTb yacacbi 5KH3HH, ho 
npoxoMuu udem mumo... Tde-mo o6pueaemca e waxme 6adbH. Bchkhh no- 
HHMaeT, hto 3,aecb - yacac. Ho MoaceT 6biTb Bee 3to chhtch? Ecjih paccMa- 
TpHBaTb ^Bumneeuu cad» c tohkh 3peHHH uejibHOCTH xyzjoflcecTBeHHoro 
BnenaTJieHHH, to mm He HaifaeM toh 3aKOHHeHHOCTH, KaK b «Tpexcecmpax». 
B 3tom OTHOUieHHH ^Buiuneeuu cad» MeHee y^aneH. IIcHxojiorHHecKafl ace 
rjiy6HHa OT^ejibHbix momchtob coBepuieHHee nepeaaHa 3flecb. Ecjih npe- 
acae nepea HaMH 6biJia npo3paHHaa, KpyaceBHaa TKaHb, co3epuaeMan H3#a- 

JIH, Tenepb aBTOp KaK 6bl npH6jIH3HJICfl K HeCKOJIbKHM neTJIHM 3TOH TKaHH, 

h HCHee yBHfleji to, hto onepHHBaiOT 3th neTJiH. Mhmo apyrnx neTejib oh 
CKOJib3Hyji. OTCio^a nepcneKTHBa HapyuiaeTcn, h nbeca HMeeT KaKoii-TO 
HepoBHbiH xapaKTep. OTHOCHTejibHO HexoB nouieji Ha3a#. A6cojhotho - 
He ocTajiCH Ha MecTe, HCTOHHan MeTOflbi. MecraMH ero peajiH3M eme TOHb- 
uie, eme 6ojiee ckbo3ht cHMBOJiaMH. 

KaK CTpauiHbi momchtm, Kor^a poK HecjiMiimo noflKpaflMBaeTCH k 
o6eccHJieHHbiM. Be3fle TpeBoacHbiii jichtmothb rpo3bi, Be3jxe HaBHcaiomaH 
Tyna yacaca. Xoth, Ka3ajiocb 6w, neMy yacacaTbcn: Be^b H^eT penb o npo- 



304 



Aaace hmchhh. Ho CTpauiHbi MacKH, noA KOTopbiMM npHneTCH yacac, 3hhh 
b npojieiax rjia3. KaK CTpauiHa KpHBjiniomaHCfl ryBepHaHTKa BOKpyr pa30- 
peHHoii ceMbH, hjih jiaKeii Hina, cnopnmHH o maMiiaHCKOM, hjih rpy6nmHH 
KOHTopmHK, hjih npoxoacnii H3 jiecy! 

B TpeTbeM aeHCTBHH KaK 6bi KpHCTajuiH30BaHbi npneMbi HexoBa: b ne- 
peflHeii KOMHaie nponcxoAHT ceMeflHan ApaMa, a b 3aAHeii, ocBemeHHoii 
CBenaMH, HCCTynjieHHo iuiauiyT MacKH yacaca: bot noHTOBbifi hhhobhhk 
BajibCHpyeT c acbohkoh - He nynejio jih oh? MoaceT 6biTb, sto najiKa, 
k KOTopoii npHBH3aHa MacKa, hjih BeinajiKa, Ha KOTopoii bhcht MyHAHp. 
A HanajibHHK CTaHUHH? OTKy^a, 3aneM ohh? 3to Bee BonjiomeHHH poKO- 
Boro xaoca. Bot njiauiyT ohh, MaHepHHHan, Kor^a CBepuiHJiocb ceMeiiHoe 
HecnacTHe. 

MejiOHb oKpaiiiHBaeTCH KaKHM-TO HeBH/^HMbiM Aocejie HajieTOM. Reu- 
CTBHTejibHOCTb abohtch: 3to h to, h He to; 3to - MacKa Apyroro, a jiioah - 
MaHeKeHbi, (J)OHorpa4)bi rjiy6nHbi - CTpauiHo, cTpauiHo... 

HexoB, ocTaBaacb peajiHCTOM, pa3ABHraeT 3Aecb CKJia^KH xch3hh h to, 

HTO H3AaJIH Ka3aJIOCb TeHeBblMH CKJia^KaMH, OKa3bIBaeTCH npojieTOM B 
BeHHOCTb. 

1904 

«l/lBaHOB» Ha CLieHe 
Xyflo>KecTBGHHoro TeaTpa 

EcTb nOCJieAOBaTeJIbHOCTH pa3JIHHHbIX nop^AKOB. IlpaBHJIb- 

Hoe TeneHHe noBceAHeBHOcra o6ycjiOBjiHBaeTCH TeM, hto mm nojiaraeM 
rpaHHuw MeacAy sthmh nocjieaoBaTejibHocTHMH. Pa3Hoo6pa3Hbie pham 
hx He nepeceKaioTCH Apyr c ApyroM b o6biAeHHOH 2CH3HH. HanpHMep: coh- 
Hbie accoijHaijHH 3aKJiK)HeHbi b oco6wh pha; hm He otboahtch MecTa bo 

BpeMfl 6oApCTBOBaHHH. COH, OTAblX, HCnOJIHCHHe o6H3aHHOCTeH - BCe 3TO 

napajuiejibHbie, HenepeceKaiomHecH phaw nocjieAOBaTejibHocTeii. Ilepe- 
ceneHHe phaob, CMemeHHe nopHAKOB nocjieAOBaTejibHocTeii, cpaBHeHHe 
3thx nop^AKOB Apyr c ApyroM - Bee 3to o6ycjiOBjiHBaeT TaK Ha3biBaeMbiii 
«<paHmacmuHecKuu» 3jieMeHT, c kotopwm mm BCTpenaeMCH b HCKyccTBe. 
IlepeA rjia3aMH yTOMjieHHoro AOJirHM chom ech3hh npoT^rHBaeTCH Bepe- 
HHua o6pa30B. IlpHHyAJiHBbie apa6ecKH hx TaK CTpaHHbi, TaK CKa30HHbi. 
He cjieAyeT 3a6biBaTb, hto caMan CKa30HHocrb o6pa30B ecTb nacTO He hto 
HHoe, KaK ocjioacHHBUiancH peajibHOCTb, 6jiaroAapa B3aHMHOMy nepecene- 
hhk) pa3JiHHHbix o6pbiBKOB noBceAHeBHbix nocjieAOBaTejibHocTeii. 3th 06- 
Pwbkh, BCTpenancb Apyr c ApyroM, HeBOJibHO cpaBHHBaioTCH, conocraBjiH- 

K)TCfl, CJIHBaiOTCH. TaK B03HHKaK)T XyAO^CeCTBeHHbie CHMBOJIbI (J)aHTa3HH, 

npHHHMaiomHe nopofi nyAOBHmHbie (J)opMbi, HanpHMep (J)opMy c(J)HHKca 
(nojiy»ceHmHHa-nojiy3Bepb). He cjieAyeT 3a6biBaTb, hto nacTH 3toh ny- 

AOBHmHOH (|)OpMbI B3HTW H3 AeHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH. H3bICKaHHbie o6pa3bI 



305 



4>aHTa3HH aajieico He Bcer^a BonjiomeHbi b noBce^HeBHocTb. BonjiomeHHe 
hx, He Hapyniaji noBceflHeBHOcra, npnaaeT jkh3hh HeyjiOBHMO (J)aHTacTH- 
hcckhh xapaKTep. Mohcho tobophtb o BonjiomeHHbix h HeBonjiomeHHbix 

CHMBOJiaX. 

XyaoacecTBeHHafl cHjia cjiOBa noKOHTCH Ha cpe^CTBax H3o6pa3HTe;ib- 

HOCTH. Cpe^CTBa H306pa3HTeJIbH0CTH HBJIHKDT HaM B 6oJIbHIHHCTBe CJiy- 

naeB cnoco6bi coeflHHeHHH, coneTaHHH, no^MeHbi o6pa30B. Cnoco6bi 3th 
(Meia(J)opa, mctohhmhh, rHnep6ojia h t. a.) cbo^hmh k cpaBHeHHio. CpaB- 
HHBan hto-jih6o c hcm-jih6o, h cocothhio pa3Hopo,zjHbie nepTbi b o^ho. Bot 
noneMy xyzjoaeecTBeHHaH nocjie^OBaTejibHOCTb, KaK h coh, cnoco6Ha HBHTb 
HaM HecymecTByiomHe coeflHHeHHH cymecTByiomHx o6pa30B. Bot noneMy 
b xyfloacecTBeHHbix cHMBOJiax Hcne3aK)T rpaHHijbi Meacay fleftcTBHTejibHO- 
CTbio h chom. Bot noneMy BonjiomeHHbift chmboji cjiHBaeTCH c 5KH3HbK>. 

06pa3bi ^eiicTBHTejibHOCTH bjihhiot Ha Hac. B nyuie o6pa3yeTCH He- 
nepeaaBaeMoe oTHonieHHe k jno6oMy hbjichhk) aeHCTBHTejibHOCTH. 3 TO 
OTHonieHHe, Bbi3biBae\ioe HBjieHHeM, mm Ha3biBaeM ero HacTpoeHHeM. 
HacTpoeHHe mohcct yBejiHHHBaTbcn h yMeHbinaTbcn. yBejiHHHBancb, oho 
BpwBaeTCH b o6biHHbifi pacnopnflOK o6pa30B, npeTBOpHH hx: coHHbie ac- 

COIJHaiJHH HaHHHaiOT TOTfla BpblBaTbCfl B 5KH3Hb H He3aMeTHO CMeiHHBa- 

iotch pnflbi nocjie^OBaTejibHocTeii. B stom CMenieHHH MoaceT OTKpwTbCH 
H3BecTHoro po^a npaBHjibHOCTb. Pa3JiHHHbie pn^bi MoryT npeceKaTbcn b 
oflHOM o6pa3e, pacxoaacb ot stoto o6pa3a, KaK ot ijempa, 6ecKOHeHHbiMH, 
HenpeceKaiomHMHCH JiynaMH. Ilepea hsmh He 6yzjeT CMenieHHH p*moB, a 
coe^HHeHHe hx b oahom o6pa3e. Pa3JiHHHbie pflflbi, npoxo^fl CKB03b .zjaH- 
Hbifi o6pa3 b pa3JiHHHbix HanpaBJieHHnx, He HapyinaT cbh3h ero c Kaacfloft 
H3 nepeceKaiomHxcH nocjieflOBaTejibHOCTeft, b KOTopoii tohhhh o6pa3 ecTb 
Heo6xo^HMoe 3BeH0. Cmwcji aaHHoro o6pa3a onpe^ejiHTCH, no KpafiHeft 
Mepe, no asyM h 6ojiee HanpaBJieHHHM. TaKoe coe^HHeHHe nocjie^OBaTejib- 
HocreH b o^hom o6pa3e hbjihct HaM peajibHbiH h BnojiHe BonjiomeHHbift 

CHMBOJI. 

JXbz nyTH Be^yT k BonjiomeHHio CHMBOJia. BbiinepaccMOTpeHHbiii nyTb 
ecTb nyTb ot peajibHoro k (J)aHTacTHHecKOMy, Kor^a 3KH3Hb CTaHOBHTCH 
chom. Hao6opoT: ycjioacHHH o6pa3bi (J)aHTa3HH jxo nocjie^Hero npe^ejia, 
mw yBejiHHHBaeM B3aHMHoe nepeceneHHe nocjieflOBaTejibHOCTeft; b pe- 
3yjibTaTe nepeceneHHH nojiynaeM Bee MeHbniHe h MeHbinne B3aHMHO cono- 
CTaBjieHHbie o6phbkh, Meaczjy kotophmh Bee 6o;ibnie h 6o;ibnie crapaeTCH 
pa3H0CTb, t. e. nojiynaeM flH(J)(J)epeHijHajibi pa3JiHHHbix nocjie^oBaTejibHO- 
CTen, BnojiHe coBnaaaiomHe .zjpyr c .zjpyroM. Pa3HOCTb nopH^KOB czihhoh 
nocjie^OBaTejibHocTH BbipacTaeT 6jiaroaapH pa3HOo6pa3Hio b cnoco6ax 
cjioMceHHH Tex ace flH(})(J)epeHijHajiOB. 3jieMeHTbi pa3JiHHHbix nocjie^oBa- 
TejibHOCTeft o6*be^HHHK)TCH npncTajibHbiM paccMOTpeHHeM b eflHHyio pe- 
ajibHOCTb. 3to nyTb ot 4>aHTacTHHecKoro k peajibHOMy, Kor^a coh CTaHO- 

BHTCH ^eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTbK). 



306 



06a nyra Bejxyj k BonjiomeHHio. 

XyacttKecTBeHHan nociaHOBKa npoH3BeaeHHH, HanHcaHHoro ^jih cije- 
hw, ecTb BonjiomeHHe HaMepeHHH aBTopa. KaK BonjiomeHHe, oho ecTb no- 
6aBjieHHe k 3T0My HaisiepeHHio. BcnKoe xyaoacecTBeHHoe npoH3BeaeHHe 
HenpoH3BOJibHO chmbojihhho. Bonpoc o BonjiomeHHH xy^o»cecTBeHHoro 
npoH3BeaeHHH ecTb Bonpoc o BonjiomeHHH CHMBOJia. Ho BonjiomeHHe chm- 
BOJia Mo^ceT hoth no asyisi nyTHM, coBnaaaiomHM b pe3yjibTaTax h, Hao6o- 

POT, paCXOflHIIJHMCH B TOHKe OTnpaBJieHHH. Bbl6op nyTeft flJIH nOCTaHOBKH 

onpeaejineTCH Bbi6opoM nyra, HaMeneHHoro aBTOpoM. Xy^o^cecTBeHHoe 
BOcnpoH3Be^eHHe toh hjih hhoh nbecw o6jiernaeT aBTopy BonjiomeHHe 
CHMBOJia. HenoHHMaHHe nyra, Bbi6paHHoro aBTopoM, Hao6opoT, topmo3ht 
BonjiomeHHe CHMBOJia. Ecjih aBTop H^eT ot <J)aHTacTHHecKoro k peajibHo- 
My, ot rpe3bi k fleftcTBHTejibHOcra, nociaHOBKa aojiacHa noanepKHBaTb 
ycjiOBHOdb ipe3bi; TOJibKO TaKHM nyTeM OTKpoeTCH ee peajibHocTb. 

IlyTb ot ycjiOBHoro k peajibHOMy He3HaK0M XyaoacecTBeHHOMy Tea- 
Tpy. 3thm o6T>HCHHeTCH Heycnex MeTepjiHHKOBCKHx nbec. Hao6opoT: b 
noflnepKHBaHHH 4)aHTacraHecKoro sjieMema b peajibHOM XyaoacecTBeH- 
hmh TeaTp He HMeeT conepHHKOB. 51 He 3Haio, kto Bonjioraji b «HeaH06e» 
(J)aHTacraHecKHH KouiMap 3KH3HH - Xy^o^cecTBeHHbiH TeaTp HJIH HexoB, 
TOJibKO npn HTeHHH stoh Han6ojiee cjia6oft H3 hcxobckhx nbec He nojiyna- 
euib h cotoh flOJiH toto BnenaTJieHHH, KaKoe BbmocHuib, BbixoflH H3 TeaTpa. 
Bch nbeca 3aacrjiacb 3^ecb cbctom hhwx peajibHocreft, h mh yBH^ejiH, hto 
Bee 3th cepbie jiioot, HeBpacTeHHKH, nbHHHuw, CKpHTH - Hy^oBHmHeHinee 
nopoacaeHHe cHa, Bpocuine b »CH3Hb (J>aHTOMbi, Ka3aBuiHecH HaM peajibHen 
peajibHoro b He3,aopoBOM TyMaHe HeaaBHero npouuioro. Mw y6eflHjiHCb b 
tom, hto hx h HeT aaace, hto ohh - Hipa TyMaHa, yscacHan Tyna, 3aHaBecHB- 
iiiaa ropH30HTbi. Tyna, noKa OHa bhcht Haa hsmh, KaaceTCH 6e3o6HflHoft h 
cepoft; ho ctoht cjiynaftHOMy Jiyny pa3opBaTb o6MaHHoe MapeBo, KaK no- 
nepHeiOT yHOCHmnecH o6pwbkh; h to, hto Bnepa no npHBbiHKe Ka3ajiocb 
o6bi,aeHHbiM h cepbiM, Tenepb nopa3HT Hac yacacoM 6e3o6pa3HH. 

3noxa, eme BHepa Ka3aBinaflCH HaM CTOJib peajibHOH, B^pyr 0Ka3a- 
jiacb TH^cejibiM KouiMapoM, KOTopwii mw npHHHJiH 3a peajibHocTb. Xyao- 

^CeCTBeHHblH TeaTp C 6eCKOHCHHOH MyflpOCTbK) HeyjIOBHMblMH IIITpHXaMH 

o6pHCOBaji (J)aHTacTHHecKHH yacac He^aBHeft snoxn, B3rjiHHyB Ha Hee, KaK 
Ha aajieKoe npoimioe. C yflHBHTejibHoft TmaTejibHOCTbio Bcio^y noflnepK- 
HyTbi HeyjiOBHMbie mcjiohh 6wTa, OT^ejiniomHe Hac ot aeBHHOCTbix roflOB 
XIX CTOJieTHH - b pe3yjibTaTe nojiynnjiHCb cKopeft aeBHHOCTbie roflbi 
XVIII CTOJieTHH, bo MHoroM HanoMHHaiomHe KOMHHecKHH yacac comob- 

CKHX KapTHH. 

Mo>kho c yBepeHHOCTbio cKa3aTb, hto «Ueanoea» co3aaji He HexoB, a 
HCKjnoHHTejibHO XyfloacecTBeHHbiH TeaTp. 

1904 



20 AHflpeft Bejibift 



307 



MEPEKKOBCKMft 



CmiyaT 

Ecjih 6bi ^Ba roaa TOMy Ha3a# bm nonuiH okojio nacy ahh b 
JleTHHH ca# b rieTep6ypre, bw BCTpeTHJiH 6bi ero, MajieHbKoro nejioBeKa c 
6;ieaHbiM, 6e;ibiM jihijom h 6ojibniHMH, 6ponieHHbiMH B^ajib r;ia3aMH. 

Renb. Haa HeBOH nypra pa3birpajiacb 6e;ibiMH aTJiacaMH. IIpoTHHyjia 
^jiHHHbie nypra cboh pyKH cKB03b peiueTKy cbhctom; 6e;ibiMH ona^aiomH- 
mh iiBeTaMH - CHeraMH MeTeT OHa aopoacKH. A Ha AopoaeKax oh, MajieHb- 
khh, npHMoft, KaK najiKa, b najibTO c 6o6poBbiM bopothhkom, b mcxoboh 
uianKe. BocKOBoe ero c rycroH, H3 meK pacTymefi KauuaHOBOH 6opoflKOH 
jiuixo: oho hh Ha neM He MoaceT ocraHOBHTbCH. Oh b ayMax, b nyproBOM 
xoxoTe, b He^CHOM, cHe^cHOM flbiMe. Mhmo, mhmo nponjibiBaji ero CHJiyaT, 
CHjiyaT 3a^yMHHBoro cjienija c ninpoKO pacKpbiTbiMH r;ia3aMH - Hecjienija: 
Bee oh bhott, Bee MejioMH 3aMeTHT, co Bcero co6epeT mczj Myflpocra. H bot 
«IleTp h AjieKcefi», r^e bch CHJia b anoxe, b cBoeo6pa3Hofi »ch3hh MejiOHeii: 
3th MejiOHH B03Be.neT oh b uuoe, Mueoe: no^ BHeuiHeft jihmhhoh 6biTa ojkh- 
bht HecKa3aHHbiH TpeneT rp^mymero - see ajih Hero chmbojiw. Ho h ero 
jihijo Toace chmboji. Bot oh npoxo^HT - noflOHflHTe k HeMy, B3r;iHHHTe: h 
BocKOBoe 3to, xojioflHoe 3to jihua MepTBoe, npocHHeT Ha MrHOBeHHe nena- 

TbK) H30mpeHHOH 5KH3HCHHOCTH, nOTOMy HTO H B eflBa yjIOBHMblX MOpiUH- 

Hax BOKpyr r;ia3, h b H3ni6e pTa, h b cnoKOHHbix rjia3ax - 03apeHHe CKpbi- 
twm njiaMeHeM 6euieHbix BOCToproB; y Hero jxbsl jiHija: h oaho, KaK neneji; h 
flpyroe, KaK ocHHHHaa, ayxoM cropaioman CBena. Ho Ha HCTHHHbifi jihk ero 
ycTajiocTb MepTBeHHaa Jierjia TpyzjOM h 3a6oTOH. Otoh^htc - h bot onHTb 
MacKa. H HeT Ha Heft nenaTH HeyjioBHMbix BOCToproB, HeracHMbix. H^eT 
b 6e;ioneHHOM KpyaceBe KHceftHoft nypra. Haa hhm ckbo3hoh oMO(})op 
CHeroBofi h thxhh roBop apeBec o6jieTeBiHHx. BepHO, o6^yMbiBaeT cboh 
HOBbift Tpya, o kotopom jieT nepe3 nHTb 3aroBOpHT EBpona. KaKoe xojioa- 
Hoe MepTBoe jihijo! KaK 6y/jTO Ta caMaa anoKajiMnTHHecKaa MepTBeHHOCTb 
coBpeMeHHofi 5KH3HH, o KOTopoft cKa3aji oh TaK rjiy6oKo, TaK cHjibHO Jier- 
Jia rpo6oBOH TeHbio Ha ero jihijo, ho noA Heft chhct 6panHaa 3apn hoboh 
»ch3hh, o KOTopoft oh ace cyMeji cKa3aTb cjioBaMH AnoKajinncHca: «H ayx, 
h HeBecTa roBopHT: npHH^H». 

«IlpHHAH H nOHMH». BOT HTO TOBOpHT HaM Mepe5KK0BCKHH CBOHM XO- 

jio^HbiM jihijom: «5I Homy b ce6e cjia^Koe 3HaHHe: ho tw caM npHHAH h 

nOHMH». 

Ecjih 6m mm noAOuuiH k HeMy 3^ecb, b JleTHeM ca#y, nocMOTpeji 6m Ha 
Hac oh xojioflHbiM, HenpHH3HeHHbiM B3opoM, noKJiOHHjiCH 6w cyxo, cyxo. 
H npomeji. MeTejib 3a\iejia 6bi ot Hac MajieHbKoro nejiOBeKa, cyMeBinero 
CKa3aTb TaKne 6o;ibiuHe cjioBa, hto nojmbift cmmcji hx eme He pa3ra^aH 
Hanieft snoxoft h oco6eHHO pyccKHMH. O HeM roBopHT EBpona, hm bocxh- 



308 



maeTcn Oepcrep-HHiune, BHfleBinaa CTpa^aHHH CBoero BejiHKoro 6paTa. 
A mw ero HHTaeM h tobophm: « MepeacKOBCKHH omrrb Hanncaji o ^octo- 

6BCK0M». 

B MeTejiHx BCTaBaji nepeao mhoh o6jihk MepeacKOBCKoro b ahh Moefi 
iohocth: h h ero eme He 3Haji jihhho. Ero coHHHeHHe « Tojictoh h ^octo- 
eBCKHH» 6hjio RJia MeHH npH3biBOM (})eBpajibCKOH Bbiora npeABeceHHeii, 
noiomefi o Rne BOccraHHH H3 MepTBbix. Oh cyMeji pa3ra#aTb ahkhh, Me- 

TejIbHblH KpHK, H3 KOTOpOrO p05KflaJiaCb CTpaCTb Ahhh KapeHHHofi k BpoH- 
CKOMy; b npeflBeceHHHH MeTejibHbiH kphk BonjiOTHJi CTpa^aHHe Hnmiie; b 
MeTejiHx oTKpbiBajiacb eMy 6ypn CBeTa, h ee oh Ha3Baji CBoefi pejiHrHeii. 

Mw no3HaKOMHJiHCb 6jih3ko. H h BH^aji MepeacKOBCKoro b ero o6hh- 
hoh nporyjiKe no JleraeMy ca^y. Mw apyacecKH roBopHJin, ho oh yxo^HJi b 
rjiy6HHy cbohx Mbicjieii. Oh Tor^a C03flaBaji «IIeTpa». 

TaK H3 ro^a b tor nocjie yTpeHHHx 3aHHTHH 6poAHJi oh b nycTbiHHbix 
ajuienx JleTHero ca^a. TaK ace oh 6po,zjHT Tenepb b IlapHace, rfle-HH6y,zjb b 
Passy. IIomhk), hijih mw BenepoM no rop6aToii rue Renouare mhmo flHKoro 
aoMa, r^e HeKoraa aaui MeTepjiHHK; ocraHOBHjiHCb y hhihh crapHHHoro 
AOMa, b KOTopoii Kor^a-TO CTOHJia CTaTyn MaaoHHbi, o neM CBHfleiejibCTBO- 
BajiH KaMeHHbie, no,zi; HHineio Bbi6HTbie cjiOBa. Tenepb b HHiny bkjichjih 
peicnaMy c H3o6pa^KeHHeM Me4)HCTO(J)ejiH. 3to 6hjio b acaHpe MepeaocoB- 
CKoro. Oh ocTaHOBHjicn, nocMOTpeji Ha cnyraHKOB: «KaKOBo?» - HaM cra- 
jio CTpauiHO. 

Tenepb 6po^HT oh Taicon ace MajieHbKHH h npnMOH c xojioflHbiM 6ejibiM 
jihuom h Bflajib 6ponieHHbiMH r;ia3aMH b ye^HHeHHbix ajuienx ByjiOHCKO- 
ro jieca. IIponbixTHT aBTOMo6n7ib. IIpouoKaeT 6ejiaa jiouia^b noa ciaTHbiM 
KaBajiepHCTOM b H3nmHOM Ksnn c 3aKpyneHHbiMH ycaMH. Oh 6poflHT TyT h 
o6AyMbiBaeT CBoero «IIaBJia». 

MepeacKOBCKHH jiio6ht ye^HHeHHe. 3to noTOMy, hto oh - 6ojibinoH xy- 
aoacHHK. Ho KaK Tojictoh, KaK Torojib, KaK ^octocbckhh, roBopHT oh CBoe 
«HeT» acTeTHHecKoii KyjibType, bo hmh KyjibTypw pejiHrno3HOH. yean- 
HHHCb, TBOpHT (})opMyjibi jnoflCKoro e^HHeHHH. H TyT oh, KaK Tojictoh, KaK 
Torojib, - xo^HHee npoTHBopeHHe, noTOMy hto b >kh3hh oh - 6ojibinoH xy- 
^o^chhk. H xyzjoacHHK 6ojibine, neM nponoBe/uiHK. H HeT nejiOBeKa 6ojiee 
3aMKHyToro, neM oh, xoth oh h cnoco6eH roBopHTb MHoro h aojiro. Ho eme 
6ojiee jiio6ht oh rauiHHy JleTHero caaa 3hmoh, h aTjiacHbiii pyKaB MeTejiH, 
jiH3HyBinHH okho cepe6paHbiMH 3Be3^aMH, o6opBeT ero Ha nojiycjiOBe. Oh 
6wcTpo npo6eacHT b nepe^Hioio, ocTaBHB co6eceflHHKa. Ero hct: oh 6poflHT 
b MeTejiH. 

O, KaK 3HaKOMa MHe TaKan KapTHHa. 

Bojibinan KOMHaTa, oKJieeHHan KpacHbiMH o6ohmh. IlyHijoBbie yrjin 
KaMHHa TJieioT thxo: 6y^TO 3o;iotoh Jieonapa, HcnempeHHbiii cepwMH nnT- 
HaMH; thxo noTpecKHBaiOT b KaMHHe. Ha ^HBaHe 3. H. Mepe^cKOBCKan b 

309 



20* 



6eJI0M, C KpaCH0-30JI0TbIMH BOJIOCaMH, BCH B OTCBeTaX OTHH, 3aTHHyBIHHCb 

Ha^ymeHHOH nannpocKOH, sejxej aojiryio, bcio o3apeHHyio BHyTpeHHHM 
cBeTOM 6eceay c KaKHM-HH6y,ztf> HOBoo6pameHHWM mhcthkom. C HeaceH- 
ckoh jioBKOCTbio (J)exTyeT 0Ha AHajieKTHKoft, tohho odpo OTToneHHoft pa- 
impoH, h co6eceaHHK, 6y^b oh tohko o6pa30BaHHMH (J)hjioco(J) hjih 6oroc- 
jiob, HeBOJibHO OTCTynaeT nepea CBepKaiomHM jie3BHeM ee aHajiiraa. A OHa 

TO CBepTblBaeTCH KJiy60HK0M Ha flHBaHe, TO HpKHM nopblBOM BbinpHMHTCH, 

BbiMaHHB ,aoKa3aTejibCTBo b cbok) nojib3y, h nannpocKa ee onniiieT no bo3- 
jsyxy orHeHHbift Kpyr. Co6eceflHHK no6eECfleH. Ch^ht y KaMHHa, onycTHB 
rojiOBy, h mnnuaMH pa3MeniHBaeT npwe yrojibfl, KHnnmne 30jiotmm poeM 
hckp, tohho HCKpaMH inHnynero niaMnaHCKoro. H yac XMejib 6eceabi, bhho 

HOBOe peJIHrH03HbIX HCKaHHH, HflOM CJia^KHM, 6jiar0^aTHbIM, HeOTpa3HMO 

bxo^ht b ero ayuiy. 

BepoHTHO, naca 3a flBa nepea TeM npoH3omjia bot Kaicafl cueHa. Co- 
6eceaHHK npHineji k J\. C. MepeacKOBCKOMy, hto6m noTOJiKOBaTb c hhm. 
Ero npoBejiH b Ka6HHeT. TaM u2lji ctojiom, 3aBajieHHbiM KHHraMH, hs.jx 
BbinHCKaMH H3 3KKapTcxay3eHa, Haa JXuouucueM ApeonarHTOM hjih 
nan HcaaKOM CHpHaHHHOM (moecct 6wTb, Haa BaKyHHHbiM, TepueHOM, 
IIIejiJiHHroM hjih aaace Haa apa6cKHMH cKa3KaMH - oh HHTaeT Bee) c 
apoMaraoH cnrapoH b pyne noflHHJicn R. C. MepeacKOBCKHH h Heao- 
yMeBaiomHM, xojioahwm B3opoM nocMOTpeji Ha noceraTejiH: nocMOTpeji 
CK603b Hero - oh Bcerzja cmotpht cxeo3b nejiOBeKa, cxeo3b creHbi, cxeo3b 
npocTpaHCTBO h BpeMH. TyT, Ka3ajiocb 6m, h aojiaceH CKa3aTbca b Me- 
Pokkobckom nponoBe^HHK: sent npniiijiH k HeMy roBopHTb o cjioBe aura- 

HH. TyT H flOJDKeH 6bl BblHTH H3 3aKOJIflOBaHHOrO Kpyra CJIOBeCHOCTH, H3 
UHTaT, CCblJIOK, BbinHCOK. 

Ho HeT. 

CKajKeT: «Hto co6cTBeHHO BaM yroflHO? Bot h ceHnac»... H 6biCTpw- 
mh inaraMH yxo^HT b KOMHaTy, r^e TenjiHTcn KaMHH. «3HHa, ko MHe 
npnuieji KaKOH-TO nejioBeK. IloroBopH c hhm. 51 c hhm roBopHTb He 
Mory». H 3. H. MepeacKOBCKan, 6biTb mohcct, b cotwh pa3 npHHHMaeTcn 3a 
cboh onepauHOHHMH Hoac anajieKTHKH, TaK yMejio aMnyTHpyiomHH H3Bbi 
ayuiH. OHa, tohho noMomHHK BHpTyo3a, xnpypra, npnroTOBJifleT ycjioBHH 
Ann 6eceflbi Heo(J)HTa c Mepe5KKOBCKHM. Ecjih c hhm mo^cho bccth penb o 
cjioBax rjiy6oKHx h BaacHbix, ecjin no,zmaeTCH CBeTy ero ayma, ero npnrjia- 
cht, npnrjiacHT eme h eme pa3. Toraa-TO R. C. MepeaucoBCKHH 6pbi3HeT Ha 
Hero mojihhhmh cBoeii penH. Oh cjihuikom ymeji b aeTajiH eMy jno6e3Hbix 
TeM h, KaK cneunajiHCT, yMeeT 6paTb TeMy bo Been rjiy6HHe. B npoTHBHOM 
cjiynae oh oxaejibiBaeTcn bhjimmh cxeMaMH. H noTOMy-TO jiioot, He yMeio- 
mne no^oHTH k STOMy njiaMeHHOMy nejioBeKy, TaK nacTO roBopHT c khc- 
jiwmh rpHMacaMH: «Mepe*CKOBCKHH - cxojiacraK». 3to 3HanHT - b hhx He 

OKa3aJIOCb HCTHHHOH }KH3HH TJiy6HHHOH, H MepOKKOBCKHH, KaK MHM03a, 

Becb ci>e»CHJiCH nepea hhmh, 3aBepHyjica b cxeMbi. 



310 



Bot noneMy oh He jik)6ht ca\i noaxoflHTb k nejiOBeKy; npeanoHHTa- 
eT cweTb y ce6n b Ka6HHeTe 3a (J)o;iHaHTOM hjih aaace jieacaTb Ha cocJ)e c 
apa6cKHMH CKa3KaMH, BpeMeHaMH npoxaacHBaacb no Ka6HHeTy c CHrapoii 
b pyne, h cjiyinaTb Bbiory, h BTopHTb ee njiany, hto-to HacBHCTbiBaa cboh- 

MH 6oJIbUIHMH, TeMHblMH iy6aMH. 

IIotom, 6biTb MoaceT, BOH^eT h b KOMHaTy, rae H^eT MHoronacoBOH pa3- 
roBop, rae 30JioTbie KaMHHHbie yrjiH noTyxjiH, h b KaMHHe rpyaa hx, npeacae 
npan, KaK onieHHbiH 3Bepb, Tenepb - 3Bepb nenejibHbiii. BcTaHeT b flBepnx 
c 3acTHBinHM jihijom, o6paMjieHHbiM co men pacTymHMH BOJiocaMH, o6Be- 
AeT co6ece,aHHKa cKynaiomHM B3opoM, Ha ero Bonpoc otbctht HeBnonaa. 
Ero nepe6beT 3. H. MepeacKOBCKaa: « ( Hmhtphh, aa mm cobccm o apyroM». 
A oh He cjimuiht: HfleT - HAeT k ce6e, k cbohm KHHraM, k cbohm ayMaM, k 
cbohm necHHM. B Tpy6e cbhctht Bbiora, MaiueT KpwjibHMH, h 3arjiHflbiBaeT 

B OKHa, H npHJIHnaeT K HHM MOp03HbIMH, 6pHJIJIHaHTOBbIMH JIHJIHHMH. 

3to HHnero. 

3aT0 KaKOH HeacHofi npocTOTOH, KaKoii OTenecKOH jiacKoii BcrperaT oh 
BCHKoro deucmeumejibHoso, zjiySoicozo, kto cyMeeT no/toft™ k HeMy. Bw- 
CTpo HCTaeT BOCKOBan Macna paBHOflyumoH cnyKH Ha ero jinije, KaK Taio- 
man CBena npe^BOCKpecHOH cjiyEc6bi. 06hhmct h nouejiyeT. H 6apxaTHbiii, 
BApyr OKpenuiHii rojioc ero, tohho rojioc pwKaiomero JibBa, 6yaeT rpoMKO 
h aojiro pa3^aBaTbCH b nojiyocBemeHHofi KOMHaTe cpe^H THXoro njiecKa 
30JiOTbix KaMeHbeB, acapoM KHnnmHX b KaMHHe. 

Co6eceflHHK ymeji. Benep. 3bohkh. 3to - EepflneB, hjih Bojdkckhh, 
hjih kto-jih6o hhoh. H 6eceaa. H MepeaeKOBCKHH, MajieHbKHH, yioTHbiH, 
jiacKOBO xoott no KOMHaTe, h to pa3flaeTCH ero CMex, to mojihhch pa3pe3a- 
eT oh pa3roBop. KaK yMeeT npnMO CTaBHTb Bonpocw oh, ocBemaTb cbohm 

MHpOC03epuaHHeM BCe - HayKy, 3KH3Hb, HCKyCCTBO? 

H yae BepaneB, Bceraa cnoKOHHbiH, Bcer^a rpycTHbifl, Hey3HaBaeM: 
rjia3a ropHT, mhcjih hckphtch. 

TyT b yioTHoii KBapTHpe Ha JIhtchhoh CKOJibKO pa3 npHXOflHJiocb MHe 

npHCyTCTBOBaTb npH CaMblX 3HaHHTeJIbHbIX, yTOHHeHHblX npeHHHX, Hajio- 

^chbuihx OTnenaTOK Ha bck> moio 3KH3Hb. TyT co3flaBajiHCb HOBbie mwcjih, 
pacuBeTajiH HHKor^a He pacuBeTaBiune ubctm. ripoxo^Hjio MHoro Mecn- 

UeB, H MblCJIH 3TH HaHHHaJIH neCTpHTb CTpaHHUbl acypHajioB, HHorAa B hc- 

Ka^ceHHOM, npeBparaoM ocBemeHHH, 6e3 oran, 6e3 npaB^bi, h o hhx tobo- 
Phjih: «Bot HOBoe TeneHHe, bot 3pora3M, bot mhcthhcckhh aHapxH3M». 
H MepexcKOBCKHH xoxoTaji, bh^h ceoe, TaK npeBpaTHO noHHToe. 

TyT, y ce6n, Koraa no BenepaM npnxoflHJiH ^py3bH, 6jiH3KHe, noKJioH- 

HHKH, MepeaCKOBCKHH pa3BepTbIBaJICH BO BCK) CBOK) BeJIHHHHy: Ka3aJICH 
6oJIbIUHM H 6JIH3KHM, pOflHbIM, HO flaJieKHM, npOHH3aHHbIM JiyHaMH OAHO- 

ro eMy BeflOMoro BocTopra: Ka3ajicn npeKpacHbiM, 6hji cbohm co6ctbch- 
hwm xyaoaeecTBeHHbiM npoH3Be,aeHHeM. ToBopHji cjiOBa rjiy6oHaiiineH 
HCKpeHHOCTH, a ecjiH cnopnji, cnopnji 6e3 Tex npneMOB jiHTepaTypHOH 



311 



BeacjiHBOCTH, KOTopaa onouiJineT h o6ecu,eHHBaeT Bee KopeHHbie Bonpo- 
cw, b KOTopwx npeaczje Bcero TpeneT TaHHbi, a He TpeneT BeacjiHBOcra, He 
TpeneT ycjiobhocth. H KaK He jiio6hjih MepeacKOBCicoro Te, kto KacaeTcn 
CBHToro-CBHTbix HejiOBenecKoro 6hthh h npn stom He MoaceT aaace b 3th 
MHHyTbi KacaHHH cepaeu; 3a6biTb ycjiOBHOCTb. 3,zjecb, y MepeacKOBCicoro, 
BOHCTHHy TBopHJiH KyjibTypy, h cjiOBa, npoH3HeceHHbie Ha 3toh KBapTHpe, 
pa3B03HjiHCb jiobkhmh ac|)epHCTaMH cjiOBa. BoKpyr Mepe^CKOBCKoro 06- 

pa30BaJICH UeJIblH SKCnOpT HOBblX TeHeHHH 6e3 ynOMHHaHHfl HCTOHHHKa, 

H3 KOToporo Bee nepnajiH. Bee 3^ecb Kor^a-TO ynnjiHCb, jiobhjih ero cjiOBa. 
Tenepb 3th cjiOBa c nepecraBjieHHbiMH npjibiHicaMH ropnT CKyno h TycKJio. 
Ho ohh ropHT HacTonmHM oraeM y MepeacKOBCKoro. W ero 6ohtch - 3a- 
MajiHHBaiOT, 3aMeTaioT cjie^w. 

J\&> rjiy6oica5i My^pocTb, coe/mHeHHan c npoHHKHOBeHHeM b TaflHbi 

npHpOflbl, H flOHbIHe B Mepe5KKOBCKOM. H flOHbIHe Xyfl05KHHK oh, noaT 
THIHHHbl, H3 KOTOpOH p02CflaK)TCfl rpOMbl erO peneHHH. BblBaJIO, TOBOpHT, 

MeTe^b cHe^cHbiM b OKHe kpwjiom 3a6beT, - h oh npHCMHpeeT, 3aMOJiHHT; 
6bicTpbiMH uiaraMH npofl^eT b nepe^Hioio. «A r#e ace ^mhtphh Cepree- 
bhh?» HeT ero: oh ymeji b MeTejib. 

H onHTb 3. H. Mepe^cKOBCKan oflHa npoaojiacaeT 6eceay. C HaaymeH- 
hoh nanHpocKOH ch^ht Ha co4>e, a Bep^neB, hjih Ohjioco4)ob, hjih h - mm 
chotm y KaMHHa, MeuiaeM yrojibn. B oKHax xoxot MeTejieft h cepe6pHHbiH 
abiM. Cepe6pHHbiS flbiM noKpbiBaeT CTorHbi IleTporpa^a. 

A b chokhom flbiMy, 3anopouieHHbiH ujxgt MajieHbKHH nejiOBeic c xo- 
jio^HbiM, xojioflHbiM jihijom, h 6ojibuiHe, ocTaHOBHBiHHecH nia3a ero npo- 
HH3biBaioT h MeTejib, h ropoa, h npocTpaHCTBO, ynjibiBaa b HHbie npocrpaH- 
CTBa, b HHbie BpeMeHa. 

npe^BeceHHHH MeTejib - h b Heft MepeaucoBCKHH. 5i jxyudji o HeM 
eme npeacae bo nun MeTejieft. B MeTejibHbift aeHb no3HaKOMHjicH h c hhm. 
H Macro Tenepb o HeM BcnoMHHaio b MeTejinx. 

1907 

Tpmiorwa 
I 

Ilepca B3opoM 3a^yMHHBoro o6biBaTe;iH HHKoraa eme He 

BCKpblBaJIHCb BJieKyiUHe Tponbl K BeHHbIM uchhocthm b HCTOpHHeCKHX 

cy,5b6ax KyjibTypbi pyccKOH. To npe^CTOHJiH HaM co6jia3Hbi nyuiKHHCKOH 
uejibHOCTH, hbjihh oxMejieHHHH o6pa3 po^Horo TBopnecTBa. Ho Ha hto 

H30JIbeTCH TBOpHeCKHH XMeJIb, B HeM UeJIbHOCTb CKaaceTCH, He 3HaJIH Mbl. 

HeM pa3peuiHTCH Bemaa HeMOTa ayiiiH cjiaBHHCKOH, CKa3aTb He MorjiH. To 
Torojib KpHnaji HaM cjiOBa cjienaiuHe, npoponecKoio ycMeuiKOH ycMexHyji- 
ch Torojib. Torojib MaHHJi Hac, forojib 3Baji Hac. IIotom ckpiohhjich forojib, 



312 



KaK-TO 6ojie3HeHHo npoBjianHJicH no pyccKofi 5kh3hh. IIpeflHOCHBinHHCH 
o6pa3 6y^ymeH 5kh3hh omcptbhjih cjiOBa noKaHHHbie cjioeM npaxa HeHyac- 

HblM. TOHHO H3 6ora#eJIbHH IIHTajI OH 3aMbICJIbI Ren 6o»cecTBeHHbix h Bce- 

TaKH ocTajiCH b 6ora,aejibHe. EjiecHyji oroHeK H3 rpyflH Torojin, TBopnecTBO 

BCKJIOKOTaJIO B HeM IieHOH o6HJIbHOH, HO HeM 6jIH3Ke BHfleJIH Mbl TOK TBOp- 

necTBa, TeM nyaHee Ka3ajiocb HaM npeBpameHHe neHbi xMejibHOH, H3 ycT 
3a3MeHBineficH, b (J)apaoHOBbix 3Meft, paccbinaiomHxcH nenjiOM. JIobkhh 
6wji (J)OKycHHK Torojib-^HOBCKHH, a MHoroe cyMeji oh cKa3aTb. MHoroe 
CKa3aji 6w HaM Torojib, jia. nonepxHyjicn Torojib h cy/jopoacHbiM KamjieM 
«IIepenucKU» nepe6HJi 03HaneHHbiH nyTb h3jihhhhh cjiobcchmx. PyccKHe 
jho/jh MorjiH 6w yBpaneBaTb cboh He^yra BepHbiM jieicapcTBOM Torojin: Mor 
cocTaBjiHTb Torojib CHa^o6bH 6;iaroflaTHbie, /jypMaHbi cjia/jKHe, yMeji h 6e- 
peacHO coxpaHHTb hx, KaK CKynoft anTeicapb, a yBpaneBaTb He Mor: 6wji /jap 
BpanyiomHH othht ot Hero. 

Bck) »H3Hb OTTanHBaji ^ocToeBCKHH H3BHmee acajio COCTpa^aHHH H c 
hhm yMeji npo6HpaTbCH b cep^ija HauiH BopoM BKpaflHHBbiM Aa mhuchm; 
npHo6mHji Hac jho6obhwm, acajio6HbiM TafiHaM, npoHec 3a co6ofi jibcra- 

BblH npH3paK 3a^yMHHBOH CBHTOCTH. C CepflljeM Me^OBblM, C H30pBaHHOH 
pblflaHbflMH rpyflbK), CO CJie3aMH HCKpeHHHMH Ha TeMHblX, CBepjinmnx 

r;ia3ax, - 6jieflHbiH, 6jie,zjHbiH ctohji Oe/jop MHxaftjioBHH, norapaa pyKH, 
npe/j pyccKHM o6mecTBOM. Bee ac^ajiH cjiOBa, ho KaKoe cjiobo HCceneT rjiy- 
6HHy 6e3MOJiBHH, - h bot acHBonncaTejib OTenecTBeHHoro /jyxa rpHHyjicn 
o 3eMb npe/j pyccKOH HHTejuiHreHijHeH «c zjio30mu nojiHbiMU m)6eu noeou... 
c msutcejihiM 83opoM snwienmuKa^ (MepeaeKOBCKHH). IIohhjih, hto HHnero 
He y3HajiH. IIohhjih, hto HHnero He noHHJiH. Xopoino sto noHHJiH h tohho 
o6pa^OBajiHCb. 

IlpHMeHaTejibHbiH poroBoft rojioc eme He^aBHO rpeMeji, OT3biBancb h 
Ha nwji 6opeHHH yMCTBeHHbix, h Ha cyeTy aaraHH nwjibHOH. Eme He/jaBHO 
xo^HJia cpe/jH Hac KpynHaa (J)Hrypa b KpbiJiaTKe, nonojiHHH cepmxe caMy- 

MaMH CaxapHHCKHMH, 3aTOnjIHH yM 5KeMHyrOBOH He^CHOCTbK) JI063aHHH 

He6ecHbix. IlepcT Bjia#HMHpa CojiOBbeBa npHMO, HeyicocHHTejibHO, hc- 
CTynjieHHO eme He^aBHo k BOCTOKy .zjajieKOMy o6epHyjicn, r^e 3apn ajiaa 
Aa HencHan - 3apn BocxoAHjia. Flo 3TOMy nyTH mm KH^ajiHCb Ha He6o, 3a- 
naMHTOBaB MHoroe. Y3pejiH po3bi jiynen 6jiaro#aTHbix, He ypa3y\ieB, hto 
6ejiH3Ha hx po30BeeT ot npaxa 3eMHoro. rioMepemHJiocb HaM, 6y/jTO 3apa 
HCHOCTbio k 3eMjie npnnaflajia, a npnnajia OHa He cbctom, a npaxoM ajiero- 

mHM. B BblCHX He£OCTH5KHMbIX CBeT H3JIHBaJICH. 

Cica3aji HaM: «BH,a;HTe?» - «Bhahm», - OTBenajiH. A cnpocHJi: «Hero 
ace He HAeTe?» - He MorjiH He OTBeTHTb, yKa3biBan b nepHyio nacTb rjiy6HH 
He6ecHbix, He MorjiH He cKa3aTb c ropecTbio ropbKoft: «He b nacTb jih Ka- 
HyTb?» 

Ax, h Ma^HHjiH, h He MaflHHjiH HaM orHH CTopoaceBbie. UeJIHMH He6w- 
BajibiMH bocxoahjih Ha# HeyTeuiHOH Ayniofi. BH^ejiH nejiu: TOjibKO He yMe- 



313 



jih 6e36oH3HeHHO npH6;iH3HTbCH k hhm. Bot noneMy 3aMenajiHCb orHH Haa 
OTenecTBOM. H oiropajiH. BHOBb h bhobb ocTaBajiHCb mm c 6ecnpe,zjMeT- 

HOCTbK) pyCCKOH fleHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH, C .ZjeHCTBHTeJIbHOCTbK), pa3T>efleHHOH 

BceB03MO»CHbiMH H3T>HHaMH, Ha uiHpoKHX MOHrojibCKHx paBHHHax, nepe- 
MbiTbix OBparaMH. 

Ho HbH co3HAaTe;ibHbie HanepTaHHH 3acTaBjiHJiH Hac ycTpeMJiHTbcn 

yCTpeMJieHHeM flyXOBHbIM, HbH C03HflaK)mHe HMeHa BOJIHOBaJIH BOJIHeHH- 

eM HeyKpoTHMbiM, HbH chw 3aneHaTJieBajiHCb nenaTbio BenHoro h 3aayM- 
MHBoro, TeM cyMeeM noKJiOHHTbca noiaiOHOM, npHHecTH B03,abixaHHe Hauie 
HeyracHMoe. 

OdpbiM B3opoM xojioahwm CKOJib3Hyji MepeaocoBCKHH noBepx cy- 
MepeK 6yflHHHHOH >kh3hh, mto6 ycTaBHTbCH b ynop Ha TaiiHy Torojin h 
ZlocToeBCKoro. CTajibHbiM jie3BHeM B3opa pacceK noicpoBbi TaiiH, h Tor^a 

OKa3aJIOCb, HTO paBHO CTOHT OH H Hafl KyjIbTypOH aCKeTHHeCKOH, H Ha^ 

KyjibTypoft anHJienTHHecKoii, 03apeHHbiii cbctom HOBoro pejiHrH03Horo 

C03HaHHH. 

K aajiHM npouiJioro o6epHyjicn noTOM MepeacKOBCKHH, h 3aflCHejiH 
npH6;iH3HBiHHecfl ^aJiH. CTapwe o6pa3bi KaK-TO no-HOBOMy 3aroBopnjiH c 

HaMH, H Mbl npHHaCTHJIHCb npHHaCTHCM 5KH3HH HCBeflOMOH. Co CTpaHHU 

BceMHpHOH hctophh rjiHHyjiH Ha Hac po^Hbie ohh, 3HaKOMwe. 3a npH3pan- 
Hoii ByajibK) HCTopHnecKHx 4>aiCTOB noAHHMajiacb TaiiHa e^HHoro hmchh. 
Kto-to ctohji h 3Baji Hac H3 npouiJioro, ho h 6yaymee flOHecjio k HaM ro- 
jioc; Bee tot ace MepeacKOBCKHH b o6pa3ax npouiJioro cyMeji BocKpecHTb 
jihk He6biBajioro 6y,aymero, h bch hctophh npeBparajiacb b HCKaHHe e#H- 
Horo jiHKa. 

/lopora HaM naMHTb xpHcraaHCTBa, coneTaBiiiafl ayuiy c o6pa3aMH 
BejiHKHx ryMaHHCTOB npocBemeHHH. Bee Mbi npHnacTHbi 3TOMy npocBeT- 
jiHiomeMy BeHHHio. TaK HeaaBHO Bee mh corjiacHbiM xopoM 0TKa3ajiHCb 6h 
pa3,aejiHTb npocBemeHHe c xpncTHaHCTBOM. 3to o6jiaropo5KHBaiomee 6e3- 
MOJiBHoe corjiameHHe e^Ba jih He pacnajiocb Tenepb, Kor^a 3HaKOMCTBO 
c mhpom H3binecKHM 3aHHMaeT b ayiiie Hameft TaKoe BH^Hoe MecTO. IIo- 
hhb 6jiaropo,aHbiH o6pa3 apeBHero ajuiHHa, He3aMeTHO nocraBHJiH ero 
Ha ajiTapb ayuiH, o30jiothjih haoji TenjiOM cojmeHHbiM, H3 KaAHjibHHu; 
pa3BepHyjiH npea hhm flbiMHO-CHHHe KypeHHH jichtw. C hctophhcckhx 
ropH30HTOB He3aMeTHO oTCTynnjia H^ea xpncTHaHCKan b TeMHOTy Heap 
aymeBHbix, h Ha 6epery co3HaHHH ocTajincb acajnene octobw aorMaTH- 
necKoro crpoHTejibCTBa. IlepeacHBaHHe h (J>opMa pa3,aejiHJiHCb Tenepb; 
0Ka3ajiacb (J)opMa y6oron, h ot 4>opM ocBo6oac,zjeHHbie HeyjioBHMO cnjie- 
TajiHCb c 6ojie3HeHHo H3BpameHHbiMH KopnaMH ayxa acHBOTBopHbie, 06- 
pa3yioiuiHe nepeacHBaHHH xpHcraaHCTBa. Ecjih KyjibTypa ajuiHHCKafl bw- 
KopMHjia xpncTHaHCTBO, - Hao6opoT, Tenepb Ha AorMaranecKHX k&mhhx 
Becejioro 3aijBejiH 3ejieHoro Jiyna ijbcthkh necrpbie, hto6w HCCTynjieHHO 
Tep3ajia hx njiHiuymaa Hora. 



314 



KaK OTpa3Hjiocb BeHHoe noHHMaHHe TaftHbi Ha 4>opMax HcropHHecKoro 

XpHCTHaHCTBa, paCCMOTpeTb HaM H HpaBOyHHTCJIbHO, H JIK)6onbITHO. CTaHJI 
JIHK JieflHHOft, JIHK HKOHOnHCHblH flOrMaTHHeCKOIX) XpHCTHaHCTBa, BeUIHH- 

mh 3acTpyncb crpyjiMH. Tenepb HaM Ka^ceTCH no^nac, hto h He 6wjio ero 
HHKoraa. Ohh pacTOHHJiH npo3paHHyio Kopy, o6HapyacHB jiyroBHHy 3ejie- 
Hyio. Iloacajiyft, cKa3ajiH 6w MHorae, hto h He 6biJio xpHcraaHCTBa, KaK oco- 
6oro yneHHH, KopeHHbiM o6pa30M npeno6eflHBiuero H3binecTBa, a hto 6wjih 
TOJibKO MHoroo6pa3Hoe H3ompeHHe, a no^nac h H3BpameHHe H3binecTBa. 

TOBOpHT, HTO XpHCTHaHCTBO - npeOflOJieHHe H3bIHeCTBa. E^CeJIH 3TO 

TaK, to uojx nejieHOH H3binecKHx o6pa30B oKpenjiH chmbojiw xpHcraaHCTBa. 
Ho Koraa TOJibKO 06 o^hhx H3i>HHax fl3binecTBa h roBopHT, He bh^ht, hto 
(J)Hjioco(J)CKHe, HayHHbie h acreTHnecKHe uchhocth 3a ooto yac cjieaoBajio 

6bl npHHHCJIHTb K H3BaM THOftHMM, 6e3o6pa3flmHM JIHK XpHCTHaHHHa; H 

aaace 6ojiee toto: bca KyjibTypa Tor^a - cnjioiimofi npoBaji, cnjioiimafl nep- 
Haa nacTb, 3a3HHBmafl Ha jihkc xpHcraaHCKOM. 3to jih He yacac, He npe^eji 
OTnaHHHH. TaM, r^e nafljiH BH^eTb nycTbiHHoacHTejin, yKpbraaiomero hcmo- 
mn cboh BJiacHHHueii, OKa3ajicH nycToft TeMHbifi njiam jxa. BbiCTaBJieHHan 
H3-noA njiama 6e3rjia3oro nepena nejuocTb acejiTaa - CTapaa nejnocTb. 

Bo Bcex nacTHx 3aMenaTejibHOH «Tpmioiuu» MepeacKOBCKoro aceji- 
Taa CMepTH nejuocTb CKajiHTcn HeyMOJiHMO, 6e30CTaHOBOHHO CKajiHTca. 
C MacTepcTBOM HeonncyeMbiM, c apoacbio npejx coBepiiiHBmeficH no^Me- 

HOfi JIHKa XpHCTHaHCKOrO 06Hapy3KHBaeT MepeJKKOBCKHH HOHH HepHblH 

npoBaji b HCTopHHecKHx (J)opMax pejiHrHH. CMepTb - crapHHHafl rocTbH - 
nocemajia eme nepBbix xpncraaH, a yac ko BpeMeHH TopacecrBa xpHcra- 
aHCTBa npoHHo nocejiHJiacb OHa b rocTenpHHMHO pacKpwTbix nepe^ Heft 
Heapax uepKBH HCTopHnecKoft. C pe^Koft npaB^HBOCTbio pa36npaeT aajiee 
Mepe^cKOBCKHft b «BocKpeciuux 6ozax» TaftHbie npyacHHbi, ynpaBjiHBuiHe 
nocTynKaMH haobhtwx MOHaxoB. IIpyacHHaMH sthmh ABjiajiHCb h nycTaa 
CKop6b, h CKonnecKan 6oH3Hb, h HCTepHKa ayin, He BpanyeMbix cbctom. 
B apKOM ^CHBonHcaHHH noKa3aji HaM MepeaacoBCKHfi 3eMHoe, 3flopoBoe 
fl^po XpHCTHaHCTBa. Ha crpaHHuax, chhioiuhx HCKpaMH jiio6bh h na4>o- 
ca, y6eAHJi Hac, hto 6birae Tejia h cjioBecHOCTb ayxa jkhbotbophm jinuib b 
o^Hoft pejiHrHH coeflHHeHHH, a chmboji BOCKpecaiomeft TaftHbi - e^HHoro 
cjiOBa, CTaBiuero e^HHoft njioTbio BOCKpecuieft. B STofi njiOTH aojiacHbi mm 
TOHyTb, b Heft aojDKHO BocKpecHyTb BcejieHCKoe e^HHeHHe HejiOBenecTBa. 

IlepBbift nocjie Hniuue coe^HHHji MepeacKOBCKHft 4>opMbi xpncTHaH- 
CTBa c o6pa3aMH hcthhhoto fl3binecTBa. CyMeji yKa3aTb Ha 3ajieacH apa- 
roueHHOCTeft BepHbix, pacnojioacHTb BOKpyr hhx bhxph BceMHpHoft hcto- 

PHH, TaK HTO repOH OHOft OKa3aJIHCb JIHHHHaMH Onp03paHHeHHbIMH, BeHHO 

ueHHbiM CBeTOM 3aaoKeHHbiMH. BopeHHH HauiH yrpioMbie, cbctm 6ypHbie, 
H3 rjiy6nH ayuiH Ha noBepxHOCTb »ch3hh HCToprayTbie, OKa3ajincb He HaM 
npHHafljieacamHMH, hctophhcckhmh. Hao6opoT, caMa hctophh, KaK He»c- 
Ha^ MaTb, 3arjiHHyjia 6jiH30CTbio b ohh, yjibi6HHBoft Aymoft o6epHyjiacb. 



315 



BoHCTHHy BejiHKHH MacTep MepeacKOBCKHft: npea jihijom Bcero eBponeft- 
CKoro HejiOBenecTBa o6HapyacHJi oh npeaonpeaejieHHOCTb nyieH coKpo- 
BeHHbix 5KH3HH h flyxa. IlepBbiH nocjie Hniune onHTb, h onHTb, h onnTb 
npo6Hji mojiotom ^CHBonHcaHHH BepHyio 6peuib H3 rjiy6HH ayuiH Ha no- 
BepxHOCTb »ch3hh HCTopHHecKOH, h .zjeHHoe, BHeuiHee b HeH3peneHHOM 3a- 
najiocb, h HeH3peHeHHoe nojiynnjio flap penn otbhoh. HeMoe 3aroBopHJio, 
h HeBeflOMoe name h name HaBe^biBaTbCH crajio. HHTaa MepeacKOBCKoro, 

TOHHO HaXOflHHIbCfl UOJX OHapOBaHHCM eflHHOH MHCTepHH, me cyzjb6bi Ha- 

poflOB h reHHeB h HCTopHnecKHe - TOJibKO hhhw cjiy»c6bi 6jiarojienHoft. 
H6o Bee 3#ecb npeB03HeceHO, Bee oKyTaHo Kjiy6aMH o6jiaHHoro (J)HMHaMa, 
a MoaceT 6biTb, yace njibiBeuib Ha o6jiaKe. CaMyio 3eMJiio cyMeji npeBpaTHTb 
MepeacKOBCKHH b B0CKJiy6HBiueecH o6;iaKO, noflMbiBaeMoe chhhm njiecKa- 

HbeM 6e3flH 3(})HpHbIX. 

Mepe^cKOBCKHH b «Tpiuiozuu» CBoeft Boceraji Hafl HCTopHeii, icaic 
CTpaac 6oflpcTByiomHH npHrjiacHji Hac, cohhmx, eudemb u aiuwamb. Diy- 
6HHa flyniH h noBepxHOCTb hctophh hbjihiotch Tenepb KaK jxbsl 3epKajia, 
HaBefleHHbie apyr Ha apyra, TOJibKO cpe^H hhx OTKpoeTca 6e3flHa TaiiHbi 
jia6HpHHTHan. Ho He Bee jih paBHO, KaKoe 3epKajio HaBO^HTb Ha apyroe, 
H3 flByx aaHHbix: 3epKajio jih ayuiH, hjih 3epKajio hctophh, hh b tom, hh b 
apyroM, nopo3Hb b3hthx, HHHero TaiiHoro He OTo6pa3HTcn. EacejiH cotbo- 

pHJia HaC HCTOpHH, TO, Hao6opOT, Mbl B HCTOpHH COTBOpeHHbie HBJIHeMCH 

njio^OM TBopnecTBa co6cTBeHHoro. Mw tbophm hctophio. K)jiHaH, Jleo- 
Hap^o, IleTp OKpauieHbi nosTOMy y MepeacKOBCKoro cbctom flep3HOBeHHH 
jie/tfiHbix h HeBe^OMbix. Tepon MepeaocoBCKoro tohho KpwjiaTbie. HcHbie 

H3WKH OrHeBdOmHX KpbUIHH, TOHHO aflCKHe H3bIKH OTHH, njIHUiyT 3JIOBC- 

me Ha CTpaHHi^ax, hm HanHcaHHbix. Bot noneNiy 6oh3ho mhohim, npHBbiK- 
ihhm B3HpaTb Ha MepTByio 3bi6b nocTpoeHHii AorMaTHHecKHX, corjiauiaTb- 
ch c 6oroTBopHecTBOM Mepe^cKOBCKoro. XpHcraaHCTBO MepeacKOBCKoro 
nosTOMy Ka^ceTCH cnepBa BH,aoH3MeHeHHbiM HHijuieaHCTBOM, 6e3 hhctoth 
h 6;iaropoACTBa. Ho Hnuuie ajih MepeacKOBCKoro jinuib npe/yior 3aroBO- 

pHTb B006lUie O peJIHTHH C TOHKH 3peHHH HCKaHHH OCBo6o»CflaK)mHX. IlOHBa 

noA HoraMH hhiuhmh KOJie6jieTCH, TmaH MHoroBeKOBOH, cTapbift, rjibi6aMH 
KaMeHHbiMH 3arjiyuieHHbiH, HanHHaeT noflHHMaTbcn npe^ K)jiHaHOM Boro- 
OTCTynHHKOM, chm Bbipa3HTejieM TaiiHbix paTo6opcTB aym HaxMypeHHbix. 

Hto BHflHT ohh b TeMHO-CH3bix MaccHBax, b ro;iy6oM He6e y Kpyro30- 
pa BenepHero B3BeuieHHbix, 3ojiotwm, kojikhm MOjiHHHHbiM npoBOJiOKOM 
onyTaHHbix, - hto bhaht opjiHHbie rjia3a K)jiHaHa, HMnepaTopcKoii pyKoft 
Me.aHO.aocneiHHOK) Men BJiacra rocy^apcTBeHHOH cacHMaiomero, KaK He 
THTaHa, apyra BepHoro, He^CHbiM tojiocom cbohm 3eMjiio Ha BoccTaHHe He- 
yKporaMO BHOBb 30Bymero. H ctoht HMnepaTop, 3a^yMajiCH - 6biTb mo- 
»ceT, cpe^H uiejiecTa TpaBHHOK, H3yKpauieHHbix u^bctom .ayuiHCTHM. 

«K)jiHaH! K)jiHaH! OTpeKHCb bo hmh Moe ot rajiHjienHHHa... CKB03b 
TyMaH CBepKHyjia yTpeHHHH 3Be3Aa» (Mepe^CKOBCKHH). 



316 



rpycrayio cjiaaocrb Me^OBbix co6jia3HOB, thtshom BOCKpeineHHbix, 
co6;ia3HOB, BeniHHM ayHOBeHHeM k cepjxny npHjibHyBiiiHX, nocjie tooth 
Bepw HeyKOCHHTejibHOH b nepHyio nejiiocTb CMepTH y oahhx h aHaTOMHHe- 

CKHX H3bICKaHHH Hafl OHOH 5Ke, npOH3BefleHHyK> flpyrHMH, - 3Ty CJia^OCTb 

H3o6pa3HJi b «OmeepoiceHHOMP MepeacKOBCKHH. Be^b h THTaH - Taicafl ace 
5KepTBa, KaK h PacnflTbifi. 3HajiH mm, hto ecTb acepTBbi bo hmh Eocene, ho 
y3HajiH, hto h bo Hmh CBoe ecTb ^cepTBbi 6ecKopbicTHbie. GnaaocTb Meao- 
Ban, TnTaHOM BocKpeuieHHan, ecTb cjiaaocrb rpycTH, HeacHOCTb jiio6bh k 
ce6e caMOMy, sto - jno6oBb, bo hmh CBoe Ha KpecT npHniaiiiaiomafl. 

OTpeKHCb bo hmh ceoe ot TajiHJieHHHHa, h 6;iecHeT 3Be3flOH yTpeH- 
Hefl, cepe6poM rpycra BOCKarauibCfl Ha# 3eMJieii. H yace nepea HaMH He 
lOHbifl B3op BOCKpecaiomero fl3binecTBa, a ynopHan 6opb6a B3opoB Meac^y 

BOCCTaBIIIHMH 6oraMH TpeiJHH H B30pOM, o6jIHBaiOmHM nJiaMeHeM aflCKHM 
3THX 6orOB - n030pHmHM B30pOM CaBOHapOJIbI, B KOTOpOM OTTOHHJia acajio 

CBoe i^epKOBb HCTopHHecKan; bot hto BcrpenaeT Hac Ha CTpaHHijax «Boc- 
Kpeciuux 6ozoe». HaKOHeij b «IIempe» 06a MHpoB033peHHH o^HHaKOBO 
HaMenaiOT ot nporaBHoro ijejibHbiii o6pa3 TaftHbi e^HHofl. B stom otph- 
uaTejibHOM noflxoae K hcthhc h c;ia6ocTb «TpHJiorHH», ho b stom ace h 
xyao^cecTBeHHocTb ee. Ecjih 6m MepeacKOBCKHH otkpmto noiueji k hmchh, 
hm y3HaHHOMy, oh He Mor 6h HanncaTb h «TpHJiorHH», a noTOMy cyme- 
CTBOBaHHe ee, CTOJib ijeHHoe ajih hctophh jiHTepaTypw pyccKOH, ecTb mnb- 
ko cjie^cTBHe y aBTopa HeaocTaTKOB mcto/job pejiHrH03Hbix. CoeflHHeHHe 
bchhoh HopMbi ijeHHOCTeii (xpHcraaHCTBa) c nopn^KOM cTpeMHTejibHO 
pacTymnx BpeMeHHbix (H3MHecKHx) ijeHHOCTeH ecTb Bonpoc 6ecKOHeHHo 
3anyTaHHbiH, c KaKOH 6bi ctopohh mm hh npH6jiHacajiHCb k HeMy: no3Ha- 
HHe, o6mecTBeHHOcTb, pejinrHH, HCKyccTBO - Bee 3th i^eHHOCTH npe^CTaB- 
jihiot pa3Hoo6pa3Hbie nonwTKH peuiHTb Bonpoc ochobhoh b tom hjih hhom 
HanpaBJieHHH. IlpH6jiH5KaHCb k peuieHHio Bonpoca cero, no3HaHHe nepe- 
CTaeT 6biTb no3HaHHeM, o6mecrBeHHOcTb - o6mecTBeHHocn>io, pejinrHH - 

peJIHTHeii, HCKyCCTBO - HCKyCCTBOM. Bee CTaHOBHTCfl HHbIM CHMBOJIOM. 

Bot noneMy, npH6jiH»caflCb k KOHijy «TpHjiorHH», mh He MoaceM He BH^eTb 
npHBJieneHHe b HCKyccTBO nepT Bee hobmx, He TOJibKO nonojiHHiomHx Tpe- 
6oBaHHH HCKyccTBa CBo6o^Horo, ho h HapyiuaiomHx; Bee ace xoth OT^ejib- 
Hbie MecTa b «IIempe» aocraraiOT bmcotm h chjim He6biBajiOH. HaH6ojiee 
y^aHHa nacTb nepBan «TpHJiorHH», HaHMeHee yaaHHa nacTb nocjie^HHH. 

II 

Hto bh^ht ohh b TeMHO-CH3bix MaccHBax, b ro;iy6oBaTbix ^a- 
jihx y ropH30HTa BenepHero B3BeineHHbix, 30jiotmm, kojikhm mojihhhhmm 
npoBOJiOKOM onyTaHHbix, - hto y3pe;iH CKop6Hbie ohh IQjiHaHa, HeacHO 
CKJiOHeHHoro nofl JieneT apeBec rycTOJiHCTBeHHbix? CMyrjioii pyKofl Tepe- 
6ht h pBeT xoxonymHH KpoBbio njiam HMnepaTopcKHH, o6;iHBaeMbiH Heac- 



317 



HOCTbio jia3ypH 6jie,a;HOH, tohho Tep3aeMbifi TafiHbiMH noijejiyHMH jxgbh- 
HbHMH, cHOBa npHpo^a o6HaacHjia cbok) HeTjieHHyio njioTb, 3arpH3HeHHyio 
Mep30CTbio onefl noxouiMBbix y6ornx nycTbiHHoacHTejieii, noBajiHBiuHx 
CKonoM b ropo/ja h Been Tenepb, Kor/ja Ha MpaMopax nepioroB ijapcKHx 
6e36oH3HeHHO enHCKonw BJianHjiH napnoBbie pH3bi cboh. 

yCTpeMJieHHblH B30p 6oro6opHeCKHH K THTaHOBCKHM IVIbl6aM CO 

npoBoac^aeT Hac noBciofly b «OmeepotceHHOM». TaM, b aajieKHx rpoMaaax, 
cpeflH KypeHHH o6jiaHHbix ac^eT K)jiHaH THTaH HeacHbiii, onHTb h onHTb 

IipHXOflHmHH K ropH30HTy. Mbl njieHHeMCH fleBCTBCHHOH KpOTOCTbK) TH- 
TaHH3Ma. XpHCTHaHCTBO flOJiaCHa 6bl COnpOBO^aTb 3Ta KpOTOCTb. Bojib- 

Hee Bcero 6mjio 6w HaM c Hefl paccTaTbcn. KpoTOCTb hto6m BJieKJia Hac 
k xpHcraaHCTBy, cbctom poBHbiM 03apnjia ero. Hmh Xphctobo, o6jihhh- 

HOe KpOTOCTbK), CJIOBHO MHpOM IjeHHblM, KaK HaCTO npH3bIBaJIO HaC B JIOHO 
HCTOpHHeCKOH IjepKBH. 

C rjiy6oHaHiHHM xyzjoacecTBeHHMM npoHHKHOBeHHeM noKa3aji HaM 
MepeacicoBCKHH, hto H3binecTBO-To h 6buio HCTHHHbiM cocyzjOM jia3yp- 
hoh THiHHHbi. Beflb TaM 3Ta naiiia - nauia He6a, onpoKHHyian Haa hsmh, 
h He6o - BOBce He Bbicoia, a rjiy6HHa, b KOTopyio hckohh ycrpeMJieH B3op 
HauieH >KH3HH, njiemymencfl Ha noBepxHOCTH. Pa3Hoo6pa3Hbie MopmHHbi 
njiecKaHHH, cjiaraa hctophh, - momcht, h pa3rjiaaaTCfl ohh, h ocTaHeTcn 
TOJibKO THiHHHa 3(})Hpa, B3B6uieHHoro b name He6a. BenHO rojiy6an Heac- 
HOCTb H3binecKoro He6a hbjihctch (J)ohom, Ha kotopom npe^CTOHT HaiueMy 
B3opy He TOJibKO onepTaHHH MpaMopHbix xpaMOB h 6oroB, ho h HeacHbie 
(J)opMbi acHBofi njioTH HejiOBenecKOH. «CTOHJia MOJio^an AeByuiKa, coBep- 
uieHHO rojian... HeacHbiii po30Bbifi jiyn... npocKOJib3Hyji Meacay KOJiOHHa- 
mh, ynaji b jihijo h Ha... OTponecKyio rpyflb» (OTBepaceHHbifi). 3to raiuHHa 

njIOTH 3CMHOH, K KOTOpOH THTaH C TOpH30HTa - THTaH flpeBHHH - B3bIBaeT, 

B3biBaeT KaK mhjimh k HeBecTe flOJiroac/jaHHOH. Ho b 30Be tom jia3ypHaa 
THiiib 6e36ypHOCTH, HapyiuaeMa^ pa3Be 6paHbio apnaHCKoro MOHaxa: «Co- 
poK jieT He mwjich, hto6w He BH^eTb co6cTBeHHofl HaroTbi h He co6;ia3- 
HHTbCH... Tb(})y. Tb(})y... Tb(f)y...» (OrBepaceHHbiii). He KaaceTCH jih HaM 
b H3yBepcKOM KpHKe xpHCTHaH, hto ocKajinjiacb Ha Hac acejiToro nepena 
nejiiocTb cMepTHan, 6e30CTaHOBOHHO cKajiHTcn cMexoM Ha BocKpecaiomyio 
njioTb. BepoHrao, enHCKonw xpHcraaHCKHe, nymeHHbie H3 nycTbiHb h tcm- 

HHU B HepTOrH BeHUeHOCIZeB BH3aHTHHCKHX, 6bICTpO OCBOHJIHCb Ha TOCy- 

aapcTBeHHbix Kpecjiax. Ho bhccjih jih ohh TOJibKO b Te nepTorn BOHb rpn3H, 
Ha hhx HapocuieH, He ocTaBHjiH jih b 3ajiax coBemaHHH rocyaapcTBeHHbix 
cjie^bi CBoen TejiecHOH Mep30CTH, eacejiH 3aMaxHyjic*i Ha Bee xpncTHaH- 
ctbo HDjiHaH MeAHOAOcneuiHOio pyKofi HMnepaTopcKofi, mchom BJiacTH 
rocy^apcTBeHHbiM? 

Hnijiiie npoTHBonojiaraeT AnojuiOHa .flnoHHcy. XpHcraaHCTBo Xpn- 
CTa - AHTHxpHCTy. HHor^a Tenepb c6jiHacaiOT c XpncroM to AnojuiOHa, 
to .flHOHHca. B nepBOM cjiynae flyx hchocth anojuiHHHHecKOH hbjihctch b 



318 



xpHCTHaHCTBe dpoHTejibCTBOM rocyzjapcTBeHHbiM: nana hbjihct co6oio bo- 
njiomeHHoe jiHueMepne ayuiH, pa3^BoeHHOH Meacay cbo6o,zjoh hcthhhoh 
uepKBH h »cejie3HbiM pa6dBOM rocy^apcTBa. IlonbiTKa npeoaojieTb flBoe- 
ayniHe b dopoHy rocyaapcTBa hbjihct no^MHHeHHH He6a 3eMJie, ijepKBH 
rocy^apcTBy. He;ioBeKo6or - o6pa3 npeaejibHwii, Tanoe noflHHHeHHe BeH- 
Haiomnii. EacejiH 3Bepb ecTb chmboji njiora 3eMHoft, aHreji - He6ecHoft, to 
,zjo6poBOJibHoe cjiy^ceHne aHrejia 3Bepio BbipamnBaeT nepea HaMH c(J)hhk- 
cob, KapayjinniHx Hac Ha rpaHnx KaK HH^HBHayajibHOH, Taic h njioTCKon 
o6mecTBeHHoii H3BpameHHOCTH. Be3ycjioBHoe noflHHHeHHe o6mecTBa Be- 
pyiomnx rocyzjapcTBy no^BO^HT ero noa TpoH cc})hhkcob, h noTOMy o6me- 
CTBeHHan n;ioTb - 3Ta HeBecTa - o6epTbiBaeTca b crpaniHJiHme 3BepcKoe. 

BHe^peHne ijepKBH xpHcraaHCKoft b rocyzjapcTBO, Hao6opoT, onjiecHy- 
jio cepnue HDjinaHa 6ecnoKoftcTBOM, ycyry6njio Bpaaczjy: He Bepnji oh, hto- 
6h b uepKBH 3toh TaHHbi Bemne ^opHHocHjiHCb. Pa3Jiaraiomafl aHapxHH 

CMepTH TIOJX pH3aMH HHOKOB OflHHaKOBO ip03HJia H TOCyflapCTBy, H THIIIHHe 

jia3ypHOH BOCKpecaionieH njiora. 06jianacb b 3ojioto jiaT rocyzjapcTBeH- 
hhx, bot lOjinaH o6t>hbhji xpHCTHaHaM 6opb6y He Ha achbot, a Ha CMepTb; 
o6HaacHJi Men lOjinaH, ho o6HaacHJi Men npoTHB uepKBH bo hmh rocyaap- 

CTBa: HHKOr^a He CTOHJI K)jIHaH 3a H3BpameHHyK) 3aBHCHMOCTb uepKBH ot 

rocy^apcTBeHHbix Hanaji. Diy6oK h npaBe^eH ero 6yHT npoTHB 6e3o6pa3HH. 
HeT ,aeMOHH3Ma b lOjinaHe. HenoponeH oh b cbocm 6oro6opcTBe, KaK hh- 
CTan ^eByniKa. Bh^h pacnaa ijejibHocra rocyzjapcTBeHHoft ot CTpeMJieHHH 
uepKBH npoHHKHyTbCH BjiacTHbiM ayxoM (yace uepKOBb Toraa 6wjia npeBa- 
Ta cc})hhkcom), K)jiHaH BCTaji npoTHB HMeHH HHcycoBa. Ho jihk, npoTHB 
KOToporo oh BOccTaBaji, He 6bui hcthhhwm jihkom, a xHMepofi TOJin tcmho- 
pa3BpaTHbix, TeMHO-xpHCTHaHCKHx. K);iHaH BHe rocy^apcTBa no co3HaHHio 
CBoeMy 6yayHH, no nojioaceHHio OKa3ajica CBH3aHHbiM c rocyzjapcTBOM, h 
noTOMy-To He npnineji k HeMy 6;iH3Ke THTaH CTapwft, cepe6pflHofi 3Be3flOH 
ctohbuihh HaA Tyneio. 3a^yMHHBO ckjiohhjich K)jiHaH h no^ neHHeM CTpeji 
napc})HHCKHx, h noa b3^oxh apeBec rycTOJiHCTBeHHbix, 6jiHCTan 3o;iotom 
^ocnexoB, Tepe6a xoxonymnH KpoBbio njiam HMnepaTopcKHH. A Kor^a He 
npHnieji THTaH, h H3 flajiefi HeBe^OMbix TOJibKO cBHcrayjio BpaacecKoe ko- 
nbe, oh noHHJi, hto THTaH He cnaceT ero, hto h He 6bijio ero BOBce, hto 6bijia 
TOJibKO MacKa, 3a Heft npjrrajiacb TaHHa, KOTopyio oh raaji bcio 5KH3Hb. 

H3bIHeCTBO He B03pOflHJIOCb, nOTOMy HTO OHO, KaK H XpHCTHaHCTBO, 06 

o^hoh TaftHe, a TafiHa 3Ta He TepnHT HaapyraTejibCTB. Coe^HHHHCb c ro- 
cyzjapcTBOM npoTHB xpncTHaHCTBa, coe^HHHjiCH lOjinaH Boo6me npoTHB 
TaHHbi, h THTaH He npHineji h hmchh CBoero He Ha3Baji. 

B «BocKpecwux 6oiax» mm Toace BCTpenaeMcn c HeacHOH jia3ypbio. 
TojibKO 0Ka3HBaeTCH OHa nopoft aTJiacHofi TKaHbio mjieH(J)a KpacaBHixw 

(|)^OpeHTHHCKOH, H3-nOfl KOTOpOH KOpnaT HaM pO»CH JIHKH ^eMOHCKHC 

C apyroii cTopoHH, h b xpHCTHaHCTBe He nepecTaeT MejibKaTb 3HaKOMan 
ocKajieHHan nejnocTb. IIonajieHHbiH jinineHHeM acKeT KaK 6y^TO HanHHaeT 



319 



C06jia3HHTbCH H3bIHeCTB0M, HO ot rHycHoro B3opa Ha Tejie hhctom A(J)po- 
.zjHTbi pa3Bep3aiOTCH H3Bbi ry6nmHe. H3o6pa»ceHHe BeHepw 6buio, HaKo- 
Heu, 6;iarocKJiOHHO npHHHTO Kap^HHajiaMH h aaace nanoft, ho He OTToro 
jih cpe^H HapoflOB KpemeHbix Hanajincb 6o;ie3HH... BeHepHnecKHe. BeHepa 
CTana Be^bMOH. /Ihohhc - Ko3jiom. /leBCTBeHHbifi nyjibc aareHH cpe^He- 
BeKOBoe xpHCTHaHCTBO pa3JioacHJio Ha pa3BpaTHbiH acKeTH3M h Ha pa3- 

BpaTHblH HCTepH3M. Taimoe HMH, K KOTOpOMy 6bIJI ycTpeMjieH TOCKyiOmHH 

B3op KDjiHaHa, H3 aajieKoro npouuioro npHxoflHjio k HeMy. Ho Tenepb 3Ta 
TafiHa flBOHJiacb Mexmy xpHCTHaHCTBOM h H3binecTBOM. B 3tom ca\iopa3- 
ABoeHHH Hcne3Jia OHa. Ho c ropH30HTOB 6yaymero BnepBbie OHa ace rjin- 
Hyjia, h HacTonmee h npoinczunee 03apaH jiynoM TpeB05KHWM. H Ha 3toh 
nepie, aejrameft hctophio, MepeaocoBCKHft BbijienHJi nepea hsmh H3yMH- 

TeJIbHblH o6pa3 JleOHapflO H3 IVIHHbl 3CMHOH H THECeJIblX KaMHeft CaMOUBeT- 

hwx, H3 cBeTOBOH Hrpw cojmua b jia3ypH 6jieflHofi. K)jiHaH, o6pamaHCb k 
npouiJiOMy, He OTflejiHJi b HeM pejinrHH ot rocyaapcTBa. Jlynn 6yaymero 
CBepKHyjiH JleoHapao ot o6pa30B Myacefi KpbiJiaTbix, B03HeceHHbix Hafl ro- 
cy^apcTBOM. JlHHHOCTb JleoHapao, cjiobho Ha o6;iaKe nponjibiBaiomafl Haa 
rocyaapcTBOM h uepKOBbio, caMoe rocyaapcTBO h uepKOBb npeBpaTHJia b 
3epicajia, HaBe^eHHbie apyr Ha apyra, ajih toto, hto6w b 6ecKOHeHHOCTHX 
3epKajibHoro jia6HpHHTa CHOBa h CHOBa OTpa3HJicn JleoHapao. JleoHapao y 
Mepe^cKOBCKoro oflHHaKOBO aajieK h ot CTaporo, h ot HOBoro rpaaa. CTpa- 
xh h BOCTopra, npoHoenmHecfl nepea hhm b hctophh, totob oh BH^eTb b 
co3H^aiomeM co3epi^aHHH, KaK OTpaaceHHe nepeacHBaHHfi cbohx. Xojioa- 
Hoe jno6onbiTCTBO cbejio ero ayiny, noTOMy hto HeT ajih Hero hh b neM 
ayuiH; Bee coaepacaHne hch3hh TOJibKO 6Hcep, hm ace paccbinaHHbifi. Oh 
poaoHanajibHHK HayHHoro MeTO^a, nopoacfleHHoro H3binecKOH H^eeft. Eme 

KpynHblH mar B pa3BHTHH BCeMHpHO-HCTOpHHeCKOH .ZipaMbl, H JlHHHOCTb, 

B03HeceHHan Ha# 6oroM h 3BepeM, co3epuas 6e3flHbi BepxHero h HHECHero 
He6a, aojiacHa bmhth Ha o^hh H3 Tpex nyTeft. Hjih He6ecHoe b Hen no^HH- 
HfleTcn 3eMHOMy (uepKOBb rocyaapcTBy), hjih 3eMHoe He6ecHOMy (rocy- 
^apcTBO uepKBH), hjih 3eMjiH h He6o cjiHBaioTCH b Hanajio e^HHoe, He b Heft 
HaxoflHHjeecH; Tan o6pa3yeTCH TeoKparanecKaH o6ujHHa, r,zje yTBepac^aiOT- 
ch jiio^h KaK 6ora h ijapn. 

HDjiHaH BCTaji Ha 3amHTy rocyaapcTBa TaftHbi paa h. riancTBO okpwjih- 
jio KpHBO^yuiHe, h KaK npoTecT hbhjich JleoHap^o. Ho BHeceHHe 3BepcTBa 
b uepKOBb, b pacTJieHHH HBjineT uepKOBb KaK rocyaapcTBO. nana Heo6xo- 
riimo CTaHOBHTCH HMnepaTopoM, HejioBeKo6oroM. 06o»cecTBJieHHe HMne- 
paTopa bo3hocht ero Ha# rocy^apcTBOM npHMO b nacTb cMepTH nepHoft. 

«Ilemp» - Han6ojiee cjioacHaa nacTb tphjiothh, HaHMeHee xy^o^ce- 
CTBeHHan. 

B jiHue IleTpa h AjieKcen 6opiotch Hanajia 06a, KOTopwe y)Ke He hbjih- 
iotch ^jih Hac b cymecTBe cbocm npoTHBonojio^cHbiMH, a no cnoco6aM noa- 
xo^a k TaftHe e^HHoft. Upeji HaMH ^Be BejiHHHHbi, ycTaBHBniHecn apyr Ha 



320 



flpyra, £Be mhckh ocKajieHHbie 3Jio6w KpbiJiaTOH; b hmx hct hcthhbi: Macna 
HCTopHnecKOH uepKBH, nepexoflHmaji nopofi b Macxy Kpacnou cMepmu ca- 
MOcootcotceHUH, h MacKa nepHoii CMepra, to 6Hiub >kh3hh rocyaapcTBeHHOH. 
H IleTp, h AjieKceft 6opiOTCH TaHHbi pa#H. Hh Toro, hh .apyroro He ocy^HT 
Mepe^cKOBCKHH; oco6eHHO IleTp, c ero caMOo6oacecTBJieHHeM b rocyaap- 
CTBeHHOM ano(J>eo3e. Ecjih IleTp hbjihctch nepea HaMH KaK 3cmhoh 6or, to 
3thm eme He cKa3aHO, hto oh H,zjeT npoTHB Hmchh XpHCTOBa. CaMOo6o- 
^cecTBJieHHe, He bo hmh poaczjeHbeM .zjaHHoe, a bo-hobom hmchh, AyxoM ot- 
kphtom, ecTb cymecTBeHHefimafl nacTb TopacecTByiomero xpHCTHaHCTBa. 
Ho y Bcex Hac e^HHoe HOBoe hmh, coeflHHjnomee... noflHHHeHHeM hcto- 
pHHecKoii ijepKBH hmchh CBoeMy IleTp oKOHHaTejibHO ynpa3flHHeT hcto- 
pHHecKyio uepKOBb b BeaoMCTBO rocy^apcTBeHHoe. OTHbme uepKOBb poc- 
CHHCKan He no^HHMeT rjiaBbi npoTHB Taim, Hac BjieKymnx. Tocy^apcTBO 
cjiy^CHjio opyzjHeM acejie3HbiM, BepHbiM ajih stoh 6jiarocTHOH onepauHH; 
HBjiHHCb HOCHTejieM Hanaji rocyzjapcTBeHHbix, IleTp, KaK h lOjinaH, KaK h 
JleoHap^o, B03HeceH Ha# rocyzjapcTBOM. Ho JleoHapao He HCKaji TaHHbi 
BHe ce6n caMoro, lOjinaH oacnaaji ee H3 aajieKoro npouijioro, a npopone- 
ckhh B3op IleTpa, nonnpafl npe^cTonmee rocyaapcTBO, hm co3^aHHoe, He- 
npoH3BO^bHO pacceKaeT ropH30HTbi rpoMOBoro 6yaymero. H AjieKceft, h 
IleTp TaiiHy jho6hjih, 06a yiviy6HJiH jiHHHocTb jxp ee nocjieflHHx npe^ejioB, 
06a npeoflOJiejiH ee, ho b nporaBonojioacHOM HanpaBJieHHH, h noTOMy oah- 
HaKOBO Ka3ajiHCb Apyr Apyry xojioflHbiMH sroncTaMH, xoth 06a 6wjih He 
npaBbi. 06a noHHJiH czjhhctbo tpohhhoh TaHHbi. Oahh KaK 6w roBOpHT 
HaM: «Oreu bo MHe; no co6cTBeHHOMy noHHHy Mory h 6biTb npoH3BOJib- 
HbiM. H - 6or, h6o OTeu bo MHe. A noTOMy h 3aKOHbi, mhoh H3,aaHHbie, 
KaK rocyzjapcTBO, HepyuiHMbi, h ace rjix ce6n BHe rocyzjapcTBa, ho .apyrae 
Rjia MeHH moh». .flpyroH Mor 6bi oTBeTHTb Ha 3to: «H b Orije; no^HHHHHCb 
3aKOHy otijob, h o6peTaio ce6n, KaK h bchkhh. Il,epKOBb roBopHT MHe o 3a- 
KOHax BoacecKHX, h noTOMy h BOCCTaHy npoTHB rocyzjapcTBeHHoro npo- 
H3BOJia». 06a (IleTp h AjieKcen) - aHapxHCTbi. 06a pa3HT rocyzjapcTBo c 
o6eHx ctopoh: TeHb 6e3pejiHrH03Horo 3aKOHa Meacay o6ohmh. OHa-TO hc- 
KaacaeT jihkh o6ohx jipyr ajih apyra. 06a - peBHHTejiH uepKBH hcthhhoh, 
pacKOJiOBiueftcH b hctophh Ha ijepKOBb IleTpa h HoaHHa. AjieKceii oahh 
H3 nocjie^HMx peBHHTejieH ijepKBH IleTpoBOH, IleTp - TaimbiH npeAB03- 
BecTHHK i^epKBH rpnaymeH. Hapnay c IleTpoM h AjieKceeM ecTb yace npo- 
6y^CAeHHbie, npeflBKymaiomHe HCTHHy, noHHMaiomHe, hto He c Otuom h 
Cwhom OHa, a c Otuom h Cmhom, b Zfyxe coeflHHeHHbiMH. Ho nojmoTa 
npe^CAeBpeMeHHbix 3HaHHH .zjaBHT npocHyBiiierocn (THXOHa) hcmotoh. 

IleTp - aHapxHCT. Ho oh aHapxncT He bo hmh cboc AHapxHH TOJibKO 
OTpHijaTejibHO onpeAejineT cTpoft »ch3hh hoboh, ocBemaiomHH jiHHHyio 
n^OTb, njioTb o6mecTBa, h, HaKOHeu, njioTb BcejieHCKyio. TaKHM BOCKpe- 
inaiomHM ocBemeHHeM n^oTH hbjihkdtch 3eMHbie TaHHbi, He3aBHCHMO ot 

HCTOpHHeCKHX (})OpM, B KOTOpblX OHa OTJIHJiaCb. PeJIHrHfl TaHHbi, B03H0CH 



321 



Hac Haa HCTOpHeH, CTaHOBHTCH pejiHrHeii Komja. IleTp MepeacKOBCKoro 
npoBH^eHUHajibHo KaK 6m ycKopneT npH6jiH»ceHHe KOHija o6ocTpeHHeM 
o6mecTBeHHbix aHTHHOMHH b »ch3hh pyccKoit H Haa nocjieflHeii HaCTbK) 
«TpHjiorHH» ctoht rpo3Hoe BeHHHe KoHiia. 

IleTp - aHapxHCT. Ho aHapxHio bo hmh aHapxHH He npoB03r;iacHji oh. 
Ho yicpbiji ot ce6n h ot oKpyacaBiHHX ee hmh, 3acTaBHBinee Poccwo 63dep- 
nymb na du6u, - yicpbiji no/j MacKOH rocyaapcTBeHHOcra. Ho oh He Mor 

3aCTaBHTb HaC He CHHTaTbCH C 3THM HMCHeM. Mepe5KKOBCKHH reHHaJIbHO 

copBaji c Ileipa Macny; mm yBHAejin o6pa3, 6jih3khh ajih Hac. HeBOJibHo 
BcnoMHHjiacb rajuiepen THnoB /locToeBCKoro (BepcHJiOB, PacKOJibHHKOB, 
CraBporHH, Khphjijiob). 

IleTp - JleOHap^O, nOHHBIHHH, HTO HeJIb3H CKOJIb3HTb hzr 6o»cecKHM H 

3BepcKHM bo hmh cboc IleTp - JleoHapao, nepeuie^iHHH ot co3epuaHHH k 
^eiicTBHK); ho He noHHJi IleTp, hto TOJibKO HOBoe pe;iHrH03Hoe co3H#aHHe 
ecTb Bbixoa KaK H3 anaTHH uepKBH HCTOpHHecKOH, TaK h ot yacacoB XOJIOfl- 
Horo aeMOHH3Ma. IleTp 6mji cjihihkom o^hhok, hto6m H3 rjiy6nH TaftHoro 
pe;iHrH03Horo noacapa, He ocBemaiomero hhkoto, He nepeiiTH TOJibKO k pa3- 
pyuieHHK) CTapwx ycToeB 5KH3HH pejiHrH03Hoii mchom rocyzjapcTBeHHMM. 
Oh npoB03rjiacHJi ce6n 6otom 3eMHbiM. B hoboh HoaHHOBoft uepKBH oh 6hji 
6w TOJibKO pe6eHKOM, KaK h Bee Mbi - «demu Bootcuu*. Ho h b o6jiacra ne- 
jiOBenecKHX oTHonieHHH eme He o6pa30Bajicn «octpob fleTeft», k KOTopoMy 
ycTpeMjiHJicH Hhiiihc Tojiy6HHaH HCHocrb, Kor^a HeKOMy 6mjio nepe^aTb 
ee, o6epHyjiacb b IleTpe jibBHHoii npocTbio npoTHB Bep6jno^oB ayxa. 

Eme mar, h jhoah coBpeMeHHoro co3HaHHH, noao6Ho IleTpy 3arjin- 
HyBuiHe b TaiiHbi rjiy6HH >kh3hh jihhhoh, a TaKace h o6mecTBeHHoii, no- 
Ao6ho eMy ayxoM Haa rocyzjapcTBOM B03HeceHHbie, TaK hto rocyaapcTBo 
OTnenaTajio Ha Tejie CBoeM hx 3acTbiBuiHe, ocKajieHHbie msckh - eme mar, 
h CHHMyT MacKH ohh apyr nepea apyroM, h yBH^HT, hto - aera, h npo- 
THHyT pyKH k ijBeTaM, h 3aTen;iHT CBenH noa rojiy6biM xpaMOM He6ecHbiM. 
H pa3rjiHflHTCH o6pa3w, cjiaraBinne hctophio; - h ocTaHeTCH TOJibKO th- 
uiHHa 3(J)Hpa, B3BeuieHHoro b name He6a. 

MepeacKOBCKHH c njiaMeHHWM ,zjep3HOBeHHeM Heo^HOKpaTHO 3Baji 
Hac k pejiHrH03HOMy aeftcTBy. H Tenepb 3HaKOMbift tojioc ero co cTpaHHu; 

«TpHJIOrHH» KpaCHOpeHHBO H3BemaeT, HTO H BCCMHpHaH HCTOpHH 30BCT 

Hac k TOMy ace. 

Hmh MepeacKOBCKoro mm npHHHCJiHM OTHbme k HaH6o;iee floporHM 
HMeHaM pyccKHM. IIpHna^aji MepeaocoBCKHH k MaTepn cbipoft 3eMJie, cy- 
Meji yjioBHTb ckok HapacTaiomero 6y^ymero. IIoahhjich c 3cmjih, o6epHyji- 
ch h npocHHJi jihuom cbohm, o nyTHX BcejieHCKHx noBe^aji HaM. CjiOBa ero 
cjia^Ko nponejiH b cepauax, OT03BajiHCb po^HbiM ^yHOBeHHeM, 6yflTO npo- 
3Bynajia b ajiTape eKTeHHH BcejieHCKoro ^naKOHa, npHno^HHBinero opapb k 
CBeTy 3apn nocjie^Heii. 

1906 



322 



«forojib m nepT» 



CipaHHbie CBeTOHH yac aaBHo MepuajiH b TBopnecTBe Mepeac- 
KOBCKoro. Cbct TpeBO^CHbiH, cBeT cmpfliomHH npKO Jier Ha Bcex nocjiea- 
hhx KHHrax ero, HanHHaa c 3aMenaTejibHoro HCCJie^OBaHHH o JI. Tojictom h 

^OCTOeBCKOM H KOHHafl ^TpndyUQjLM XOMOM». nOfl6opOM UHTaT, H3T>HCH6~ 
HH6M BC6M H3BeCTHbIX, IIOHTH o6bIfleHHbIX CJIOB, CMblCJIOM H6o6bIHaHHbIM 

h BaacHbiM MarmecKH yMeeT njieHHTb Hac MepeaacoBCKHH. Ero peuiHTejib- 
HocTb, ero npHMOJiHHeftHOCTb, rpaHHnamaa no^nac c florMara3MOM, ceneT 
r;iy6oKO co3HaHHe Hauie pacnjibiBHaToe. Ero CTOJib Heo6biHHbie, CTOJib 
cjio^CHbie B3rjiH^bi pe;iHrH03Hbie HeyaepacHMO oflHaKO 3anaaaiOT b ayiiiy. 
H nacTO hm He;ib3H HHHero npoTHBonocTaBHTb paBHOi^eHHoro no niy6HHe 
h BecKocTH. Tan yMeeT MepeacKOBCKHH BxoflHTb b ayuiy. Tan ocBemaeT oh 
TaHHHKH, ^eiicTBHTejibHo cymecTByiomHe b ayme bchkoh. HacTo bckpm- 
BaeM mw b ce6e orHH Heo6wHHbie, ho caMH He BepHM b hhx. «Ecmb» hjih 
«nem» - tobophm ce6e. «Ecmb», - roBopHT HaM MepeacKOBCKHH, ho TaK, 
hto cjioBa ero CHHMaiOT c Hac nayTHHy jiencoBepHH, h mm HanHHaeM bh- 
aeTb HeBH^aHHoe aocejie. Maran cjiob, kotopoh BjiaaeeT MepeacKOBCKHH 
c TaKHM coBepuieHCTBOM, othochtch He k o6jiacTH, r^e mojkho doKQ3amb 
hjih onpoBeprHyTb, a k toh, r^e aocraTOHHo yK03amb JiHiiib Ha to, hto bch- 

KHH HMeeT, HO HeM OH He yMeeT IIOJIb30BaTbCfl. MepeaCKOBCKHH He TOJIbKO 

yKa3biBaeT HaM Ha uchhocth, ho h nwTaeTCH peiuaTb, KaK c hhmh nocTy- 
naTb. IIoTOMy-TO oh coe^HHHeT uchhocth. Ho coe^HHHTb - 3HaHHT pa3- 
peiueHHoe b cBo6oae cex3bieamb b jiio6bh. H nocKOJibKy oh nepecTynaeT 
nepTy OTpnijaTejibHbix onpeaejieHHH CBo6oflbi ziyxa, nocTOJibicy oh CBH3H- 
BaeT BeHHbiMH y3aMH. Ho BenHan CBH3b h ecTb pejiHran. MepeaocoBCKHH 
H3 CBo6oflbi BepHyjicH k pejinrHH. Oh no-HOBOMy roBopHT HaM 06 y3ax. 
Ho cjiazuco 6peMH, npefljiaraeMoe hm, noTOMy hto ecTb y Hero k sthm y3aM 

KJIIOH CBo6oflbI. Mepe^CKOBCKHH HMeeT KJIIOH K ayUie CBOeft. IIOTOMy-TO OH 

yMeeT sthm kjiiohom oranpaTb nyuiu Hyacne. H crpaHHan (J)opMa BbicKa3bi- 
BaeMbix hm Mbicjieft He TaK yac CTpaHHa. H aaace, Hao6opoT, coBepuieHHO 
ecTecTBeHHa, npocTa, HeonpoBepacHMa. H3 o6;iacTH OTpeuieHHOH ayiiieB- 
hoh 3aMKHyTOCTH, H3 cy6i>eKTHBHOH yTOHHeHHOCTH nepeacHBaHHii cyMeji 
MepeacKOBCKHH npo6HTb 6peuib BepHyio b rjiy6HHbi ayxa fleftcTBHTejib- 
Hbie, ho o6hhho cnnmne b nejiOBeice. IloTOMy-To oh HHCKOJibKo He Tepnn 
CBoeH HH^HBH^yajibHOCTH, nepBbift H3 Hac onHTb 3aroBopHji h3wkom npo- 
cthm, BceM ^ocTynHbiM, noHTH Hapo^HbiM. IIoTOMy-TO cjioBa ero 3ana^a- 
K)T b flyiiiy, rjiy6oKO 3anaaaiOT h npocTbiM, h MyzjpeHbiM jho^hm pyccKHM. 
IIoTOMy-TO h yMeeT TaK coBepuieHHO jia^HTb c mhothmh HapenHHMH, KaK 

OTHOHieHHH HH3HHHWX, TaK H TOpHblX, HTO 06 odfiOM, TTlOJlbKO 06 odHOM U 

zoeopum oh hom. TaftHa, hm noHHTaji, npocHTCH, npocHTCH HaBCTpeny jiio- 
OTM, h noTOMy-TO ropHT 3apn h Ha cjiOBax MepeaeKOBCKoro cep^enHbix ^a 
6^aro^enHbix. IloTOMy-TO h BJia^eeT ziapoM penn cep^enHOH, noTOMy-TO 



21 AH^peii Benuii 



323 



noKpbiBaeT Bee ijchhocth acH3HH TpeneTOM jik)6obhhm, noTOMy-To h ecTb 
y Hero otbct Ha bchkhc HaiiiH 6opeHHH, hto TaftHa, ero noceTHBiuaa, ecTb 
TaiiHa pejiHrH03Horo b Bore jHOfleii e^HHeHHH. K e^HHeHHio dpeMJieHHe 
pe;iHrH03Hoe - bot hto TaftHy ero 6oroTBopHT. Ho hto6 6biJio ^eiicTBeH- 
hwm CHe e^HHeHHe, Ha^jieacHT poac^aTbCH e\iy He H3 cxeM CHHTeraHecKHx, 
r^e ayuiHO TaK h CKyHHO TaK: HeT, b r;iy6HHax jno6oBHoro acapa, b Hac Boac- 
aceHHoro, aojdkho npoHCxo^HTb e^HHeHHe BceMHpHoe. H no HHHy cero 
e^HHeHHH cTpoHTejibCTBO BceHapoflHoe, uepKOBb 3eMHan aa ycTponeTcn! 
Mw HMeeM b jxyme cjiobo roTOBoe, Cjiobo coeflHHHiomee, h Hmh OioBy - 
Hmh CjioBa, CTaBinero ILiOTbio. Bee mw 3HaeM Cjiobo, a CKa3aTb He yMeeM. 
Bee mw - 3aHKH. MepeacKOBCKHH nepBbiii H3 Hac, OTnaBiiinx, cyMeji Rjin 
ce6a CKa3aTb Cjiobo, h bot cjioBa ero 03apHJiHCb 03apeHHeM jxjin npocTbix 
h MyapeHbix jHO^eii pyccKHx. 

Ho hto6m npecTynHTb nepTy, aejinmyio y3bi MHpcKHe ot y3 He6ec- 
hwx - nepTy CBo6oflbi, - MepeaucoBCKHH aojiaceH 6hji npofi™ Te npoBajiw 
ayuieBHbie, r^e OTHHMaeTcn caMaa Ha^eacaa Ha nojiyneHHe ueHHoii cbh3h 
(y3, 6apM He6ecHbix). 06pa3 CMepra oTTyaa ycTaBHJicn Ha Hac. HepHbiii 
rjia3 CMepTH (aypHoii rjia3l) Ha6pacbiBaeT TeHb Ha caMyio 6ejiH3Hy Reu- 
Hyio. JlueM cepwM 6ejibift jienb CTaHOBHTCH npe3 chc nepBbiii H3 Hac ro 
KOHua noHHJi MepeacKOBCKHH co6jia3H ceporo, t. e. k >kh3hh noimioro ot- 
HOineHHH. IlepBbiH noBeaaji HaM BCJiyx o ^HaBOJibCKoii poace >kh3hh Ha- 
uieH. BbiBeji HepTa MepeacicoBCKHH Ha CBeacyio Bo^y. 

«rozojib u Hepm» Hccjie^OBaHHe MepeaucoBCKoro npHMenaTejibHoe - 
HccjieaoBaHHe, noBepraiomee Hac b pa3MbiiiiJieHHe o HepTe b acH3HH Ha- 
Hiefi, Hccjie^OBaHHe, BbiBoaamee HepTa H3 rorojieBCKoro TBopnecTBa; h 
nocKOJibKy TBopnecTBO Torojin o6pameHo k ech3hh pyccKoii, nocTOJibKy b 
ohom H3bicKaHHH BCTaeT MapeBO ^eMOHa, npoTHHyToe Meacay bccmh HaMH. 
3aecb MarHH cjiob y6eflHTejibHa CTOJib, hto BHHMaTejibHbiH HHTaTejib yac He 
MoaceT oTpeuiHTbCH ot B3ni5ma Mepe^KKOBCKoro Ha 6jiH3Kyio k HaM anoxy. 
B 3tom oTHomeHHH «Toiojih u Hepm» nonojiHneT h yrjiy6jineT KapTHHy co- 

BpeMeHHOCTH, HapHCOBaHHyK) CTOJib HpKO 6 ^TpadyWfiM XdMe». ECJIH 3AeCb 

HeT Tex npo3peHHH, koh BCTpenaiOT Hac b pa36ope TBopnecTBa JI. Tojictoto 
h .flocroeBCKoro, ecjiH Ha# HaMH He npoHOCHTCH BH^eHHH KpwjiaTbie Ano- 
KajiHncHca, 3aTO oraejiica aeTajieii, TOHKOCTb aHajiH3a flocTHraeT 3flecb co- 
BepineHCTBa CBoero. 

C MaCTepCTBOM TOHKHM H3o6pa3HJI B CBeTe hoboto pejiHrH03Horo co- 
3HaHHH Mepe^CKOBCKHH ^Byx rjiaBHbix repoeB Totojih, XjiecraKOBa h Hh- 

HHKOBa. XjieCTaKOBCKHH H^eaJIH3M TaK TKe, KaK H HHHHKOBCKHH n03HTH- 

BH3M, BbipacTaeT nepea HaMH b npH3paKe BenHoro He6biTHH. CaMbie repon 
(Hhhhkob h XjiecTaKOB) npeBpamaioTCfl b HyaoBHmHbiii mh(J). «BdoxHO- 
eeunuu Meumamejib Xjiecmanoe u nojiootcumejihHuu dejieu, Huhukoq - 3a 
smuMU deyjm npomueonojiootCHbiMu jiuvfljm acpumo coeduunwinee ux ny- 
cmoe mvp, nuup Hepma... Hatueio deoumuca, Komopuu noKasueaem hclm 



324 



e cede name co6cmeennoe ompcufceHue, Kan e 3epKcuie y u zoeopum: K^eMy 
CMeemecb? Had co6ou CMeemecb?» (MepeaocoBCKHH). 

Bot pyKOBOflflmaa n^ea Been khhth. C coBepuieHCTBOM y^HBHTejib- 

HblM, C OflHOMy Mepe^CKOBCKOMy CBOHCTBeHHOH XHTpOCTbK) H OCTpoyMH- 

eM npoBe^eHa H^ea 3Ta ckbo3b TOHHaftiuHH aHajiH3 Bcero rorojieBCKoro 
TBopnecTBa. H Kor^a aHajiH3 ^obo^htch jxo KOHija, pa^OM c jihijom Torojin 
BbiCTynaeT npe/j HaMH jihijo rorojieBCKoro flBOHHHKa, ro CTpaHHOCTH Ha- 
noMHHan caMoro TorojiH: sto h ecn> HepT. 

Ho, c Apyroft ctopohw, noKa3aji HaM MepeaucoBCKHH, hto Torojib, c 
TaKHM M^eHHeM co3HaBiuHH MapeBO »ch3hh, Hac oKpyacaiomen, yace OT^e- 
jihjich ot 3Toro MapeBa, yace npoTHBonocTaBjieH eMy. H ecjiH jihijo HepTa h 
HanoMHHajio HaM jihijo Torojin, to caM-TO Torojib npoTHBonocTaBjieH cbo- 
eMy ^BOHHHKy, caM-TO Torojib h yMHpaeT b 6opb6e c hhm. IIo MepeaocoB- 
CKOMy, Torojib nepBbiii H3 nncaTejieH pyccKHx noaomeji k MepTBOH tohkc, 
pa3AejiHiomeH cepe^HHHoe, o6bmeHHoe co3HaHHe ot co3HaHHH uejibHoro, 
coeAHHHK>mero, CHMBOJiHnecKoro, pe;iHrH03Horo. YacacHyjicn Ibrojib 
TOMy, b neM mw acHBeM, ho He cyMeji Haft™ bmxoa, noTOMy hto 6ohjich 
nepecTynHTb, npecTynmb nepe3 aoporoe HaaneflCTBO o6mecTBeHHbix, ro- 
cyAapcTBeHHbix h pejiHrH03Hbix Tpa^HijHH, KOTopoe noHHTaji cbhtmm. Ho 
HOBoe pe;iHrH03Hoe C03HaHHe 6pocajio Totojih H3 TiopbMbi, ropejio njiaMe- 
HeM HeyracHMbiM, a Kor^a HeneM 6bijio ero yrojiHTb, yMep Torojib. 

Bot o neM KpacHopenHBO niacHT CTpaHHijM HCCJieaoBaHHH nepBoro 
pyccKoro KpHTHKa HauiHx weft, npnniaiHaiOT 3a,ziyMaTbCH. He ocKyaejia 
eme pyccKaa KpHTHKa, KOJib CKopo b Hen hohbjihiotch TaKHe nepjibi. 

1906 

«He Mnp, ho Men» 

Mepe^cKOBCKHH - cepbe3HbiH nncaTejib; Koraa c hhm He conia- 
uiaeuibCH, Bee ace yMeeT oh BHyniHTb k ce6e yBaaceHHe; roBopn otkphto 
o rjiy6oKOM, o CBoeM, oh no KOHija uejiOMy^peHHbiH. B kom ijejiOMyflpne 
b HaiiiH ahh? Pa3Be He 3axBaTajiH Bee cjiOBa, pa3Be He pa3BOflHJiH cmmcji 
Kaacaoro cjiOBa TaK, hto jiio6oh chmboji 3anofl03pHBaeM mm b ^BycMbicjieH- 

HOCTH? «JlK)606b» t «E0Z», «Co6opHOCT7lb», «MOJlUmea», «MUC7nepUH» - 3TH 

cjiOBa npoH3HOCHTCH Hbme b Ka6aKax; h bot, Kor^a npHrjiauiaiOT Hac b xpa- 
mh, mw yjibi6aeMcn: «3HaeM Bac, xpaMO-neBirbi!» 

Bee Co6opHHKH, MHCTHKH, OpTHaCTM, 3pOTHCTM, 3pOTOMaHCTByK)mHe 

xpneraaHe, nyjiKHCTbi jiobko nepnajiH H3 MepeacKOBCKoro; 3flecb ero npo- 
uiTeMnejieBajiH, TaM 3anyTajiH, a oh ocTaeTcn caMHM co6oft - ijejibHMM, 
He3a6biBaeMbiM. 

IIo-npeacHeMy BCTpenaeM mm ero Heo6biHHoe cjiobo c rjiy6oKHM no- 
HTeHHeM; c npemiOHeHHeM tojiobm BbicjiyuiHBaeM mm ero aaace Tor^a, kot- 
aa He corjianiaeMCH. A KaK nacTo npHxo^HTCH BCTpenaTb CMexoM cjiOBa o 

325 



21* 



COKpOBeHHeHIIIHX TaHHaX flyxa, TOJIbKO OTTOrO, HTO HX npOH3HOCHT He OHH- 

meHHbie ycTa! Corjiauiancb (J)opMajibHo, mw npeanoHHTaeM c^ejiaTb 4>nry- 
py HenoHHMaHHH; He corjiauiaacb bo MHoroM c yBaacaeMWM ynmejieM, mw 
6jiaroroBeftHO npHCJiyniHBaeMCH k Kaac^OMy ero cjiOBy. 

51 CHHTaK) Hy^CHHM C^eJiaTb 3Ty OrOBOpKy, HTo6bI HMeTb B03M05KHOCTb 

roBopHTb o aaHHOM Tpy^e R. C. MepeacKOBCKoro. Ha/jo ace npoBecTH nep- 
Ty Meacay hhm h hhwmh c6opHHKaMH. 

B pa36HpaeMOM c6opHHKe mw BCTpenaeM craTbH, HoenmHe xapaKTep 
npojieroMeH ko bchkoh KpHTHKe pejiHTH03Horo co3HaHHn; BepoaTHO, sthm, 

H TOJIbKO 3THM o6*bflCHHeTCH HX KOHCneKTHBHWH XapaKTep. TaKOBW CTaTbH 

<tMeu» h iPeeojuoi^ua u pejimua*; KaK Ta, TaK h apyraa CTaTbH niy6oKo 
Hac He y^OBJieTBopHiOT. He 6yaeM KacaTbcn Bonpoca o tom, npaB hjih He 
npaB J\. C. Mepe^cKOBCKHH b ochobhwx Te3Hcax CBoett njiaTc^opMbi; no- 
cmotphm, KaK oh ee npoBOWT. 

EcTb Bor hjih HeT? BwTHe Bora yTBepacaaeTcn pejiHraen; Heo6xo^H- 

MOCTb peJIHrHH BWBOflHTCfl H3 6eCCMWCJIHH 5KH3HH, o6pbIBaeMOH CMepTblOJ 

pejinrHH ecTb bwboa H3 6e3yMHH, b KOTopoe BnaaaeT co3HaTejibHWH nejio- 
bck; anejiJiHi^HH k uejiecoo6pa3HOCTH ecTb nepexoa k pejinrHH. Bw^BHHyB 
npo6jieMy uejiecoo6pa3HOCTH, J\. C. MepeacKOBCKHH HeH36eacH0 noflBOflHT 
caMoft nocTaHOBKOH Bonpoca noa pejiHrnio (J)yH^aMeHT raoceojiorHHecKHX 
^OKa3aTejibCTB; rHoceojiorHHecKan npo6jieMa h ecTb npo6jieMa Tejieojio- 
THHecKaH. Ho npeacae, HeacejiH peuiHTb 3Ty npo6jieMy b HanpaBjieHHH k 
o6ocHOBaHHio BHyTpeHHe- peajibHoit TejieojiorHH, Heo6xoflHMO ncnepnaTb 
MeToa (J)opMajibHO-rHoceojiorHHecKHft; coBpeMeHHaa Teopna 3HaHHH eme 
He no^ouijia k aaHHoii npo6jieMe; h aoBoaw pa3yMa b nojib3y 6wthh Bo- 
echh eme noKa BnojiHe He^ociaTOHHw. J\. C. MepeaocoBCKHH npHHHMa- 
eT hx BnojiHe. H noTOMy-To oh He^ocTaTOHHO y6e^HTejieH (noBTopnio c 
4>opMajibHO-jiorHHecKOH tohkh 3peHHfl), Kor^a o6pyiiiHBaeTCH Ha jioacHwe 
bwxqzjw k pejinrHH! 1) HCKyccTBO, KaK pejinrHH, 2) HayKa, KaK pejinrHH, 
3) pofl, KaK pejinrHH, 4) o6ujecTBeHHocTb, KaK pejinrHH. 

TBopnecTBO ajih Hero echbo, noKa chmbojiw hmciot pejiHrH03Hwft 
cmwcji: cmwcji ajih pa3yMa, jxjw. cep,zma, ajih bojih? Ecjih TBopnecTBO 
AOJiacHO conpoBo^c^aTbCH pa3yMHWMH npHMenaHHHMH, to oho nepecTa- 
eT 6wTb ajih cepaija pejiHrH03HWM; ecjin ace oho pejinrH03H0 rjisi cepa- 
ixa, to nepeacHBaeMan pejiHrH03Haa peajibHOCTb He hocht 6ojiee o6i>eK- 
THBHoro xapaKTepa, HeacejiH pejiHrH03Ho nepeacHBaeMan scTeTHnecKan 

IjeHHOCTb. 

Co3epuaHHe HayHHoe ycTaHaBjiHBaeT BenHOCTb MaTepnn no Me- 
pe^KKOBCKOMy h npexoflHmee 3HaneHHe oT^ejibHOH jihhhocth, ho Ta- 
Koe ycTaHOBjieHHe MeTo^ojiorHHHO, h bchkhh cepbe3HWH yneHWH no- 

HHMaeT 3T0. 

Hto ace KacaeTCH pejinrHH po^a, to OHa hocht CTOJib ace ycjiOBHwft xa- 
paKTep, cKOJib ycjiOBHa b TeopHH 3HHHHH bchk^h TpaHCueHfleHTHaa peajib- 



326 



hoctb; h noKa Heo6xoAHMocrb tskoh peanbHOCTH Aajieico He^0Ka3yeMa 3a- 
KOHaMH pa3yMa, pejiHran poaa ajih pa3y\ia ctojib ace aonycTHMa, ckojib h 
pejinrHH 6oroHejiOBeHecTBa h t. a. 

Ho J\. C. Mepe»CKOBCKHH, nocneuiHB c yTBepacAeHHeM hco6xoahmo- 
cth pejinrHH c tohkh 3p6HHH 3aKOHOB pa3yMa, o6i>HBJiHeT eBponeiicKyK) 
KyjibTypy, npHHHMaiomyK) jihuib «yc;iOBHbie» (J)opMbi pejinrHH, AepeBOM 
c cyxHMH kophhmh; h Aajiee: oh rpo3HT KyjibType 6yAAH3MOM H HHrH- 
jih3mom. Ho ,aoKa3aTejibCTBO hco6xoahmocth pejinrHH H3 CTpaxa nepeA 
«npaKmuv,ecKiiMU» BbiBO^aMH KyjibTypw He ecTb raoceojiorHHecKoe AOKa- 
3aTe;ibCTBo, Aaiomee pa3yMy xoth (J)opMajibHoe, ho 6e3ycjioeuoe onpaBAa- 
HHe pejinrHH. 

Bot, rae ocHOBHan oiHH6ica «npojieroMeH» MepeaucoBCKoro; anejuiH- 
pyn k pa3yMy, oh BOBce o6ouieji rHoceojiorHnecKyio npo6jieMy h noTOMy- 
to AaJibHeiiHiHH nepexoA ot pejinrHH k xpHcraaHCTBy, k pejinrHH Tponijbi, 
AHajieKTHHeH h TOJibKO AHajieKTHHeH; nocjie «Kphthkh HHCToro Pa3yMa» 

Mbl OTpHIjaeM 3MaHCHnaUHK) AHaJieKTHKH OT aHaJIHTHKH. B CymHOCTH OH 

npH6eraeT k AHajieKTHKe IIIejiJiHHra h Terejin; coBpeMeHHaa (J)hjioco(J)hh 
tohho yKa3ajia ohih6kh sthx MbicjiHTejiefl, HaMeTHB hhoh, eme He npojio- 

»CeHHbIH, TepHHCTblH, XOTH H B03M03KHMH BblXOA K peJIHrHHJ Ha 3TOM UyTU 

AOjiechm 6a3HpoBaTb npojieroMeHbi ko bchkoh pejinrHH, h JX. C. Mepeac- 
kobckhh b CBoeM CTpeMjieHHH k AOBOAaM pa3yMa b nojib3y pejinrHH BO- 
Bce He aocTHraeT ijctih. Mm jihhho He BocciaeM BOBce npoTHB crpeMjieHHH 
yBaacaeMoro nHcaTejin; mw yKa3WBaeM Ha 6ecnjiOAHOCTb Bbi6paHHoro nyra 
o6ocHOBaHHH b cTaTbHx «Meu» h «PenuzuH u peeomoujiia*. CMecb AHa- 

JieKTHKH C yZJHBHTeJIbHblM nCHXOJIOrHHeCKHM aHaJIH30M o6T>eKTHBHO He 

onpaBAbmaeT pejiHrao3Hyio npo6jieMy; 6jiecTamHe cpaBHeHHH, aHajiorHH, 

CCblJIKH Ha HCTOpHK) H o6meCTBeHHOCTb JIHIHb, BHAHMO, AHaJieKTHHeCKH 

npH6jiH»caiOT 3anpocw cepAUa k 3anpocaM pa3y\ia; OTcyrcTBHe npHMOH 
cbh3h MeacAy ncHxojiorHnecKH aaHHOH co3HaHHio OHTOJiorHeS h rHoceo- 
jiorHHecKoii AaHHOCTbio npeBpamaioT quasi-(J)HJioco(J)CKoe o6ocHOBaHHe 
xpHCTHaHCTBa b scTeranecKoe; pejinrHH sctcthkh Bee ace ocraeTCH 3CTera- 
HecKoii pejiHraeH. MepeacKOBCKHH 3Aecb 3apa»caeT, ranHOTH3HpyeT, ho He 
y6eEcaaeT; 3aneM nwTaeTCH oh y6e»CAaTb? 

Oco6eHHO AOcaAHO npeBpaTHoe ynoTpe6jieHHe MepeacKOBCKHM Tep- 
MHHa «HoyMeHcuibHbiu», «HoyMen»; «Mup HoyMencuibHuu*, b tohhom cmwc- 
jie 3Toro cjiOBa (no KaHTy), ecTb MHp MbicjiHMbift, a He mhp cymecrByio- 
iiihh. ,flocaAHO TaiOKe BbipaaceHHe «3aKOHbi HHCToro pa3yMa», bmccto 

«HAeH»; «3dK0H» OTHOCHM TOJibKO K OnblTy. OTCyTCTBHe npOTHBOpeHHH 

MeTKffy 3aKOHOM pa3yMa h (J)H3HnecKHM BOCKpeceHHeM y MepeacKOBCKoro 

OCHOBaHO Ha npOH3BOJIbHOM CMeUieHHH TepMHHOB! «(J)H3HHeCKHH MHp», 

ynpaBJineMWH 3aKOHaMH, npoAHKTOBaHHMMH paccyac^aiomHM 3HaHHeM, h 
«uden» - HecoH3MepHMw; HAen hh HapyniaeT, hh HcnojiHHeT «3(ikoho6», 
h6o o6;iacTb ee npHMeHeHHH HHan. 



327 



HacKOJibKO jiorHnecKH napaaoKcajibHbi «npojieroMeHbi» MepeaucoB- 
CKoro, HacTOJibKO ohh ^HajieKTHHecKH HHTepecHbi no pa3pa6oTKe (Bnpo- 
neM, He HOBbi h, bo bchkom cjiynae, xyfloacecTBeHHO cjia6ee Bcex npeacHHx 
CTaTeft nHcaTejifl). Ho ijeHTpoM khhoi hbjihctch H3yMHTejibHoe Hccjie- 
AOBaHHe o cb. Cepac})HMe CapoBCKOM, r^e bckpmtm h pa3o6paHbi rpexn 
HCTopHHecKoro npaBocjiaBHH. OrpaHHijbi, nocBameHHbie Cepacj)HMy, bo3- 
BbiuiaiOTCH pp iuiaMeHHbix rjiaB, nocBameHHbix TojiCTOMy h ,flocToeBCKo- 

My. «Il0CJie ( ZlHHH CBOTOH» - IjeHHblH BKJia^ B HCTOpHK) pyCCKOH KpHTHKH, 

HCKynaiomHH Ae(J)eKTbi Bee ace HecKOjibKO bhjihx anajieKTHHecKHX ynpaac- 
HeHHH Hauiero JiK)6HMoro nncaTejia. 

1908 



runnnyc 

«A/ibiM Men» 

Cpe^H hcthhho KyjibTypHbix xyzjoacHHKOB hmh 3. H. rnnnnyc 
3aHHMaeT BH^Hoe MecTo. M3 nncaTejibHHij-aceHmHH OHa oflHa BoopyaceHa 
BceM, hto cocTaBJineT ocHOBy h moiiib yTOHneHHOH KyjibTypw. B stom ee 
He3bi6jieMoe 3HaneHHe. 

Edb ABa. THna nncaTejieii. BrjiflflbiBaacb b OKpyacaiomee, o^hh CTa- 
paioTCH npoHHTaTb HecKa3yeMbiii CKa3 aeiiCTBHTejibHOCTH, pa3ra^biBai0T 
3ara^KH, 3ara#aHHbie 5KH3HbK>. 3thm, c oahoh ctopohh, ohh OTBJieKa- 

K)TCfl OT HCH3HH, B KOTOpOH HHHTO He pa3raflaHO; C ApyrOH CTOpOHbl, OHH 

CTpeMHTCH nepeuiarHyTb 3a nopor JiHTepaTypw, noTOMy hto jiHTepaTypa 
fljin hhx TOJibKo chhmok c TaiiHbi, KoTopyio ohh pasrjinaejiH b OKpyaca- 
iomeM. Cpe^CTBaMH JiHTepaTypw nojib3yiOTCfl ohh, hto6 yna3aTb nyTb, 
h jie3BHHMH MbicjiH pa3pemaK>T ohh KpyaceBO 5KH3HeHHbix 3araaoK. Ho 
nyTb 3tot nacTO He npocTHpaeTCH 3a npe^ejiw JiHTepaTypw, pa3peuieHHe 
3araflOK ocTaeTcn He fleftcTBHTejibHWM, a MWCJieHHWM. OnacHOCTb, rpo- 

3Hmafl HM, - B TOM, HTO HaCTO 5KH3Hb npeBpailjaeTCfl flJIfl HHX B 6oJIbUIOH 

4>ojiHaHT HMeHHo b tot momcht, Kor^a ohh nojiaraioT, hto pa3raaajiH ee 
TaiiHbiH uiH(})p. BbiCTynan, KaK nponoBe^HHKH, ohh BwrjiaflHT TOJibKo 
6H6jiHOTeKap«MH CTapHHHbix 6h6jihotck, y kotopmx yM 3axo^HT 3a pa- 
3yM. Bee ace 3th nncaTejiH - chmbojihctw; TOJibKo chmbojiw onepHHBaiOT 

OHH npH nOMOmH CXeM H HOpMaTHBHblX npaBHJI. HM 6eCCTpaiHHO M03KHO 

no3BOJiHTb ce6e yBJieneHHe TeH^eHijHeH. 3HaneHHe TeH#eHijH03HOH JiH- 
TepaTypw TOJIbKO B TOM, HTO y HCTHHHOrO nncaTejin, KaK 6bl npe^B3HTO 
H HaCTOHHHBO OH HH npOB03rJiaiIiaJI TeHAeHUHK), eCTb nOCTOHHHaH CBH3b 

Meacay TeHAeHUHeii h chmbojiom, KOTopwft OHa OTo6paacaeT. B 3tom no- 

CTOHHHOM B3aHMOfleHCTBHH MeaCfly CHMBOJIOM H TeHfleHIJHeH BCe 3KH3- 

HeHHoe npaBO Ha nponoBe^b nncaTejia 3Toro rana, He3aBHCHMO ot Toro, 



328 



oicpyaceH jih oh TOJinoft, hjih no cjiOBaM 6y/mHHCKOH MyapocTH «ow zpa- 
dem odunoKO, nododno nocopozy». 

IlHcaTejiH apyroro rana He CTpeMHTCH pacninpHTb jiHTepaTypy npono- 
Be^bio. Ohh He HaxoflHT TeH,aeHUH03Hbix Moaejien k nepeacHBaHHHM chm- 
BOJia. ^CHByT ^wxaHbeM TaHHbi. H o tom, neM Ha^biinajiHCb ohh - HacToeM 
He6a, Beiepica, cjiob HeBHHTHbix, nponHTaHbi hx apoMaTHbie crpaHHijbi. He 
y6e>KflaH, ohh no6e»cflaK)T; oTKpbiBaiOT, He yKa3biBa5i; He 3Han, ynaT. Ecjih 
nncaTejiH nponoBeayiomHe MyacecrBeHHbi, 3th - aceHCTBeHHbi: ecjiH Te - 
HenpoH3BOJibHbie TencTbi, Bcer^a naHTencTbi - 3th. Ecjih Te TaHHO Taro- 

TdOT K SJIJIHHCKO-eBpeHCKOH, XpHCTHaHCKOH KyJIbType, 3TH - 6y/mHCTbI, 

KOH(|)yijHaHe hjih Be^aHTHCTbi. HaM He BaacHO, KaKHMH cjioBaMH xapaKTe- 
pH3yioT ce6a nncaTejiH; sth cjioBa hx o ce6e HyacHbi, BaacHbi, HHTepecHbi 
HaM He caMH no ce6e, a KaK paMKa c 6ojibiiiHM hjih MeHbniHM BKycoM, 06- 
paMjiHiomaH zjiaenoe b hhx. Edb MHoacecTBO npHMepoB, Kor^a nncaTejiH 
bck) »H3Hb jirajiH o ce6e, BOcneBan paccy^KOM, KaK pa3 npoTHBonojioacHoe 
TOMy, o neM nejia hx ayina, ucKJiTonumejimo KOKemcmea padu. 

TojibKO rjiy6oHaHinHM reHHHM b HeMHorne momchth TBopnecTBa 
y^aBajiocb rapMOHHHHO coe^HHHTb 06a pycjia jiHTepaTypw. IlHcaTejiHM 
ace, jiHmeHHbiM reHHajibHOCTH, KaK 6bi hh 6wji bcjihk hx TajiaHT, nonbiT- 
Ka coe^HHHTb MajiocoeAHHHMoe Bceraa npHHOCHT ymep6. Bot noneMy ne 
e npuHi^une, a Ha npaKTHKe Bcer^a npHxo^HTCH coacajieTb, Kor^a Myapeij 
xoneT ocTaTbCH hhctwm xy^oacHHKOM, hjih Kor^a xy^oacHHK y^apHeTCH b 
nponoBeflb. 

Bee 3th pa3MbinuieHHH HeBOJibHO npHxoflHT b rojiOBy, Koiyja npncTajib- 
ho BHHTaenibCH b pa36HpaeMyio KHHry. 

B TBopnecTBe 3. H. rnnnnyc MbicjiHTejib hbho He coe^HHeH c xyzjoac- 
hhkom. OHa to B036yacflaeT Haine C03HaHHe, CTaBHT nepe/j hhmh pe6poM 
cjio^CHefiuiHe aHTHHOMHH >kh3hh, h Kor^a mw Bceijejio oT^aeMCH onapo- 
BaHHio ee yMa h npoHHijaTejibHOcra, HaM B^pyr HenpnaTHO peaceT cjiyx 

npHHOCTb CTHJIfl, CTOJIb Hflymafl, HanpHMep, HHCTOMy Xy^O^CHHKy CJIOBa, 
flJIH KOTOporO H3bICKaHHOCTb - CBHTafl npOCTOTa, nOflBHT, MOJIHTBa H B03- 

^bixaHHe o TaiiHe. EcTb KpacoTa (J)opMbi b 3. H. THnnHyc. HHor^a, Bbicry- 
naa Ha nepBbin njiaH, KaK cepe6pnHbiH Mecnii; H3-3a o6jiaKa mhcjih, hokht 
h TonHT, h rpeeT cepe6pHHan KpacoTa ee mojihtb, ho TaM oroiTb Ha3ofijiH- 
bhm yTecoM BbiCTynHT cxeMa, HpaBoyneHHe. Mnr, h yjieTejio onapoBaHHe, 
yjieTejio... IlepecTpoHB ce6n Ha hobwh Jia#, onHTb HanHHaenib noHHMaTb, 
hto h cxeMa ee - ne cxeMa, a fa^on de parler o HecKa3aHHOM, hto 3^ecb to 
ace He6o, h Ta ace TaHHa, ho no-unoMy. H BHOBb Bpe3biBaeTcn HHaa TOHajib- 
HOCTb 6e3 AOCTaTOHHo MnrKoro nepexo^a b e^Ba Han^eHHyio rapMOHHio, 
hto6 HapyuiHTb ee. H TaK Bee BpeMH. 

HaKOHei^, aocTaTOHHO ocBOHBinncb c rjiaBHbiM He^ocTaTKOM npoH3- 
Be^eHHH 3. H. rnnnnyc, noHHMaeuib, hto pe3Kan CMeHa TOHajibHOCTefi b 
TBopnecTBe ee - CBoero po^a Memod, h KaK bchkhh Memod oh HMeeT CBoe 



329 



OTHOCHTejibHoe onpaBflaHHe. TapMOHHH b ee TBopnecTBe ecTb rapMOHHH, 
nocTpoeHHan Ha 3aKOHOMepHOcra b cMeHe anccoHaHCOB. 3to, npaB^a, 
npHJIHHHblH BblXOfl H3 HeyMeHbH COeflHHHTb uejibHO ABa npoTHBonojio^c- 
hwx MeToaa TBopnecTBa - ho mojibico npujiuuHuu, yKa3biBaiomHft Ha jtm, 
BKyc h H3bicicaHHOCTb pa36npaeMoft nHcaTejibHHUbi, cyMeBinefi Haft™ 
opHrHHajibHbiii Bbixoa TaM, r,zje co6cTBeHHO Bbixo^a eft He nojiaraeTCH. 
Mw oueHHBaeM BnojiHe ee npneM. /iHCCOHHpyiomHe hotw, OTcyTCTBHe 
uejibHOCTH, Bee TOHKoe h xpynKoe HanHHaeT Hac npejibmaTb, KaK npejib- 
maeT Hac My3biKa CKpn6HHa, hjih KaK HpaBHTcn HaM ceftnac PaMO (ko- 
Topwft fljin Hac coBceM He to, hto jxjix coBpeMeHHHKOB ero), KaK npea- 
noHHTaeM mh KanpH3HO no^nac 3anax no;iy3acoxineft CHpeHH - CHpeHH, 
TOJibKO hto pacnycTHBineftcH. 

Ecjih hto aejibHO b TBopnecTBe 3. H. Tnnnnyc - 3to ee yM, BKyc h 
KyjibTypa: ocTajibHoe - b npoTHBopenHH, t. e. Myapeij, npH3biBaiomHft Hac 
k moMy, nmo 3a npedejiOM Jiumepamypu, HacHJiyeT xyaoacHHKa b Heft, ce- 
pbe3HOCTb pejiHrH03Hbix npH3biBOB ee o6eccHjiHBaeT xyaoacHHK. Ho e^Ba 
jih kto 6yaeT cnopHTb, hto b M03aHKe pa3HopoflHbix, HecBe^eHHbix k ejimi- 
CTBy ajieMeHTOB TBopnecTBa 3. H. THnnHyc ecTb MecTa KaK y^HBHTejibHoft 
KpacoTbi, TaK h MecTa, rjiy6oKHe no pejiHrao3HOMy npo3peHHio. 

HeTBepTbift c6opHHK paccKa30B «Anuu Men*, ycrynaa b xyfloaeecTBeH- 
Hoft CHJie «CyMepKOM dyxa», onpe^ejieHHO h cnjibHO OKpauieH nponoBe- 
jlhK) xpHCTHaHCTBa h co6opHOCTH. TojibKO nponoBe^b 3Ta hocht noflnac 

«UHTniLMHUU } CJIUIUKOM UH7nUMHblU» XapaKTep, HT06bI 6bITb ^eftCTBeHHOH 

BHe ccj)epbi Majioro Kpyra nocBnmeHHbix b «xpHCTHaHCKHft» acaproH aB- 
Topa. 3to CKopeft HHTHMHbie b3aoxh o co6opHoft HcTHHe, neM yKa3aHne 
Ha nyTb k Hcthhc Bee ace nacxajibHbift 3boh, npH3biBHbift h HCHbifi, 3By- 
hht 3aa yMHHBO b thxhx penax aBTopa. JIobko h yMejio coe^HHHeT TajiaHT- 
jiHBan nHcaTejibHHina cjioacHeftuiHe HeaoyMeHHH Hameft KyjibTypw c Bee 
pa3peuiaiomeft nacxajibHoft 3ayTpeHeft. Ymcjio h jiobko BCKpbiBaeT MepT- 
BeHHOCTb xo^hhhx B3rjiH,aoB Ha xpHCTHaHCTBO, yBeHHaHHbix pacnaaaio- 
mHMHCH xpaMaMH, b kotopmx He 3ByHHT HaM 6apxaTHbift TOJIOC TaftHbl, 
exoflnmnft c He6a tojioc, - ot KOToporo «muzpou» 3aropaeTCH He6ocKJioH. 
Ho Kor^a min ycnjieHHH xpncraaHCKoft TeHfleHijHH noHBJinioTCH Bee sth 
MHCCHOHepbi, pacKOJibHHKH h aaace cTy^eHTbi ^yxoBHbix aKaaeMHft, BMe- 
CTe c Mapneft Maft (cm. paccKa3 «Suor Maria*), aojiaceHCTByiomHe flOKa- 
3aTb HeBpacTeHHHecKOMy H^HOTy, hto cymecTByeT MarnnecKoe Cjioeo, see 
pa3peuiaiomee, CKynHO h Jiyuiuo TaK CTaHOBHTcn Ha nyuiel Bejib dbtxanue 
TaftHbi Be^oMo 3. H. THnnHyc: pynaTejibCTBOM TOMy - «He6ecnue Cjioea», 
rjie Taunou ctw^jihbo obchho Kaacaoe cjiobo. 3aneM npe^aBaTb THUiHHy 
xo^hhhmh noyneHHHMH - Beflb He win o^Hoft 3. H. Tnnnnyc BopKyiOT 6e- 
jibie ro;iy6H npHinecTBHH? 3aneM 3Ta Mapna Maft, Hrpaiomaa pojib ry- 
BepHaHTKH npn KaKOM-TO paccjia6jieHHOM nojiyn^HOTe, AHflpee, k KOTopo- 
My nncaTejibHHua roTOBa npHHHCJiHTb Bcex, kto He corjiaceH c ee mnbum 



330 



anoBaMH o coKpoeeHHOM. Ecjih 3. H. InnnHyc nojiaraeT, hto OHa Haimia 
Cjiobo, pa3pemaiomee TaiiHy, to hjih TyT mm HMeeM aejio c poMaHTHKoii, 
a He c AeiicTBHTejibHOCTbK), hjih ace nepea HaMH hcbojibho, e^sa 3aMeT- 
hwh, a noTOMy h BecbMa onacHbin yKJioH k cap-nejiaaaHCTBy. TaiiHa, bo- 
Kpyr KOTopoii BpamaioTCH repon aBTopa, cymecTByeT He rjm o^hoh TOJibKO 
3. H. THnnHyc. J\jin nero ace, TaK CKa3aTb, b Kpe^HT 6paTb MOHonojiHio Ha 
CBHmeHHeHinee flOCTOHHHe BCHKoro, noTOMy hto bchkhh roBopamHH h He 
roBopnmHH, co3HaiomHH h He co3HaiomHH, cmpeMumcH ece k moMy Me. 

Hhkto He 3HaeT, y Koro ecTb Cnoeo h oTKpbiTO jih Oho xoTb KOMy- 
HH6y,ab H3 Hac. XoneTCH BepHTb, hto oho OTKpbiTO hjih BceM, HJIH HHKOMy; 
a noTOMy h toh HacraBHHijbi He k JiHijy aBTopy, TeM 6ojiee, hto 3tot toh 
y6nBaeT He o#Hy cTpaHHijy bwcokoh KpacoTbi, nyBCTBO KOTopoii TaK pa3- 
bhto b noHHTaeMOH nHcaTejibHHue. 

1906 

JlMTepaTypHblM flHeBHHK 

(1899-1907) 

JlencoH KpHTHnecKOH pannpoH, H3HmHo-CBHCTHmeH, Boopy- 
aceH Ahtoh KpafiHHH. IIpeKpacHbie pncyeT pannpa BeH3ejui, uiyTjiHBO 
nocBHCTWBaeT y Hoca npoTHBHHKa, Bbi3biBan Ha HanaaeHHe, a to 3jio6ho 
B3BH3rHeT h pacnjianeTCfl th6khm 6jiecKOM. JlerKHM cbhctom ihcjikobh- 
ctwm pa3,apa3HHT, h KaaceTca - jierKO cpa3HTb TaKoro npoTHBHHKa, KaK 
Ahtoh KpaHHHH: o, He Bcer^a ero yaaeTCJi cpa3HTb, - nonpo6yHTe: nepen- 
AHTe b HanaaeHHe: HCKyccTBy (J)exTOBaTbcn He o6ynajiHCb kphthkh poc- 
cHHCKHe: 6ojibuiHHCTBO H3 hhx hckohh apajiocb Ha KyjianKax, Hy, a HHbie, 
MapKofi Bbiiue, KaK Taacejio BOopyaceHHbie BbicTynaiOT ohh Ha 6oh; noKa- 
to co6epyTcn! HenpeMeHHO nnmajib nyaoByio noTamyT 3a co6oh, m. h 
no^cTaBKy ajih nnmajiH npnxBaTHT: 6jiaropoflHO, noHTeHHO, Tpa^HijHOH- 
ho - ho, Bor, moh! - noKa-TO 3apnacaioT ohh nnmajib (aecflTb nenaTHbix 
CTpaHHu!), noKa-TO ycTaHOBHT noacraBKy (eme aecHTb crpaHHij!), noKa Ha 
Bpara cboio pyHHyio HaBOflflT nyiiiKy (aecHTb crpaHHu!), BbiceKaioT oroHb 
(aecHTb cTpaHHu!) n& BbinajiHT (aecHTb CTpaHHij; HToro nHTbflecHT), - 
ABe-Tpn ctpohkh AHTOHa KpaiiHero (inejiKOBHCTbiii cbhct hckphctoto 
jie3BH5i!) cnoco6Hbi HaHecra cepbe3Hbie nopaHeHHH toh hjih hhoh Boopy- 

>KeHHOH MaCTHTOCTH. A KyjiaHHHKOB KpHTHKH pOCCHHCKOH 6yKBaJIbHO pfl- 

ZiaMH yKJia^biBaeT pannpa AHTOHa KpaiiHero. He^apoM b 6bijiwe ro^bi ohh 
ycTpaHBajiH o6jiaBbi Ha H3amHoro ny6jiHUHcra. 

Tenepb co6paHbi HeKOTopwe H3 CTaTen ero b o^hom c6opHHKe; h co- 
6paHHe hx o6HaacaeT b ny6jiHijHCTe y*i3BHMoe MecTo: sto - 4>opcHpoBaH- 
Han He6peacHOcn>, c KOTopoii pa3/jejibiBaeTCH oh c pnaoM BonpocoB. Hto, 
ecjiH 6w Bbimeji npoTHBHHK, o6yHeHHbiii (J>exTOBaHbio? IIo6pbi3rajiH 6bi 
ohh 3apHHitaMH 6jiecKa, creKaiomHMH c jie3BHH, a noTOM npoTHBHHK 6w 



331 



npe^JicoKHji nepeHTH k acnadponoM. Tnaceji acna^poH MeTOflOJiorHnecicoro 
Hccjie^OBaHHH ajih H3HmHOH pyHKH HauieS TajiaHTJiHBOH nosTeccbi, yKpbi- 
BaiomeHcn noA nceBflOHHMOM AHTOHa KpaHHero! Hto, ecjiH 6m iipothbhhk 
3aMaxHyjiCH 3cna#poHOM, nepeHecn Bonpoc o CBo6oae, hjih npe^onpe^e- 
jieHHOCTH TBopnecTBa b o6jiacTb aHajiH3a ochobhmx iiohhthh «cbo6oam», 
«Heo6xoduMOcmu», «meopuecmea^ f «ucKyccm8a»? Be^HbiH Ahtoh KpaH- 
HHH, npHBblKIIIHH K He6pe5KHOMy OTHOUieHHK) K npOTHBHHKaM Ha OCHOBa- 
HHH npe^CHHX CXBaTOK C KyJiaHHHKaMH fla C HeyKJIKWKHMH CTpeJIbUiaMH H3 

nHmajieft: TnacejiMH acna/ipoH (cjihiiikom Tnacejibiii ajih H3nmHOH pyHKH, 
nocBHCTbiBaiomeH panHpoii) Bbinaji 6m CKopo H3 ee pyic! 

A nporaBHHK 6bi Hadynaji: «Bbi crpoHTe CBoe Hana^eHHe Ha p*me He- 
npoAyMaHHbix cy^CACHHH; bbi He Bbi^BHraeie hh o/jHoro Bonpoca bo Bcefi 
ero cepbe3H0CTH; Meacay TeM 3aKJiiOHaeTe, hto HCKyccTBo HH^HBH^yajib- 
Hoe ydapejio, 6yzjyHH Jiniiib nepexo^OM ot HH3inefi (J>opMbi TeH/jeHijH- 
o3hocth k BbiciueH. BauiH HanaflKH cnpaBe^jiHBbi, 6biTb MoaceT, ecjiH 6m 
bm HMejiH aejio c EMejibHHOBbiM- KoxaHCKHM hjih c ManTeTOM, ho nepea 
BaMH BpiocoB. He roBopio yace o TeTe: ero-TO icyaa npnicaaceTe bm jiesarh? 
C hhm hto no^ejiaeTe? Ahtoh KpaiiHHH, 3amHmaftTecb: r^e CBHCTHmHH 
6jiecK Baiueii pannpbi? 3cna,zjpoH hcjiobko bhxjihctch y Bac b pyKax». 
H npoTHBHHK 6bi HacTynaji, a Ahtoh KpaHHHH OTcrynaji... «Bm yTBepac- 
aaeTe, hto sctcthhcckhh HH^HBH^yajiHSM cwrpaji cboio pojib, h onepnpye- 
Te npoH3BOJibHo c noHHTHeM, Tpe6yiomHM MeTo^ojiorHnecKOH o6pa6oTKH; 
cjioacHa npo6jieMa HHflHBH/jyajibHocTH: ecTb HHflHBH/jyajibHOCTb ncnxo- 
jiorHHecKan, SMnnpHHecKan, MeTa4>H3HHecKaH, o6mecTBeHHaa, pejiHrn- 
03Han. KaKOBo ace y Bac co^epacaHHe hohhthh «HHflHBHflyajibHOCTH»? 

KaKOB npOUeCC HHflHBHflyaJIbHOrO pa3BHTHfl H KaKOBbI HOpMbI 3Toro 

npoijecca? Hjih ajih Bac He cymecTByiOT npo6jieMbi HHflHBHflyajibHO- 

CTH, nO^HHMaeMbie HayHHO-(J)HJIOCO(J)CKHMH ^HCUiHnjIHHaMH? HJIH Bbl 

3anepKHBaeTe pa6oTbi TejibMrojibua, OexHepa, OojibicejibTa, Jlnnnca, 
OcTBajib^a, KacaiomnecH HCKyccTBa? HHflHBHflyajiH3M b HCKyccTBe - 

3TO BOnpOC, Tpe6yK)mHH CJI05KHOH pa3pa60TKH, CnopHMH H TeMHMH, H 

He cbhctom Bauien, xoth h npeicpacHOH, ho - yBbil - cjia6ofi pannpbi 
oh pa3peuiHTCH, a cok)30m hjih bohhoh MeTOAOJiorHnecKHx KpenocTefi, 
Boopy^ceHHbix aajibHo6oHHMMH opy^HHMH; nocMOTpeji 6bi h, hto npe#- 
npHMeTe, Kor/ja pa3opBeTcn hsljx BaMH xoth 6bi o^Ha cepbe3Han rpaHaTa. 
H He mw BaM oTBeTHM! mm aaMy noma^HM. Bbi ayMajiH, hto 6opeTecb 

C HaMH, C HHAHBHAyaJIHCTaMH, - o, hct! - Bbl 6opOJIHCb He C HaMH, a c 

MajibHHiHKaMH H3 npHroTOBHTejibHoro KJiacca, rpo3HmHMH BaM 6yMaac- 
hoh CTpejioft. Tpax - scna^poH Bbinaji H3 pyK; samnmairrecb ace, mm He 
BOcnojib3yeMCH Baiueio HejiOBKOCTbio». 

«Bbi o6Hapy»CHBaeTe He3HaHHe tcpmhhob: Kor^a roBopHTe 06 hhah- 
BH^yajiH3Me, to noa hhm pa3yMeeTe cojihhch3m. Hto bm Tpe6yeTe ot co- 
BpeMeHHoro HCKyccTBa, bm ero npe^CTaBHTejib? HeyacejiH KOJiJieKTHBHoro 



332 



TBopnecTBa xphcthshckhx ueHHocTeft? HiaK, Ha cjio^choctb MeTO/jojio- 
rHHecKHx BonpocoB o6pyuiHBaeTecb bw XpHCTOM h Ahthxphctom? TaK 
ocKomraeTe bbi KyjibTypy, h He «CKonijaM» (Bauie onpe/jejieHHe fleicafleH- 
tob) ynHTb Bac TOMy, hto KyjibTypa MHororpaHHa». 

«Hy, ^OBOJibHo cpa^caTbCH Ha acna/jpoHax: mh Be^b He 3a6biBaeM, hto 
HMeeM aejio c aaMoft; mh He o6pyuiHMCH Ha Hee rHoceojiorHeft; B03bMeMTe 
pannpy: aaBaiiTe 4>exTOBaTbCH Ha paBHbix ocHOBaHHHx. HiaK, icyaa ace y 
Bac .zjeHyTCH riyuiKHH, BaftpoH, TeTe, Hnmne? Hjih ohh - npe/jCTaBHTejiH 
uepKOBHoro HCKyccTBa? Hjih ohh nncajiH KaHOHbi? Tpax - kohhhk pann- 
pbi cjiOMajiCH y Bac: eme pannpy!» 

«Hy, Bor c bhmh! noroBopHM o aeicafleHTax-HfleajiHCTax, KOTopwx bw 
OKpecTHJiH Kor^a-TO co6anKaMH TpHHbKaMH, cKonixaMH h ApyrHMH B BblC- 
ineft CTeneHH jno6e3HbiMH onpeaejieHHHMH. Be^Hbie HH^HBH^yajiHCTbi- 
aeKa^eHTbi: noKa, HrHopnpyfl KyjibTypy, HayKy, HCKyccTBo, bh Tpy^HjiHCb 
Haa C03,aaHHeM He6biBajioro co6opHoro HCKyccTBa, KOTopoe .zjojihcho bh- 
3BaTb b Hac TaKoe npHnraoe BOcnoMHHaHHe (BcnoMHHTe BauiH He,zjaBHHe 

CTaTbH?), J12L CKyKH paflH 6paHHJIHCb Co6aHKOH rpHHbKOH, HHAHBHayaJIH- 

ctw co3AaBajiH npoH3Be^eHHH, KOTopwe HaBcer^a ocTaHyTca b jiHTepaTy- 
pe pyccKOH, CHflejiH nan, TpaKTaTaMH no hctophh HCKyccTBa, KyjibTypw 
h TeopHH no3HaHHH, nonyTHO jno6yHCb 3Hr3araMH 6e3o6H^HOH rjik hhx 
panHpbi, h HrHopnpyH, hto pannpa pncoBajia cjiobo ^CKonupi* no aapecy 
hx; ax, Baina 6e^Han pannpa, CTOJib cy6i>eKTHBHafl b Hana^icax Ha hh/jh- 

BHAyaJIHCTOB, CTOJib HH.ZJHBH.ZjyaJIbHafl B CBOCM «CBepXHHflHBHflyaJIbHOM» 

npoponecTBe! OnHTb OHa cjiOMajiacb; eme pannpy». 

«3. H. rnnnnyc - ^deKadenmcKcm nosmecca*: r. A. KpaftHHH, kto OHa, 
no BauieMy mhchhio, - He npaB^a jih, «co6amca rpuubxa^ ^aconeu,*? HeT, 
yac, r. KpaiiHHH: no3BOJibTe HaM, HH/jHBH^yajiHcraM no cymecTBy hjih hh- 
^HBH^yajiHCTaM no TaKTHKe, flpyacHO BCTaTb Ha ee 3aiijHTy. Ax, r-H Kpaii- 
HHH: MacKa cjieTejia c Bauiero Jinua: nepea HaMH yBaacaeMan noaTecca. Hto 
MoaceT c^ejiaTb rajiaHTHbiii KaBajiep, KaK He onycTHTb pannpy; KaK He no^- 
CTaBHTb rpyzjb noa yaapbi H3flmHoft pyHKn!» 

Bot, hto CKa3aji 6w AencTBHTe^bHbiH npoTHBHHK h noTOM Hanaji 
6w 6e3 nrpbi pa36npaTb nojioaceHHe 3a nojioaceHHeM AHTOHa KpaftHero. 
Mw He CTaHeM TaK nocTynaTb. Tn»c6a, 3aTeHHHaa Kor^a-TO 3a^opHbiM 
A. KpaHHHM c fleKaaeHTaMH - ysbi! - OHa peuieHa He b ero nojib3y; BMeere 
c «0TynHTe;ibHbiM» mockobckhm aeicaaeHTCTBOM, c ^npoHUKaTOu/fUM eo ece 
deepu» («cpa3y npoHHKHyTb yMeeuib bo Bee tw») B. BpiocoBbiM h «nedo- 
KUCiuiiM* A. BejibiM, TajiaHTJiHBbiH ny6;iHUHCT Harpaacaaji y^apaMH cbo- 
eA pannpbi neTep6yprcKHH «cBepx-HH,aHBHflyajiH3M» - njiOTb ot njiora 
naHHHH KpaftHero. A «TynHTejibHoe» ^eica^eHTCTBO «ocTpee» noHHJio 

MOTHBbI OCTporO KpHTHKa B 6oJie3HeHHO-«TynHTeJIbHOM» OTHOUieHHH 

ero k TOBapnmaM no nepy. 3th TOBapHiijH - ^CKonupi, om npeea Mamep- 
nezo pootcdeHHbie* - oica3ajiHCb B^pyr He JiHmeHHbiMH myecmea neocno- 



333 



puMOZOy kok 3namhy umo a ne odun e Mupe, ho onpyotcen Mue nodo6nbiMU». 

A BOT A. KpaHHHH, HaC yKOpflBIIIHH B OTCyTCTBHH HyBCTBa COJIHflapHO- 

cth, coBepuiHji 3tot rpex, nepenenaTaB crapwe B03MyTHTejibHbie cjiOBa, 
onpoBeprHyTbie ohcbh^hoctbio. 

H He «HedoKuciueMy» HHflHBHflyajiHcry BejiOMy yKa3braaTb Ha 3to 
«nepeKHCiueMy» xpHCTHaHCKOMy co3HaHHio AHTOHa KpaftHero. 

H, ecjiH y AHTOHa KpaftHero ecTb necTHOCTb mmcjih, He aojiacHa jih 
BbinacTb ero pannpa, Tanan H3nmHafl, Tanan Jiencan, Kor^a o6pamaeT 
oh ee npoTHB Hac? B pyicax KanpH3Horo cy6i>eKTHBH3Ma pannpa CBepx- 
HHAHBH^yajibHOH ny6jiHUHCTHKH ro^Ha jiHHib /ura MajiorpaMOTHoft opaBbi 
KyjiaMHHKOB, hjih fljra HeyKJiiOHcero crpejibija H3 nHinajiH. 

1908 

«HepHoe no 6e/iOMy» 

3. H. THnnHyc Bbinycrajia nnTyio KHHiy paccKa30B. HanHHan 
c TOMHKa «HoBbie jhoah» jxo pa36HpaeMoft khhth, TajiaHT ee pncyeT jio- 
MaHyio jihhhk). MeHfleTCH Kpyr H3o6paacaeMbix TeM, mchhiotch h MeTOflbi 
ee TBopnecTBa. HacTO h aocroHHCTBa h He^ocTaTKH ee npoH3Be,zjeHHft 3a- 
bhcht He TOjibKO ot Tajiama aBTopa. 3. H. InnnHyc - caMan TajiaHTjiHBan 
H3 nHcaTejibHHu-aceHiuHH. KpoMe Toro: OHa - yMHeftuiaH cpe^H coBpeMeH- 
hmx 6ejuieTpHCTOB. Ee tohkhh KanpH3Hbift yM KaK 6w npoHH3biBaeT (J>oh 
co6cTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa. Ee yM Macro - npenflTCTBHe ajih Hee. B stom ot- 

HOHieHHH OHa - npOTHBOnOJIO^CHOCTb MHOrHM COBpeMeHHbIM TajiaHTaM; B 

to BpeMH, KaK 3th TajiaHTbi ra6HyT ot HeaocTaTKa yMa, eft MeuiaeT b TBop- 
necTBe aohth ;jo OTMeaceBaHHbix eft rpaHeft hmchho H3JiHiiiHee pa3BHTHe 
HHTejiJieKTyajibHOCTH. Ym aaBHT b Heft xyzjoacHHKa. TeMbi, 3aTparHBaeMbie 
eio b paccKa3ax, cjihuikom cepbe3Hbi, cjihhikom 3HanHTejibHbi; Bonjiora- 
mw jih ohh Boo6me b npe^ejiax ee (J>opMbi? BbiTb mohcct, ecjiH 6 pa3BHjia 
OHa tot hjih apyroft paccKa3 b uejiwft poMaH, Tor^a 6w TOJibKO cyMejia OHa 
BbicKa3aTbCH BnojiHe; Tor^a, 6biTb MoaceT, He TnrorajiHCb 6h h mh. EcTb 

Xyfl02CHHKH, KOTOpbie MOiyT CKa3aTbCH TOJibKO Ha 6oJIbIHHX nojiOTHax. 

IIpeacTaBbTe ce6e «Oaycra h MaprapHTy» Bpy6ejra b BH^e MHHHaTiopHo- 
ro Ha6pocKa: mh He hmcjih 6m reHHajibHoro npoH3BeaeHHfl stoto xyzjoac- 
HHKa. Moecho jih BonjioTHTb Te rjiy6oKHe MbicjiH-nepeacHBaHHH, KOTopwe 
nbiTaeTCH nepe^aTb 3. H. rnnnnyc, Ha 30 CTpaHHHKax Majioro (J>opMaTa 
b paccKa3e «JJeoe - o3uh»? Bent Bee Tyr HenoHflrao HaM, TyMaHHO. OHa 
noflxoflHT k cjiojKHeftuiHM 3ara#KaM 6wthh KaK 6bi BCKOJib3b, 6pocaeT cjiy- 
naftHbift B3rjiHA h npoxo^HT mhmo BOBce He OTToro, hto caMa He noHHMaeT, 
nero KOCHyjiacb: npocTO eft TecHO b npeaejiax paccKa3a h OHa noHeBOjie 
AOJiacHa no^HHHHTb ero TeHfleHijHH, cxeMe. TaK, paccKa3 ee craHOBHTCH 
TeH^eHijH03HbiM. Ho 3^ecb TeHfleHUH03HOCTb cjiynaftHa: OT He^ocTaTKa 
MecTa h BpeMeHH BonjioTHTb b o6pa3bi rjiy6oKyio Mbicjib. C Heft nponc- 



334 



xoflHT nenajibHoe Heaopa3yMeHHe: 3aTparHBaeMbie Bonpocbi Bee iviy6»ce 
h niy6»ce, nepeacHBaHHH yTOHneHHeft h yTOHneHHeft. CKa3MBaiOTCH b Heft 
Bee nepTbi xyaoacHHKa-aHajiHTHKa, Bpo^e JleoHapao aa Bhhhh. Ho OHa He 
yMeeT cnpaBHTbca c cbohm co6cTBeHHbiM poctom: pacTeT 3opKOCTb 3pe- 
hhh, a HaM Ka^ceTCH, hto nHineT OHa xyace. 3to OTToro, hto THnnHyc anoxn 
«CyMepoK ayxa» Boimomajiacb b He6o;ibHiHx paccKa3ax. H sth paccKa3w 
3anenaT^e^HCb b TaKoft apKoft xyaoacecTBeHHoft <})opMeI C Tex nop hhah- 
BH,ziyajibHOCTb ee 6e3MepHO Bbipocjia: eft cjihihkom MHoro HyacHO cica3aTb. 
C 6ecneHHoft jieHbio OHa TOJibKO MaineT pyKoft, OTflejibiBaeTca KopoTeHb- 
khmh a63aijaMH CBoeft HeHanncaHHoft noBecTH, KaK 6m chhcxo^h ao jih- 
TepaTypw. OTToro-TO He^ocKa3aHHoe rzbwt HHTaTejin HeBonjiomeHHoft 
cxeMoft: nojiynaeTCH BnenaTJieHHe, hto TeHfleHij;H03HOCTb ry6nT ee npKoe 
aapoBaHHe. Eme b «Ajiom Meue» mh motjih coMHeBaTbca, b neM cnjia ee 
HHflHBHflyajibHOcra: b nponoBean hjih b xyaoacecTBeHHoft H3o6pa3HTe;ib- 

HOCTH. HaM Ka3aJIOCb, HTO OHa CTaHOBHTCH HCKpeHHe-TeHAeHI^H03Ha. Ho 

bot nepea hsmh ^Hepnoe no 6enoMy». H mm bh^hm, hto oniH6jiHCb. TaKHe 
paccKa3bi, KaK ^CoKamuji*, ^BeuuoH DfcencKocmb*, «He mo», hcho yKa3braa- 

K)T, HTO 3Ta TeHfleHIJH03HOCTb BMHy5KfleHHafl! npOHHKHOBCHHe B niy6HHy 

HejiOBenecKoft jihhhocth y InnnHyc Hecopa3MepHO c 4>opMoft BbipaaceHHH. 
B poMane, e mpwiozuu Monia 6m CKa3aTbcn InnnHyc: noneMy He pa3BHBaeT 
OHa cboh TeMM b 3THX (J)opMax? Cjihihkom BejiHKH ee TeMM flJIH paccKa30B 
h hobcjiji. TyT Bee - Ha6pocKH ajih oflHoro npoH3BeaeHHH, Haa kotopmm 
aojiacHa noTpy^HTbCH pyKa KpynHoro MacTepa. THnnHyc npe^aeT nenaTH 
3th nepHOBbie Ha6pocKH. HepHOBbie Ha6pocKH KpynHoro npoH3BeaeHHH 
HCKyccTBa He Bcer^a xyfloacecTBeHHM chmh no ce6e. H MHorne paccKa3bi 
3. H. THnnnyc b tomhkc «Hepnoe no 6ejioMy» crpa/jaiOT 6ecKpoBHOCTbio: 
noHBjineTCH BH^HMOCTb TeH^eHu;HH. B Heft nyBCTByeTCH pyKa KpynHo- 
ro xyzjoHCHHKa; b Heft yM h nojieTM 6ojibinoro TajiaHTa. A OHa, KaK 6yzjT0 
HexoTH, o6pamaeTCH k jimepaType, HacKopo 3anHCMBaeT o6pmbkh CBoeft 
HeHanncaHHoft «TpHjiorHH», BOBce He 3a6oTHCb o tom, hto CKaaceT HHTa- 
Tejib h xyao^cecTBeHHbift kphthk. H kphthk, niy6oKO ijeHH yM h TajiaHT 
3. H. rnnnnyc, rjiy6oKO Bepn, Ha hto OHa cnoco6Ha, KaK xyaoacHHK, Bee 
ace npHHyaczjeH oTMeTHTb 3HaHHTejibHbie He^ocTaTKH ee paccKa30B: cy- 
xocTb, TeH,zieHi|H03H0CTb h HeKOTopyio 6e3»H3HeHH0CTb. HeT, nycTb jiyn- 
me b npe^ejiax paccKa3a OHa Bocnojib3yeTca 6ojiee ckpomhmmh TeMaMH, 
a BaciOTy HacToamero, «Komopozo momho 6buio 6u mo6umb - u Komopozo 
no-nacmomifiMy - miicozda ne 6buio» f ocTaBHTb ajih toto HeHanncaHHoro 
npoH3BeaeHHH, KOTopoe eft o^Hoft Ha/yie^KHT co3flaTb u KOTopoe co3flaTb 
OHa - MOHCeT. 

Mm TBep^o BepHM, hto 3. H. THnnnyc, HaKOHeij, CHH3oftaeT jxo jime- 
paTypbi, mhmo KOTopoft OHa Bee npoxoflHT. 

1908 



335 



BPKDCOB 



no3T MpaMopa M 6pOH3bl 

Kyaa ^eBaTbCH ot Mo,zjepHH3Ma? Bee CTajiH aeicaaeHTaMH. 
Ckojibko noHBHJiocb 6jie^Hbix, H3MyneHHbix jihuJ noH^HTe b TeaTp: 6jiea- 
Hbie iohouih, 6jieflHbie cTHJiH30BaHHbie rojiOBKH. Ilpeacfle, 6biBajio, aocTa- 
tohho CKa3aTb: «ayx My3biKH» - h Bee xoxonyT. By^yHH cryfleHTOM, jieT 
mecrb TOMy Ha3aa, h HHTaji b yHHBepcHTeTe pe(J)epaT. ripn cjiOBe «Hhij- 
ine» RBe TpeTH ay^HTopHH TaK Becejio yxMbiJibHyjiHCb. He TaK aaBHO MHe 
npHXOAHJiocb ny6;iHHHO BbicjiyuiaTb ynpeic ot CTyaeHTa neTpoBija, hto h 
aepacycb 3a aejieHHe HCKyccTBa Ha (popMU, Tor^a KaK BceM h3bcctho, hto 
Bee - TOJibKO My3biKa. .flpyroH onnoHeHT ao6aBHJi, hto h b ^chboiihch aejio 
o6ctoht TaK ace: Bee - «zojiy6aa po3a». 

HeflaBHO HHTajiCH pe(J)epaT, r^e ,zjOKa3biBajiocb, hto Baraep npeB30ineji 
BeTXOBeHa, IIlTpayc - Baraepa, #e6ioccH - IIlTpayca, Pc6hkob - ,fle6ioc- 
ch, ApxaHrejibCKHH (kto sto?) - Pe6HKOBa. IIoroBapHBaiOT, hto OTbicicaji- 
ch reHHii, HcnojiHHiomHH chmcJ)ohhh Ha «rpe6eHKax». 

PaccKa3biBaiOT 06 oahom jieicrope, kotopmh b floica3aTejibCTBO npaBO- 

Tbl CBOHX B3rJIHAOB Ha KOHTpanyHKT, noBepHyjicn CnHHOH K pOHJIK) H CTaJI 

HrpaTb 4>ajiAaMH 4>paica. IIy6jiHKa Harpa^HJia jieKTopa an jio^HCMeHTaMH . 

Kyaa .aeBaTbCH ot MO,zjepHH3Ma? Bee CTajiH aeicaaeHTaMH. 

BarHep, HHiniie, PeMH jie TypivioH, - Bee MepKHeT nepea cTyaeHTOM- 
neTpoBueM, npoB03rjianiaiomHM b ay^HTopHH IlojiHTexHHHecKoro My3en, 

HTO HCKyCCTBa y3Ke HeT, H HTO (})OpMbI MHHOBaJIH. 

3to jih He acTeTHnecKHH HHrHJiH3M? HeT, h jiynine ocTaHycb c IlHcape- 

BblM, HeM CO CTyfleHTOM-neTpOBIjeM. H nOTOMy-TO C TaKHM MyHHTeJIbHbIM 

no,ao3peHHeM HanHHaeuib oraocHTbCH ko BceM HOBaTopaM-flo6poBOJibnaM. 

Bo BCHKOM flBHECeHHH, pa3 OHO HaHHHaeT OKa3bIBaTb BJIHHHHe, BCJiefl 3a 

CMejibiMH SKCKypcHHMH Bnepea HacTynaeT nopa opraHH3auHOHHofi pa6o- 
Tbi. 3to cjiynaeTCH b tot momcht, Kor^a k flBHHceHHio npHTeicaeT «HepHaa 
cothh». HepHan cothh ecTb h y npaBbix, h y jieBbix. OHa b CBoe BpeMH Ha- 
HHHaeT BonHTb: «6eft 5khaob» hjih «BemaH 6yp»cyeB». 

Hto HaM aejiaTb, Kor^a BfloxHOBJiaeMbie hobhm HCKyccTBOM MOflep- 
HHCTHnecKHe xyjinraHbi roTOBbi pacTep3aTb He TOJibKO IlyinKHHa, IeTe, 
IIIeKcnHpa h ,/JaHTe, ho h Hac, ecjin mm noflHHMeM rojioc b 3amHTy sthx 
peaKiifUOHepoe HCKyccTBa. 

Hto, ecjiH CTyaeHT-neTpoBeu; npH30BeT cbohx TOBapnmeH no y6eacfle- 
hhk) h ycTpoHT MHTHHr HcnoBeflHHKOB «ayxa My3biKH»? Hto, ecjiH Bbipa- 

60TaK)T OHH pe30JIK)UHK) 06 aKTHBHOM COnpOTHBJieHHH (J)OpMaM HCKyCCTBa 

h nofiflyT no My3enM coKpyuiaTb CTaTyn hjih Bbipe3biBaTb jieHTbi H3 KapraH 
Bpy6e;iH? Hjih npoB03rjiacHT My3biKajibHbiH CTpoft o6mecTBeHHOH 5KH3- 
hh, c npeBpameHHeM /lyMbi b opxecTpy. H bmccto MypoMueBa, Tojiobh- 



336 



Ha hjih jxayme XoMHKOBa 6y#yT arHTHpoBaTb 3a Bbi6opbi b npeAce^aTejiH... 
TeoprHH HyjiKOBa? Boo6paaeaeM ce6e ZfyMy, b kotopoh npeACTaBHTejiH 
napTHH, BMecTO peneii aojiacHbi pacneBaTb apHH; Boo6pa3HM ZlyMy, b ko- 
TopoH, BMecTO rojiocoBaHHH, yBeHnaHHbie BeHKaMH H3 po3 AenyraTbi Han- 
HyT n^HcaTb BOKpyr CTaTyn JXnonnca, npeflBOflHTejibCTByeMbie xoperoM 
B. H. HBaHOBbiM? 

H bot noTOMy-TO cpeflH Bceo6meH cyMHTHUbi h nojiyrpaMorabix KpH- 
kob Bee c 6ojibineH h 6ojibineH jno6oBbio ocTaHaBjiHBaeuibCH Ha HeMHornx 
HMeHax, b KOTopwx cjiyaceHHe «HOBOMy» ecTb BMecTe c TeM cjiyaceHHe Ben- 
HOMy. Hjxesui xyfloacHHKa Bcex BpeMeH - 6biTb He TOJibKO BAoxHOBHTejieM, 
ho h 3aKOHOAaTejieM BKycoB. H BejiHHaHuiHe xy^o^cHHKH coe^HHHJiH b ce6e 
TBopnecTBO c apy^HUHeii, B^oxHOBeHHe c 3HaHHeM tcxhhkh. Hto flejiaTb c 
TeM, hto nepBan 4>ajiaHra pyccKHx chmbojihctob (BajibMOHT, MepeacicoB- 
ckhh, BpiocoB) cocTOHjia H3 o6pa30BaHHeHiHHx jHOfleii CBoero BpeMeHH? 
A cpeAH HOBeHiiiHx npe^CTaBHTe^eH CBepx-CHMBOJiH3Ma HeyzjHBHTejibHO 
BCTpeTHTb coBepineHHeHiHHX neBeyKjx. 

« CoBepmeHHeHiiiHH HeBeacaa* HanHHaeT HarjieTb: nacro oh no,zjHH- 
MaeT cboh BapBapcKHH TOMaraBK Haa KyjibTypHbiMH ijchhocthmh h jictht 
Bee aajibme, Bee jxajibwe ot HHinne, BepxapHa, H6ceHa, MepeacKOBCKoro, 
BpiocoBa - Bee flajibine, Bee jxsuibuie... BcnHTb. 

HeyacejiH He bh^ht b stom cjihihkom nocneuiHOM npeoAOJieHHH hobwx 
ueHHocTeft, b stom BbinycKe BeKcejieft Ha rpoMa^Hyio cyMMy CTpeMHTejib- 
Horo 6ercTBa B^ajib h Brjiy6b... nepBo6biTHoro BapBapcTBa? H noTOMy-TO 
Bee Te, Run Koro HOBbie HCKaHHH He 3ByK nycTOH, aojiacHbi cnjioTHTbcn bo- 

Kpyr HeMHOTHX HCnblTaHHblX KOpMHHX ^BH^CeHHH, H, BHflH 6eCTOJIKOBOe 

6ercTB0 nojiyrpaMOTHbix ,ao6poBOJibijeB MO,zjepHH3Ma, BJiacTHo cKa3aTb: 
«Hh c MecTa: kto He c HaMH, tot npoTHB Hac». 

Eme HeaaBHo mhoi-hm Ka3ajiocb, hto BOJiHa y6HHCTB h aiccnponpHauHH 
ecTb npe^BecTHe hoboh BcnbiuiKH peBOJiiouHOHHoro abh^cchhh b Pocchh. 
3aroBopHJiH o tom, hto counaji-fleMOKpaTHH OTacnjia CBoe BpeMH, hto 
pa6oHHe nepexo/jHT b cHHAHicajiH3M h aHapxH3M. Ho 3to 6wjio HanajioM 

«CpbIBa» flBH2CeHHfl. 

To ace h b coBpeMeHHOM HCKyccTBe. 51 nojio»CHTejibHO npe,acKa3biBaK), 

HTO TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIH CHMBOJIH3M, paCCaCblBaeMMH HIHpOKOH Maccoft, - 

npoft^eT HeMHoro OTeii, - yTOHeT b «3HaHbeBCKOH» jiHTepaType: Tor^a 
jionHyT Bee 3th ayTbie 6ojioTHbie ny3bipn «CBepx-CHMBOJiHHecKoro» mo- 
,aepHH3Ma, npoBajiHTca Hapo^Hbiii chmbojih3m, mh^otbophcctbo h np. h 
np.: mm, BOo6paacaiomHe, hto jicthm Ha Bcex napax k 30jiotwm ropH30HTaM 
6yAymero, cohho 3eBHeM, cnoKOHHo 3aBajracb nan, ctohhhm 6ojiotom rpa- 
flymeii jiHTepaTypw pyccKoii. 

H noTOMy-TO aopora HaM He6ojibuiaH ropcTb ^eiicTBHTejibHbix HOBaTO- 
poB: ohh BbmepacajiH Ha ce6e bcio TnacecTb niyMJieHHfl b snoxy, Kor^a mo- 
AepHH3M BbiCMeHBajia bch Pocchh; ohh He yBjieioiHCb jxyjbiM ycnexoM co- 



337 



BpeMeHHoro MoaepHH3Ma h ot BpeMeHH ro BpeMeHH yKopH3HeHHO KanaioT 
rojiOBOH Ha BbixoflKH CKopocnejibix CKaKyHOB, Bbi3biBaa HecnpaBeflJiHBbie 
ynpeKH b «aKa£eMH3Me». Eme HeMHoro JieT - h npoH^eT MQzja, h pacceeTCH 
TyMaH CKopocnejibix HCKaHHH, h 6biBuiHe HOBaTopw (Tenepb yBeHHaHHbie 
anaAeMMKH) onnTb ocraHyTCH qzjhh h 6yayT npoaojiacaTb cboio ynopHyio 
pa6oTy. 

Hepe3 rojioBy coBpeMeHHHKOB, nepe3 rojiOBy HOBOHBjieHHbix xBacTy- 
hob h CKaKyHOB M0.zjepHH3Ma nepeaaayT ohh cboh TBopnecKHe HCKaHHH 
TeM ^eiicTBHTejibHO noebiM, rojioca KOTopwx eme He pa3flaioTCfl cpe^H Hac. 
Ohh MoryT CKa3aTb cjiOBaMH 3apaTycTpbi OKpyacaiomnM npoBOKaiopaM 
ayxa, Bceraa jibCTHBO noflxoflnmnM k hhm c Hy^HHbiM jio6bi3aHHeM, a no- 
tom HeH3MeHHO npeaaiomnM 3a 30 cpe6peHHKOB jiencoro ycnexa: «Bu ewfi 
ne mou deucmeumejibHue nocjiedoeamejiu*. 

Koraa h BcnoMHHaio o6pa3 B. BpiocoBa, stot o6pa3 HeH3MeHHO npea- 
daeT MHe co cjioaeeHHbiMH pyKaMH. 3acTbiBiiiHH, cepbe3HbiH, CTporHii, 
ctoht qzjhhoko BajiepHH BpiocoB cpe^H coBpeMeHHoii njiHCKH ^eKa^aHca. 
Oh, BbiHeciiiHH Ha ce6e bcio TaacecTb nponoBeflH CHMBOJiH3Ma cpe^H ne- 
nocexmeHHbix, oh bmhocht Tenepb h Becb no3op snnroHCTBa, hto6h cno- 
kohho npoHecra cboh oroHb b jiyninee 6yaymee. H Koraa noflBepTbiBaeTCH 
k HeMy KaKoii-HH6yab H3 mcjikhx 6eceHHT chmbojih3mh, - cKOJibKO npe- 
3peHHH h 6ojih ckbo3ht b ero 6e3yKopH3HeHHoii cyxocral TaK h KaaceTCH, 
hto oh roBopHT jxsyM TpeTHM cbohx nocjieflOBaTejieii, Koraa HeonbiTHbiMH 
pyKaMH ohh KacaiOTCH aopornx eMy CBHTbiHb: «PyKH nponb». 

Bee 3th mhcjih HeBOJibHO B036yacflaeT nepBbiii tom co6paHHH ero cth- 
xoTBopeHHH! «IIymu u nepenymba*. 3aecb Haxo^HM mm to, k HeMy TOJibKO 
eme noaxoflHT HHbie H3 MoaepHHCTOB, ho hto aaBHO nepeacnji, npeoaojieji 

H OC03HaJI OH. 

To, 3a hto Tenepb BeHnaioT jiaBpaMH, B036yzjHJio Kor^a-TO xoxot h He- 
roaoBaHHe. /iBe-Tpn lOHOinecKHe aep30CTH, flBe-Tpn pncKOBaHHbix crpon- 
kh, h b pe3yjibTaTe nnTb JieT HeocrpoyMHbix H3,aeBaTejibCTB kphthkh Haa 
TajiaHTjiHBeiiiHHM nosTOM Haiiinx jxudk. H bot Tenepb, Kor^a hhkto He 
CTaHeT ocnopHBaTb HCKJiiOHHTejibHOH BejiHHHHbi no3Ta BpiocoBa, Kor^a 
oh nan H3M flBe khhth H3yMHTejibHbix CBepuieHHH «Urbi et orbi» h «Be- 
hok», - Tenepb c oco6eHHbiM HHTepecoM oKH^wBaeM mw nepBbiii nepnofl 
ero no3THHecKoii aeflTejibHOCTH: mh BCTpenaeM 3flecb toto ace BajiepHH 
BpiocoBa. 

Mbi HanHHaeM coBepineHHO hcho noHHMaTb, hto HHKoraa BpiocoB He 
h3mchhjich: oh Bee tot ace BpiocoB b «UIe ( z*eBpax», hto h b «BeHKe». Oh 

TOJibKO npOBOflHJI CBOe TBOpHeCTBO CKB03b CTpOH BCe HOBblX H HOBblX TeX- 

HHHecKHx 3aBoeBaHHH. Oh TOJibKO OTflejibiBaji cboh TBopnecKHH MaTepH- 
aji; h 3tot MaTepnaji - Bceraa MpaMop. Ot nepBbix lOHOinecKHx cthxotbo- 
peHHH «IIyTeH h nepenyraii» no H3yMHTejibHOH no3Mbi «U,apio ceeepnozo 
nojiioca* Tex aee «IIyTeH», h aajiee: ot 3toh no3Mbi ro othctjihbo H3Ba- 



338 



HHHbix, KaK MpaMopHbie CTaTyH, CTHXOTBopeHHH «Urbi et orbi», ao H3o- 
mpeHHoii, KaK MpaMopHoe KpyaceBO, pe3b6w «BeHKa» - Bee tot ace nepea 
HaMH BajiepHii BpiocoB - no3T xaoca, (J)hjioco(J) MraoBeHHH, coneTaBuiHH 
HyacHbie eMy 3ji6M6htw TBopnecTBa TioTneBa, IlyiiiKHHa, BapaTbmcKoro 
h BepxapHa, npejiOMHBiuHH hx TBopnecTBO b cBoeii HHflHBHflyajibHoc™. 
H KaK-TO no-HOBOMy OTo6pa»caK)TCH 3th nosTbi b B. BpiocoBe. H b hobwx 
TBopnecKHX ^ocTH^ceHHHx ero y3HaeM mm Bee tot ace nyTb, no KOTopoMy 

UIJIH BCe n03TbI K BeHHbIM UeHHOCTHM. BpiOCOB fleHCTBHTeJIbHO hob: ho 

KaK oh HecoBpeMeHeH! JXo KaKoii CTeneHH ctoht oahhoko b TOJine coBpe- 
M6HHbix MOAepHHCTOB! Ohh 3aHMCTBOBajiH y Hero Bee, HTO MOrjIH 3aHM- 
CTBOBaTb: oh npoaHajiH3HpoBaji cthx, pa3JioacHJi ero Ha cocTaBHbie nacTH, 
B^oxHyji >KH3Hb b cjiOBa, aaace b 3HaKH npenHHaHHH, a ohh Bocno;ib30Ba- 
jiHCb ero pa6oTofi, oaejincb b ero oaeaHHe h Bce-TaKH hh Ha fioTy He npn- 
6jiH3HjiHCb k BpiocoBy, noTOMy hto CBoeo6pa3Hbie 3aKOHbi 6piocoBCKoro 
CTHxa To^bKO y BpiocoBa acHByT: nocjieAOBaTejin BpiocoBa nacTo cjihihkom 
paxHTHHHW, hto6w o6jieHbCH b aocnexn ero (J)opMbi. Ohh npoBajiHBaioTCH 
b (J)opMy, KaK npoBajiHJicH 6w HeBpacTeHHK XX BeKa b acejie3HOM naHunpe 
cpeflHeBeKOBoro pbiijapn. H HeBpacTeHHKH, HcnwTaB Heyflany Ha BpiocoBe, 
6eryT nponb ot ero (J)opMbi h aaace KjieBemyT Ha Hero, hto oh - «aKaae- 
mhk», «napHaccHCT». ^a, pwijapcKHH Men, MoaceT 6bm>, He no pyKaM co- 
BpeMeHHHKaM; oTToro-To ohh nocKopefi CTapaioTCH ero npn6paTb b My3eii. 
3thm MenoM BbiceKaeT BajiepHii BpiocoB cboh o6pa3bi Ha MpaMope h Ha 

6pOH3e. y6HHCTBeHHOH TeXHHKOH - CBOHM 5KeJie3HbIM MeHOM - 5KOHrJIH- 

pyeT BpiocoB jierKO h cbo6oaho. Oh - rocnoflHH CBoeS tcxhhkh. Oh - bw- 
paaeeHHe Toro oran, KOTopwii 3acTaBJineT ero nrpaTb c HeBepoHTHbiMH Tex- 

HHHeCKHMH TpyflHOCTflMH. 

IIpo6eraH paa lOHouiecKHx cthxotbopchhh no3Ta, mw y3HaeM b He- 
OKOHHeHHbix MaccHBax ero TBopnecTBa, KaKyio 6ypio nepe»CHBaHHH npn- 
mjiocb eMy noflHHHHTb rapMOHHH h 3aKOHHeHHOCTH. TaKaa acHBan (He- 
MepTBan) 3aKOHHeHHOCTb, noKa3aTe;ib ero chjih. BajiepHii BpiocoB, no3T 
xaoca h 6ec(J)opMeHHOcra, 3aKpwji cbok> nponoBeflb acejie3HbiM iijhtom 

(J)OpMbI, H 06 3TOT 1UHT 6eCCHJIbHO pa3o6bK)TCfl MOflepHHCTHHeCKHe BOJI- 

Hbi nosTOB, noKa He npnayT k BpiocoBy ero aeftcTBHTejibHbie yneHHKH. 
Hx eme HeT, ho ohh 6y#yT. BpiocoB o^HHaKOBO nporaBonocTaBJieH He- 
AaBHeMy npoiiuiOMy coBpeMeHHOcra h 6jiH3KOMy 6y#ymeMy. Oh hihaht 
OAHOBpeMeHHO h b aajieKoe 6y#ymee, noTOMy hto oh e^HHCTBeHHWH cpe^H 
Hac, kto npHHa^Jie^CHT bchhocth. 

Bee 3to xoneTCH CKa3aTb npn Bbixo^e nepBoro TOMa «IIyTeii h nepe- 
nyTHH». 3^ecb co6paHbi craxoTBopeHHa nosTa, HanenaTaHHbie b nepnoa 
HenpH3HaHHH ero TajiaHTa. 

BnHTaHTecb Tenepb b 3th cthxh, - h bw nojiynHTe 6ojibinee, neM Moiyr 
Bac o^apHTb noHTH Bee coBpeMeHHbie pyccKHe nosTbi. 

1907 



22 AHApeA Benuft 



339 



«OmeHHbiM Ahireji» 



«Ozneunhiu Ameji» ocTaHeTCH HaBcer^a o6pa3ijOM bmcokoh 
jiHTepaTypbi ajih He6ojibiiioro Kpyra hcthhhmx ijeHHTejieii H3nmHoro; 
«Oznennuu Ameji» - H36paHHan KHHra ajih jiio^eH, yMeiomnx MbicjiHTb 
o6pa3aMH hctophh; HCTOpHH - o6i>eKT xy^o^cecTBeHHoro TBopnecTBa; h 
TOJibKO HeMHorae yMeioT BBO^HTb HCTopHnecKHe o6pa3bi b nojie CBoero 
TBopnecTBa. 

HcTOpHH una BajiepHH BpiocoBa He hbjihctch MaTepnajiOM ajih 3(J>- 
4>eKTHbix oxen; OHa bch ^jih Hero b Mejionax; ho 3th mcjiohh yMeeT oh ocBe- 
THTb HeyjiOBHMOH npejiecTbio CBoero TBopnecTBa. Bajiepnft BpiocoB 3flecb 
c^ejiaji Bee, hto6m KHHra ero 6wjia npocTa; TBopnecTBo ero Bbirjin^HT 
CKpoMHofi, o^eTOH b nepHoe njiaTbe, ^eByniKoii c rjia^Kofi npH^ecKOH, ho 
c ^oporoH KaMeeft Ha rpyzjH; HeT b «OzHeuHOM Amene* HHnero KpHHamero, 
pe3Koro; ecTb aaaee nopofi «ceamaa CKyKa», KaKOH BeeT Ha Hac, Kor^a mm 
HHTaeM noBecTH BajibTep CKorra; h h 6jiaroflapio aBTopa 3a pacTHHyTOCTb: 
3a to, hto cbohm cnoKOHHbiM tohom oh OTBJieKaeT mchh ot (J>a6yjibi, onH- 
cbiBan 6wt, MejiOHH aToro 6bna; uiHpoKoft bojihoh TeneT nepe^o mhoh 
pena nponijioro, h b Me/uieHHOM TeneHHH 3toh peKH OTpaacaeTcn kpotkhh 
jihk ero My3bi - aeByuiKH c rjia^KOH npHnecKOH. HeT 3^ecb icpHHamnx 
nepbeB MO^epHHCTHnecKoro aeMHMOHfla; HeT kocmcthkh bhkphkob, h 
CTpauiHbix nceB^ocHMBOJiHHecKHx 3y6oBHbix CKpe^ceTOB; HeT 3aecb me- 
JieCTHmHX HieJIKOB HMnpeCCHOHH3Ma, hh 6pbi5K»cymHx B hoc aeuieBbix 
.zryxoB coBpeMeHHbix cjiOBeneK, to ecTb, Bcero toto, neM echb Mo^epHH3Mj 
HecoBpeMeHeH, b Bbicuiefi CTeneHH HecoBpeMeHeH BajiepHH BpiocoB b 
CBoeM poMaHe. Ho 3a sto-to h oijchht ero noflJiHHHbie jno6HTejiH H3flm- 

HOH CJIOBeCHOCTH. 

Hctophh roBOpHT c HaMH! BpiocoBa mm He bh^hm; HO B 3TOM yMeHHH 
CTyuieBaTbCH BbicoKoe H3nmecTBO toto, kto b HyacHoe BpeMH roBopHji cbo- 
hm h3wkom; Be^b Tenepb H3MK ero npncBOHjiH Bee; aecHTKH hobohbjich- 
hmx 6piocoBijeB nepnaiOT cboh cjiOBapb H3 ero cjiOBapn. 

B «OmenHOM Amejie» BpiocoB, TeM He MeHee, opHTHHajieHj onbiTHofi 
pyKoft BocKpeiuaeT oh hctophio; h mm HanHHaeM jno6HTb, noHHMaTb ero 
aerame - hctophio KejibHCKOH 5KH3HH 1534 ro^a; 6y^b 3jiecbModepHucmu- 
uecnue nepbH, mm He yBH^ejiH 6w CTapHHHyio acraHb KejibHa, KOTopyio jxy- 
uiovl nojno6HJi BpiocoB; 3Ta acH3Hb OTpaacaeTCH b 3epKajie ero jiyuiw. 

IloMHio Benep, noMHio jieTO, 
PeHHa nojiHbie CTpyH, 
Haa noMepKinHM crapbiM KejibHOM 
3ojioTbie hhm6h cBeTa... 

H ^ajiee: 



340 



Iae-TO nejiH, r#e-TO nejiH 

IleCHK) MHJIOH CTapHHbl. 
3ByKH, BeTpOM THXOBeHHbIM 

floHeceHHbie, cjia6e.JiH 

H cjiHBajiHCb, TaM, najx Pchhom, 

C po6KHM pOnOTOM BOJIHbl. 

Mw jiio6h^h! Mh 3a6bmH, 

3T0 BeHHOCTb hjih nac! 

Mbl TOHyjIH B CJia^KOH TaHHe, 

HaM Ka3&7iocb: mh He 2chjih, 
Ho Koraa-TO Heinrich Heine 
B CTpoHHbix CTpo(J)ax neji npo Hac! 

51 npHBoacy HapoHHO 3to CTHxoTBopeHHe BprocoBa, hto6h ncHee Bbipa- 
3HTb cbok) Mbicjib; KaK nepeKJiHKaeTcn necHH BprocoBa c necHeft IIIyMaHa 
Ha cjiOBa PeftHHKa; h xony CKa3aTb, hto HacTpoemie My3biKH IIIyMaHa h 

CJIOB BpiOCOBa H3 OflHOIX) KOpHH - pOMaHTH3Ma. 

C anoxH «BeHKa» b EpiocoBe Bee cjibiuiHeS necHb poMaHTH3Ma: h «Or- 
HeHHbiH AHreji» - nopoacaeHHe 3toh necHH; 3ojiotmm cHHHbeM poMaHira- 
Ma OKpauieH ajih BpiocoBa KejibH; anoxa, apyAHUHH, CTpeMJieHHe bocco3- 
aaTb 6wt CTaporo KejibHa - TOJibKO chmhtomw poMaHTHHecKoii bojihm b 
TBopnecTBe BpiocoBa; h noTOMy-TO He yroMjiaioT b poMaHe twchhh OTCTy- 
njieHHH, h noTOMy-TO He ociaHaBjiHBaeMCH mh Ha fljiHHHOTax, Ha hckoto- 
poM cxeMaTH3Me (J)a6yjibi; He b 4>a6yjie, - He b aoicyMeHTajibHOH tohhocth 
njieHHroman Hac HOTa «OrHeHHoro AHrejia», a b 3ByKax, KOTopwe 

...BeTpOM THXOBeHHbIM 

floHeceHHbie, c.Jia6ejiH 

H cjiHBajiHCb, TaM, Haa PeimoM, 

C po6khm ponoTOM bojihu. 

3tH 3ByKH - 3ByKH «MHJIOH CTapHHbI»; BOT 3TH-TO 3ByKH CBOeH JjyUIU 
CTblflJIHBO npHHeT BpKDCOB nOfl HCTOpHHeCKOH aMMyHHUHeft, B KOTOpOH OH 

BbiCTynaeT nepea HaMH; ho njieHHTejibHO OTpaacaiOT ayuiy BpiocoBa «Pefl- 

Ha THXHe CTpyH»; HO njieHHTejibHO CHHIOT Ha HCTOpHHeCKOH aMMyHHIJHH 

oojiomue hum6u ceema*. 

3mu muxue 3eyxu - hx 3a6biJiH; ohh He cjibiuiHbi Ha 6a3ape nceBflo- 

CHMBOJIHHeCKHX 3y6oBHbIX CKpeHCeTOBJ THMCejIOrpOXOTHblH MO^epHHCT, 

TH^cejiorpoxoTHO 3arpoxoTaBHiH 6piocobckhm cthxom, ceji BepxoM Ha 

CHMBOJIHHeCKOrO KOHH; TH^CeJIOrpOXOTHblH CKaKyH CHMBOJIH3Ma TH^cejio 

rpoxoneT; h He JiHijaM, noKHHyBiHHM Kejibio TBopnecTBa, noA ctwajimboh 
MacKoS hctophh paccjiyuiaTb «necwo mujiou cmapuHhi*: b ^eMHMOHAe 
Be^b Bee npocTo; eacejiH tw npojiaraeuib HOBbie nyTH, TaK rpeMH, Tpy6n 

341 



22* 



H B3bIBaH; KOJIH XOHeUIb merOJIHTb B HMnpeCCHOHHCTHMeCKOM inejiKy, TaK 

niejiecTH hm Ha bcio pyccKyio jiHTepaTypy, kojih y Te6n HeT cjiob o mpo- 
ecuiax, 6e3dnax u npoueM mhozom», TaK tw h He chmbojihct. 

T^e ace ^eMHMOH^y noHHTb «Omemtoio Amejia»\ 

HecnpocTa BepHyjicn BpiocoB k necHHM o «mujiou cmapuney, H3 crapH- 
hw oh Bbi3Baji o6pa3 ArpHnnbi; oh bbo^ht Hac b aTMOC(J)epy Toro ocbo6o^h- 
TejibHoro ^BH^ceHHH b MHdHKe, KOTopoe b jinne ArpHnnbi h Ilapauejibca, 
yneHHKOB TpH^reHMa, nopozuuio, 6biTb MoaceT, HHTepecHeiiiiiee TeneHHe; 
TeneHHe 3to, npaB^a, noracjio b HoaHHe Beiiepe, ho oho npo^ojiacajiocb b 
yneHHKax Ilapaijejibca - BofleHiiiTeiiHe, KyHpaie, BaH TejibMOHTe h jxpy- 
rnx jsp Hanajia XIX CTOJieraa; TeneHHe sto, 6biTb MoaceT, h Tenepb >khbo, h 
no-HOBOMy BOCKpecaeT b coBpeMeHHOcra; to, o neM 3aroBapHBaeT Ctphh^- 
6epr, CTbm;iHBO BCTaeT b o6pa3ax BpiocoBa, HaMepeHHo 3aByajieHHbix «ap- 
xeojiozuuecKou nbuibio»; HyacHO 6biTb rjiyxHM h cjienwM no othohichhio k 
3aBeTHeHuiHM ycTpeMjieHHHM cHMBOJiH3Ma, hto6h He BH^eTb b o6pa3ax 
«miuiou cmapuHU», Bbi3BaHHbix BpiocoBbiM, caMoii acryHeii coBpeMeHHO- 
cth; BpiocoB He ocTajicn Ha chmbojimhcckoh TOJiKynKe; h TOJiKy^Ka peiiiH- 
Jia, hto BpiocoB ycTapeji; ho BHHTaflTecb b BpiocoBa, pa3rjiH^HTe repoeB 
ero poMaHa, - h bm yBHflHTe, hto ohh chmbojim, 6biTb MoaceT, 6;iH3Koro 
6yaymero, o kotopom h He nofl03peBaeT TOjiKynKa. 

«OrHeHHbiH AHre;i» - npoH3Be,zjeHHe H3BHe HCTopHMecKoe (oeyicu 
mwiou cmapuHU»), H3HyrpH ace oKKyjibTHoe. Oa6yjia, TaK HeoacHflaHHo, 
aaace MexaHHnecKH o6opBaHHan, ecTb paccKa3 o tom, o neM He;ib3H tobo- 
pHTb, He 3aKpbiBancb HCTopneH. 

BpiocoB HBjiHeTCH b CBoeM poMaHe to CKenTHKOM, to, Hao6opoT, cye- 

BepHO BepyiOmHM OKKyjIbTHCTOMJ H3-nOfl MaCKH JIOKKa H K)Ma BbllTIHflbl- 

BaeT jihijo ArpHnnbi; ho e^sa bm noBepHTe b sto jihuo, oho CTaHOBHTCH 
MacKoii; H3-noa MacKH Haa bsmh yace CMeeTca yneHHK aHrjiHHCKoii ncnxo- 
jiothh; h TaK aajiee, h TaK aajiee. Ho b stoh Hrpe c HHTaTejieM Mbi ycMaTpn- 

BaeM BOBCe He XHTpOCTb... 

BnponeM, He 6yaeM pacnpocTpaHHTbcn: Bee sto ^eMHMOH^y ocTaHeTCH 
AO KOHixa HenoHHTHbiM; ^cmkmoh^ yBjieKaeTCH THacejiorpoxorabiM rpoxo- 

TOM CHMBOJIHHeCKHX 3nHTOHOB H MHpOBbIM pa3yMOM, CTOHIUHM Ha CIjeHe C 

6yTa4>opcKHM mctom b pyKe. 

1909 

6J10K 

«HeHaflHHafl PaflocTb» 

BjIOK - OflHH H3 BH^HeHIIIHX COBpeMCHHblX pyCCKHX nOSTOB. 

IIokjiohhhkh MoryT ero BOCXBajiHTb. Bpara - 6paHHTb. BepHO oaho: c hhm 

Heo6xOflHMO CHHTaTbCH. PflflOM C HMeHaMH Mepe^CKOBCKOTO, BaJIbMOHTa, 



342 



BpiocoBa, THnnHyc h Cojiory6a b iio33hh mw HeH3MeHH0 npHCoe/jHHHeM 
Tenepb hmh AjieKcaH^pa Bjiona. IlepBWH c6opHHK cthxob nosTa noHBHjicn 
tojibko b 1905 roay. TeM He MeHee ecTb yace niKOJia Bjiona. He^aBHO xjiw- 
Hyjia Ha Hac BOJiHa 6ajibMOHTHCTOB. BojibiiiHHCTBO mojioawx noapaaeaeT 
Hbme BajiepHio BpiocoBy. TeM He MeHee ecTb y Hac h «6jiokucitiu». 

KpHTHKa HaCTO BWBOflHT pyCCKHH CHMBOJIH3M H3 (J)paHI|y3CKOrO. 3T0 

oiiih6ohho. PyccKHH chmbojih3m h rjiy6Ece, h noHBeHHee. BHflHefiiHHe ero 
npeACTaBHTejiH kpobho cBH3aHw c OTenecTBeHHOH jiHTepaTypoii h no33H- 
efi. /tocToeBCKHH, Torojib h HexoB ocnopHBaior y HHiruie, H6ceHa h TaM- 
cyHa BJiHHHHe Ha MOJioayio pyccKyio jiHTepaTypy. OeT, JlepMOHTOB, Ba- 
paTbiHCKHH, TioTHeB 6ojibiue bjihhjih Ha HaiiiHx nosTOB, He^cejiH Eofljiep, 
BepjieH, MeTepjiHHK, PoaeH6ax h BepxapH. JlynuiHe no3Tw HauiHx weii 
kpobho CBH3aHbi c HauiHM cjiaBHbiM npoiiuiwM, xoth noapaacaTejiH HX, 

COe^HHeHHbie C HHMH TOJIbKO 06mHMH He^OCTaTKaMH, HHHerO He HMdOT 

o6mero c k jiaccHKaMH . Bjiok npHHafljieacHT k nepBbiM. «BjioKucmu» - ko 

BTOpblM. 

JIk)6oh no3T b pocTe cBoeM onpe^ejiHM pn^oM nepeKpecrabix bjihh- 
hhh, Kyiomnx ero cthx, coo6maiomHx CTHxy CTpyKTypy h phtm, a no3Ty 
Taicaee h Bbi6op TeM. 3th bjihhhhh, coe^HHHHCb b HOBoe eflHHCTBO, onpeae- 

JIHIOT HCXOflHyK) TOHKy pa3BHTHH JIK)6orO TBOpHeCTBa, KaK 6bl HH 6bIJIO OHO 
CaMOCTOHTeJIbHO. 

JXaxte noBepxHOCTHoe paccMOTpeHHe no33HH A. Ejioica y6e5K^aeT Hac b 
HecoMHeHHOM bjihhhhh Ha Hero JlepMOHTOBa, OeTa, Bji. CojioBbeBa, Inn- 
nnyc h Cojiory6a. H3 HHOCTpaHHbix nosTOB 6ojibiue apyrax bjihhji Ha Hero 
MeTepjiHHK. Ecjih 6bi mw He 6onjiHCb HCTopHKO-jiHTepaTypHwx onpeaejie- 
hhh, mw MorjiH 6w Ha3BaTb ero pyccKHM MeTepjiHHKOM, 6e3 apncTOKpa- 

TH3Ma, CBOHCTBeHHOrO 3TOMy n03Ty, HO C 60JIbHieH 6jIH30CTbK> K HCTOKaM 

ayuiH Hapo^HOH. BnponeM, mw He ctohm 3a sto cpaBHeHHe. 

OcTaHaBjiHBancb Ha TBopnecTBe no3Ta, OTnpaBJiHeuibcn H3 pa3Hbix 
hctohhhkob xapaKTepHCTHKH. Moecho onpe^ejiHTb H^eiiHoe co^ep^caHHe 
TBopnecTBa hjih aHajiH3HpoBaTb CTpyKTypy CTHxa. B tom h apyroM cjiy- 

Hae npHXO^HTCH HCXOflHTb H3 npOIHJIOTC), yCTaHaBJIHBaH npeeMCTBeHHOCTb 

nosTa, hjih H3 6yaymero, HaMeHaa uejin, k kotopwm oh H^eT. To h apyroe 
onpe^ejieHHe, b oraejibHOCTH B3HToe, He HcnepnwBaeT uejibHoii xapaicre- 

PHCTHKH. 

KaKOBO H^eHHoe coaepaeaHHe bwcokohthmoto nosTa? Ho TyT npn- 

XOflHTCfl OCTaHOBHTbCH, nOTOMy HTO BTOpOH c6opHHK CTHXOB A. BjIOKa 

Bw^BHraeT coBepmeHHO HOBwe jxjik nosTa mothbw. «Cmuxu o IIpeKpac- 
hou R(me» oicpaiiieHW coBepuieHHO onpeaejieHHWM h BecbMa 3HanHTejib- 
hwm co^ep^caHHeM. B HeyjiOBHMbix h hc^khwx crpoHKax no3T BOcneBaeT 
npH6;iH5KeHHe teeum MencmeenHozo nmajia* ech3hh. 3^ecb oh hbjihct- 
ch npoaojiacaTejieM ijejioro pn^a hmch. B apoMarawii BeHeij ero no33HH 
BnjieTeHbi h pa3,ayMbH IIjiaTOHa, OnjiOHa, IIjiOTHHa, IHejuiHHra, Bji. Co- 



343 



jiOBbeBa, h raMHbi /Jame, JlepMOHTOBa, OeTa. UpeBuue thocthkh BMecTe 
c rpenecKofl 4>Hjioco(|)HeH BcecTopoHHe pa3pa6oTajiH yneHHe o mhpoboh 
nyuie h «BeHHO-5KeHCTBeHHOM» Hanajie BoacecrBa. UlejuiHHr b cohhhchhh 
«Weltseele» nbiTajicn aaTb yneHHio o mhpoboh ayine ecrecTBeHHO-HayHHyK) 
noflKJia^Ky. TeTe, ZlaHTe, fleTpapKa cyMejiH H3 jno6HMoro o6pa3a co3flaTb 

CHMBOJI BeHHO-^CeHCTBeHHOrO, COe^HHHH yHHBepcaJIH3M THOCTHHeCKHX 

^orMaTOB c HH^HBH^yajibHbiMH nepeacHBaHHHMH. OeT h JlepMOHTOB 6ec- 
co3HaTejibHO KacajiHCb Toro ace. Bji. CojiOBbeB, coe^HHHH pa3MbiinjieHHH 

THOCTHKOB C THMHaMH n03TOB, CKa3aJI HOBOe CJIOBO O 6jIH3KOM COHieCTBHH 

k HaM jiHKa BenHOH aceHbi. TyT Hanajiacb no33HH BjioKa. TeMa ero - rjiy- 
6oKaa. Uejib ero - 3HaHHTejibHaa. 
Bapyr oh Bee o6opBaji... 

B apaMe «BajiazannuK^ ropbKHe H3^eBaTejibCTBa Haa cbohm npouiJibiM. 
riocjie^Hee BpeMH 3JioynoTpe6jifljiH njioxo noHHTOH thocthkoh - sto 
npaB^a. Ho npaB^a h to, hto H3fleBaTe;ibCTBOM He onpoBeprHeuib hh Iljia- 

TOHa, HH IIjIOTHHa, HH TeTe, HH .HaHTe. O^CH^aHHH MOiyT 6bITb HeyMecTHbi. 

Ho npo6;ieMa ocTaeTcn npo6;ieMOH. OHa He TepnHT H3^eBaTejibCTB. 

H bot bo btopom c6opHHKe mm y3HaeM, hto «IIpeKpacHaH /laMa» He 
nyTeuiecTByeT Ha napoxo^ax. Bmccto «CumibR Kpacubtx Jicmnad» mm bh- 
.zjhm 6ojioTHbix nepTeHHT, y KOTopwx «KOJinauKU 3adoM naneped». BMecmo 
xpaMa - 6ojioto, noKpbiToe KOHKaMH, cpe^H KOToporo tophht H36yniKa, r#e 
CTapHK, CTapyxa h «Kmo-mo» ajih «nezo-mo» ctojicthh THHyT nHBo. HaM 
CTaHOBHTCH CTpauiHO 3a aBTopa. Jldi Beflb 3T0 He «HeHOHHHOH Padocmb*, a 
«OmHOHHHoe Tope»\ B npeicpacHbix craxax pacTonaeT aBTop jiacKH nepTe- 

HHTaM H ^paKOHHHKaM. OnaCHbie JiaCKH! Beflb JIK)6oH flpaKOHHHK MO»eT 

BbiTHHyTbCH b HacTonmero apaKOHa (TyMaHbi, KaK h3bcctho, pacTyT). Pbi- 
uapb )KeHbi Bcer^a - b 6opb6e c /IpaKOHOM. A bot npeBpaTHjicn ZIpaKOH b 
apaKOHHHKa, h noaT ero noacajieji: noacajieji h npHrpeji. IIomhht jih oh, hto 

C HeHHCTbK) HiyTKH njIOXH? 

Ho, c6pocHB c ce6n H^eHHbiii 6ajuiacT, no33HH A. BjioKa pacijBejia Max- 

pOBWM, nbllHHbIM UBeTKOM! TeMbI HaCTpoeHHH yTOHHHJIHCb, CTHX CTajI BHp- 

Tyo3Hefl, rH6ne, pocKoniHen. Ilpeacfle HaM npnxo^Hjiocb cnopHTb c o^hhm 
H3BecTHbiM nosTOM, yTBepacaaBiHHM, hto «Cmuxu o npeKpacmu JJaMe» He 
BbipaacaiOT hcthhhwh jihk no3Ta. IIost OKa3ajicn npaB. ^HmannnaH Pa- 
docmb» rjiy6ace BbipaacaeT cymHOCTb A. BjioKa. B 3tom oraomeHHH Bjiok 
HacTOJibKO ace Bbinrpaji, KaK no3T, HacKOJibKO oh ynaji b Hauinx rjia3ax, KaK 
npeflBecTHHK 6yaymero, noTOMy hto mw npe^noHHTaeM ocTaBaTbcn npn 
3ara^Kax, 3ara#aHHbix MyapeijaM (nycTb He penieHHbix, ho Tpe6yK>mnx 
ot Hac *ch3hh jxjik peuieHHfl), He^cejiH npn H3^eBaTejibCTBax (xoth 6m h 
nosTHHecKHx, npeKpacHbix) Ha# 3thmh 3araa KaMH. 

Btopoh c6opHHK cthxob A. BjioKa HHTepecHefi, nwuiHee nepBoro. KaK 
yzjHBHTejibHO coeOTHeH TOHHaniUHH ,aeMOHH3M 3flecb c npocToii rpycTbio 
6e^HOH npnpoflbi pyccKoii, Bcer^a toh ace, Bcer^a pbi^aiomefl jihbhhmh, 



344 



Bceiyja ckbo3b cjie3bi nyraiomeii Hac ocicajioM OBparoB - coe^HHeH b 6h- 

PI030BOH He^CHOCTH npOCBeTa 6ojIOTHOrO, B B6HHOM noKoe 3eJieHbIX MXOB. 

H HaM CTpauiHO SToro noKon: 3aneM 3Ta HeacHOCTb, Kor^a OHa - «npe~ 
jiecmb*, HaBa^cAeHHe. 

H yuijia b CHHeBaTyio aajib, 
I^e AHMHJiacb BeceHHHH Tajib. 
Tne Kpyacmiacb hs.jx jiecoM nenajib. 
Ho ynijia k KOJiayHy; h KOJiayH 
3aKpHMaji h 3anpwraji Ha nHe 
- Tw, KpacaBHua, BepHO - ko MHe! 

H HaM cTaHOBHTCH 6ojibHO, Kor^a BenepHHH 3apn o6BHBaeT He tojibko 
«BeceHHK)io npoTajiHHKy » , ho h Toro, kto Ha Heft. A Ha Heft 

IlonHK 60JIOTHHH BHflHeeTCfl. 

BeTxaH pHCKa Haa kohkoh 
HepHeeTCH 

HyTb 3aMeTHoio tohkoh. 
CTpauiHa, HecKa3yeMa npHpo^a pyccKan. H Bjiok noHHMaeT ee, KaK 

HHKTO. ToJIbKO OH MO^CeT CKa3aTb TaKI 

Bbixoacy h b nyTb, otkpwtwh B3opaM. 
BeTep raeT ynpyrae KycTbi. 
Bhthh KaMeHb jier no KocoropaM, 
)KejiTOH niHHbi CKyAHbie miacTbi. 

Hckohh 3^ecb jieuiHH mopohht cTpaHHHKOB, HmyujHx «HOBoro rpaAa»; 
hckohh My^CHHKa, oceflJiaB, noroHHeT Tope-ropbKoe xbopocthhoh. CKOJib- 
khx nory6HJio oho: 3aicpHHaji Ibrojib, 3anjiyTajica TyT /locToeBCKHH, TyT 
Ha KaMHe pbiflan HeicpacoB 6ecnoMomHO, 3flecb Tojictoh npoBajiHjica b 
HeMOTy, KaK b okouiko 6ojiOTHoe, h comeji c yMa Die6 YcneHCKHH, mho- 
ro BHTH3eii 3^ecb npHKOHHHjio 6biTb, - «3^ecb pyccKHH jxyx, 3/jecb Pycbio 
naxHeT». 3#ecb Bjiok CTaHOBHTCH noaTOM Hapo^HbiM. 

3/jecb pwcKaeT jieiiiHii, a Bjiok yBH^eji «ceoezo noneeozo Xpucma*. He 
Ha#o HaM nojieBbix Xphctob. Xphctoc Bor jxa coxpaHHT Hac ot TaKHx npn- 
inecTBHiil 

Ifle ace Ta, KoTopyio npH3biBaji noaT eme TaK He^aBHO? TaM, iyje oh He 
KomyHCTByeT, y Hero BbipbiBaeTca: 

O, HCToprHH pacaByio Ay my I 

Co CBHTblMH MeHH yilOKOH. 



345 



IlpeKpacHO noeT oh o Hauinx y6orax nojiax, TaK npeKpacHO, hto mm, 
3aBopoHceHHbie «npejiecmbio», HanHHaeM BepHTb, hto Bee Tyr 6jiaronojiyH- 
ho. Beflb 3^ecb Bee «eeuHO npexpacHO - ho cepdi^e necuacmHO^. OTKy/ja 
3tot ctoh y cKa3HTejiH nojiefi, 30Bymero Hac k nojieeoMy Xpucmy, KOJidyny 
da k nonuKOM uepnbiM? 

TaK - h nyaecHbiM onapoBaHbi - 
He h36okhm cboch cyflb6bi. 
H b uenH HOBbie 3aKOBaHbi, 
Bpe^eM, nenajibHbie pa6w. 

UenH «ripeKpacHOH ,flaMbi» - rapjiaH/jbi po3 - noaT c ce6a c6pocHji. 
OTKy^a ace 3th inoeue i^enu^. He ijenn jih dojiomnbix HepmenamoK? 

CipaniHo, dpaniHO, h^th 6ojibine HeKyzja b OTHaaHHH, Kor^a h b «He~ 
hohhhou Padocmu» (cm. nocjieflHHii oT/jeji c6opHHKa) H3 oropoaa KanycTHo- 
ro npHxoflHT k nosTy Bee tot ace o6opoTeHb «Edunuu, Ceerruibiu - neMnozo 
zpycmnuu*, Kor^a TaKyio KapTHHy pncyeT nosT CBoefl HenanHHOH paaocra: 

H CHflHM Mbl, ^ypaHKH, 
He^KHTb, HeMOHb BOfl. 

3ejieHeK)T KOJinaHKH 
3aaoM Hanepea. 

Yac noAJiHHHO He 3aHaeim> TaKOH pa/jocra! Yac no/yiHHHO HenaaHHaH OHa! 

«Hoeou padocmbw 3azopmncH cepdup, napodoe, xoida 3a y3KUM mucom 
nomamca Sojibtuue Kopa6jiu». (Bmccto npeflHCJioBHH.) 

Ilepefl jihijom Hapo^oB cjioacHbie 3a#anH; ohh Tpe6yioT onpe^ejieHHoro 
o6pa3a pemeHHH, onpeaejieHHoro, hchoto, KaK EoacHii aeHb, cjiOBa. H pa- 
AOBaTbCH TOJibKO TOMy, hto H3-3a y3Koro Mbica njibiByT Kopa6jiH, eme paHo: 
6ojibuiHe Kopa6jiH nacTo npHHocHT 6ojibuiyio 3apa3y. 

«HeHaHHHaa paaocTb» onpeaejieHHO npoHH3aHa Bee TeM ace BonjieM 
HHmero: 

KTO B3MaHHJI MeHH Ha nyTb 3HaKOMbIH? 



Hhiijhh, pacneBaromHH ncajiMbi? 

Hhuzhh jih sto CTpaHHHK, hjih rope-ropeBaHbHije? Bo bchkom cjiynae, 
He ncajiMbi pacneBaeT hhuzhh, a naHHXH^y: 

Co CBflTblMH MeHH ynoKOH. 

CKB03b 6ecoBCKyio npejiecTb, ckbo3b jiacKH, pacTonaeMbie nepTeHHT- 
KaM, noflnac cKB03b no/mejiKy nojx fleTCKoe hjih npocTO H/jHOTCKoe o6Ha- 



346 



HcaeTca Bflpyr HaapwB ayiHH rjiy6oKOH h hhctoh, KaK 6w cnpauiHBaiomeH 
cyflb6y c yflHBjieHHoii noKopHocrbio: «3aneM, 3a hto?» H yBHflaB stot 
o6pa3, mw yace He TOJibKO npeKJioHaeMCH nepea KpynHbiM TajiaHTOM, He 

TOJIbKO BOCXHmaeMCH COBepUieHCTBOM H HOBH3HOK) CTHXOTBOpHOH TeX- 

hhkh, - mm HanHHaeM ropHHO jno6HTb o6HaaceHHyio aymy noaTa. Mw c 
TpeBoroii oacHflaeM ot Hee He TOJibKO coBepmeHHOH cjiobcchocth, ho h co- 
BepuieHHbix nyTeii hch3hh. 

1907 



06/lOMKM MMpOB 

«riyCTb nOST TBOpHT He CBOH KHHrH, a CBOK) HCH3Hb, - TOBOpHT 

B. BprocoB. - Ha ajrrapb Hauiero 6o»cecTBa mw 6pocaeM caMHx ce6n». 

«IIyCTb n03T TBOpHT CBOH CTpOHKH, a He CBOK) HCH3Hb, - KaK 6bl B03- 

paacaeT eMy A. Bjiok... - Ha ajrrapb HHnero mw 6pocaeM Hauie 6oacecTBo 
h ce6a». 

Chmboji - coeflHHeHHe; chmbojih3m - coe^HHeHHe o6pa30B co3Hflaio- 
meft bojih - fljin nero? Bee paBHo, Rjin. 3fleuiHeH hjih 6yaymeH, CTapofl 

HJIH HOBOH 5KH3HH, HO 5KH3HH. HeM TJiy6»Ce BHyTpeHHHH nyTb, TeM HOBee, 

3araaoHHeH o6pa3w, TeM 6o;iee ycHjiHii 3aTpanHBaeM mw, coBpeMeHHHKH, 

flJIfl On03HaHHH H nepe^KHBaHHH C03AaHHOH UeHHOCTH! TaKOBO 6wjio flJIfl 

coBpeMeHHHKOB noflBJieHHe «3apaTycTpw». 

Ho ecTb chmbojih3m h HHoro poaa: coe^HHeHHe o6jiomkob Kor^a-TO 
ue^bHoii fleiicTBHTejibHOCTH (toh hjih 3toh), coe^HHeHHe nepBHHHbix ac- 
couHaixHH ayuiH, 6e3BOJibHO cjioacHBiiieH opyacne nepea pokom. 

3a nepBoro po,aa chmbojih3mom - poacaaiomafl fleiicTBHTejibHocTb 6y- 
aymero, npeaomymaeMoro, KaK rpe3a. 3a BToporo po#a chmbojih3mom: - 
He6wTHe, BejiHKHH MpaK, nycTOTa. 

Bjiok - TajiaHTJiHBwfl H3o6pa3HTejib nycTOTw: nycTOTa KaK 6w cbejia 
Ann Hero fleftcTBHTejibHOCTb (Ty h 3Ty). KpacoTa ero necHH - KpacoTa no- 
n^aiomefi ayiiiH: KpacoTa «omoponu» y a He KpacoTa co3HflaHHfl ixchhocth. 

Bot nepea hhmh hshiuhwh tomhk b KapTOHHOM nepenjieraKe; o6jio»c- 
Ka CoMOBa, KaK bchok H3 po3, BeHHaeT KHHry; nepeBepHHTe o6jio3KKy: Bac 
BCTperaT npeOTCJioBHe: «jiHpHKa He npHHaAJieacHT... k o6jiacTHM... TBop- 
necTBa, KOTopwe ynaT hch3hh...» JXsuiee y3HaeM, mto nepeacHBaHHH jinpn- 

KH XaOTHHHbi; HT06bI pa3o6paTbCH B HHX, HyHCHO CaMOMy 6bITb «HeMH05K- 

ko b stom poae»; nojx o6jio»ckoh b npeflHCJiOBHH BCTpenaeT Bac nycTOTa 
mwcjih. JXsuiee BCTpenaeT Bac apoMaTHwii bchok caMoro TBopnecTBa: chm- 
bojiw, KaK po3w, rapjiaHflOH 3aKpwBaioT cmwcji h ijejibHOCTb nepeacHBae- 
mwx apaM; npHno,awMHTe 3Ty rapjiaHfly; Ha Bac rjiHHeT npoBaji b nycTOTy; 
rpauH03Ho, hchcho, TporaTejibHO cjieTaiOT Tyaa o6pa3w BjioKa tokom po3o- 
bwx jienecTKOB. 



347 



KaK aTJiacHbie po3bi, pacnycKajiHCb cthxh BjiOKa; H3-no,a; hhx ckbo3h- 
jio «BHfleHbe, HenocTH^CHMoe yMy» ajih HeMHornx ero noHHTaiejieH, ajih 
Hac, Kor^a-To miaMeHHbix ero iiokjiohhhkob, bctpcthbiiihx ero, KaK C03H- 
^aTejieii hobmx ueHHOcreii. Ho Kor^a o6jieTeji noKpoB ero My3bi (pacKpw- 
jiHCb po3bi) - b Kaacfloii po3e CH^ejia ryceHHija, - npaB^a, KpacHBaa ryce- 
HHua (6biBaioT KpacHBbie HaceKOMbie - 30JiOTbie, H3yMpy/mbie y&yKu), ho 
Bee ace ryceHHija; H3 ryceHHu; BbijiynnjiHCb bchkhc nonHKH h nepieHHTa, 
nHTaBinHecH jienecTKaMH He6ecHbix (rjix Hac) 3opb noaTa; c toh MHHyTbi 

CTHX n03Ta OKpen. BJIOK, Ka3aBIHHHCH .ZjeHCTBHTeJIbHbIM MHCTHKOM, 3BaB- 

uihh Hac k ce6e no33HeH, npeBpaTHjicn b 6ojibiiioro, npeKpacHoro noaia 
ryceHHu: ho 3aT0 mhcthk oh OKa3ajicn mhhmmh. Ho caMOH h^obhtoh ry- 
ceHHueii OKa3ajiacb IlpeKpacHaH ,5aMa ( Bnoc jicactbhh pa3JioacHBinaHCH 
Ha npocTHTyTKy h MHHMyio BejiHHHHy, HenTO b pofle «yf-[ »); npH3WB 

K 5KH3HH (TOH HJIH 3TOH - BOo6me HOBOH 5KH3HH) OKa3aJICfl npH3bIBOM K 
CMepTH. 

Ho ^ajiee: Bjiok craji eme 6ojiee coBepuieHHbiM tcxhhkom, a He3Ha- 
KOMKa, CMepTb, »cH3Hb, npocTHTyTKH, pbiijapn, Ka6anKH - Bee, k neMy HH 
KacajicH Bjiok, npeBpamajiocb b hshiuhbih, KaK H3HiijHaH BHHbeTKa, no- 
KpoB na&... neM? H bot b «apaMax» oKa3ajiocb, hto 3to «Hmo-mo» ecTb... 
6ojibuioe «Hhhto». CHanajia pacnbiJiHJi MHp hbjichhh, noTOM pacnbijiHJi 
MHp cymHOCTeH. «JXpdiMbi» BjiOKa - o6jiomkh pyXHyBUIHX MHpOB (Toro H 
3Toro), KaK nonajio coeflHHeHHbie b cbocm nojieTe b nycTOTy: 3flecb k pe- 
ajibHOMy o6pa3y npHCTaBJieHa rojioBa He6ecHoro BnaeHbH, TaM k o6pa3y 
Bn^eHbH npHCTaBJieHa rojioBa bockoboh KneonaTpbi hjih nepTHKH, hjih 
aaace rojioBa H3 cwpa «6pu» - Bee paBHo; Be/jb cnjia CBoeo6pa3Hoii npejie- 
cth pbi^aiomnx flpaM BjiOKa (KOTopbie pw^aiOT BceM, neM yro/jHo: BeTxo- 

BeHOM, KOMapHHCKOH H T. fl.) B TOM, HTO B HHX HeT HHHerO, OHH - HH O HeMJ 

«pnzi BCTaiomnx abohhhkob - 6er npefljiyHHbix o6jiaKOB». JlnpHKa BjiOKa, 
pa3opBaHHan b kjiohkh apaMa, He nepeuijia b apaMy; apaMa npe^nojiaraeT 
6opb6y hjih ra6ejib 3a hto-to: b .zjpaMax BjiOKa rn6ejib; hh 3a hto, hh npo 
hto: TaK, rn6ejib ajih rn6ejiH. JlnpHKa pa3opBajiacb h TOJibKo; h Bee npocw- 
najiocb, b nycTOTy. Mbi HHTaeM h jno6yeMCH, a Be^b TyT norn6jia ayuia, He 
eo UMHy a TaK ce6e: «yacac, yacac, yacac!» 

Be3 cbh3h, 6e3 uejiH, 6e3 apaMaTHnecKoro CMbicjia, MHnco CTpyHT Ha 
Hac rH6Hymaa flyma pn/j cbohx o6pa30B: chmbojih3m - pn^ CHHeMaTorpa- 

({)HHeCKHX aCCOIJHaiJHH, 6eCCBH3HOCTb - BOT CMblCJI 6jIOKOBCKOH flpaMbl. 

IlycTb HHTaTejib He npHMeT moh cjioBa 3a ocyac/jeHHe sthx «dpaM»\ b hhx 
ecTb oco6an KpacoTa «omoponu» y KpacoTa MepTBeHHocTH. 

«Koca CMepra - Koca aeByiiiKH: aeByinica c kocoh (bojioc) 3a mienaMH, ho 
c kocoh CMepTH b pyicax» - bot xor accoijHaijHH Bjioica. «Kopa6jiH njibiByr» 
b «Kopojie Ha mioma^H». .flajiee b «He3HaKOMKe» sth Kopa6jiH yace 6yMaac- 
Hbie Kopa6jin: TeM He MeHee, ohh ymibiBaioT, no,ao6HO KapTOHHOH HeBecTe 
(npecjiOByroH fleByuiKe c kocoh h «kocoh»), KOTopaa Toace Ky^a-TO Hcne3aeT. 



348 



«HejioeeK e ncuihmo - (rpoMKO, KaK pyaeeiiHbiH 3ajin). Bpn! Codeced- 
huk. Hy 3to... 3to... 3HaeTe. Hejioeex e ncuibmo (yrpoacaiome). Hto 3HaeTe? 
(Bee BepTHTCH)». (1-e /jeiiCTBHe «He3HaKOMKH»). 

Hepe3 AeHCTBHe. 

«H3 o6mero pa3roBopa ^ohochtch cjiOBa: «poK(J)op», «KaMaM6ep». 
Bapyr TOJicTbiii nejiOBeK... BbicKaKHBaeT Ha cepe^HHy KOMHaTbi c kphkom: 
«BpH». Ilo3T cpa3y ocraHaBjiHBaeTCH. MrHOBeHHe KaaeeTCH, hto oh BcnoM- 
hhji «Bce» (3-e AeftcTBHe «He3HaKOMKH»). 

IIonpo6yHTe noflOHTH k ApaMaM BjioKa c tohkh 3peHHH ijctih, CMbicjia, 
ueHHOCTH. «BpH» - h Bee TyT! Bot 6e3BOJibHO BbipacTaeT Hy^ecHbiH o6pa3, 
ho KaK pyaceiiHbiH 3ajin nycTOTa BbinajiHBaeT: «BpH!» H noacrpejieHHaH, 
Ha CMepTb noflCTpejieHHan ^yina CTpyHT Ha Hac CHHeMaTorpat}) o6pa30B. 
H ecjiH edb 3axBaT b apaMax BjioKa, ecjiH njianeM mm BMecTe c nosTOM, 
to njianeM mh He Haa repoHMH ero (ero repon - KapTOHHbie MaHeKeHbi), 
njianeM Haa apaMoft caMoro BjioKa. C hcechoh yjibi6KOH norH6aiomero bw- 
pe3WBaeT oh cboh KapTOHaacn h bot: mhcthkh ymjyyi CMepra, Ilbepo - He- 
BecTy; npnxoflHT HeBecTa c kocoh 3a njienaMH, - mhcthkh ayMaioT, hto 
Koca He 3a njienaMH, a b pyKax; KojiOM6HHa BepHa Ilbepo, ApjieKHH, npo- 
neB HeTBepocTHinne, yBO^HT KojioM6nHy, aBTop BpbiBaeTCH b KapTOHHbiii 
MHp; ApjieKHH npoBajiHBaeTCH b 6yMaacHyio 6e3flHy, b pa3pbiBax 6yMarn 
noHBjineTCH HeBecTa c flByMH KocaMH (kocoh h «kocoh»). B 3aKJiK)HeHHe 
Ilbepo nrpaeT Ha fly^oHKe. 

«Bpn» - h Bee TyT. 

Bbi roBopHTe, Hejib3H noHHTb apaM BjioKa; aa hx Henero noHHMaTb: hx 
Ha^o nponycTHTb cKB03b ce6n: Be^b sto - o6jiomkh ijeHHocTeii, kotophm, 
6biTb MoaceT, mojihjich noaT. 3axBaTbiBaiomafl cnjia sthx ,zi;paM ecTb 6ec- 
uejibHan TpH3Ha no3Ta najx CBoen flyuioii, KOTopan h ce6n, h cboh KyMHpbi 
6pocHjia Ha ajiTapb... nycroTH. 3Ty TpH3Hy h cjibiuiy h ceftnac h 6ojie3HeH- 

HOH JIK)60BbK), JIK)6oBbK)-5KaJIOCTbK) npHHHMaK) H nJiaH 6oJIbHOH flyiHH Ha^ 

co6oh, h CMex 6ojibHOH ayniH Ha^ co6oh: njian h HacMeuiKa ot hhctoto 
cepwa. 

«Bpn» - HBce TyT! 

3Ta H3HiijHafl KHH^cenKa - He3aypH^Hoe HBjieHHe Hainefi xyzjoHcecTBeH- 
hoh »h3hh: Bjiok - He3a6biBaeMbiH H3o6pa3HTejib «nycmbix» yacacoB: TyT 
nepefl BaMH 6ecuiyMHbiH npoBaji Bcero, hto BOo6me MoaceT npoBajiHTbcn. 
HcKpeHHOCTbK) npoecuia, npaxa, dawepomcmea no3HaeTCH cnjia BnenaTjie- 
hhh h cmwcji 3toh «6eccMucjieHHocmu»: ho... kqkok) i^euou? 

«IIyCTb n03T TBOpHT He CBOH KHHHi, a CBOK) 2CH3Hb, - TOBOpHT BpK)- 

cob. - Ha ajiTapb Hainero 6oHcecTBa mh 6pocaeM caMHx ce6n». 

«IIyCTb n03T TBOpHT CBOH CTpOHKH! n03T BOo6me - 3TO CTpOHKa C nH- 

iuymHM annapaTOM b BH^e TaK Ha3biBaeMOH HejiOBenecKOH jihhhocth», - 
OTBenaeT A. Bjiok. 

1908 



349 



BflHECJIAB HBAHOB 



CmiysT 

B 3a^any Moero onepica He bxoaht oueHica jiHTepaTypHbix 3acjiyr Bh- 
necjiaBa HBaHOBa; jihhho h ero bwcoko ijeHio h jik)6jiio, mhofhm oh KaaceT- 
ch HenoHHTHbiM: o BKycax He cnopHT. 

Caisian ero (J)Hiypa BCTaeT nepeao mhoh; hcckojibko nepescHTbix BMe- 

CTe MOMeHTOB 5KH3HH BbI3bIBaK)T BOCnOMHHaHHe 06 3TOM CTpaHHOM, TJiy- 

6oko HHTepecHOM nejioBeKe; cneuiy noaejiHTbcn hmh c HHTaTejieM. 

Bwjia BecHa 1904 ro^a. B ayniy BnepBbie 3aKpajiocb pa3onapoBaHHe 

B TeX JIIO^X, KOTOpbIM H TaK BepHJI KOTfla-TO; pa30pBaB C Tpa^HIJHOHHblM 
KpyrOM 3HaKOMCTB, H OHyTHJICH HeBOJIbHO Cpe^H MO^epHHCTOBJ yBJieKajICH 
TBOpeHHHMH; CTpeMHJICH COHTHCb C HHMH KaK C JIIOflbMH, - H JHOflH pa30Ha* 

poBbmajiH. Cjihihkom MHoro OKa3biBanocb pHTopHKH, no3bi, xojiOOToro pe- 
30HepcTBa TaM, r,zje ayuia HCKajia bmcokhx nopbiBOB h TenjioTbi cepaeHHOH. 

Ctohji Tenjibift nacxajibHbift ^eHb: Ha yjiHijax Mockbw npoaaBajin ch- 
HeHbKHe ijbctohkh; HescHbie aepeBa, noMaxHBan H3-3a flajieKHx Kpbiui, toh- 

HO nJIblJIH BepiHHHaMH B He6o Haa TOpOAOMI 6apxaTHbIH 3BOH KOJIOKOJIb- 

Hbiii, ry^eHbe npojieTOK h HeacHan nwjib BpbmajiHCb b okho c paaocrabiM 
BeTepKOM. 

fl03BOHHJIH. 

B Hauiy BeTxyio (eme oTijoBCKyio) rocTHHyio, c pa3BajiHBaiomeHCH Me- 
6ejibio b nexjiax, ocTopoacHO Bouijia cyryjian, BbicoKan (Jwrypa h paccenH- 
ho ocTaHOBHJiacb, noTHpan pyKH. CojiHenHbift 3aiiHHK 3a6eraji no CTeHKe, 

CKOJIb3HyJI no CIOpTyKy, OCBeTHB p030BOe JIHIJO H 3eJieHOBaTbIH, OCTpblH 

B3op Bouie^uiero rocno^HHa; Bflpyr noBenjio hcm-to CTapHHHbiM, HanoMH- 
HaiomHM jiynniHe BpeMeHa 5kh3hh, poflHbiM. 

B^pyr (J)Hrypa crpeMHTejibHO flBHHyjiacb MHe HaBCTpeny; AporayjiH 
cjierna 30JiOTbie, cjienca 6ejio-jibHHHbie bojiocw; Ha bmcokom BbinyKJiOM 
ji6y no6e»cajiH tohkhc MopmHHKH: aporHyjio Ha nepeHOCHije 30JioToe 
neHCHe; H3-noA neHCHe, H3-noa 6e36poBbix Haa6poBHbix ayr, 3opKHe nocH- 
HejiH rjia3a, o6flaBan TenjioM h jiacKOH, tohho CHHeHbKHe BacHjienKH, a cy- 
poBO cacaTbifi poT pacnjibijicH b npHMO-TaKH fleTCKyio yjibi6Ky; flBHHyjiacb 
ko MHe CTapoMOflHaa (fmrypa h - Tpax: 3aijenHJia 3a Kpecjio. 

- Ax, H3BHHHTe, noacajiyncTa, - nonopHO pa3flajiCH neBy^HH tohkhh 
^HuiKaHT, tohho neHbe CKpHnHHHbix cmhhkob; h onHTb b B03#yxe noBen- 
jio neM-To CTapHHHbiM: nejiH KOJioKOJia, BeceHHHe aepeBbH H3,zjajiH b j\&jm 
ynjibiBajiH BepuiHHaMH. 

Coe^HHeHHe CBeTCKOCTH C npOCTOTOH, H30mpeHHOCTH C HeM-TO CTa- 

Pomoahmm; copoKOBbie ro^bi b 1904 roay - bot nepBoe BnenaTjieHHe 
ot AeKa^eHTCKoro noaTa h coTpy^HHica «BecoB», BnHecjiaBa HBaHOBa; 
ecjiH 6w h He 3Haji, kto ctohji npe^o mhoh, h 6w cica3aji: 3to - crapbift 



350 



nyaaK-npoc^eccop H3 3axojiycTHoro HeMeuKoro ropoflKa; ho mhi\ - h bh- 
paaeeHHe tohkoh npoHHijaTejibHOCTH H3MeHHjio jihuo; oh npHHHJica mchh 
paccnpauiHBaTb o mohx njiaHax; Ka3ajiocb, npe^o mhoh cyfle6Hbifi cjieao- 
BaTejib; MHr eme, - h HOBoe BnenaTjieHHe: b nofl03pHTejibHoii Ha nepBWH 
b3tji$ijx npoHHuaTejibHocTH HanHHajia cKB03HTb hhcto OTenecKafl jiacKa: OH 
Becb - BHHMaHHe; oh - cjiyinaji nyacyio ayiny. BnHecjiaB HBaHOB - pea- 
Koe coeOTHeHHe nponoBe^HHKa c HcnoBe^HHKOM; mojihht, - h Bac thhct 
paccKa3biBaTb eMy to, hto bh ckpwjih 6w ot HaH6ojiee 6jih3khx jHOfleii; 
bw nyBCTByeTe - oh noiiMaeT b Bac HeyjiOBHMoe; noiiMaeT h pacTOJiKyeT 
BaM Bac caMHx; 3aroBopHT - h yace HHnero He bh^ht: BbinpHMJiJHOTca cyTy- 
jiwe njienH; rojioc, tohho 6apxaTHaji BHOJiOHnejib, Ha bwcokhx HOTax noeT; 
B^oxHOBeHHO 6;iemyT rjia3a; b^oxhobchho BOjmyioTCH Ha njienax 30JiOTbie 
Kyapn; oh - Becb KpacoTa: npea BaMH - lOHonia: bw He bh^htc, Kan cMeuiHO 
3auenjineTCH Me6ejib, KaK cnoTWKaiOTCH tohkhc, cjia6bie Horn. Oh Bac 3a- 
HeaeeT 3HTy3Ha3MOM, HaBceraa bohah b flyuiy: bw 3a6yaeTe ocTopoacHocrb, 
c KOTopoii 6eceayeTe c hhwmh H3 MoaepHHCTOB, b kotopwx TOHKOCTb nepe- 
»CHBaHHH ecTb ocTpoTa npecwmeHHocTH, yM Bwpa^caeTCH b HacMeuiKe, a 
Bepa b Hfleajie - b paccyacaeHHHx o neicaHKe CTHxa. 

IlepBaH BCTpena c BanecjiaBOM HBaHOBWM noKopnjia mchh: TaK He 
noxoflHJia ero CTapoMOflHaa BHeiiiHocTb Ha MajibHHiuecKHH bh^ MHorax 
copaTHHKOB ero no acypHajiy; TaK He noxo^Hjio ero MjiaaeHHecKoe Booay- 
ineBjieHHe Ha paccHeTjiHBwii xojioa nycTwx, pHTopHnecKHx (J)pa3; TaK He 
noxo^HJi h 6wt ero »ch3hh Ha 6wt JiHTepaTypHoii 6oreMbi stoto BpeMeHH. 

Bee 3to h ayMaji b jieuh nepBoro Hauiero c6;iH»ceHHH, a BwcoKaa cyTy- 
jian (J)Hrypa xo^Hjia npe^o mhoh B3aa h Bnepea b o6jiaKax Ta6anHoro awMa, 
KOJioKOjibHWH, 6jiarocTHwii 3boh btophji ero cjiOBaM. Tjih^h Ha BanecjiaBa 
HBaHOBa, h HeBOJibHO BcnoMHHJi o6pa3w npomjioro: noKOHHoro OTija, Cto- 
poaeeHKO, HBaHioKOBa h He3a6BeHHoro Bji. Cepr. CojioBbeBa. 

Oh npHineji ko MHe BecHoii, OBenHHwii nacxajibHoii paaocTbio; BMecTe 
c BecHoii Bouieji b aymy 6jiaroii BecTbio. MHoroe 6wjio Meacay hsmh Bno- 
cjiczictbhh; mw h cxoflHJiHCb, h pacxo^HJiHCb: BWCTynajiH KaK cok)3hhkh; 
BwcTynajiH h KaK Bparn. Ho jichtmothbom Moero OTHomeHHH k HBaHOBy 
ocTajiacb 6jiaran BecTb, hm npHHeceHHan b pa3pwBe c aKa^eMHnecKHM hc- 
KyccTBOM Toro BpeMeHH, h b pa3pwBe c BHflHWMH rpynnaMH o6mecTBeH- 
hwx AeHTejiefi h nHcaTejiefi, jiHHHOCTb ero coeflHHHjia bck> MOJioaocTb Ha- 
hihx HCKaHHH c yBaaeeHHeM k CTapHHe h npeKpacHOMy npouiJiOMy pyccKOH 

AefiCTBHTeJIbHOCTH. 

OflHH H3 caMwx MajionoHHTHwx nncaTejieH OKa3ajicn yMHeniuHM, 
inHpoHafliuHM h TepnHMeHHiHM HejiOBeKOM. OTCio.zja ero BbmaiomaacH 
AeHTejibHOCTb KaK opraHH3aTopa JiHTepaTypHoii »ch3hh IlHTepa; oTCio^a 
JiHHHoe BjiHHHHe ero Ha Tex, kto OTpnijaeT b hcm xyaoacHHKa; k Banec- 
JiaBy HBaHOBy ujiyj Bee - H,ayT nyTb jih He c yjinuw; HHKoro He OTnycraT 
oh 6e3 coBeTa, JiacKH h noompeHHn; ecjiH BajibMOHT - KopH^eH pyccKoro 



351 



CHMBOJiH3Ma, BpiocoB - nojiKOBoaeij, 3aBoeBaTe;ib, Ejiok - CHOBH^eix, to 
B^HecjiaB HBaHOB - Ka6HH6THWH 3aTBopHHK h HcnoBeflHHK: ro uiecTH na- 
cob yTpa e^ce^HeBHO HcnoBe^yeT oh y ce6a b Ka6HHeTe; HaKJia^MBaeT enn- 
thmbh, 6HHyeT, CBH3biBaeT ayuiH, omycKaeT h pa3pemaeT rpexn. TaKOBbi 
hhcto jiHHHbie ero KanecTBa; He cjieayeT 3a6biBaTb, hto B. HBaHOB, KpoMe 
Toro, KpynHbiii xyaoacHHK, yneHWH h opraHH3aTop CHMBOjiHnecKoro Tene- 

HHH COBpeMeHHOCTH. 

,HapoBaHHfl 6ojibuiHHCTBa nosTOB-Mo^epHHCTOB KpenKH b aTM0C(J)epe 
KpyacKa, b aTMOc(J>epe apyacecKHX cnopoB, o6MeHa mhchhh h B3aHMH0H 
noflflepjKKH. YeOTHeHHo Bbipocjia jiHHHocTb B^MecjiaBa HBaHOBa: He 06- 
MeH mhchhh, He jiHHHoe BJiHHHHe Toro hjih HHoro o6ycjiOBHjiH Kpyr ero 
HHTepecoB, Kpyr ero jiHTepaTypHbix tcm: npHKOCHOBeHHeM k Tpa^HUHH Ce- 
AOH CTapHHbl, KponOTJIHBOH pa6oToii B nblJIH apxHBOB, My3eeB h aKa^eMHH 
npeBpaTHJi ce6n yneHHK MoMM3eHa, aBTop yneHOH flHccepTaijHH, HanH- 
caHHOH Ha H3nmHOM jiaTHHCKOM H3biKe, H3 yneHoro b noaTa-MoaepHHcra. 
OpHrHHajibHbie B3r;raflbi B. HBaHOBa Ha HCKyccTBO OKpenjiH noa ceHbio 
3ana4HoeBponeiicKHX My3eeB h aKa#eMHH. Ot hctophh apeBHOCTH k (})h- 
jiojiorHH h apxeojiorHH, ot (J)Hjio;iorHH k 6biTy h ncHxojiorHH aHTHHHOH 
TpeuHH, ot TpeijHH k npoBepKe B3rjiHflOB Hnmne Ha cymHOCTb Tpare^HH 
h k yTBepacaeHHio BepiiiHH BaraepoBCKHx o6o6meHHH, - bot yMCTBeHHaa 
napa6o;ia, hm HapHCOBaHHan; oh CBH3aji npoHCxoacaeHHe h 5KH3Hb rpene- 
ckhx KyjibTOB c npoHcxoacaeHHeM h 5KH3Hbio pejiHTHH Boo6me; OTdo^a eme 
mar, - h yneHwe pa6oTbi B. HBaHOBa nocTaBHJiH ero b uempe HaH6o;iee 

MyHHTeJIbHblX peJIHrH03HWX HCKaHHH COBpeMeHHOCTH; KaK HeJIOBeK, OH 

njiaMeHHo BepyeT b pe;iHrH03Hoe B03poacaeHHe; ho KaK o6pa30BaHHeHiHHH 
MejiOBeK CBoero BpeMeHH, He TonneT oh KyjibTypHbie uchhocth, HeT, He (})a- 
HaTHK oh; He npoKjiHHaeT HCKyccTBO, noao6HO MepeaocoBCKOMy; KaK ne- 
jiOBeK, oh BepyeT; KaK yneHbiH, o